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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Genetic Distance among South Indian Breeds of Zebu Cattle Using Random Amplified DNA Markers
Ramesha, K.P. ; Saravanan, T. ; Rao, M.K. ; Appannavar, M.M. ; Obi Reddy, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 309~314
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.309
Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay was conducted to identify polymorphic markers in Amrithmahal, Krishna Valley, Hallikar, Deoni, Khillari, Ongole and Malnad Gidda breeds of South Indian cattle using twenty six primers. Of the 93 RAPD markers obtained, 53 were present in all breeds, 22 were individual specific and 18 were polymorphic for different breeds. Dual purpose breeds viz., Krishna Valley and Ongole showed less genetic divergence between them as compared to their genetic divergence from draft breeds viz., Amrithmahal, Hallikar and Khillari. Malnad Gidda was found to be a distinctly different from others studied.
Genetic Aspects of Persistency of Milk Yield in Boutsico Dairy Sheep
Kominakis, A.P. ; Rogdakis, E. ; Koutsotolis, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 315~320
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.315
Test-day records (n=13677) sampled from 896 ewes in 5-9 (
=7.5) monthly test-days were used to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters of test-day yields, lactation milk yield (TMY), length of the milking period (DAYS) and three measures of persistency of milk yield in Boutsico dairy sheep. Τhe measures of persistency were the slope of the regression line (
), the coefficient of variation (CV) of the test-day milk yields and the maximum to average daily milk yield ratio (MA). The estimates of variance components were obtained under a linear mixed model by restricted maximum likelihood. The heritability of test-day yields ranged from 0.15 to 0.24. DAYS were found to be heritable (
=0.11). Heritability estimates of
, CV and MA were 0.15, 0.13, 0.10, respectively. Selection for maximum lactation yields is expected to result in prolonged milking periods, high rates of decline of yields after peak production, variable test-day yields and higher litter sizes. Selection for flatter lactation curves would reduce lactation yields, increase slightly the length of the milking period and decrease yield variation as well as litter size. The most accurate prediction of TMY was obtained with a linear regression model with the first five test-day records.
Variations in Karyotypic Characteristics of Different Breed Groups of Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Bondoc, O.L. ; Flor, M.C.G.T. ; Rebollos, S.D.N. ; Albarace, A.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 321~325
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.321
Karyotype analysis was carried out on blood samples of 30 water buffaloes belonging to different breed groups (i.e. Philippine Carabao (PC), Indian Murrah (IM), Bulgarian Murrah (BM), "
50% IM-50% PC", "
50% BM-50% PC" and "75% IM-25% PC"), using the modified Leucocyte Culture Technique. The modal chromosome numbers of the PC, "
50% IM-50% PC", "
50% BM-50% PC", IM, BM and "75% IM-25% PC" were 2n=48, 49, 49, 50, 50 and 50, respectively. The water buffalo chromosomes are mostly acrocentric (79.67%) and the remainder submetacentric (20.33%). Results of the ordinary least square analysis showed significant breed effects (p<0.01) on other karyotypic characteristics (i.e. relative length, arm ratio and centromeric index). Significant correlation between karyotypic characteristics and some animal performance traits were also found. The significant correlation values imply that karyotypic characteristics can be used as important criteria to select potentially productive young water buffaloes. In the future, more production and reproduction traits from non-institutional herds should be included in the analysis to reveal meaningful correlations with various karyotypic characteristics.
Genotype Profiles for the Quantitative Trait Related to Milk Composition in Bulls Used for Artificial Insemination in India
Mukhopadhyaya, P.N. ; Mehta, H.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 326~329
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.326
A population of exotic Holstein Friesian, Jersey, their crossbreds and the indigenous Murrah breed of buffalo bulls (n=486), used in artificial insemination breeding program were screened for the allelic distribution of the
-lactoglobulin genotypes. The preferred "B" allele frequency was highest in Murrah buffalo bulls followed by Jersey and Holstein Friesian. The increase in this particular allele frequency in the Holstein Friesian crossbred bulls was more when compared to their Jersey counterparts. Hardy-Weinberg's equilibrium was maintained albeit with some deviations, which was higher in crossbreds than in purebreds. The feasibility of using such large-scale molecular diagnostic tools in the field and their significance with regards to the dairy economy is discussed.
Reproduction-Nutrition Relationship in Dairy Buffaloes. I. Effect of Intake of Protein, Energy and Blood Metabolites Levels
Qureshi, Muhammad Subhan ; Habib, Ghulam ; Samad, Hafiz Abdus ; Siddiqui, Muhammad Mohsin ; Ahmad, Nazir ; Syed, Mirajuddin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 330~339
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.330
Fifty one Nili-Ravi dairy buffaloes in their last two months of gestation were selected. After parturition, rectal examination of reproductive organs was carried out until the occurrence of the first oestrus (PEI). Milk samples were analyzed for milk progesterone levels (MPL). Ovulation (POI) was confirmed by rectal palpation and MPL. Feed and blood samples were collected fortnightly and analyzed. Body condition score (BCS) was recorded on a scale of 0 to 5. Crude protein (CP) intake varied among different seasons and correlated positively with serum urea levels, POI (p<0.01) and PEI (p<0.05). Excess CPI was lower in the group showing oestrus as compared to those remaining as anoestrus (p<0.05). The dietary ratio of crude protein - metabolizable energy (CP:ME) in the oestrus animals was narrow and constant, while the anoestrus animals had a widely fluctuating one. In normal breeding season (NBS) calvers, mean serum urea level (SUL) was lower than the low breeding season (LBS) calvers. SUL was positively correlated with PEI and POI (p<0.01). Up to six months postpartum, SUL were constantly higher in anoestrus than oestrus buffaloes. Mean metabolizable energy (ME) intake was lower in the NBS calvers than the LBS calvers (p<0.01). BCS and postpartum ovulation interval were correlated with ME intake (p<0.01). Prepartum ME intake was higher in oestrous as compared to anoestrous animals (p<0.05). Higher and lower ME intakes were associated with anoestrus, while a moderate energy intake was associated with a PEI of less than 75 days. Buffaloes with poor BCS belonged to the LBS calving group and most of the NBS calving buffaloes had good BCS. BCS was negatively correlated with PEI (p<0.01) and was higher in oestrous buffaloes than anestrus. It was concluded that excess intake of crude protein, associated with higher serum urea levels and low energy intake, associated with poor body condition, are the key factors for low reproductive efficiency. It may be corrected by adopting a proper feeding strategy.
Secretory Proteins from Goat Oocytes Matured in Culture
Malakar, Dhruba ; Majumdar, A.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 340~345
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.340
In this experiment, oocytes were collected from goat ovaries available in slaughterhouse by follicle puncture method. Morphologically culturable type of oocytes which having compact, multilayered cumulus granulosa cell complex and evenly granulated cytoplasm, was separated under a stereozoom microscope. Oocytes were washed thoroughly in maturation medium containing TCM-199,
LH, 3 mg/ml BSA and 10% estrus goat serum. Washed oocytes were cultured into maturation medium on granulosa cell monolayer. Culture plate was then kept into
, maximum humidity and 5%
for 18 h. After maturation the oocytes were washed thoroughly with maturation medium containing polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) without serum and BSA and further cultured for 12 h for secretory proteins of oocytes. PVA medium was collected, pooled and concentrated by 5000 cut off centrisart. Secretory proteins were separated on 12.5% SDS-PAGE. A total number of 3.41 oocytes per ovary were obtained and 2.17 culturable oocytes per ovary were cultured into maturation medium. After 18 h of maturation, 4,567 oocytes (1.82 oocytes per ovary) were further cultured into serum and BSA free PVA medium for its secretory proteins. Four secretory proteins of oocytes with approximately molecular weight of 45, 55, 65 and 95 kDa were obtained on SDS-PAGE in silver staining and three proteins with approximately molecular weight of 45, 55 and 65 kDa in Coomassie brilliant blue staining. In conclusion, four secretory proteins with approximately molecular weight of 45, 55, 65 and 95 kDa was obtained from in vitro cultured oocytes of goats.
Hormonal Profiles during Periparturient Period in Single and Twin Fetus Bearing Goats
Khan, J.R. ; Ludri, R.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 346~351
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.346
The effect of fetal number (single or twin) on plasma concentrations of progesterone, estradiol
, cortisol, prolactin, growth hormone, triiodothyronine, thyroxine and insulin around parturition (periparturient period) were studied on ten
crossbred goats in their first to third lactation. The hormone profiles were studied on days -20, -15, -10, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1 prior to kidding and on day 0 and +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +10, +15, +20 days postkidding. Plasma progesterone levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher in twin bearing goats comparison to single bearing goats during all the days of sampling. The decline in progesterone concentration from day 20 to day 1 before kidding was 56% in twin and 42% in single bearing goats. In single bearing goats plasma estradiol
was significantly (p<0.01) higher during prekidding days compared to twin bearing goats. The level of estradiol
was highest on the day of kidding in both the groups. The plasma prolactin level in twin bearing goats from day 10 to day 1 prepartum was higher as compared to single fetus bearing goats. However there was abrupt increase in prolactin level on the day of kidding in both the groups. The plasma growth hormone levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher in twin compared to single bearing goats. On the day of kidding growth hormone levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher in twin as compared to single bearing goats (1.40 vs. 0.95 ng/ml). In twin bearing goats plasma cortisol values from day 5 till the day of kidding remained elevated and the levels on the day of kidding was significantly highest in both the groups. The levels of triiodothyronine (
) were significantly higher (p<0.01) during all the periods of sampling in single compared to twin bearing goats. Plasma thyroxine (
) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in twin compared to single bearing goats. In single bearing goats plasma insulin levels were significantly (p<0.01) higher than twin bearing goats during prepartum period however during post partum period the levels in both the groups remained similar. It can be concluded that number of fetuses is having significant influence on the hormone profile during periparturient period.
Effect of Feeding Yeast Culture from Different Sources on the Performance of Lactating Holstein Cows in Saudi Arabia
Alshaikh, M.A. ; Alsiadi, M.Y. ; Zahran, S.M. ; Mogawer, H.H. ; Aalshowime, T.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 352~356
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.352
One hundred-fifty lactating, multiparous cow at post-peak of lactation were used to examine the effect of dietary yeast supplementation on milk production, milk composition and ruminal fermentation. The cows were randomly allocated to three groups of fifty cows each: a control group fed on a basal diet without yeast supplementation and two groups fed on basal diets supplemented with one of two commercial sources of yeast cultures, given at the rates of 15 g/head/d (
) and 50 g/head/d (
), respectively, as per manufacturers' recommendation. Daily milk production was recorded for all cows, while milk samples were taken randomly from ten cows per group for two consecutive days at two-week intervals for chemical analysis of the milk. Rumen fluids were also analyzed for ammonia nitrogen and volatile fatty acids. The results indicated that cows consuming diets supplemented with yeast culture tended to decrease their dry matter intake and to increase their milk yield. Cows fed
supplemented diet produced more milk and 4% fat corrected milk than those fed either
-supplemented diet or the control. The highest milk fat percentage was obtained in cows fed
supplemented diet while the highest percentages of protein, lactose, total solids and solids not fat were recorded in cows fed
. Rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration decreased significantly after yeast culture supplementation. Molar proportion of volatile fatty acids did not change significantly with yeast supplementation.
Serum Mineral and Haematobiochemical Profile of Microfilariae Infected Cattle in India: Its Effects on Production and Therapy
Sharma, M.C. ; Joshi, Chinmay ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 357~365
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.357
A survey was under taken of six district of Northern India viz. Bareilly, Pilibhit, Udham Singh Nagar, Nainital, Almora and Rampur. The age, breed, sex and physiological status recorded. A total number of 854 cattle examined out of which lactating (274 cases), non lactating (302 cases) heifers (128 cases), calves (82 cases) and adult male (68 cases) were examined. An incidence of 4.92 percent (42) of microfilarisis was recorded. The highest prevalence was observed in Rudrapur District of Udham Singh Nagar (33.33%, 4/12), followed by Lalkaun in Nanital District (21.74%, 10/46), Rampur (12.50%, 2/16), Bareilly (8.16%, 8/98) and Pilibhit (1.22%, 1/82). No infection was observed in Almora region. Amongst 854 cattle of different group incidence was highest in adult male (12.20%, 10/82), followed by non lactating (3.82%, 12/314) and lactating (2.70%, 2/74), (7.64%, 12/157) was found in Heifers. For haemeto-biochemical, serum minerals estimations and therapeutic study 32 animals suffering from filariasis and 18 healthy animals were taken. 16 animals were treated with ivermectin
body weight. Effect of this disease on production has also been estimated for which body weight and milk production was observed. The main clinical manifestations observed were anaemia, loss of appetite, debility, oedematous swelling especially in the abdominal region, increased heart rate, and respiration rate. Haematological changes indicated decrease in hemoglobin, total erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, erthrocyte fragility and neutrophil, whereas there was significant increase in erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), total leukocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte and eosinophils. Biochemical changes showed significant reduction in the values of serum albumin, A : G ratio, where as there was significant increase in blood glucose, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), globulin, total lipid, total cholesterol, phospholipids, serum bilirubin. Serum mineral profile also altered markedly, which indicate a significant decrease in Ca, Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn with increase value of Na and Cl. There was no significant change in P and K values. Enzyme pattern in micro filaria infected animal indicated increased level of AST, ALT, alkaline phosphatase, ornithine carbamyl transferase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, isocitric dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase. In blood gas values and acid/base balance, there was an increase in
. It has been observed that microfilaria infected cattle showed decrease in body weight and milk production. Animal treated with ivermectin showed the return of these above values toward normalcy.
Significance of Feeding Induced Hypovolemia in Feed Intake Control of Goats Fed on Alfalfa Hay
Sunagawa, Katsunori ; Prasetiyono, Bambang W.H.E. ; Nagamine, Itsuki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 366~370
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.366
The objective of this study was to examine whether feeding induced hypovolemia (decrease in plasma volume) acts on the regulation of feed intake in goats fed on dry forage. In order to prevent feeding induced hypovolemia, a 2 h intravenous infusion (16-18 ml/min) of isotonic mannitol solution was begun 1 h prior to feeding and continued until 1 h after the start of the 2 h feeding period. The intravenous infusion of isotonic mannitol solution (MI) decreased plasma osmolality by 1.0%, plasma total protein concentration by 4.2% and hematocrit by 5.9%, respectively. In comparison with no infusion (NI), MI significantly decreased thirst level by approximately 13%. At the completion of the 2 h feeding period, cumulative feed intake had been increased by 43% by MI. In conclusion, feeding induced hypovolemia in goats fed on dry forage increased thirst level more than the increase in plasma osmolality did. The results demonstrate that feeding induced hypovolemia is one of the factors controlling feed intake in goats fed on dry forage.
Growth, Feed Conversion Efficiency and Carcass Characteristics of Malpura and Malpura × Awassi Crossbred Lambs in a Hot Semi Arid Environment
Karim, S.A. ; Santra, A. ; Verma, D.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 377~381
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.377
The growth rate, feed conversion efficiency and carcass characteristics of nine native Malpura (M) and eight Awassi
Malpura half bred (AM) male lambs were compared under intensive feeding on 60:40 concentrate and roughage based composite feed. Weaning body weight was similar in the two genetic groups while finishing body weight, total body weight gain and average daily gain during the experiment were higher (p<0.01) in AM than M lambs. The feed conversion efficiency was lower in M than AM lambs with 15.7 and 19.8 per cent feed conversion efficiency, respectively, in the two genetic groups. The dressing yield in terms of preslaughter weight or empty live weight was however similar in the two genetic groups. The loin eye area was also greater (p<0.01) in AM than M lambs. The cutability was similar for the two groups amounting to 33.2, 13.3, 13.2, 23.3 and 16.6% of half carcass, respectively, for leg, loin, rack, neck and shoulder and breast and foreshank. On an average the separable lean, fat and KOH bone content of the half carcass were 48.3, 16.8 and 23.3% for native M and 54.1, 15.0 and 19.0% for AM lambs, respectively. It is concluded that growth rate and feed conversion efficiency were better in Awassi
Malpura half bred than native Malpura lambs while dressing yield and cutability of standard cuts were similar in the two genetic groups.
Effects of Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Extract on Performance of Lactating Cows in the Summer and Winter in Taiwan
Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ; Chen, Chao-Ren ; Yu, Bi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 382~389
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.382
The aims of this study is to evaluate the effect of Aspergillus oryzae Fermentation Extract (AFE) on the performance of lactating cows in summer (May to July) and winter (December to February). The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD) and dietary treatments were 1) basal diet without AFE, 2) basal plus 3 g/d AFE into the basal total mixed ration (TMR), 3) basal plus 45.4 mg AFE/kg the ensiling corn silage and 4) AFE inclusion in silage and TMR. Twenty-eight cows from each trial were selected and randomly allocated into the four treatment groups, confined in individual pens, and fed ad libitum for 8 weeks in both seasons of feeding trials. Results showed that AFE inclusion in corn silage significantly improved DM intake by 4.4% and milk yield by 3.1% (p<0.05) during summer. In the winter season, AFE inclusion in the diet significantly improved milk yield by 10%. Direct addition of AFE to the TMR even further significantly improved milk yield over the addition through corn silage by 7.4% in winter (p<0.05). An additive effect of AFE inclusion into TMR and through corn silage was also demonstrated in the winter-feeding. AFE inclusion however, did not improve DM intake during the winter trial. In the summer trial, inclusion of AFE showed an adverse effect on the percentage of milk fat, but did not impact on the milk fat yield. Adding AFE through corn silage showed a trend towards alleviating the negative effects of milk fat from direct AFE inclusion in TMR. The similar trend occurred in the winter trial. The inclusion of AFE through corn silage significantly lowered the milk protein content over direct AFE addition, but did not significantly impacted the milk protein yield in summer. AFE supplementation during the winter season significantly increased milk protein content. Adding AFE to the corn silage significantly increased milk protein content over direct AFE addition in winter although inclusion of AFE significantly decreased total milk solid content in the summer (p<0.005). During the winter season, inclusion of AFE required less DM to produce a unit of milk. Inclusion of AFE into corn silage required less DM, energy and protein to produce a unit of milk. But inclusion of AFE did not alleviate heat stress on the lactating cows.
Influence of Dietary Addition of Dried Wormwood (Artemisia sp.) on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Hanwoo Steers and the Nutrient Digestibility of Sheep
Kim, J.H. ; Kim, C.-H. ; Ko, Y.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 390~395
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.390
Two experiments were conducted to study the performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean native beef cattle) steers (Experiment 1) and the nutrient digestibility of sheep (Experiment 2) when the animals fed diets containing four levels of dried wormwood (Artemisia sp.). For both experiments the animals were given a basal diet consisting of rice straw and concentrate mixed at 3:7 ratio (on DM basis). In Experiment 1, the treatments were designed as a completely randomized design with two feeding periods. Steers were allotted in one of four dietary treatments, which were designed to progressively substitute dried wormwood for 0, 3, 5 and 10% of the rice straw in the basal diet. Bodyweight gain and average daily gain (ADG) of Hanwoo steers fed diets containing the 5 and 10% wormwood inclusion were greater (p<0.05) than the 3% wormwood-feeding group. Total and daily intakes of roughage and concentrate were not altered by all levels of dried wormwood inclusion. However, the 10% dried wormwood inclusion led to increased total feed intake (p<0.05) compared with that of the 0 and 3% of dried wormwood inclusion. Carcass weight, carcass yield and backfat thickness were not altered by dried wormwood inclusion. The highest level of dried wormwood inclusion resulted in significantly increased (p<0.05) loin-eye area compared with the 0 and 5% levels of dried wormwood inclusion. Experiment 2 was designed by a
Latin square with four periods. Sheep were allocated in one of four dietary treatments as same as in Experiment 1. Digestibilities of DM and TDN were significantly increased (p<0.05) in sheep fed the diet containing all three levels of dried wormwood inclusion compared with the control treatment. Digestibilities of CP and crude fiber in the 5% dried wormwood inclusion highly increased (p<0.05) up to 8.2 and 5.5% respectively relative to the control treatment. The palatability was significantly improved (p<0.05) by the 5% dried wormwood inclusion compared with the control treatment. It is concluded that feeding diets containing dried wormwood substituted for equal weights of rice straw at 5 and 10% levels would be anticipated to provide better quality roughage for beef cattle production and higher income for beef cattle producers.
A Study on the Dry Matter Yield and Nutritive Values of Wild Korean Lespedeza (Lespedeza stipulacea Maxim.)
Lee, Hyung Suk ; Lee, In-Duk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 396~400
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.396
This study was conducted to evaluate the dry matter (DM) yield, quality and utilization of nutrients in Korean lespedeza (Lespedeza stipulacea Maxim.) swards as a roughage source. DM yield in various stages, chemical composition, and DM digestibility were observed, and DM intake, digestibility and utilization of nitrogen and energy by Korean native goat were determined. Experimental diets include three treatments: mixture hay (MH) 100%, MH (80%)+wild Korean lespedeza hay (LH) 20% and MH (60%)+LH (40%). As growth stage advanced, the DM yield of Korean lespedeza tended to increase significantly (p<0.05). The mean DM yield of all growing stages was observed as 7,336 kg/ha. Crude protein (CP) content of Korean lespedeza tended to decrease, but fibrous contents tended to increase when the growth stage advanced. The tannin content of Korean lespedeza was the highest at the bud stage (64.7 mg/g). However, it showed a tendency to decrease as the growth stage advanced, and thus it was the lowest at the ripe seed stage (26.8 mg/g) (p<0.05). With increasing level of LH, voluntary DM intake by Korean native goats slightly increased, but no differences were observed between diets. The digestibility of DM, cellular constituents and NDF was slightly higher in LH containing diets than that of MH 100% diet (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in apparently digested N% among all diets, but retained N% and retained N% of the absorbed were higher in MH (60%)+LH (40%) than those of other diets (p<0.05). A difference in the utilization of energy was not detected. In conclusion, Juvenile LH improved the digestibility of nutrients, presumably due to its high CP content and low fibrous compound. Especially, tannin in LH did not affect in DM intake, but increased the nitrogen utilization of Korean native goats. Accordingly, it could be suggested that Korean lespedeza has a potential to be provided as a roughage source for Korean native goats.
Effects of Surgical Caponization on Growth Performance, Fiber Diameter and Some Physical Properties of Muscles in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
Lin, Cheng Yung ; Hsu, Jenn Chung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 401~405
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.401
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of caponization on the growth performance, breast and thigh muscles physical properties and fiber diameter of the Pectoralis major and Gastrocnemius pars externa in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Caponized birds were surgically altered at 10 weeks of age. Birds were fed grower and finisher diets ad libitum during an eighteen-week experimental period. The results indicated that the live weight and feed intake in the capons were significantly (p<0.05) higher and the shank length was significantly (p<0.05) longer than in intact birds. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in feed conversion and mortality between two treatments at 28 weeks of age. Compared with intact birds, the capons had greater (p<0.05) tenderness in the breast and thigh muscles. Cohesion of the breast muscle in the capons was significantly (p<0.05) better than in the intact birds, but the thigh muscles were not significantly (p>0.05) affected. No treatment differences (p>0.05) were associated with cooking loss, muscle chewiness, and elasticity. The capons had a significantly (p<0.05) smaller fiber diameter in the Pectoralis major, but were not significantly (p>0.05) different in the fiber diameter of the Gastrocnemius pars externa. It is concluded that castration did not depress growth compared with the intact birds, but did improve muscle tenderness. This difference was most pronounced in the thigh muscles.
Effects of Refeeding with a Protein-Free Diets Supplemented with Various Essential Amino Acids on the Plasma Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I Concentration in Fasting Young Chickens
Kita, K ; Shibata, T. ; Nagao, K. ; Hwangbo, J. ; Okumura, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 406~409
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.406
The effect of refeeding with various single essential amino acids on the recovery of plasma insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) concentration in fasted young chickens was examined. Young chickens (29 days of age) were divided into 15 experimental groups. Chickens in one group were fed on the commercial diet ad libitum for 4 days. The remaining 56 chickens in 14 experimental groups were fasted. After 2 days of fasting, 52 chicks in 13 fasted groups were refed with one of the following experimental diets for 2 days. Eleven experimental diets were protein-free diets supplemented with one of 11 essential amino acids (Arg, Gly, His, Ileu, Leu, Met, Phe, Lys, Thr, Trp, Val). The remaining 2 experimental diets were a protein-free diet containing 11 essential amino acids and a protein-free diet not supplemented with amino acids. Birds in the remaining fasted group continued to be fasted for 2 days. Fasting for 2 days markedly reduced plasma IGF-I concentration. When fasted chickens were refed the protein-free diet containing either Gly alone or all essential amino acids, plasma IGF-I concentration was recovered to the level similar to that of fed chickens. Protein-free diet alone, however, failed to restore the reduced IGF-I concentration in plasma. Body weight loss modulated by feeding with protein-free diets supplemented with various single essential amino acids was associated with changes in plasma IGF-I concentrations. We concluded that body weight loss by feeding with a protein-free diet was lower than that of fasted chickens and that body weight loss associated with the decrease in plasma IGF-I concentration was modulated by feeding with protein-free diets containing various single essential amino acids.
Active Immunization against Adrenocorticotropic Hormone in Growing-Finishing Barrows: An Initial Trial and Evaluation
Lee, C.Y. ; Baik, K.H. ; Jeong, J.H. ; Lee, S.D. ; Park, J.K. ; Song, Y.M. ; Kim, Y.S. ; Sohn, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 410~415
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.410
Adrenal glucocorticoids, secreted by the stimulus of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), are catabolic hormones in the pig. The present study was conducted to find whether active immunization against ACTH would suppress cortisol secretion accompanied by an increased growth rate in growing-finishing barrows. ACTH was conjugated to keyhole limpet hemocyanin or human histone using glutaraldehyde or 3-maleimidobenzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide, under a 2 (ACTH vs no hapten)
2 (crosslinker) factorial arrangement of treatments. Cross-bred barrows weighing approximately 25 kg were injected with an ACTHcarrier or carrier only conjugate every 4th wk and slaughtered at approximately 110 kg body weight. Antibodies against ACTH were detected in serum, as determined by
ACTH-binding activity, in most animals immunized against the ACTH conjugate, but not in carrier only-injected animals, except for the animals which had received the hapten conjugated to histone via glutaraldehyde. The
ACTH-binding activity of serum increased after the second booster injection, but overall ACTH antibody titer was very low. Main effect was not detected not only for the carrier and crosslinker but for the hapten in serum cortisol concentration, ADG, loin muscle area, backfat thickness and longissimus muscle composition including fat and protein. In addition, bound
ACTH percentage had no relation to cortisol concentration or to any of the above growth-related variables. Results suggest that ACTH or its conjugates used in the present study were not immunogenically potent enough to affect the glucocorticoid secretion and thus the growth of the immunized pigs.
Quantification of Karanjin Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography in Raw and Detoxified Karanj (Pongamia glabra vent) Seed Cake
Prabhu, T.M. ; Devakumar, C. ; Sastry, V.R.B. ; Agrawa, D.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 416~420
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.416
Various products of karanj (Pongamia glabra) are utilized for industrial, health and animal agriculture applications in the Indian subcontinent. Despite a rich source of protein (CP, 28-34%), karanj cake was found to be slightly bitter in taste and toxic owing to the presence of flavonoid (Karanjin), restricting its safe inclusion in the livestock diets. Feeding trials with raw cake revealed its poor palatability and adverse performance among different categories of livestock including poultry. The present study was, therefore, aimed to detoxify karanj cake by various physico-chemical methods like solvent extraction, water washing, pressure cooking and alkali and acid treatments. The level of residual karanjin in raw and variously processed cake was quantified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The raw expeller karanj cake was found to contain about 0.19% of karanjin. Though a non-polar solvent, soxhlet extraction of expeller pressed cake with petroleum ether drastically reduced karanjin content (0.01%). Soaking of cake for 24 h in 1% NaOH (w/w) solution was found to reduce karanjin to a major extent with little further benefit by increasing alkali level. Milder alkalies like lime and fertilizer grade urea reduced the karanjin levels marginally. Similar was the case with mineral acids such as HCl and glacial acetic acid. It was, therefore, concluded that solvent extraction of karanj seeds would be the best method of detoxification as well as for more recovery of oil and karanjin.
Gene Cloning and Nucleotide Sequence of Human Dihydrolipoamide Dehydrogenase-Binding Protein
Lee, Jeongmin ; Ryou, Chongsuk ; Jeon, Bong Kyun ; Lee, Poongyeon ; Woo, Hee-Jong ; Kwon, Moosik ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 421~426
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.421
The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), a member of
-keto acid dehydrogenase complex, catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate with the formation of
, acetyl-CoA, NADH, and
. This complex contains multiple copies of three catalytic components including pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1), dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase (E2), and dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (E3). Two regulatory components (E1-kinase and phospho-E1 phosphatase) and functionally less-understood protein (protein X, E3BP) are also involved in the formation of the complex. In this study, we have partially cloned the gene for E3BP in human. Nine putative clones were isolated by human genomic library screening with 1.35 kb fragment of E3BP cDNA as a probe. For investigation of cloned genes, Southern blot analysis and the construction of the restriction map were performed. One of the isolated clones, E3BP741, has a 3 kb-SacI fragment, which contains 200 bp region matched with E3BP cDNA sequences. The matched DNA sequence encodes the carboxyl-terminal portion of lipoyl-bearing domain and hinge region of human E3BP. Differences between yeast E3BP and mammalian E3BP coupled with the remarkable similarity between mammalian E2 and mammalian E3BP were confirmed from the comparison of the nucleotide sequence and the deduced amino acid sequence in the cloned E3BP. Cloning of human E3BP gene and analysis of the gene structure will facilitate the understanding of the role(s) of E3BP in mammalian PDC.
The Effect of Roasting Temperature on the Formation of Volatile Compounds in Chinese-Style Pork Jerky
Chen, W.S. ; Liu, D.C. ; Chen, M.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 427~431
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.427
The purpose of this work was to study the effect of roasting temperature on the production of volatile compounds in Chinese-style pork jerky. The pork jerky was roasted by far-infrared grill at
for 5 min. The analysis of volatile compounds using a Likens-Nickerson apparatus coupled to a gas chromatograph and a mass spectrometer enabled us to identify 21 volatile compounds. The results showed that the volatile compounds coming from pork jerky can be divided into two groups in accordance with their possible origins. The first group of volatile compounds derived from oxidation of lipid included hexanal, ethylbenzene, nonanal, benzaldehyde, 2,4-decadienal, 1-octen-3-ol, octadecanal, and 9-octadecenal. The second group of volatile compounds generated from degradation of natural spices included 1,8-cinene, 4-terpineol,
-terpineol, e-anethole, methyl-eugenol, panisaldehyde, elemol, eugenol, methyl-isoeugenol and myristicin. Significant differences (p<0.05) were found between 2 different roasted temperatures at levels for all volatile compounds.
Effect of 65 kDa Buffalo Placental Protein on B-Cell Proliferation and Antibody Response
Deepthi, K. ; Rajput, Y.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 432~437
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.432
Immunosuppressive potential of 65 kDa buffalo placental protein (bPP65) on B-cell proliferation in vitro and antibody response in vivo was evaluated. B-cell proliferation was estimated by measuring incorporation of tritiated thymidine in buffalo lymphocytes while primary antibody responses against phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) or keyhole limpet haemocyanin (KLH) were evaluated in mice. bPP65 suppressed proliferation of lipopolysaccharide (a B-cell specific mitogen)-stimulated buffalo lymphocytes in vitro indicating suppression of B-cells. This suppression was dose dependent over the protein concentration range
. Primary antibody responses in mice against PHA and KLH in presence of bPP65 were lower as compared to in its absence but these were not statistically significant. Amino acid composition data of bPP65 and BSA suggested that bPP65 is different from BSA.
Effect of Aflatoxin B
on the Function of Peritoneal Macrophage from Mule Duck
Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang ; Shen, Tian-Fuh ; Pang, Victor Fei ; Chen, Bao-Ji ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 438~444
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.438
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of aflatoxin
) alone or mixed function oxidase (MFO)-activated
on various functions of mule duck peritoneal macrophages. Duck peritoneal macrophages were incubated with
0, 5, 10, 20, 50 and
for 12 h. The cell viability significantly declined as the concentration of
increased and more obviously detrimental effects was noticed in MFO-metabolized
treatments. Either in opsonized or unopsonized Candida albicans, phagocytotic ability of macrophages was decreased with the elevation of the concentration of
. Significantly higher levels of macrophages were damaged in MFO-metabolized
alone in concentrations above
. The cytotoxicity activity was in the range of 41 to 33% after exposure to
, and a significant higher TNF-like substance secretion by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation was obtained. When LPS was present in the medium, the percentage of cytotoxicity was higher than all treatments of
both with and without MFO-activation in the absence of LPS. The results suggest that MFO-metabolized
can alter cell viability and morphology of duck macrophages more than
administered alone. Both with and without MFOactivation,
has detrimental effects on phagocytotic ability and TNF-like substance secretion, increasing with level of
Novel Reproductive Techniques in Swine Production - A Review
Okere, C. ; Nelson, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 3, 2002, Pages 445~452
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.445
The main objective of modern reproductive technologies in pig reproduction is to increase reproductive efficiency and rates of genetic improvement. They also offer potential for greatly extending the multiplication and transport of genetic materials and the conservation of unique genetic resources in reasonably available forms for possible future use. The development and refinement of these technologies is concentrating on gamete and embryo collection, sorting and preservation, in vitro production of embryos, culturing, manipulation of embryos (splitting, nuclear transfer, production of chimeras, establishment embryo stem cells, and gene transfer) and embryo transfer. Also, the development of these novel technologies is facilitated by modern equipment for ultrasonography, microscopy, cryopreservation, endoscopy, and flow cytometry, microinjectiors, micromanipulators and centrifugation. The real impact on herd productivity will come from combining new reproductive techniques with powerful DNA technologies. The new reproductive techniques will allow a rapid turnover of generations, whereas the DNA technology can provide selection, which does not need phenotypic information when the selection decisions are made.