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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
Editor in Chief :
Kazuhide Matsuda, Chul-Un Ro
Volume & Issues
Volume 2, Issue 2 - Dec 2008
Volume 2, Issue 1 - Jun 2008
Selecting the target year
Numerical Model for Stack Gas Diffusion in Terrain Containing Buildings - Application of Numerical Model to a Cubical Building and a Ridge Terrain -
Sada, Koichi ; Michioka, Takenobu ; Ichikawa, Yoichi ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~13
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.001
A numerical simulation method has been developed to predict atmospheric flow and stack gas diffusion using a calculation domain of several km around a stack under complex terrain conditions containing buildings. The turbulence closure technique using a modified k-
-type model under a non hydrostatic assumption was used for the flow calculation, and some of the calculation grids near the ground were treated as buildings using a terrain-following coordinate system. Stack gas diffusion was predicted using the Lagrangian particle model, that is, the stack gas was represented by the trajectories of released particles. The numerical model was applied separately to the flow and stack gas diffusion around a cubical building and to a two-dimensional ridge in this study, before being applied to an actual terrain containing buildings in our next study. The calculated flow and stack gas diffusion results were compared with those obtained by wind tunnel experiments, and the features of flow and stack gas diffusion, such as the increase in turbulent kinetic energy and the plume spreads of the stack gas behind the building and ridge, were reproduced by both calculations and wind tunnel experiments. Furthermore, the calculated profiles of the mean velocity, turbulent kinetic energy and concentration of the stack gas around the cubical building and the ridge showed good agreement with those of wind tunnel experiments.
Ambient Air Concentrations of Benzene, Toluene, Ethylbenzene and Xylene in Bangkok, Thailand during April-August in 2007
Laowagul, Wanna ; Garivait, Hathairatana ; Limpaseni, Wongpun ; Yoshizumi, Kunio ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 14~25
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.014
Benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene and m-, p-, and o-xylene, the most influential aromatic volatile organic compounds (VOCs), were measured in Bangkok, Thailand, one of the most rapidly developing urban areas in Southern East Asia. The purpose of this study is to characterize the ambient air quality with respect to above mentioned aromatic compounds. The data were monitored in ten sites which cover roadside area, residential area and background area. Canister technique was used to obtain air sample at 24 hour interval per a month during April-August in 2007. GC/MS with three stage preconcentrator was used to analyze these samples. The average concentrations of benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene m-, p-xylene and o-xylene are 5.8, 36.1, 4.1, 11.0 and
, respectively. They were observed to be distributed in a log-normal form. Moreover, o-xylene and m, p-xylene exhibited a very good correlation (r=0.976). The slope of the regression equation between them was 3.07 which consisted with a previous reported value. The average ratio of toluene to benzene was 6.4 in April, May June and August. This value was comparable to the ones measured in other Asian cities. Two types of statistical analyses, cluster and factor analyses, were applied to the data in this study. Well characterization was made to understand the air quality of Bangkok area.
Physicochemical Properties of Asian Dust Sources
Ma, Chang-Jin ; Kasahara, Mikio ; Tohno, Susumu ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 26~33
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.026
In order to fully understand the chemical properties of Asian dust particles, especially their transformation and aging processes, it is desirable to investigate the nature of original sands collected at local source areas in China. This study presents the detailed properties of sands collected at four different desert regions (Yinchuan, Wuwei, Dulan, and Yanchi) in China. Most of sands have irregular shape with yellowish coloration, whereas some of them show peculiar colors. The relative size distribution of sands collected at Yinchuan, Wuwei, and Dulan deserts exhibits monomodal with the maximum level between 200 and
, whereas that of Yanchi desert is formed between 100 and
. The mass concentration ratio of each element to that of Si (Z/Si) determined by PIXE analysis has a tendency towards higher Z/Si ratios for soil derived elements. It was possible to visually reconstruct the elemental maps on the surface of individual sands by XRF microprobe technique. In addition, the multielemental mass concentration could be quantitatively calculated for numerous spots of desert sands.
Korea Emissions Inventory Processing Using the US EPA's SMOKE System
Kim, Soon-Tae ; Moon, Nan-Kyoung ; Byun, Dae-Won W. ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 34~46
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.034
Emissions inputs for use in air quality modeling of Korea were generated with the emissions inventory data from the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER), maintained under the Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS) database. Source Classification Codes (SCC) in the Korea emissions inventory were adapted to use with the U.S. EPA's Sparse Matrix Operator Kernel Emissions (SMOKE) by finding the best-matching SMOKE default SCCs for the chemical speciation and temporal allocation. A set of 19 surrogate spatial allocation factors for South Korea were developed utilizing the Multi-scale Integrated Modeling System (MIMS) Spatial Allocator and Korean GIS databases. The mobile and area source emissions data, after temporal allocation, show typical sinusoidal diurnal variations with high peaks during daytime, while point source emissions show weak diurnal variations. The model-ready emissions are speciated for the carbon bond version 4 (CB-4) chemical mechanism. Volatile organic carbon (VOC) emissions from painting related industries in area source category significantly contribute to TOL (Toluene) and XYL (Xylene) emissions. ETH (Ethylene) emissions are largely contributed from point industrial incineration facilities and various mobile sources. On the other hand, a large portion of OLE (Olefin) emissions are speciated from mobile sources in addition to those contributed by the polypropylene industry in point source. It was found that FORM (Formaldehyde) is mostly emitted from petroleum industry and heavy duty diesel vehicles. Chemical speciation of PM2.5 emissions shows that PEC (primary fine elemental carbon) and POA (primary fine organic aerosol) are the most abundant species from diesel and gasoline vehicles. To reduce uncertainties in processing the Korea emission inventory due to the mapping of Korean SCCs to those of U.S., it would be practical to develop and use domestic source profiles for the top 10 SCCs for area and point sources and top 5 SCCs for on-road mobile sources when VOC emissions from the sources are more than 90% of the total.
The Measures of Ozone Pollution: An Analysis of Ozone Concentration Data in USA
Kim, Hong-J. ; Lovell, Sabrina J. ; O'Farrell, John ; Cho, Yong-Sung ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 47~53
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.047
In this study, we analyzed how ozone pollution could be differently measured and how these different measures varied year to year and across the ten most populated cities in the United States, from 1980 to 2000. Although peak values of ozone concentration have been significantly reduced in most polluted U.S. cities for the last 20 years, the annual average values of ozone concentration have not been lowered as much as peak values. Ozone concentration data for each city shows a unique pattern of distribution, central tendency, and also there is a wide variation among different ozone measures. Two different cities with the same annual mean concentration of ozone can experience very different distributions of ozone concentration within a year. Ozone measures also show a wide margin of variability as they are estimated from different ozone monitoring sites within each city. Ozone pollution statistics can be largely varied depending on the choice of measures, monitoring sites, and averaging time period. EPA's new ozone standard of 0.08 ppm averaged over an eight-hour appears to be more stringent than the current maximum ozone standard of 0.12 ppm averaged over one hour.
Particulate Behavior in Subway Airspace
Sohn, Jong-Ryeul ; Kim, Jo-Chun ; Kim, Min-Young ; Son, Youn-Suk ; Sunwoo, Young ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 54~59
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.054
The most pivotal approach to improve subway indoor air quality (IAQ) is to examine the emission sources and particulate behavior. Therefore, the main objective of this study is to investigate the particulate behavior in the subway. In order to examine IAQ in the subway, a sampling and measurement campaign was carried out for 35 sites during the summer and winter seasons from May, 2005 to February, 2006. In case of 24 hour measurement, the mean concentrations (
-24 hr) of platform and waiting room were
. Besides, as a result of 20 hour measurement, the mean concentrations (
-20 hr) of platform and waiting room were
, respectively. In general,
-24 hr was higher than
-20 hr, and both PM concentrations showed a high correlation coefficient (r=0.803). It was found that the
) in winter was higher than that (
) in summer.
How about the IAQ in Subway Environment and Its Management?
Song, Ji-Han ; Lee, Hee-Kwan ; Kim, Shin-Do ; Kim, Dong-Sool ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 60~67
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.060
The spatial limitations of urban environments in general lead to invention and design of a wide range of underground transportation systems such as subways, underground roads and paths, etc. Among them, the application of subway systems in metropolitan cities is most commonly observed to ease those confronted difficulties on this purpose. It in turn leaves passengers and workers to be exposed to indoor air potentially polluted by various sources existing in this underground environment. Specifically when considering the IAQ in a subway station, there exist many IAQ-related parameters to be counted either as individual or as integrated exposures. In this study, a model system has been developed to manage the general IAQ in a subway station. Field survey and
measurements were initially conducted to analyze and understand the relationship between the indoor and outdoor air quality while considering the internal pollution sources such as passengers, subway trains, etc. The measurement data were then employed for the model development with other static information. For the model development, the algorithm of simple continuity was built and applied to model the subway IAQ concerned. In this paper, the recent updated draft version of model developed will be reported and demonstrated.
Relationship between Indoor and Outdoor Particulate Matter Concentrations in Japan
Nakai, Satoshi ; Tamura, Kenji ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 2, issue 1, 2008, Pages 68~74
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2008.2.1.068
We briefly show the results of indoor and personal
measurements in an epidemiologic study designed to evaluate the health risks of ambient
in Japan and the relationship between indoor and outdoor PM concentrations. The impact of indoor and outdoor PM pollution on health is described based on one morbidity study. The results of other studies on indoor
measurements are also described.