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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials
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Journal DOI :
Korea Concrete Institute
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Volume & Issues
Volume 1, Issue 1 - Dec 2007
Volume 19, Issue 1E - Mar 2007
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Cracking of Fiber-Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete due to Restrained Shrinkage
Kwon, Seung-Hee ; Ferron, Raissa P. ; Akkaya, Yilmaz ; Shah, Surendra P. ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 3~9
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.003
Fiber-reinforced self-compacting concrete (FRSCC) is a new type of concrete mix that can mitigate two opposing weaknesses: poor workability in fiber-reinforced concrete and cracking resistance in plain SCC concrete. This study focused on early-age cracking of FRSCC due to restrained drying shrinkage, one of the most common causes of cracking. In order to investigate the effect of fiber on shrinkage cracking of FRSCC, ring shrinkage tests were performed for polypropylene and steel fiber-reinforced SCC. In addition, finite element analyses for those specimens were carried out considering drying shrinkage based on moisture diffusion, creep, cracking resistance of concrete, and the effect of fiber. The analysis results were verified via a comparison between the measured and calculated crack width. From the test and analysis results, the effectiveness of fiber with respect to reducing cracking was confirmed and some salient features on the shrinkage cracking of FRSCC were obtained.
Diverse Application of ECC Designed with Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag
Kim, Jeong-Su ; Kim, Yun-Yong ; Kim, Jin-Keun ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.011
In the recent design of high ductile engineered cementitious composites (ECC), optimizing both processing and mechanical properties for specific applications is critical. This study employs a method to develop useful ECC produced with slag particles (slag-ECC) in the field, which possesses different fluid properties to facilitate diverse types of processing (i.e., self-consolidating or spray processing). Control of rheological modulation was regarded as a key factor to allow the performance of the desired processing while retaining the ductile material properties. To control the rheological properties of the composite, the basic slag-ECC composition was initially obtained, determined based on micromechanics and steady-state cracking theory. The stability and consequent viscosity of the suspensions were then mediated by optimizing the dosage of the chemical and mineral admixtures. The rheological properties altered through this approach were revealed to be effective in obtaining ECC-hardened properties, represented by pseudo strain-hardening behavior in uniaxial tension, allowing the readily achievement of the desired function of the fresh ECC.
Failure Modeling of Bridge Components Subjected to Blast Loading Part I: Strain Rate-Dependent Damage Model for Concrete
Wei, Jun ; Quintero, Russ ; Galati, Nestore ; Nanni, Antonio ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 19~28
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.019
A dynamic constitutive damage model for reinforced concrete (RC) structures and formulations of blast loading for contact or near-contact charges are considered and adapted from literatures. The model and the formulations are applied to the input parameters needed in commercial finite element method (FEM) codes which is validated by the laboratory blast tests of RC slabs from literature. The results indicate that the dynamic constitutive damage model based on the damage mechanics and the blast loading formulations work well. The framework on the dynamic constitutive damage model and the blast loading equations can therefore be used for the simulation of failure of bridge components in engineering applications.
Failure Modeling of Bridge Components Subjected to Blast Loading Part II: Estimation of the Capacity and Critical Charge
Quintero, Russ ; Wei, Jun ; Galati, Nestore ; Nanni, Antonio ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 29~36
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.029
The purpose of this paper is the assessment of the capacity of the reinforced concrete (RC) elements of an arch bridge when they are subjected to contact and near-contact explosive charges of various amounts, and the estimation of the critical charges for these components. The bridge considered is the Tenza Viaduct, a decommissioned structure south of Naples, Italy. Its primary elements, deck, piers and arches were analyzed. The evaluation was accomplished via numerical analyses that made possible to obtain the elements dynamic response when they are exposed to blast loading conditions. To evaluate the member's capacities, failure criteria for deck, piers and arches were proposed based on concrete damage parameters. Additionally, curves relating the explosive charge to the residual capacity and to damage level of the elements were also developed. The results of this work were taken into account to investigate the progressive collapse of the global structure.
Experimental Observation on Bond-Slip Behavior between Concrete and CFRP Plate
Yang, Dong-Suk ; Hong, Sung-Nam ; Park, Sun-Kyu ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 37~43
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.037
This paper discusses the failure mode of reinforced concrete beams strengthened with composite materials based on six experimental set-ups to determine the FRP-to-concrete bond strength. Interfacial bond behavior between concrete and CFRP plates was discussed. Shear test were performed with different concrete compressive strengths (21 MPa and 28 MPa) and different bonding length (100 mm, 150 mm, 200 mm, and 250 mm). Shear test results indicate that the effective bond length (the bond length beyond which the ultimate load does not increase) was estimated as
through linear regression analysis. Failure mode of specimens occurred due to debonding between concrete and CFRP plates. Maximum bond stress is calculated as about
from the relationships between bond stress and slip. Finally, the interfacial bond-slip model between CFRP plates and concrete, which is governed debonding failure, has been estimated from shear tests. Average bond stress was about
, the volume of slip between CFRP plate and concrete was about
, and the fracture energy was found to be about
Glass FRP-Bonded RC Beams under Cyclic Loading
Tan, Kiang-Hwee ; Saha, Mithun-Kumar ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 45~55
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.045
Ten beams bonded with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) laminates were tested under cyclic loading with the load range and the FRP reinforcement ratio as test parameters. The maximum load level during cyclic loading was 55%, 65% and 75% of the static flexural strength while the minimum load level was kept constant at 35%. Deflections of the beams at the end of 525000 cycles were found to increase by 16% and 44% when the maximum load level was increased from 55% to 65% and 75% of the static flexural strength, respectively. Beams with FRP reinforcement ratios of 0.64% and 1.28% were found to exhibit lesser deflections of about 15% and 20%, respectively, compared to a similar beam without FRP reinforcement. An analytical approach based on cycle-dependent effective moduli of elasticity of concrete and FRP reinforcement is presented and found to predict the deflections of the test beams well.
Mechanical and Durability Performance of Roller-Compacted Concrete with Fly Ash for Dam Applications
Park, Chan-Gi ; Yoon, Jong-Whan ; Kim, Wan-Young ; Won, Jong-Pil ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 57~61
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.057
This study investigated the mechanical and durability performance of roller-compacted concrete (RCC) with fly ash for dam applications. A test program studied the effects on the properties of fresh and hardened RCC with fly ash replacement ratio, as well as the long-term durability of the resulting mixture. Fly ash replaced 20, 30, 40, and 50% by mass of the cement. Laboratory tests of the compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, shear strength, chloride ion permeability, abrasion, and drying shrinkage were conducted. The test results demonstrated that 30% fly ash replacement is an optimum level, and that this mixture has excellent mechanical and durability properties.
Shear Capacity of Reinforced Concrete Beams Using Neural Network
Yang, Keun-Hyeok ; Ashour, Ashraf F. ; Song, Jin-Kyu ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 63~73
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.063
Optimum multi-layered feed-forward neural network (NN) models using a resilient back-propagation algorithm and early stopping technique are built to predict the shear capacity of reinforced concrete deep and slender beams. The input layer neurons represent geometrical and material properties of reinforced concrete beams and the output layer produces the beam shear capacity. Training, validation and testing of the developed neural network have been achieved using 50%, 25%, and 25%, respectively, of a comprehensive database compiled from 631 deep and 549 slender beam specimens. The predictions obtained from the developed neural network models are in much better agreement with test results than those determined from shear provisions of different codes, such as KBCS, ACI 318-05, and EC2. The mean and standard deviation of the ratio between predicted using the neural network models and measured shear capacities are 1.02 and 0.18, respectively, for deep beams, and 1.04 and 0.17, respectively, for slender beams. In addition, the influence of different parameters on the shear capacity of reinforced concrete beams predicted by the developed neural network shows consistent agreement with those experimentally observed.
A Case Study of Concrete Pavement Deterioration by Alkali-Silica Reaction in Korea
Hong, Seung-Ho ; Han, Seung-Hwan ; Yun, Kyong-Ku ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.075
The concrete pavement of the Seohae Highway in Korea has suffered from serious distress, only four to seven years after construction. Deterioration due to Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) has seldom been reported per se in Korea, because the aggregate used for the cement concrete has been considered safe against alkali-silica reaction so far. The purpose of this study is to examine the deterioration caused by an alkali-silica reaction of concrete pavement in Korea. The investigation methods included visual inspection and Automatic Road Analyzer (ARAN) analysis of surface cracks, coring for internal cracks, stereo microscopic analysis, scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis, and electron dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDX) analysis. The results are presented as follows: the crack pattern of the concrete pavement in Korea was longitudinal cracking, map cracking or D-cracking. Local areas of damage were noticed four to five years after construction. The cracks started from edges or joints and spread out to slabs. The most intensive cracking was observed at the intersection of the transverse and longitudinal joints. Where cracking was the most intense, pieces of concrete and aggregate had spalled away from top surface and joint interface area. The progress of deterioration was very fast. The reaction product of alkali-silica gel was clearly identified by its generally colorless, white, or very pale yellow hue seen through a stereo optical microscopy. The typical locations of the reaction product were at the interface between aggregate and cement paste in a shape of a rim, within aggregate particles in the cracks, and in the large void in the cement paste. Most of the white products were found at interface or internal aggregates. SEM and EDX analysis confirmed that the white gel was a typical reaction product of ASR. The ASR gel in Korea mainly consisted of Silicate (Si) and Potassium (K) from the cement. The crack in the concrete pavement was caused by ASR. It seems that Korea is no longer safe from alkali-silica reaction.
Assessment of Corrosion Rate of Reinforcing Steel in Concrete Using Galvanostatic Pulse Transient Technique
So, Hyoung-Seok ; Millard, Stephen Geoffrey ;
International Journal of Concrete Structures and Materials, volume 1, issue 1, 2007, Pages 83~88
DOI : 10.4334/IJCSM.2007.1.1.083
This paper discusses a method of measuring transient potential response of a corrosion interface to a small galvanostatic pulse perturbation for a rapid assessment of the corrosion rate of reinforcing steel in concrete structures. Measurements were taken on 100 mm sections of steel bars which were subjected to a wide range of corrosion conditions, from passive steel to actively corroding steel. The duration of the applied galvanostatic pulse was varied between 5s and 180s, and the lateral distance of the point of measurement on the steel bar varied from zero to 400 mm. The result of the electrochemical transient response was investigated using a typical sampling rate of 1 kHz. Analysis of the transient potential response to the applied galvanostatic pulse has enabled the separation of equivalent electronic components so that the components of a series of capacitances and resistances, whose values are dependent on the corrosion condition of the reinforcing steel, could be isolated. The corrosion rate was calculated from a summation of the separate resistive components, which were associated with the corrosion interface, and was compared with the corrosion rate obtained from linear polarization resistance (LPR) method. The results show that the galvanostatic pulse transient technique enables the components of the polarization resistance to be evaluated separately so as to give more reliable corrosion rate values than those obtained from the LPR method. Additionally, this paper shows how the galvanostatic pulse transient response technique can be implemented. An appropriate measurement time for passive and actively corroding reinforcing steel is suggested for the galvanostatic pulse transient response measurements in the field site.