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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Estimation of Genetic and Environmental Parameters of Carcass Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Native Cattle) Populations
Baik, D.H. ; Hoque, M.A. ; Choe, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1523~1526
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1523
Genetic parameters of carcass weight (CWT), dressing percent (DP), cook loss (CL), eye muscle area (EMA), back fat thickness (BFT), and meat tenderness in terms of mastication (MAS), shear force (SFR) and penetration (PEN) in Korean native cattle were estimated in this study. Effects of sire, location and their interaction on these traits were also evaluated. Sire effects were found to be significant on all the traits studied except for PEN. The CWT and DP were also significantly affected both by location (p<0.01) and by interaction effect between sire
location (p<0.05). The EMA was significantly (p<0.05) affected by location but not by interaction effect between sire
location. All the traits were positively correlated (
) with each other except between CL and meat tenderness (negatively correlated). Moderate to high genetic correlations between CWT and other important traits were obtained; indicating that selection for CWT would lead to improve carcass quality. Heritability estimates were 0.64, 0.52, 0.37, 0.25, 0.19 and 0.18 for MAS, SFR, CWT, PEN, DP and EMA, respectively.
Phenotypic Factor Analysis for Linear Type Traits in Beijing Holstein Cows
Chu, M.X. ; Shi, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1527~1530
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1527
Factor analysis was applied to the phenotypic correlation matrix of 15 linear type traits (scored linearly 1 to 50 points) for 2035 Holstein cows of 38 sires computed from data collected between 1988 and 1992 in Beijing Shuangqiao Farm and Beijing Xijiao Farm. The 15 linear type traits were stature, body strength, body depth, dairy form, rump angle, rump length, rump width, rear leg side view, foot angle, fore udder attachment, rear udder height, rear udder width, udder cleft, udder depth and teat placement rear view. The first four components accounted for 49.1% of the total variance in type scores. Factor 1 reflected strong cows, with deep bodies, with long and wide rumps, and tall in stature. Factor 2 reflected cows with well attached fore udders, wide rear udders and whose udders were supported by strong suspensory ligaments with close teat placement. Factor 3 reflected cows with good dairyness, sickled in the hocks, high rear udders and udder floors above the hocks. Factor 4 reflected cows with sloping rumps from hooks to pins and with steep foot angle. Principal component and factor analyses are useful to clarify the relationships among type traits.
Rapid Sex Identification of Chicken by Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization Using a W Chromosome-specific DNA Probe
Sohn, S.H. ; Lee, C.Y. ; Ryu, E.K. ; Han, J.Y. ; Multani, A.S. ; Pathak, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1531~1535
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1531
It has been known that the sex of chicken cells can be most accurately identified by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). However, the presently available FISH has not been widely used for sex identification, because the procedures for cell preparation and FISH itself are complicated and time-consuming. The present study was undertaken to test a rapid FISH procedure for sexing chicken. A FISH probe was simultaneously synthesized and labeled with digoxigenin by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting a 416 bp segment of the 717 bp XhoI family fragment which is repeated over 10 thousand times exclusively in the W chromosome. Sexing by FISH was performed on cytological preparations of early embryos, adult lymphocytes and feather pulps of newly hatched chicks. The DNA probe hybridized to all types of uncultured interphase as well as metaphase female but not male cells that had been examined. Moreover, consistent with the known site of the XhoI family, the hybridization signal was localized to the pericentromeric region of the W chromosome. We, therefore, conclude that the present PCR-based FISH can be used as a rapid and reliable sex identification procedure for chicken.
Microsatellite Analysis of Three Poultry Breeds of India
Pandey, A.K. ; Tantia, M.S. ; Kumar, Dinesh ; Mishra, Bina ; Chaudhary, Preeti ; Vijh, R.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1536~1542
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1536
The genetic variability of three poultry breeds namely Aseel, Miri and Nicobari taken from different geographical locations of India were evaluated using 15 microsatellite loci. No. of alleles varied from 3 to 9 in Aseel, 3 to 8 in Miri and 2 to 7 in Nicobari. Mean PIC values in Aseel, Miri and Nicobari breeds were 0.64, 0.66 and 0.63, respectively. Average unbiased heterozygosity and direct count heterozygosity were 0.65 and 0.59, 0.68 and 0.61, and 0.64 and 0.57 in Aseel, Miri and Nicobari breeds, respectively. High heterozygosity values revealed in this study are indicative of low level of inbreeding, large population size and no or low selection pressure for commercial trait in all three populations. The estimate of genetic distances using Nei's standard, Nei's minimum and Reynold's distance revealed Aseel and Nicobari to be more closely related than Miri breed of poultry.
Associations of T→A Mutation in the Promoter Region of Myostatin Gene with Birth Weight in Yorkshire Pigs
Jiang, Y-L ; Li, N ; Fan, X-Z ; Xiao, L-R ; Xiang, R-L ; Hu, X-X ; Du, L-X ; Wu, C-X ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1543~1545
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1543
A mutation in the promoter region of porcine myostatin (MSTN) gene has been identified in our previous work. This study analyzed the associations of the myostatin genotypes (TT, TA) caused by this mutation with birth weigh in Yorkshire pigs. Data from 211 unrelated individuals were collected three times from one breeding farm. Detections of the mutation were carried out by PCR-RFLPs approach. The effects of MSTN genotypes (TT and TA) on birth weight were compared by least square means. The results showed that for birth weight of Yorkshire pigs, individuals with TA genotype were significantly higher than those with TT genotype (p<0.05), and the birth weight for pigs with TA genotype were 1.37 kg in average but only 1.25 kg for pigs with TT genotype, indicating a positive effect of birth weight for A allele.
Ovarian TGF-β1 Regulates Yolk Formation Which Involve in Egg Weight of Korean Native Ogol Chicken
Kang, W.J. ; Seo, D.S. ; Ko, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1546~1552
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1546
Proliferation and differentiation of ovarian cells are regulated by gonadotrophins and various intraovarian factors, with many of their actions dependent on growth factors. Transforming growth factor-
) has been reportedly involved in the regulation of ovarian follicular development. The overall objectives of the present study were to examine the influence of TGF-
1 expression in ovarian follicular development or yolk formation and to investigate the association of egg weight with ovarian TGF-
1 expression at 60 wk. Egg weights of 70 Korean Native Ogol Chicken (KNOC) were recorded from 20 to 60 wk. Ovaries were taken at 60 wk, and TGF-
1 was measured with ELISA, respectively. Based on egg weight up to 60 wk and TGF-
1 expression in ovary, the chickens were divided into high and low groups. Egg weights and follicle weight in the high TGF-
1 group were higher than those in the low groups. Also, TGF-
1 expression and follicle weight in high egg weight group were higher than those in the low groups. Taken together, the results indicate that TGF-
1 is associated with egg weight in KNOC. This association of TGF-
1 with egg weight in KNOC supports the report that TGF-
is mainly involved in the development and differentiation of follicles in the poultry. Further studies about other endocrine factors related to yolk formation are required to fully understand the endocrine mechanism of egg weight in Korean Native Ogol Chickens.
Effects of Diluent Component, Freezing Rate, Thawing Time and Thawing Temperature on Acrosome Morphology and Motility of Frozen-thawed Boar Sperm
Yi, Y.J. ; Kwon, Y.A. ; Ko, H.J. ; Park, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1553~1558
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1553
This study was carried out to obtain informations regarding the effect of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine in the LEY (lactoseegg yolk) diluent according to incubation time in 5 ml maxi-straw and the effects of freezing rate, thawing temperature and thawing time in the LEN (lactose-egg yolk and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine) diluent on acrosome morphology and motility of frozen-thawed boar sperm. The study showed that the LEN diluent was higher post-thaw NAR (normal apical ridge) acrosome than the LEY diluent for 0.5 h incubation at 37
. However, there were no differences between the LEN and LEY diluents on post-thaw sperm motility according to incubation time. The straws frozen from 5.0 cm (20
/min) to 17.0 cm (1
/min) above the liquid nitrogen surface did not show any significant differences on post-thaw sperm motility. However, the straws frozen above 5.0 cm from the liquid nitrogen surface were higher NAR acrosome than those frozen above 17.0 cm. The post-thaw percentages of motile sperm and NAR acrosome were significantly higher (p<0.05) for the maxi-straws submerged for 40 or 45 sec in a 52
water bath than for 30, 35, 50 or 55 sec. The mean sample temperatures of maxi-straws after 40 or 45 sec submersion were 20.7 or 26.4
. In conclusion, the sample temperature of the thawed semen was very important for post-thaw sperm survival in the LEN diluent of 5 ml maxi-straw. When the temperature of the thawed semen was 20.7
, the percentages of motile sperm and NAR acrosome were highest.
Albumin Fractions from Different Species Stimulate In Vitro Progesterone Production by Granulosa Cells in Buffalo
Taneja, R. ; Bansal, P. ; Sharma, M.K. ; Singh, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1559~1563
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1559
The ovarian follicular fluid was found to contain steroidogenesis stimulatory protein similar to albumin from human and buffalo. Therefore, the albumins from various species, commercial and purified, were studied for their steroidogenic effect on progesterone secretion by granulosa cells from buffalo ovaries, during culture. A dose of
of bovine serum albumin was optimum to exhibit maximum progesterone secretion on day 6 of culture, in medium (
cells. Among commercial albumins, chicken albumin showed highest effect on progesterone secretion, which was followed by albumins from goat, bovine, human, sheep and rat, respectively at day 6 of culture. The albumins were also purified from blood serum of buffalo, goat and rat using salt fractionation, ion-exchange chromatography, gel filtration and SDS-PAGE. The highest stimulatory effect on progesterone secretion was shown by albumin purified from buffalo blood serum and lowest by that from rat blood. Comparatively the buffalo and goat albumins were more biologically active than commercial albumins. The presence of some active molecules conjugated with freshly purified albumins may be responsible for better stimulatory effect.
Dietary Sesame Meal Increases Plasma HDL-cholesterol Concentration in Goats
Hirano, Y. ; Kashima, T. ; Inagaki, N. ; Uesaka, K. ; Yokota, H. ; Kita, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1564~1567
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1564
Influence of dietary sesame meal on plasma glucose, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), triglyceride, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol and urea concentrations in goats was examined. Goats were fed a control diet (50% timothy hay and 50% concentrates) (CD) or a sesame meal diet (50% timothy hay, 25% concentrates and 25% sesame meal) (SMD) during 12 days. Blood samples were taken after overnight fasting and afternoon every day. Body weight was not changed by feeding either CD or SMD. The concentrations of plasma triglyceride and urea were higher (p<0.05) in goats fed SMD than those fed CD. Plasma NEFA concentration was higher in plasma samples after overnight fasting. Plasma glucose concentration in plasma samples collected afternoon was higher than those after overnight fasting. Plasma total cholesterol concentration was significantly increased by feeding SMD but not by feeding CD, which was due to the remarkable increase of plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration. In conclusion, dietary sesame meal brought about an increase in plasma total cholesterol concentration accompanied with an increment in plasma HDL-cholesterol consentration in goats.
Effect of Naturally Fermented Wheat Straw Based Complete Feeds on the Growth of Buffalo Calves
Pannu, M.S. ; Kaushal, J.R. ; Wadhwa, M. ; Bakshi, M.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1568~1572
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1568
A 152 day trial was conducted to see the effect of feeding naturally fermented wheat straw (FWS) with either energy, protein or energy protein supplements on the growth of buffalo calves. Twenty four male buffalo calves (10-12 months old) divided in 6 equal groups were individually offered FWS as sole roughage along with either conventional concentrate mixture (conc), maize grains (M), solvent extracted mustard cake (DMC), M-DMC mixture (50:50), deoiled rice bran (DRB) or uromol bran mixture (UBM) in 70:30 ratio. The digestibility of nutrients, nitrogen retention and nutritive value was maximum in FWS:UBM followed by FWS:DMC and FWS:Conc groups. Almost, all the blood parameters were observed well within the normal range except that of blood urea (FWS:UBM) and creatinine (FWS:DMC and FWS:DRB). The dietary combination in which FWS was supplemented with only conventional protein supplement like DMC proved to be highly efficient as far as live weight gain was concerned. FWS supplemented with energy-protein combination i.e. MDMC could also be used as complete feed for growing calves in comparison to conventional feeding system.
Effect of Fungal Treated Wheat Straw on the Diet of Lactating Cows
Fazaeli, H. ; Jelan, Z.A. ; Mahmodzadeh, H. ; Liang, J.B. ; Azizi, A. ; Osman, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1573~1578
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1573
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of diets that contained different levels of fungal treated wheat straw on the intake, digestibility and performance of lactating cows. Eight primiparous Holstein cows, in late lactation ranging from
days in milk and yielding
kg/d of fat corrected milk (FCM) were allocated into four diets with 0, 10, 20 and 30% fungal (Pleurotus ostreatus coded P-41) treated wheat straw in a
Latin Square experiment. The daily intake of DM, OM, DOM, CP and TDN were not affected by substitution of alfalfa hay with fungal treated wheat straw. Inclusion of the treated straw at different levels in the diet did not affect the digestibility of nutrients, except for the ADF that was significantly (p<0.05) reduced in the diet contained 30% treated straw. The types of the diet did not significantly affect daily milk and FCM production. The milk composition including fat, protein, lactose, solid non-fat (SNF) and total solid (TS) were not statistically (p>0.05) different among the diets. All cows gained weight, but the inclusion of treated straw to the diet significantly (p<0.05) increased the body weight gain and the highest amount was obtained in the diet containing 20% treated. Inclusion of fungal treated wheat straw up to 30% of the diet of lactating cows supplemented with a protein source such as cottonseed meal had not affected the nutrients intake and lactation performance.
Monensin Enriched Urea Molasses Mineral Block on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Blood Glucose in Cattle Fed on Wheat Straw Based Diet
De, Debasis ; Singh, G.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1579~1584
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1579
Twelve adult male crossbred (Sahiwal
Holstein Friesian) cattle were distributed into four groups of three each on body weight basis. Animals were given wheat straw as a basal diet. The animals of group I and II were supplemented with concentrate mixture and animals of group III and IV were supplemented with cold processed urea molasses mineral block (UMMB). Thirty mg monensin/day/animal was supplemented to the animals of group II and 35 ppm monensin were incorporated in the UMMB supplemented to the animals of group IV. Vit.A and D mixture was given to all the animals once a week. Dry matter (DM) intake (kg/d) through wheat straw was 19.0 percent higher in the UMMB (without monensin) supplemented group (group III) than those of the concentrate mixture (without monensin) supplemented group i.e. group I. Total DM intake (kg/d) was lower in the monensin supplemented groups than those of non-supplemented groups though differences were not statistically significant. Digestible dry matter, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) intake were similar in all the groups. Average block consumption for 45 d period in the group III (0.95 kg/d) and group IV (0.84 kg/d) did not differ significantly. DM digestibility (%) was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the group II (58.9) as compared to the group I (52.7) and group III (54.0) but similar to the group IV (57.2). OM digestibility was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in the group II (63.2) as compared to that of the group I (54.9) but similar to the group III (57.8) and IV (59.2). Ether extract (EE) digestibility was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the group I (76.9) and II (80.3) as compared to the group III (59.87) and IV (55.77). Nitrogen free extract (NFE) digestibility was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the group II (62.38) as compared to that of the other groups. Crude protein (CP) and crude fibre (CF) digestibilities were not affected either due to UMMB or monensin. Nitrogen balance did also not differ significantly among the groups. However, Ca and P balance (g/d) in the group III (3.1, 1.3) and IV (3.0, 1.4) were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of the group I (0.6, 0.2) and II (0.4, 0.3). Blood glucose (mg/100ml) was significantly (p<0.01) higher in the group II (65.2) and IV (65.2) as compared to the group I (55.2) and group III (53.9). Plasma urea-N level (mg/100 ml) in the group III (19.0) and IV (17.8) were significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the group I (10.5) and II (12.3). So, monensin supplementation either with cold process UMMB or concentrate mixture did not show any additional effect on feed intake and digestibility but increases blood glucose level in adult cattle.
Performance of Growing Goats Fed Panicum maximum and Leaves of Gliricidia sepium
Phimphachanhvongsod, Viengsavanh ; Ledin, Inger ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1585~1590
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1585
Thirty female goats of local breed (mature weight 28 kg), weighing 11 to 18 kg, were used in a growth experiment with the objectives to evaluate the effect of different levels of Gliricidia sepium leaves in a diet of Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) on feed intake, weight gain and apparent digestibility. The goats were allotted to five treatments, consisting of 5 levels, 0 (GL-0), 20 (GL-20), 30 (GL-30), 40 (GL-40) and 50% (GL-50) of Gliricidia sepium leaves in the diet based on the energy requirements of the goats. Another six female goats were used to study the digestibility of three dietary treatments, GL-0, GL-30 and GL-50, according to a double
Latin square arrangement. The crude protein (CP) content in Gliricidia was higher and the neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) lower than in the Guinea grass. Increasing the amount of Gliricidia leaves resulted in similar intake of total dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), NDF and ADF among treatments, but CP intake increased with increasing Gliricidia in the diet. The highest total DM intake was 3.0% of body weight in the GL-20 diet. The highest daily live weight gain was 43 g/day in the GL-30 diet. Inclusion of 30% of Gliricidia leaves improved the apparent DM, OM and CP digestibility compared to 0% or 50% inclusion. NDF and ADF digestibility declined with increasing levels of Gliricidia leaves in the diet.
Effect of Dietary Structural to Nonstructural Carbohydrate Ratio on Rumen Degradability and Digestibility of Fiber Fractions of Wheat Straw in Sheep
Tan, Z.-L. ; Lu, D.-X. ; Hu, M. ; Niu, W.-Y. ; Han, C.-Y. ; Ren, X.-P. ; Na, R. ; Lin, S.-L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1591~1598
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1591
The effect of different dietary structural carbohydrate (SC) to nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) ratios on fiber degradation, digestion, flow, apparent digestibility and rumen fluid characteristics was studied with a design using 18 wethers fitted with permanent rumen and duodenum cannulae. All sheep were divided into six groups randomly, receiving six diets with varying SC to NSC ratios. All diets contained the same proportion of wheat straw and concentrate. The dietary SC to NSC ratios were adjusted by adding cornstarch to the concentrate supplements. The duodenal and fecal flows of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), hemicellulose (HC) and cellulose (CEL) were estimated using chromium-mordanted wheat straw as a flow marker. The degradation parameters of wheat straw DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL were determined by incubating the ground wheat straw in nylon bags in the rumen for different periods of time. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the different dietary SC to NSC ratios on rumen pH or
-N, but acetate, propionate and butyrate concentrations were significantly affected (p<0.05 or p<0.01) by dietary SC to NSC ratios in the rumen fluid. When the dietary SC to NSC ratio was 2.86, the highest rumen degradability of wheat straw DM, NDF, ADF and CEL was found, but the highest apparent rumen digestibilities of DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL occurred at a 2.64 SC to NSC ratio. However, because of compensatory digestion in the hindgut, the apparent digestibilities of DM, NDF, ADF, HC and CEL were highest when the dietary SC to NSC ratio was 2.40. In conclusion, there is a optimal range of dietary SC to NSC ratios (between 2.86 and 2.40) that is beneficial to maximize wheat straw fiber degradation and apparent digestibility.
The Use of Apple Pomace in Rice Straw Based Diets of Korean Native Goats(Capra hircus)
Ahn, J.H. ; Jo, I.H. ; Lee, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1599~1605
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1599
In this study, three different experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of apple pomace produced in southern areas of the Republic of Korea (South Korea). The effects of combining apple pomace in different ratios with commercial concentrates and rice straw in the diets of Korean native goats (Capra hircus) were examined. In experiment I, in situ DM and CP disappearances from nylon bags incubated in the rumen of goats showed that greater amounts of DM and CP were released from apple pomace than those from concentrates at the later stages of incubation, but only after 48 h for DM and CP, respectively. This was reflected in the higher 'b' value of the slowly degradable fraction of the apple pomace compared to the concentrates. Prior to these times the trend was reversed. In experiment II, Korean native goats were fed a diet containing apple pomace with either rice straw or rice straw and concentrates, and the in vivo nutrient digestibilities compared to animals receiving an alfalfa hay. DM digestibility in the animals given apple pomace plus concentrates with rice straw (66.86%) were similar to the goats given alfalfa hay only (69.09%) but significantly greater than for a diet of rice straw plus concentrates. In experiment III, an in vivo study was conducted to investigate the inclusion of 30 to 60% apple pomace pre-mixed with rice straw, rice bran and concentrates on the nutritional value for Korean native goats. Apple pomace mixed diets had higher DM intakes, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention than diets without apple pomace, which may have been due to the higher non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) and less ADF and NDF than those in other treatments. Replacement of concentrates with apple pomace in rice straw based diets of Korean native goats fed either separately (experiment II) or by pre-mixing (experiment III) gave satisfactory feed intake, digestibility, pH of ruminal fluid and production of
-N and VFA in the rumen of goats. The results of this study infer that apple pomace can be included at levels of up to 60% in the diets of goats without dramatic effect on the animal.
Dynamics of Early Fermentation of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.)Silage
Shao, Tao ; Ohba, N. ; Shimojo, M. ; Masuda, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1606~1610
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1606
The dynamics of fermentation were studied with Italian ryegrass ensiled in the laboratory silos. The silos were kept in the room set at 25
, and then were opened on 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days after ensiling, respectively. The samples were taken from three silos at each sampling time for chemical analyses. Mono-and disaccharides composition was determined for glucose, fructose and sucrose by high performance liquid chromatography. The Italian ryegrass silage succeeded to achieve lactate type fermentation; high values of lactic acid (85.83 g/kg) and lactic acid/acetic acid at the end of ensiling (14 day), low values of pH (3.74), acetic acid (5.38 g/kg), ethanol (19.20 g/kg) and
(75.84 g/kg), no or only small amounts of butyric acid, valeric acid and propionic acid. The fermentation dynamics showed a fast and large pH decrease caused by a fast and large production of lactic acid during the first 5 days. Mono-and disaccharides composition largely decreased within initial 0.5 day (12 h) of ensiling. Sucrose disappeared rapidly within initial 0.5 day of ensiling, and fructose and glucose contents showed an initial rise during ensiling, and then decreased gradually. These indicated that the enzymes of plant tissue were active within 2 days of ensiling, which caused the initial rise in fructose and glucose from the hydrolysis of sucrose and fructans. After 5 days of ensilage, glucose was consumed completely, suggesting that glucose was the first fermentation substrate. After 2 days of ensiling, sum amounts of lactic acid and remaining mono-and disaccharides proved to be larger than the quantity of mono-and disaccharides in the initial grass. From the facts mentioned above, it was suggested that considerable amounts of lactic acid were produced from some other substrate such as fructans than initial mono-and disaccharides.
Predicting N-alkane Concentration in Pastures and Deer Faeces for Dietary Composition and Digestibility Measurement Using Near Infrared Spectroscopy
Ru, Y.J. ; Kruk, J.A. ; Fischer, M. ; Choct, M. ; Glatz, P.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1611~1616
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1611
The alkanes in plant materials can potentially be used as markers to estimate composition and digestibility of diet of deer for the development of feeding strategies, but the analysis of alkanes in plant materials and deer faeces is time-consuming and expensive. In this study, 242 faecal samples and 119 pasture samples were scanned using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and the concentrations of alkanes in these samples were analysed to develop calibrations for predicting alkane concentrations in pastures and deer faeces. The
values for NIR calibrations were <0.6 for
, but were >0.8 for other alkanes for faecal samples. The
values were >0.87 for alkanes with chains from
to C35 for pasture samples. However, NIR was unable to predict concentrations of alkanes with chains of
in faecal samples and
in pasture samples. While the use of these NIR calibrations will accelerate the estimation of diet digestibility, dietary components and botanical composition of pastures, the influence of the type of pasture on NIR calibration will require further examination.
Effect of Substitution of Groundnut with Soybean Meal at Varying Fish Meal and Protein Levels on Performance and Egg Quality of Layer Chickens
Naulia, Uma ; Singh, K.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1617~1621
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1617
Two hundred and sixteen single comb white egg layers of the White Leghorn hens of 24 weeks of age were randomly allocated to 12 groups with three replications of six hens in each. Hens were fed in a factorial arrangement 2
2, on diets containing either 16 or 18% crude protein with 0, 3 or 6% fish meal, replacing groundnut meal with soybean meal. Soybean meal incorporation improved (p<0.05) egg production, feed intake, feed conversion efficiency and egg weights. Egg quality traits of specific gravity, shape index, albumen index, yolk index and shell thickness remained unchanged. Laying performance was significantly (p<0.05) better at 18% than on 16% dietary protein level. Use of fish meal linearly improved egg production and feed conversion efficiency on diets supplemented with groundnut meal and fish meal incorporation showed quadratic improvement on feed conversion efficiency with SBM diets at 16% dietary protein level. Therefore, use of soybean meal as substitute of groundnut meal is recommended in layer diets, at 16% dietary protein level and fish meal incorporation could be beneficial for layers.
Enrichment of Pork with Omega-3 Fatty Acids by Tuna Oil Supplements: Effects on Performance as well as Sensory, Nutritional and Processing Properties of Pork
Jaturasitha, S. ; Wudthithumkanaporn, Y. ; Rurksasen, P. ; Kreuzer, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1622~1633
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1622
The effects of tuna oil supplementation (0, 1, 2 and 3%) to pig diets on growth and carcass yield as well as meat quality were determined in 40 crossbred pigs. Animals were fattened from 30 to 90 kg of live-weight. Twenty-four hours after slaughter, following various early- and late-post mortem measurements, loin, backfat and belly were prepared from the carcasses. Bacon was produced from the belly part by curing and smoking. Neither performance (feed intake, daily gains, feed conversion efficiency) nor carcass quality (slaughter weight, dressing percentage, lean percentage, nutrient composition of the loin) were significantly affected by tuna oil supplementation. Tuna oil also had no clear effects on early- and late-post mortem meat quality traits, water-holding capacity and tenderness of the M. longissiumus dorsi (LD). Colour traits of LD and backfat, and backfat firmness were not significantly affected by tuna oil, either. However, there was a certain trend to elevated fat contents of LD (and bacon), but not of backfat, with increasing levels of tuna oil in feed. Pigs receiving elevated proportions of tuna oil expressed lower VLDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in blood plasma, whereas the cholesterol content of LD, backfat and bacon did not reflect this trend. Effects of tuna oil on fatty acids in LD, backfat and bacon were often small in extent, except those concerning the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. With 3% tuna oil in the diet, the contents of the particularly desired omega-3 fatty acids, C20:5 and C22:6, were 0.1 and 0.2 g/kg in LD. The corresponding values for backfat and bacon were 2.6 and 12.6 g/kg, and 1.3 and 9.2 g/kg, respectively. Tuna oil supplementation was associated with significant adverse effects on flavour and overall acceptance of bacon (not significant in LD although numerically the same trend was noted), but these effects on sensory ratings were limited in extent. Also shelf life of the products, determined as TBA value after different storage periods at
in LD, backfat and bacon, was significantly reduced. Overall, the present study suggests that omega-3 fatty acids may be enriched in pork by feeding tuna oil with few undesired side-effects, particularly those on sensory perception and shelf life, suggesting immediate consumption of the products is advisable. Most economically important traits (performance, slaughter and physical meat quality) remained unaffected.
Effects of Casein and Protein-free Diets on Endogenous Amino Acid Losses in Pigs
Zhang, Yongcheng ; Li, Defa ; Fan, Shijun ; Piao, Xiangshu ; Wang, Jitan ; Han, In K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1634~1638
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1634
Quantification of endogenous amino acid loss at the terminal ileum is an essential means for calculation of the true amino acid digestibility of a feedstuff. Since nitrogen appeared in the determined diet or not could shift the results very much, also, none of digestibility markers could be recovered with 100% rate at the terminal ileum, the objectives of the present study were: (1) to determine endogenous amino acid losses when fed either a casein diet or a protein-free diet and (2) to examine the reliability of chromic oxide or acid insoluble ash in the protein-free diet. Six ileal-cannulated pigs (
BW) with a simple T-cannula in the terminal ileum were used in a replicated
Latin square designed trial, after allowed a 14 d recuperation period. Each test period ran for 12 days comprised of a 10 d adjustment period and a 2 d collection period. The endogenous AA losses of His, Ile, Lys, Cys, Thr, Val, Trp, Asp, Glu, and Ser from pigs fed the casein diet were significantly higher than those of the protein-free diet (p<0.05). No significant difference was found in the amount of endogenous amino acid loss when determined with the different markers in the protein-free diet (p>0.05). These data suggest that endogenous amino acid loss could be underestimated when a protein-free diet is used. A direct effect of dietary peptides on the endogenous amino acid loss was found when the casein diet was fed. Our results also indicate that acid insoluble ash can be used as an inert marker as an alternative to chromic oxide when measuring endogenous amino acid loss.
Induction of Changes in Morphology, Reactive Nitrogen/Oxygen Intermediates and Apoptosis of Duck Macrophages by Aflatoxin B
Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang ; Shen, Tian-Fuh ; Chen, Bao-Ji ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1639~1645
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1639
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of aflatoxin
) on the ultracellular morphology alteration, apoptosis induction and reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates production of peritoneal macrophages (DPM) from mule ducks. The ducklings were purchased from a commercial hatchery, and were fed a corn-soybean based diet. As the ducklings were grown up to 3 wk of age, the Sephadex-elicited peritoneal exudative cells (PEC) were used as the source for duck peritoneal macrophages. The ultracellular morphology study showed that significant number of cells shifted from category I (normal cell with ruffled membrane) and II (cell membrane blebbing) to category III (cell membrane blebbing and even rupture) after DPM were incubated with
) for 12 to 48 h. When DPM were exposed to
in vitro, the production of NO,
in macrophages was reduced after 12-48 h incubation with previous LPS stimulation. There was a DNA laddering pattern observed in DPM incubated with
5, 10, 20, 50 or
for 12 h. Evidence also revealed that the percentage of apoptotic cells was increased along with the elevation of
concentration. The results suggest that
exposure causes duck macrophages going on apoptotic pathway through evidence of ultracellular morphology alteration and DNA laddering in agarose electrophoresis. The production of reactive nitrogen and oxygen intermediates of duck macrophages also depressed after
exposure, and this implied that
could cause deteriorated functions of bacteriocidal and tumoricidal activity in duck macrophages.
Efficiency of Hurdle Technology Applied to Raw Cured Meat (Si-Raw)Processing
Chen, Ming-Tsao ; Lin, Young-Sun ; Tsai, Hung-Tsung ; Kuo, Hsiu-Lan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1646~1652
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1646
Si-Raw is a raw cured meat (raw, cured meat fermented with steamed rice) produced by the aboriginal people of Taiwan. In order to prevent food poisoning or intoxication from botulism, new methods of monitoring the production base on hurdle technology were investigated. New methods investigated incorporated citric acid, sodium hypophosphite, Monascus anka mash, plum paste or lactic acid bacteria inoculum added separately to meat with steamed rice and salt to lower the Aw (water activity) and pH values of the products to control the microbial growth. Results showed that anaerobic bacterial counts, lactic acid bacterial counts and aerobic bacterial counts for the products of all treatments were less than
, respectively. Sodium chloride content of all products was above 5.46%, water activity was below 0.939 and pH value was below 4.27. IMP was lower and ATP and hypoxanthine were higher. ATP concentrations were higher in the samples which contained the anka mash. Result of sensory panel test indicated that most people preferred the products with added sodium hypophosphite. Except for the fact that the content of tryptamine in the sample with Monascus anka mash was higher, the amine concentrations for all treatments were lower than those of other fermented meat products. The amino acid nitrogen content was higher in the product made from raw meat treated with citric acid, but lower in the other products. Neither Clostridium botulinum nor Trichinella spiralis were detected in any of the treatments. The result may indicate that hurdle technology is effective for hygiene and safe producing Si-Raw.
Effects of Dietary Treatment, Gender, and Implantation on Calpain/Calpastatin Activity and Meat Tenderness in Skeletal Muscle of Korean Native Cattle
Choi, B.H. ; Ahn, B.J. ; Kook, K. ; Sun, S.S. ; Myung, K.H. ; Moon, S.J. ; Kim, K.H. ; Kim, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1653~1658
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1653
The objectives of this study were to examine calpain activity and meat tenderness by three different feeding patterns in Korean native cattle (KNC). Total forty-five animals were assigned each fifteen in long term restriction feeding (LTFR), long-term restriction feeding and hormone treatment (LTFR-tH), and short term non-restriction feeding (STFNR), respectively. Concentrate was restricted based on body weight in exp 1 and 2. However, it was fed ad libitum in exp. 3. Hormonal implantation was made with
for bulls and with
for heifers at 18, 20, 22 months of age in exp. 2. Animals were purchased (3-5 month old) from local cattle market and managed in two local farms and university research unit at three different years. Animals were slaughtered at 24 months for long-term trial and at 18 month for short term-trial. Loin and tender loin muscle was used for calpain activity and meat quality. Calpain proteolytic system was not changed by treatment. However, calpastatin activity was low in short-term trial. The calpain and calpastatin activity is reciprocal relationship, therefore, the high calpain activity may effect on quality grade. The shear force value was decreased as the processing of aging after postmortem. On the other hand, the cooking loss was significantly higher in short-term than in long-term trial, and then gradually decreased by the aging. Hormone implants to increase meat yield influenced to calpastatin activity more powerfully than calpain activity to meat tenderness. In meat color-a*, there was not significant difference in loin. Meat color-b* was decreased as postmortem aging time increased in tenderloin. Western blots were done to learn whether these proteins are degraded during postmortem storage and whether this degradation temporally parallels the decrease of shear force value. Vinculin was detected at 0 day and 1 day and degraded after 3 day. In conclusion, Calpain activity was affected slightly on meat tenderness. But meat tenderness was influenced by calpastatin, more effectively.
Rumen Microbes, Enzymes and Feed Digestion-A Review
Wang, Y. ; McAllister, T.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 11, 2002, Pages 1659~1676
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1659
Ruminant animals develop a diverse and sophisticated microbial ecosystem for digesting fibrous feedstuffs. Plant cell walls are complex and their structures are not fully understood, but it is generally believed that the chemical properties of some plant cell wall compounds and the cross-linked three-dimensional matrix of polysaccharides, lignin and phenolic compounds limit digestion of cell wall polysaccharides by ruminal microbes. Three adaptive strategies have been identified in the ruminal ecosystem for degrading plant cell walls: production of the full slate of enzymes required to cleave the numerous bonds within cell walls; attachment and colonization of feed particles; and synergetic interactions among ruminal species. Nonetheless, digestion of fibrous feeds remains incomplete, and numerous research attempts have been made to increase this extent of digestion. Exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) have been used successfully in monogastric animal production for some time. The possibility of adapting EFE as feed additives for ruminants is under intensive study. To date, animal responses to EFE supplements have varied greatly due to differences in enzyme source, application method, and types of diets and livestock. Currently available information suggests delivery of EFE by applying them to feed offers the best chance to increase ruminal digestion. The general tendency of EFE to increase rate, but not extent, of fibre digestion indicates that the products currently on the market for ruminants may not be introducing novel enzyme activities into the rumen. Recent research suggests that cleavage of esterified linkages (e.g., acetylesterase, ferulic acid esterase) within the plant cell wall matrix may be the key to increasing the extent of cell wall digestion in the rumen. Thus, a crucial ingredient in an effective enzyme additive for ruminants may be an as yet undetermined esterase that may not be included, quantified or listed in the majority of available enzyme preparations. Identifying these pivotal enzyme(s) and using biotechnology to enhance their production is necessary for long term improvements in feed digestion using EFE. Pretreating fibrous feeds with alkali in addition to EFE also shows promise for improving the efficacy of enzyme supplements.