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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment
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Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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Volume & Issues
Volume 5, Issue 4 - Dec 2011
Volume 5, Issue 3 - Sep 2011
Volume 5, Issue 2 - Jun 2011
Volume 5, Issue 1 - Mar 2011
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Development of HPLC Determination Method for Trace Levels of 1-, 2-Nitropyrenes and 2-Nitrofluoranthene in Airborne Particulates and Its Application to Samples Collected at Noto Peninsula
Hayakawa, Kazuichi ; Tang, Ning ; Sato, Kosuke ; Izaki, Akihiko ; Tatematsu, Michiya ; Hama, Hirotaka ; Li, Ying ; Kameda, Takayuki ; Toriba, Akira ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 146~151
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.146
1-Nitropyrene (1-NP), 2-NP and 2-nitrofluoranthene (2-NFR) are useful markers for studying the atmospheric behaviors of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and nitropolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAHs). However, present methods for measuring trace levels of these compounds are lesssensitive and laborious. Here we describe several improvements to a previously reported high-performance liquid chromatography-chemiluminescence detection system that allows it to determine trace levels of 1-, 2-NPs and 2-NFR. The proposed system was equipped with a reducer column packed with Pt/Rh instead of zinc whose life-time was limited. The combination of Cosmosil MS-II (monomeric ODS) and AR-II (polymeric ODS) columns was used instead of polymeric ODS columns as the separator column to improve the separation. An ethanol mixture with acetate buffer (pH 5.5) was used in place of an acetonitrile mixture with the same buffer to activate the reducer column. The same ethanol mixture was used as the mobile phase for the clean-up column. The switching time of the column switching valve was optimized to concentrate the amino-derivatives of above NPAHs quantitatively on the concentrator column. The concentrations of bis(2,4,6-trichlorophenly) oxalate and hydrogen peroxide in the chemiluminescence reagent solution were optimized to 0.4 mM and 30 mM, respectively, to increase the sensitivity. Under the above conditions, the detection limits (S/N
A Detection of Airborne Particles Carrying Viable Bacteria in an Urban Atmosphere of Japan
Hara, Kazutaka ; Zhang, Daizhou ; Yamada, Maromu ; Matsusaki, Hiromi ; Arizono, Koji ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 152~156
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.152
Viable bacteria on water-insoluble airborne particles were detected in the urban atmosphere of Kumamoto (
), Japan, in autumn 2008. Airborne particles were collected onto film-covered Cu meshes under clear weather conditions. The samples were stained by fluorescent stains, and then viewed and photographed with an epifluorescent microscope. Non-biological and bacterial parts in particles larger than 0.8
were distinguished by their morphologies, fluorescent colors and fluorescent intensities. Bacterial viable statuses were discriminated according to cell membrane damage. In total, 2681 particles were investigated and it was found that 78 airborne particles were associated with bacteria. Viable bacteria were identified on 48 particles. A few particles carried multiple viable bacteria. These results provide the evidence that airborne particles act as carriers of viable bacteria in the atmosphere.
Effects of Asian Dust (KOSA) Deposition Event on Bacterial and Microalgal Communities in the Pacific Ocean
Maki, Teruya ; Ishikawa, Akira ; Kobayashi, Fumihisa ; Kakikawa, Makiko ; Aoki, Kazuma ; Mastunaga, Tomoki ; Hasegawa, Hiroshi ; Iwasaka, Yasunobu ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 157~163
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.157
Atmospheric aerosol deposition caused by Asian dust (KOSA) events provide nutrients, trace metals, and organic compounds over the Pacific Ocean that enhance ocean productivity and carbon sequestration and, thus, influence the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Using dust particles obtained from the snow layers on Mt. Tateyama and the surface sand of Loess Plateau in incubation experiments with natural seawater samples on a shipboard, we demonstrate that dust-particle additions enhanced the bacterial growth on the first day of incubation. Gram-positive bacterial group and alpha-proteobacteria were specifically detected form seawater samples including the mineral particles. Although the remarkable dynamics of trace elements and nutrients depend on dust-particle additions, it is possible that organic compounds present in the mineral particles or transported microbial cells could also contribute to an increase in the quantities of bacteria. The chlorophyll concentrations at fractions of every size indicated a similar pattern of change between the seawater samples with and without the dust-particle additions. In contrast, the chlorophyll measurement using submersible fluorometer revealed that the dynamics of phytoplankton composition were influenced by the dust-particles treatments. We conclude that the phytoplankton that uses the bacterial products would increase their biomass. We show that KOSA deposition can potentially alter the structures of bacterial communities and indirectly influence the patterns of marine primary production in the Pacific Ocean.
Atmospheric Bioaerosol, Bacillus sp., at an Altitude of 3,500 m over the Noto Peninsula: Direct Sampling via Aircraft
Kobayashi, Fumihisa ; Morosawa, Shinji ; Maki, Teruya ; Kakikawa, Makiko ; Yamada, Maromu ; Tobo, Yutaka ; Hon, Chun-Sang ; Matsuki, Atsushi ; Iwasaka, Yasunobu ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 164~171
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.164
This work focuses on the analysis of bioaerosols in the atmosphere at higher altitudes over Noto Peninsula, Japan. We carried out direct sampling via aircraft, separated cultures, and identified present isolates. Atmospheric bioaerosols at higher altitudes were collected using a Cessna 404 aircraft for an hour at an altitude of 3,500 m over the Noto Peninsula. The aircraft-based direct sampling system was devised to improve upon the system of balloon-based sampling. In order to examine pre-existing microorganism contamination on the surface of the aircraft body, bioaerosol sampling was carried out just before takeoff using the same method as atmospheric sampling. Identification was carried out by a homology search for 16S or 18S rDNA isolate sequences in DNA databases (GenBank). Isolate sampling just before takeoff revealed Stretpomyces sp., Micrococcus sp., and Cladosporium sp. One additional strain, Bacillus sp., was isolated from the sample after bioaerosol collection at high altitude. As the microorganism contamination on the aircraft body before takeoff differed from that while in the air, the presence of additional, higher atmosphere-based microorganisms was confirmed. It was found that Bacillus sp. was floating at an altitude of 3,500 m over Noto Peninsula.
Identification of Culturable Bioaerosols Collected over Dryland in Northwest China: Observation using a Tethered Balloon
Chen, Bin ; Kobayashi, Fumihisa ; Yamada, Maromu ; Kim, Yang-Hoon ; Iwasaka, Yasunobu ; Shi, Guang-Yu ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 172~180
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.172
The transfer of microorganisms is important process for ecosystems. Microorganisms in dryland can transport itself to wetland through atmospheric diffusion, but only few papers reported about the atmospheric bioaerosol present over dryland. We carried out the direct sampling using a tethered balloon over Dunhuang City, China`s northwestern dryland. Bioaerosols were collected using a tethered balloon with a bioaerosol collector at 820 m above the ground (1,960 m above the sea level) around noon on August 17, 2007. The bioaerosols were cultured after the collection at Dunhuang Meteorological observatory. Two strains of molds were isolated using the Nutrient agar medium. About 400-bp 18S rRNA partial sequences were amplified by PCR and determined afterwards. The results of a homology search by 18S rRNA sequences of isolates in DNA databases (GenBank, DDBJ, and EMBL) and an observation of the form revealed that two bioaerosols in the convective mixed layer over Dunhuang City were Cladosporium sp. and Aspergillus sp.
A Review of Photocatalytic Treatment for Various Air Pollutants
Reddy, P. Venkata Laxma ; Kim, Ki-Hyun ; Kim, Yong-Hyun ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 181~188
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.181
Photocatalysis is a photochemical catalytic reaction which is a highly promising tool for the environmental cleanup process. It is very effective in treatment of environmental pollutants by its unique redox property. It has wide applications in the treatment of atmospheric pollutants (e.g., nitrogen dioxide, trichloroethylene, volatile organics, hydrogen sulfide, benzene, etc) through oxidative removal and by disinfection (aeromicro flora). In this research, the fundamental aspects of photocatalysis are described with respect to the composition of catalysts, experimental conditions (e.g., temperature, duration, etc), and interfering factors (e.g., catalyst deactivation).
A Study of the Bituminous Coal Oxidation Factor in Large Scale Boilers for Estimating GHG Emissions
Lee, See-Hyung ; Kim, Jin-Su ; Lee, Jeong-Woo ; Lee, Seung-Hee ; Lee, Seong-Ho ; Jeon, Eui-Chan ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 189~195
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.189
Korea-specific GHG emissions should be estimated correctly in order to ensure effective measurement of climate change variables. The use of country-specific data that reflects fuel and technology characteristics is needed for accurate GHG emissions estimation. Oxidation factors are used to convert existing data into equivalent GHG emissions, and changes in these oxidation factors are directly related to changes in emissions. As such, the oxidation factor is one of the most important variables in using country-specific data to determine GHG emissions. In this study, the oxidation factor of bituminous coal in large scale boilers was estimated using 4,527 data points sampled from eight large-scale boilers that had been using bituminous coal for two years. The average oxidation factor was determined to be 0.997, which is lower than the oxidation factor of 1 that is recommended by the IPCC G/L for large scale boilers when estimating national GHG emissions. However, an oxidation factor less than 1 is assumed for fluidized bed boilers, internal combustion engines, and other small-scale boilers. Accordingly, studies on oxidation factor estimation should be continued to allow for accurate estimation of GHG emissions.
A Preliminary Study on a Method for the Morphological and Quantitative Analyses of Individual Snow Crystals and Its Application for Field Measurement
Ma, Chang-Jin ;
Asian Journal of Atmospheric Environment, volume 5, issue 3, 2011, Pages 196~203
DOI : 10.5572/ajae.2011.5.3.196
The main aim of this study is to establish methods of morphological preservation and elemental quantification for individual snow crystals. Individual snow crystals were collected at a height of 20 m above ground level. To stabilize and preserve the original morphologies of the snow crystals, cyanoacrylate, which has been used to fix liquid droplets, was applied (Kasahara et al., 2000). Several different kinds of snow crystals (dendrite, sectored plate, quasi-sectored plate, and hexagonal plate) were successively stabilized using this method. The stabilized snow crystals were pretreated with acetone, and then the elemental components contained in a whole snow crystal were quantified with the Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) analytical technique. The snow crystal residual composition determined in the present study was dominated by sulfur and mineral components, and the elemental mass showed an apparent crystal size dependence, where the elemental mass gradually decreased as the crystal size increased.