Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Genetic Diversity of Goats from Korea and China Using Microsatellite Analysis
Kim, K.S. ; Yeo, J.S. ; Lee, J.W. ; Kim, J.W. ; Choi, C.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 461~465
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.461
Nine microsatellite loci were analyzed in 84 random individuals to characterize the genetic variability of three domestic goat breeds found in Korea and China: Korean goat, Chinese goat and Saanen. Allele diversity, heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, F-statistics, indirect estimates of gene flow (Nm) and Nei's standard distances were calculated. Based on the expected mean heterozygosity, the lowest genetic diversity was exhibited in Korean goat (
=0.381), and the highest in Chinese goat (
=0.669). After corrections for multiple significance tests, deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium were statistically significant over all populations and loci, reflecting the deficiencies of heterozygotes (global
=0.053). Based on pairwise FST and Nm between different breeds, there was a great genetic differentiation between Korean goat and the other two breeds, indicating that these breeds have been genetically subdivided. Similarly, individual clustering based on the proportion of shared alleles showed that Korean goat individuals formed a single cluster separated from the other two goat breeds.
Genetic Studies on Production Efficiency Traits in Hariana Cattle
Dhaka, S.S. ; Chaudhary, S.R. ; Pander, B.L. ; Yadav, A.S. ; Singh, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 466~469
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.466
The data on 512 Hariana cows, progeny of 20 sires calved during period from 1974 to 1993 maintained at Government Livestock Farm, Hisar were considered for the estimation of genetic parameters. The means for first lactation milk yield (FLY), wet average (WA), first lactation peak yield (FPY), first lactation milk yield per day of first calving interval (MCI) and first lactation milk yield per day of age at second calving (MSC) were 1,141.58 kg, 4.19 kg/day, 6.24 kg/day, 2.38 kg/day and 0.601 kg/day, respectively. The effect of period of calving was significant (p<0.05) on WA, FPY and MCI while the effect of season of calving was significant only on WA. Monsoon calvers excelled in performance for all the production efficiency traits. The effect of age at first calving (linear) was significant on all the traits except on MCI. Estimates of heritabilty for all the traits were moderate and ranged from 0.255 to 0.333 except for WA (0.161). All the genetic and phenotypic correlations among different production efficiency traits were high and positive. It may be inferred that selection on the basis of peak yield will be more effective as the trait is expressed early in life and had reasonably moderate estimate of heritability.
Genetic Similarity and Variation in the Cultured and Wild Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) Estimated with Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA
Yoon, Jong-Man ; Park, Hong-Yang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 470~476
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.470
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis based on numerous polymorphic bands have been used to investigate genetic similarity and diversity among and within two cultured and wild populations represented by the species crucian carp (Carassius carassius). From RAPD analysis using five primers, a total of 442 polymorphic bands were obtained in the two populations and 273 were found to be specific to a wild population. 169 polymorphic bands were also produced in wild and cultured population. According to RAPD-based estimates, the average number of polymorphic bands in the wild population was approximately 1.5 times as diverse as that in cultured. The average number of polymorphic bands in each population was found to be different and was higher in the wild than in the cultured population. Comparison of banding patterns in the cultured and wild populations revealed substantial differences supporting a previous assessment that the populations may have been subjected to a long period of geographical isolation from each other. The values in wild population altered from 0.21 to 0.51 as calculated by bandsharing analysis. Also, the average level of bandsharing values was
in the wild population, compared to
in the cultured. With reference to bandsharing values and banding patterns, the wild population was considerably more diverse than the cultured. Knowledge of the genetic diversity of crucian carp could help in formulating more effective strategies for managing this aquacultural fish species and also in evaluating the potential genetic effects induced by hatchery operations.
Rearing Black Bengal Goat under Semi-Intensive Management 1. Physiological and Reproductive Performances
Chowdhury, S.A. ; Bhuiyan, M.S.A. ; Faruk, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 477~484
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.477
Ninety pre-puberal (6-7 months) female and 15 pre-puberal male Black Bengal goats were collected on the basis of their phenotypic characteristics from different parts of Bangladesh. Goats were reared under semi-intensive management, in permanent house. The animals were vaccinated against Peste Des Petits Ruminants (PPR), drenched with anthelmentics and deeped in 0.5% Melathion solution. They were allowed to graze 6-7 h along with supplemental concentrate and green forages. Concentrates were supplied either 200-300 g/d (low level feeding) or quantity that supply NRC (1981) recommended nutrient (high level of feeding). Different physiological, productive and reproductive characteristics of the breed were recorded. At noon (temperature=
and light intensity=60480 LUX) rectal temperature and respiration rate of adult male and female increased from 100.8 to
and 35 to 115 breath/min, indicated a heat stress situation. Young female attain puberty at an average age and weight of 7.2
0.18 months and 8.89
0.33 kg respectively. Mean age and weight at 1st kidding were 13.5
0.49 months and 15.3
0.44 kg respectively. It required 1.24-1.68 services per conception with an average gestation length of 146 days. At low level of feeding the postpartum estrus interval was 37
2.6 days, which reduced (p<0.05) with high feeding level to 21
6.9 days. Kidding interval also reduced (p<0.05) from 192 d at low feeding level to 177 d at high feeding level. On an average there were two kiddings/doe/year. Average litter sizes in the 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th parity were 1.29, 1.71, 1.87 and 2.17 respectively. Birth weights of male and female kids were 1.24 and 1.20 kg respectively, which increased (p<0.05) with better feeding. Although kid mortality was affected (p<0.05) by dam's weight at kidding, birth weight of kid, milk yield of dam, parity of kidding, season of birth, but pre-netal dam's nutrition found to be the most important factor. Kid mortality reduced from 35% at low level of feeding to 6.5% at high level of feeding of dam during gestation. Apparently, this was due to high (p<0.05) average daily milk yield (334 vs. 556 g/d) and heavier and stronger kid at birth at high feeding level.
Effects of Meiotic Stages, Cryoprotectants, Cooling and Vitrification on the Cryopreservation of Porcine Oocytes
Huang, Wei-Tung ; Holtz, Wolfgang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 485~493
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.485
Different factors may affect the sensitivity of porcine oocytes during cryopreservation. The effect of two methods (cooling and vitrification), four cryoprotectants [glycerol (GLY), 1, 2-propanediol (PROH), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) or ethylene glycol (EG)] and two vitrification media (1 M sucrose (SUC)+8 M EG; 8 M EG) on the developmental capacity of porcine oocytes at the germinal vesicle (GV) stage or after IVM at the metaphase II (M II) stage were examined. Survival was assessed by FDA staining, maturation and cleavage following IVF and IVC. A toxicity test for different cryoprotectants (GLY, PROH, DMSO, EG) was conducted at room temperature before cooling. GV and M II-oocytes were equilibrated stepwise in 1.5 M cryoprotectant and diluted out in sucrose. The survival rate of GV-oocytes in the GLY group was significantly lower (82%, p<0.01) than that of the other group (92 to 95%). The EG group achieved a significantly higher maturation rate (84%, p<0.05) but a lower cleavage rate (34%, p<0.01) than the DMSO group and the controls. For M II-oocytes, the survival rates for all groups were 95 to 99% and the cleavage rate of the GLY group was lower than the PROH-group (21 vs 43%, p<0.01). After cooling to
, the survival rates of GV-oocytes in the cryoprotectant groups were 34 to 51%, however, the maturation rates of these oocytes were low (1%) and none developed after IVF. For M II-oocytes, the EG group showed a significantly higher survival rate than those of the other cryoprotectant groups (40% vs 23-26%, p<0.05) and the cleavage rates of PROH, DMSO and EG group reached only 1 to 2%. For a toxicity test of different vitrification media, GV and M II-oocytes were equilibrated stepwise in 100% 8 M EG (group 1) and 1 M SUC + 8 M EG (group 2) or equilibrated in sucrose and then in 8 M EG (SUC+8 M EG, group 3). For GV-oocytes, the survival, maturation and cleavage rates of Group 1 were significantly lower than those in group 2, 3 and control group (p<0.05). For M II-oocytes, there were no differences in survival, maturation and cleavage rates between groups. After vitrification, the survival rates of GV and M II-oocytes in group 2 and 3 were similarly low (4-9%) and none of them matured nor cleaved after in vitro maturation, fertilization and culture. In conclusion, porcine GV and M II-oocytes do not seem to be damaged by a variety of cryoprotectants tested, but will succumb to a temperature decrease to
or to the process of vitrification, regardless of the cryoprotectant used.
The Reproductive Characteristics of the Mare in Subtropical Taiwan
Ju, Jyh-Cherng ; Peh, Huo-Cheng ; Hsu, Jenn-Chung ; Cheng, San-Pao ; Chiu, Shaw-Ching ; Fan, Yang-Kwang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 494~499
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.494
The objectives of this study were to document the reproductive traits of mares as influenced by the month of the year in Taiwan. Reproductive records, lactation traits, foal birth weight (FBW) and foal height (FBH) were collected from Holi Equine Station of Taiwan. The effects of month on these parameters were analyzed. The length of estrus (LE) was shortest in December each year. The increasing trend was recorded from January to September with a significantly (p<0.05) longer period of
days in September than in January and February. A gradual shortening in LE was observed from September to December (
days, p<0.05), when the shortest period of the year was observed. Mares showed signs of estrus throughout the year, but more than 80% were found in estrus during March through October. The FBW was significantly (p<0.05) affected by the breeding month of the year. The lowest foal weights were recorded in both September (
kg) and December (
kg), which were also significantly lower than those in other months except in March, August, and November. A trend of lower FBH from September to December (93.5-93.8 cm) than those from January to August was observed. The greatest FBH was in June (96.2 cm). Breeding months and onset of estrus of the mares exerted a significant effect on the incidence of agalactia during the lactation period. These analyses provide fundamental information on adaptive processes in respect to reproductive characteristics of mares, which indicated an extent of acclimation by these animals in subtropical Taiwan.
Changes in Maternal Blood Glucose and Plasma Non-Esterified Fatty Acid during Pregnancy and around Parturition in Twin and Single Fetus Bearing Crossbred Goats
Khan, J.R. ; Ludri, R.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 504~508
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.504
The effects of fetal number (single or twin) on blood glucose and plasma NEFA during pregnancy and around parturition were studied on ten Alpine
Beetal crossbred goats in their first to third lactation. The animals were divided in-groups 1(carrying single fetus, n=4) and 2(twin fetus, n=6). The samples were drawn on day1 after estrus and then at 14 days interval (fortnight) for 10 fortnights. Around parturition the samples were taken on days -20, -15, -10, -5, -4, -3, -2, -1 prior to kidding and on day 0 and +1, +2, +3, +4, +5, +10, +15, +20 days post kidding. In twin bearing goats the blood glucose concentration continued to increase from 1st until 4th fortnight and thereafter gradually decline from 5th upto 8th fortnight. In single bearing goats there was increase in levels from 2nd upto 4th fortnight and thereafter it declined from 5th uptill 9th fortnight. The difference in sampling interval was highly significant (p<0.01) in both the groups. However the values were higher in single than in twin bearing goats. The plasma NEFA concentration was low in both the groups' upto 4th fortnight and thereafter it is continuously increased upto 9th fortnight. During prepartum period the blood glucose was higher in single than in twin bearing goats. The values were minimum on the day of kidding in both the groups. During postpartum period the values were significantly (p<0.01) higher in twin than in single fetus bearing goats. The plasma NEFA was significantly (p<0.05) higher in twin than in single fetus bearing goats. The blood glucose and plasma NEFA concentration can be used as index of nutritional status during pregnancy and around parturition in goats.
Effect of Molybdenum Induced Copper Deficiency on Peripheral Blood Cells and Bone Marrow in Buffalo Calves
Randhawa, C.S. ; Randhawa, S.S. ; Sood, N.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 509~515
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.509
Copper deficiency was induced in eight male buffalo calves by adding molybdenum (30 ppm wet basis) to their diet. Copper status was monitored from the liver copper concentration and a level below 30 ppm (DM basis) was considered as deficient. Haemoglobin, haematocrit, total and differential leucocyte numbers were determined. The functions of peripheral neutrophils were assessed by in vitro phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of molybdenum induced copper deficiency on bone marrow was monitored. The mean total leucocyte count was unaffected whereas a significant fall in neutrophil count coincided with the fall in hepatic copper level to
ppm. Reduced blood neutrophil numbers was not accompanied by any change in the proportion of different neutrophil precursor cells in bone marrow. It was hypothesised that buffalo calves were more tolerant to dietary molybdenum excess than cattle. It was concluded that neutropenia in molybdenum induced copper deficiency occurred without any effect on their synthesis and maturation process. Bone marrow studies in healthy calves revealed higher percentage of neutrophilic myelocytes and metamyelocytes as compared to cattle.
Dry Matter Intake, Digestibility and Milk Yield by Friesian Cows Fed Two Napier Grass Varieties
Gwayumba, W. ; Christensen, D.A. ; McKinnon, J.J. ; Yu, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 516~521
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.516
The objective of this study was to compare two varieties of Napier grass (Bana Napier grass vs French Cameroon Napier grass) and to determine whether feed intake, digestibility, average daily gain (ADG) and milk yield of lactating Friesian cows from fresh cut Bana Napier grass was greater than from French Cameroon Napier grass, using a completely randomized design. Results show that Bana Napier grass had similar percent dry matter (DM), ash and gross energy (GE) to French Cameroon. Bana grass had higher percent crude protein (CP) and lower fiber fractions, acid detergent fibre (ADF), neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and lignin compared to French Cameroon. Overall the forage quality was marginally higher in Bana Napier grass compared to French Cameroon. The DM and NDF intake expressed as a percentage of body weight (BW) were similar in both Napier grass types. Both grasses had similar digestible DM and energy. Bana had higher digestible CP but lower digestible ADF and NDF than French Cameroon. Bana Napier was not different from French Cameroon when fed as a sole diet to lactating cows in terms of low DM intake, milk yield and a loss of BW and condition. To improve the efficient utilization of both Napier grass varieties, a supplement capable of supplying 1085-1227 g CP/d and 17.0-18.0 Mcal ME/d is required for cows to support moderate gains 0.22 kg/d and 15 kg 4% fat corrected milk/d.
Effects of Feeding Urea and Soybean Meal-Treated Rice Straw on Digestibility of Feed Nutrients and Growth Performance of Bull Calves
Ahmed, S. ; Khan, M.J. ; Shahjalal, M. ; Islam, K.M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 522~527
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.522
The experiment was conducted for a period of 56 days with twelve Bangladeshi bull calves of average body weight of
kg. The calves were divided into 3 groups having 4 animals in each. The animals were fed urea-treated rice straw designated as A) 4% urea-treated rice straw, B) 4% urea+4% soybean-treated rice straw and C) 4% urea+6% soybean-treated rice straw. In addition, all the animals were supplied 2 kg green grass, 350 g Til-oil-cake and 100 g common salt per 100 kg body weight of animals. Straw was treated with 4% urea solution and soybean meal at 4 and 6% were added to treated straw and kept for 48 h in double layer polythene bags under anaerobic condition. Urea treatment improved crude protein (CP) content of rice straw from 2.68 to 8.70% and it was further increased by 10.74 and 12.12% with the addition of 4 and 6% soybean meal. Dry matter (DM) intake (kg) was higher (p<0.05) in C (4.2) followed by B (4.1) and A (4.0). Crude protein intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in group B and C than group A. Total live weight gains were 20.2, 24.8 and 25.6 kg for calves of group A, B and C respectively (p<0.01). The addition of soybean meal to treated rice straw did not affect the coefficients of digestibility of DM, OM, EE and NFE. However, CP and CF digestibility were significantly higher in group B and C (p<0.05). The values for digestible crude protein (DCP), digestible ether extract (DEE), digestible nitrogen free extract (DNFE) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) were significantly (p<0.05) higher in diet C and B in comparison to diet A, but there were no significant difference in digestible organic matter (DOM) and digestible crude fibre (DCF) value among the groups. It may be concluded that 4% urea treated rice straw can be fed to growing bull calves with 2 kg green grass and a small quantity of concentrate without any adverse effect on feed intake and growth. Moreover, soybean meal at 4 and 6% can be added to urea treated rice straw at the time of treatment for rapid hydrolyzing of urea, which resulted an improvement in nutrient digestibility and better utilization of rice straw for growth of growing bull calves.
Effect of Different Seasons on Cross-Bred Cow Milk Composition and Paneer Yield in Sub-Himalayan Region
Sharma, R.B. ; Kumar, Manish ; Pathak, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 528~530
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.528
The study was designed to evaluate the seasonal influences on cross-bred cow milk composition and paneer yield in Dhauladhar mountain range of sub-himalayan region. Fifty samples from each season were collected from a herd of
cross-bred cows during summer (April-June), rainy (July-September) and winter (November-February) and analyzed for fat, total solids (TS) and solids not fat (SNF). Paneer was prepared by curdling milk at
with 2.5 per cent citric acid solution. Overall mean for fat, TS and SNF content of milk and paneer yield were 4.528, 13.310, 8.754 and 15.218 per cent respectively. SNF and TS content varied among seasons being highest in winter (8.983% and 13.639%) followed by summer (8.835% and 13.403%) and lowest in rainy season (8.444% and 12.888%). Paneer yield was lowest (14.792%) in rainy season and highest (15.501%) in winter season.
Changes of Serum Mineral Concentrations in Horses during Exercise
Inoue, Y. ; Osawa, T. ; Matsui, A. ; Asai, Y. ; Murakami, Y. ; Matsui, T. ; Yano, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 531~536
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.531
We investigated the exercise-induced changes in the serum concentration of several minerals in horses. Four welltrained Thoroughbred horses performed exercise for 5 d. The blood hemoglobin (Hb) concentration increased during exercise, recovered to the pre-exercise level immediately after cooling down and did not change again up till the end of experiment. The changes in serum zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) concentrations were similar to those of blood Hb during the experiment. The serum magnesium (Mg), inorganic phosphorus (Pi) and iron (Fe) concentrations also increased during exercise. Though the serum Pi concentration recovered to the pre-exercise level immediately after the cooling down, it decreased further before the end of the experiment. The serum Mg concentration was lower immediately after cooling down than its pre-exercise level but gradually recovered from the temporal reduction. The recovery of the serum Fe concentration was delayed compared to that of other minerals and recovered 2 h after cooling down. The serum calcium (Ca) concentration did not change during exercise but rapidly decreased after cooling down. As a result, it was lower immediately after cooling down than its pre-exercise level. It recovered, however, to the pre-exercise level 2 h after cooling down. The temporal increase in the serum concentrations of all minerals except Ca is considered to result from hemoconcentration induced by exercise and the stable concentration of the serum Ca during exercise is possibly due to its strict regulation of homeostasis. These results indicate that the serum concentration of each mineral responds differently to exercise in horses, which may be due to the difference in metabolism among these minerals.
Evaluation of Some Aquatic Plants from Bangladesh through Mineral Composition, In Vitro Gas Production and In Situ Degradation Measurements
Khan, M.J. ; Steingass, H. ; Drochner, W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 537~542
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.537
A study was conducted to evaluate the nutritive potential value of different aquatic plants: duckweed (Lemna trisulaca), duckweed (Lemna perpusila), azolla (Azolla pinnata) and water-hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) from Bangladesh. A wide variability in protein, mineral composition, gas production, microbial protein synthesis, rumen degradable nitrogen and in situ dry matter and crude protein degradability were recorded among species. Crude protein content ranged from 139 to 330 g/kg dry matter (DM). All species were relatively high in Ca, P, Na, content and very rich in K, Fe, Mg, Mn, Cu and Zn concentration. The rate of gas production was highest in azolla and lowest in water-hyacinth. A similar trend was observed with in situ DM degradability. Crude protein degradability was highest in duckweed. Microbial protein formation at 24 h incubation ranged from 38.6-47.2 mg and in vitro rumen degradable nitrogen between 31.5 and 48.4%. Based on the present findings it is concluded that aquatic species have potential as supplementary diet to livestock.
Effect of Partial Replacement of Green Grass by Urea Treated Rice Straw in Winter on Milk Production of Crossbred Lactating Cows
Sanh, M.V. ; Wiktorsson, H. ; Ly, L.V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 543~548
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.543
Fresh elephant grass was replaced by urea treated rice straw (UTRS) to evaluate the effects on milk production of crossed lactating cows. A total of 16 crossbred F1 cows (Holstein Friesian
Vietnamese Local Yellow), with a body weight of about 400 kg and lactation number from three to five, were used in the experiment. The experimental cows were blocked according to the milk yield of the previous eight weeks and divided into 4 homogenous groups. The experiment was conducted with a Latin Square design with 4 treatments and 4 periods. Each period was 4 weeks, with 2 weeks of feed adaptation and 2 weeks for data collection. The ratio of concentrate to roughage in the ration was 50:50. All cows were given constant amounts of elephant grass dry matter (DM), with ratios of 100% grass without UTRS (control treatment 100G), and 75% grass (75G), 50% grass (50G) and 25% grass (25G) with ad libitum UTRS. Daily total DM intake on 100G, 75G, 50G and 25G was 12.04, 12.31, 12.32 and 11.85 kg, and the daily ME intake was 121.6, 121.5, 119.4 and 114.3 MJ, respectively. The daily CP intake was similar for all treatments (1.85-1.91 kg). There was a difference (p<0.05) in daily milk yield between the 25G and the 100G and 75G (11.7 vs. 12.6 and 12.5 kg, respectively). Milk protein concentration was similar for all treatments, while a tendency to increased milk fat concentration following the increase of UTRS ratio was observed. The cows gained 4-5 kg body weight per month and showed first oestrus 3-4 months after calving. The overall feed conversion for milk production was not affected by ratio of UTRS in the ration. It is concluded that replacement of green grass by UTRS with a ratio of 50:50 for crossbred lactating cows is as good as feeding 100% green grass in terms of milk yield, body weight gain and feed conversion. UTRS can preferably replace green grass in daily rations for crossbred dairy cows in winter to cope with the shortage of green grass, with the ratio 1:1.
Influence of Dietary Addition of Dried Wormwood (Artemisia sp.) on the Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Muscle Tissues of Hanwoo Heifers
Kim, Y.M. ; Kim, J.H. ; Kim, S.C. ; Ha, H.M. ; Ko, Y.D. ; Kim, C.-H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 549~554
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.549
An experiment was conducted to examine the performance and carcass characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean native beef cattle) heifers and the fatty acid composition of muscle tissues of the heifers when the animals fed diets containing four levels of dried wormwood (Artemisia sp.). For the experiment the animals were given a basal diet consisting of rice straw and concentrate mixed at 3:7 ratio (on DM basis). The treatments were designed as a completely randomized design with two feeding periods. Heifers were allotted in one of four dietary treatments, which were designed to progressively substitute dried wormwood for 0, 3, 5 and 10% of the rice straw in the basal diet. There was no difference in body weight gain throughout the entire period between the treatment groups. Feed conversion rate was improved (p<0.05) only by the 3% dried wormwood inclusion treatment compared with the basal treatment. Carcass weight, carcass yield and backfat thickness of all treatment groups were not altered by wormwood inclusion. The 5% dried wormwood inclusion significantly increased (p<0.05) the size of loin-eye area over the other treatments. The higher levels (5 and 10%) of dried wormwood inclusion resulted in the higher (p<0.05) water holding capacity (WHC) in loin than the lower levels (0 and 3%) of wormwood inclusion. The redness (
) and yellowness (
) values of meat color were significantly lower (p<0.05) in the top round muscle of heifers fed the diet containing 3% dried wormwood. There was a profound effect of the progressively increased intake of dried wormwood led to the linear increase of unsaturated fatty acid content and the linear decrease of saturated fatty acid content in the muscle tissues of Hanwoo heifers. It is concluded that the feeding diets containing dried wormwood substituted for equal weights of rice straw at 5% levels would be anticipated to provide better quality roughage for beef heifer production and economical benefits for beef cattle producers.
The Effects of Chinese and Argentine Soybeans on Nutrient Digestibility and Organ Morphology in Landrace and Chinese Min Pigs
Qin, G.X. ; Xu, L.M. ; Jiang, H.L. ; van der Poel, A.F.B. ; Bosch, M.W. ; Verstegen, M.W.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 555~564
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.555
Twenty Landrace and twenty Min piglets, with an average initial body weight of 22.4 kg, were randomly divided into 5 groups with 4 animals per group, within each of the breeds. The piglets were housed in individual concrete pens. Each group of the piglets was fed one of 5 diets. The diets contained either 20% raw Argentine soybeans, 20% processed Argentine soybeans (
for 7.5 min.), 20% raw Chinese soybeans, 20% processed Chinese soybeans (
for 7.5 min.) or no soybean products (control diet). Faecal samples were collected on days 6, 7 and 8 of the treatment period. Digestibilities of dietary nutrients were determined with AIA (acid insoluble ash) as a marker. After a 17 day treatment, three piglets were killed from each of the groups. Tissue samples of small and large intestine for light and electron microscopy examination were taken immediately after the opening of abdomen. Then, the weight or size of relevant organs was measured. The results show that the digestibilities of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and fat were higher in Min piglets than in Landrace piglets (p<0.05). The diets containing processed soybeans had a significant higher CP digestibility than the control diet and the diets containing raw soybeans (p<0.05). Landrace piglets had heavier and longer small intestines, heavier kidneys and a lighter spleen than Min piglets (p<0.05). The pancreas of the animals fed the diets containing processed soybeans was heavier than that of the animals fed control diet (p<0.05) and the diets containing raw soybeans. But, the differences between raw and processed soybean diets were not significant. A significant interaction (p<0.05) between diet and pig breed was observed in weight of the small intestine. The Landrace piglets increased the weight in their small intestine when they were fed the diets containing soybeans. In the light micrographs and electron scanning micrographs, it was found that the villi of small intestinal epithelium of animals (especially Landrace piglets) fed the diets containing raw Chinese soybeans were seriously damaged. The transmission electron micrograph showed that a lot of vesicles were located between the small intestinal microvilli of these piglets. The histological examination also indicated that the proportion of goblet cells in villi and crypts in the piglets consuming the control diet was significantly lower (p<0.01 and p<0.02, respectively) than those of the animals consuming the diets containing raw or processed soybeans.
Evaluation of Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) as Replacent for Maize in the Diet of Growing Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus)
Muriu, J.I. ; Njoka-Njiru, E.N. ; Tuitoek, J.K. ; Nanua, J.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 565~569
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.565
Thirty six young New Zealand white rabbits were used in a randomised complete block (RCB) design with a
factorial treatment experiment to study the suitability of sorghum as substitute for maize in the diet of growing rabbits in Kenya. Six different diets were formulated to contain 35% of one of the three different types of grain (maize, white sorghum or brown sorghum) and one of the two different levels of crude protein (CP) 16 or 18.5% and fed to growing rabbits for a period of six weeks. The tannin content of the grains was 0.05, 0.52 and 5.6% chatechin equivalents for maize, white and brown sorghum respectively. Weaning weight at 35 days of age was used as the blocking criterion at the beginning of the experiment. Results of feed intake, weight gain, feed conversion efficiency, feed digestibility, as well as the blood parameters, indicated that white sorghum was not significantly different from maize. Animals fed on diets containing brown sorghum had a lower average daily gain (ADG) and a poorer feed conversion efficiency (FCE) (p<0.01) in comparison with those fed on diets containing maize or white sorghum. The 18.5% CP level gave a better FCE (p<0.05) compared with the 16% CP level. However, increasing the level of CP did not improve the utilisation of any of the grains. It was concluded that white sorghum could effectively substitute maize in the diet of growing rabbits. On the other hand, the use of brown sorghum in the diets of growing rabbits may compromise their growth rate. This may be due to the high concentration of tannins in the brown sorghum.
Effects of Active Immunization against Somatostatin or its Analogues on Milk Protein Synthesis of Rat Mammary Gland Cells
Kim, J.Y. ; Cho, K.K. ; Chung, M.I. ; Kim, J.D. ; Woo, J.H. ; Yun, C.H. ; Choi, Y.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 570~575
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.570
Effects of active immunization against native 14-mer somatostatin (SRIF, somatotropin releasing inhibiting factor) and its two 14-mer-somatostatin analogues on the milk production in rat mammary cells were studied. Native SRIF, Tyr11-somatostatin (Tyr11-SRIF), and D-Trp8, D-Cys14-somatostatin (Trp8Cys14-SRIF) were conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) for immunogen preparation. Twenty-four female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups and immunized against saline (Control), SRIF, Tyr11-SRIF, and Trp8Cys14-SRIF at five weeks of age. Booster immunizations were performed at 7, 9, and 11 weeks of age. SRIFimmunized rats were mated at 10 weeks of age. The blood and mammary glands were collected at day 15 post-pregnancy and -lactation. To measure the amount of milk protein synthesis in the mammary gland, mammary cells isolated from the pregnant and the lactating rats, were cultured in the presence of
-lysine. No significant differences in growth performance, concentration of growth hormone in the circulation, and the amount of milk protein synthesis were observed among the groups. Inductive levels of serum anti-SRIF antibody in the SRIF and Tyr11-SRIF groups but not in the Trp8Cys14-SRIF group, were significantly higher than that of the control group during the pregnancy and lactation periods. The result suggests that active immunization against native 14-mer SRIF and Tyr11-SRIF was able to induce anti-SRIF antibodies, but did not affect the milk protein synthesis.
Cloning of cDNA Encoding PAS-4 Glycoprotein, an Integral Glycoprotein of Bovine Mammary Epithelial Cell Membrane
Hwangbo, Sik ; Lee, Soo-Won ; Kanno, Chouemon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 576~584
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.576
Bovine PAS-4 is an integral membrane glycoprotein expressed in mammary epithelial cells. Complementary DNA (cDNA) cloning of PAS-4 was performed by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with oligonucleotide probes based on it's amino terminal and internal tryptic-peptides. The cloned PAS-4 cDNA was 1,852 nucleotides (nt) long and its open reading frame (ORF) was encoded 1,413 base long. The deduced amino acid sequence indicated that PAS-4 consisted of 471 amino acid residues with molecular weight of 52,796, bearing 8 potential N-glycosylation sites and 9 cysteine residues. Partial bovine CD36 cDNA from liver also was sequenced and the homology of both nucleotide sequence was 94%. Most of the identical amino acid residues were in the luminal/extracellular domains. Contrary to PAS-4, bovine liver CD36 displays 6 potential N-glycosylation sites, which were located, except for those at positions 101 and 171, at same positions as PAS-4 cDNA. Cysteine residues of PAS-4 and CD36 were same at position and in numbers. Northern blot analysis showed that PAS-4 was widely expressed, although its mRNA steady-state levels vary considerably among the analyzed cell types. PAS-4 possessed hydrophobic amino acid segments near the amino- and carboxyl-termini. Two short cytoplasmic tails of the amino- and carboxyl-terminal ends constituted of a 5-7 and 8-11 amino acid residues, respectively.
Effects of High Level of Sucrose on the Moisture Content, Water Activity, Protein Denaturation and Sensory Properties in Chinese-Style Pork Jerky
Chen, W.S. ; Liu, D.C. ; Chen, M.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 585~590
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.585
The effects of a high level of sucrose on the moisture content, water activity, protein denaturation and sensory properties in Chinese-style pork jerky were investigated. The pork jerky with different levels (0, 12, 15, 18 and 21%) of sucrose was prepared. Fifteen frozen boneless pork legs from different animals were used in this trial. Sucrose is a non-reducing disaccharides and would not undergo non-enzymatic browning. Some studies pointed out that sucrose might be hydrolyzed during freezing, dehydration and storage into glucose and fructose, and cause non-enzymatic browning in meat products. The results showed that moisture content and water activity of pork jerky decreased with increase of the level of sucrose. At the same time, shear value was increased due to the reduced moisture content and water activity by osmotic dehydration. However, a higher level of sucrose had a significantly negative effect on protein solubility and extractability of myosin heavy chain of pork jerky due to non-enzymatic browning. From the results of sensory panel tests, the pork jerky with 21% of sucrose seems to be more acceptable by the panelists in hardness, sweetness and overall acceptability.
Evaluation of Ultrasound for Prediction of Carcass Meat Yield and Meat Quality in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)
Song, Y.H. ; Kim, S.J. ; Lee, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 591~595
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.591
Three hundred thirty five progeny testing steers of Korean beef cattle were evaluated ultrasonically for back fat thickness (BFT), longissimus muscle area (LMA) and intramuscular fat (IF) before slaughter. Class measurements associated with the Korean yield grade and quality grade were also obtained. Residual standard deviation between ultrasonic estimates and carcass measurements of BFT, LMA were 1.49 mm and
. The linear correlation coefficients (p<0.01) between ultrasonic estimates and carcass measurements of BFT, LMA and IF were 0.75, 0.57 and 0.67, respectively. Results for improving predictions of yield grade by four methods-the Korean yield grade index equation, fat depth alone, regression and decision tree methods were 75.4%, 79.6%, 64.3% and 81.4%, respectively. We conclude that the decision tree method can easily predict yield grade and is also useful for increasing prediction accuracy rate.
Treatment of Microencapsulated
- Galactosidase with Ozone : Effect on Enzyme and Microorganism
Kwak, H.S. ; Lee, J.B. ; Ahn, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 596~601
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.596
The present study was designed to examine the effect of ozone treatment in microencapsulated
-galactosidase on inactivation of the enzyme and sterilization of microorganism. The efficiency was the highest as 78.4% when the ratio of polyglycerol monostearate (PGMS) was 15:1. Activities of lactase remaining outside the capsule were affected by ozone treatment. With the increase of ozone concentration and duration of ozone treatment, the activity reduced significantly. In sensory aspect, with 2% microcapsule addition, no significant difference in sweetness was found compared with a market milk during 12 d storage. Above result indicated that the additional washing process of lactase was not necessary to inactivate the residual enzyme. In a subsequent study, the vegetative cells of microorganisms were completely killed with 10 ppm for 10 min treatment by ozone. The present study provides evidence that ozone treatment can be used as an inactivation and a sterilization process. In addition, these results suggest that acceptable milk products containing lactase microcapsules made by PGMS can be prepared with ozone treatment.
Studies on Lao-Chao Culture Filtrate for a Flavoring Agent in a Yogurt-Like Product
Liu, Yi-Chung ; Chen, Ming-Ju ; Lin, Chin-Wen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 602~609
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.602
Lao-chao is a traditional Chinese fermented rice product with a sweet and fruity flavor, containing high levels of glucose, a little alcohol and milk-clotting characteristics. In order to optimize commercial production of lao-chao, Rhizopus javanicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were selected as the mold and yeast starter, respectively. A commercial mixed starter (chiu-yao) was used as control. Fermentation of the experimental combination revealed a sharp drop in pH (to 4.5) on the fourth day, remaining constant thereafter. Content of reducing sugars gradually decreased throughout the entire fermentation period. Of the free amino acids, higher quantities of alanine, leucine, proline, glutamic acid, glutamine and
were noted. For sugars, glucose revealed the highest concentration, while organic acid levels, including those for oxalic, lactic, citric and pyroglutamic acid, increased throughout the fermentation period. Twenty-one compounds were identified by gas chromatography from aroma concentrates of the lao-chao culture filtrate, prepared using the headspace method. For the flavor components, higher quantities of ethanol, fusel oil and ester were determined in both culture filtrates. In regard to the evaluation of yogurt-like product, there were significant differences in alcoholic smell, texture and curd firmness.
Prevalence of Fumonisin Contamination in Corn and Corn-based Feeds in Taiwan
Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang ; Wu, Jih-Fang ; Lee, Der-Nan ; Yang, Che-Ming J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 4, 2002, Pages 610~614
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.610
The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of fumonisin contamination in corn and corn-based feeds in Taiwan. A total of 233 samples was collected from 8 feed mill factories located in four different regions in Taiwan. The presence of fumonisin
) was determined by thin layer chromatograph, while the total fumonisin content was determined using immuno-affinity column cleanup and fluorometer quantitation. Our results showed that 55 samples of swine feeds had the highest percentage of incidence of
(41.8% and 41.8%, respectively), followed by 66 samples of duck feeds (40.9% and 37.8%). However, the percentage of incidence of
was much lower in 43 samples of broiler feeds (23.2% and 13.9%) and 69 samples of corn (17.3% and 10.1%). Corn and duck feeds were found to have a significant higher level of means of total fumonisins (
ppm, respectively) than swine feeds (
ppm) and broiler feeds (
ppm). Comparing fumonisins distribution in different regions, the highest percentage of
incidence (39.2%) was found in the eastern region of Taiwan, and total fumonisins level (
ppm) was significantly higher than other regions. However, the highest percentage of
incidence (32.0%) was found in the central region of Taiwan. Trimonthly analysis of data showed that both high percentage of
incidence (39.3% and 37.7%) and total concentration of fumonisin (
ppm) were found in the period of Jan. to Mar., The incidence and concentration were significantly higher than other trimothly periods. These results indicate that fumonisin B mycotoxins are both widespread and persistent in feed-grade corn and corn-based feeds in Taiwan.