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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
The Effect of Sub-division (Two or Three Sub-populations) of a Population on Genetic Gain and Genetic Diversity
Oikawa, T. ; Matsui, H. ; Sato, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 767~771
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.767
Breeding efficiencies were compared among three population schemes: a single population, a population with two subpopulations and a population with three sub-populations. A simulation experiment of selection was carried out for 10 generations with 20 replications each by comparing average breeding values and inbreeding coefficients among the three population schemes. Phenotypes of three traits were generated with a model comprising 36 loci, each with additive genetic effects and residuals distributed normally. Among the three population schemes, the single population scheme was definitely superior to the other two with regards to selection response and inbreeding. The multiple sub-population scheme was, however, considered to be an alternative population scheme when the difference in economic weights of the traits was small among the sub-populations, assuming moderate inbreeding depression for traits and crossbreeding. The scheme with two sub-populations had a higher genetic value than that with three subpopulations; however, the genetic values of the schemes were comparable when maternal heterosis was taken into account. The choice of population schemes may depend on the cost-sharing policy between the breeding population and the commercial population rather than just the breeding efficiency.
Genetic and Non-genetic Causes of Variation in Gestation Length, Litter Size and Litter Weight in Goats
Hoque, M.A. ; Amin, M.R. ; Baik, D.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 772~776
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.772
This study was made with 631 does of 3 genetic groups and 1,112 of their kids allocated into 3 different locations to examine gestation length, litter size and litter weight in goats. Attributes studied were genetic group, parity, age of dam at kidding, weight of dam at breeding, season and location. Genetic group of dam affected significantly (p<0.01) size of litter but not gestation length and weight of litter. Selected Black Bengal (SBB) genetic group performed better in litter size and litter weight than random bred Black Bengal (RBB) and its crossbreds with Jamunapari ♂ (JBB). Litter size and weight were significantly affected by age of dam at kidding (p<0.01), weight of dam at service (p<0.001) and parity (p<0001). Size and weight of litter were found highest in SBB does, or does having 35-40 months of age at kidding, or does with 19-20 kg live weight at service, or at 4th parity. Season, location and parity also affected significantly (p<0.05) gestation length. Shortest gestation length was found in 5th parity or in summer season, whereas the longest was in 2nd parity or in winter season.
Statistical Genetic Studies on Cattle Breeding for Dairy Productivity in Bangladesh: II. Estimation of Reciprocal and Heterosis Effects and Optimum Crossbreeding System between the Local Breeds and Exotic Breeds for Milk Performance
Hossain, K.B. ; Takayanagi, S. ; Miyake, T. ; Bhuiyan, A.K.F.H. ; Sasaki, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 777~782
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.777
Reciprocal effects among local breeds and additive and heterosis effects were estimated for total milk production per lactation (TLP), lactation length (LL) and daily milk yield (DMY). Procedures for an optimum crossbreeding system were examined by comparing various crossbred combinations. Three data sets were chosen from the total records collected from 1962 to 1997. Data set I with a total of 5,938 records composed of 9 breed groups for reciprocal crosses, data set II with a total of 6,064 records composed of 5 breed groups for additive and heterosis effects and data set III with a total of 10,319 records composed of 42 breed groups for optimum crossbreeding system were analyzed. The least squares ANOVA was used. The reciprocal crosses between Red Sindhi and the Bangladeshi Local showed significant difference. When the Red Sindhi was used as cow, the cross was superior to the opposite in terms of the three performance traits. The results showed that additive breed effects on both TLP and DMY were positive and highly significant between Bos indicus and Bos taurus, whereas the individual heterosis effects were not significant. In general, any local breeds were improved two to three times by crossing with the Friesian once or twice. However, the effect was reduced when the grading up with the Friesian was repeated more than twice. On the other hand, when the local breed was crossed with the other breeds such as Holstein and Jersey, the improvement of TLP was less. Crossing the F1 cows with the Friesian bull gave further improvement. Almost the same trends were found also for LL and DMY. The local breeds and their crosses are raised mainly for draft animals, then it is recommended that the crossbreds between the local cows and Friesian are used for dairy purposes and more than 75% Friesian blood is used for beef.
Detection of Retinol-binding Protein in Bovine Yolk Sac, Chorion and Allantois by Immunoperoxidase Method
Liu, Kaung Huei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 783~788
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.783
Bovine yolk sac at day 24 of pregnancy, and placental membranes (chorion and allantois) from days 70 and 100 of pregnancy were isolated and cultured in a modified minimum essential medium in the presence of
methionine. Proteins synthesized and secreted by isolated bovine yolk sac, chorion and allantois were analyzed by fluorography of two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Serum-like proteins,transferrin,
1-acid glycoprotein,were the major protein products of yolk sac. A 21 kDa protein produced by yolk sac was identified immunochemically as retinol-binding protein (RBP). Chorion and allantios from days 70 and 100 of pregnancy were active in protein synthesis and secretion. Both chorion and allantois did not secret serum-like proteins but secreted a number of neutral-to-acidic proteins including RBP. Secretory proteins produced by the yolk sac, chorion and allantois may play important roles in the embryonic development and the successful outcome of pregnancy. Antiserum against bovine placental RBP was employed to the immunocytochemistry by immunoperoxidase method. Immunoreactive RBP was localized in epithelial cells and island-like cell clones of yolk sac. Immunostaining for RBP was detected in simple columnar epithelium of chorion and in simple squamous epithelium of allantois. In the present study, proteins synthesized and secreted by yolk sac at day 24 of pregnancy, chorion and allantois from days 70 and 100 of pregnancy were characterized In addition, RBP was localized in yolk sac, chorion and allantois by immunoperoxidase method. The immunoperoxidase method has been proven to be a very effective technique to identify the cellular source of protein synthesis in extraembryonic membranes.
In Situ Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorous Disappearance of Different Feeds for Ruminants
Islam, M.R. ; Ishida, M. ; Ando, S. ; Nishida, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 793~799
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.793
Four feeds, three concentrates (rice bran, soybean meal and flaked corn) and one forage (corn silage) were incubated in four ruminally fistulated Holstein steers over three one week periods in a 3
4 incomplete latin square design where steers served as blocks and feeds as treatment. The objectives of the study were to investigate in situ DM, N and P degradability characteristics of feeds in order to assess availability of these nutrients by ruminants. In each period, all feeds were incubated in quadruplets (corn silage in triplicates) in the rumen of each steer in a reverse order for 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 and 48 h. The DM 'a' fraction was higher and lower (p<0.001) in corn silage and rice bran respectively. Although corn silage contained the lowest (p<0.01) DM 'b' fraction, flaked corn contained the highest. Rate of DM degradation of flaked corn and corn silage were half (p<0.05) of the rate of DM degradation of either rice bran or soybean meal. Potential or effective DM degradability (p<0.05 to 0.001) at various passage rates were the lowest for rice bran and the highest for soybean meal. Corn silage N 'a' and 'b' was the highest and lowest, respectively (p<0.01). N 'c' of corn silage and rice bran was higher (p<0.001) than other feeds. Potential N degradability was the lowest in flaked corn (p<0.05). P 'a' was high (p<0.01) for corn silage and rice bran. P 'b' fraction was very high (p<0.001) in soybean meal but was absent in corn silage. Availability of DM (p<0.01 or 0.001), N (p<0.001) and P (p<0.05) differed between feeds at various passage rates except P availability at k=0.02 per h (p>0.05). The results demonstrate that the availability of DM, N and P by ruminants depends on feed as well as categories of animal.
Comparison of the Digestibility of Grain and Forage by Sheep, Red and Fallow Deer
Ru, Y.J. ; Glatz, P.C. ; Miao, Z.H. ; Swanson, K. ; Falkenberg, S. ; Wyatt, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 800~805
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.800
Two experiments were conducted to compare digestibility of 12 diets in sheep, red and fallow deer. No differences (p>0.05) between sheep, red and fallow deer in digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and digestible energy content for all diets were found except for the sorghum diet and medic hay. Sheep and fallow deer digested the sorghum diet better than red deer. An in vitro study showed that sheep had a lower in vitro dry matter digestibility and digestible energy content than both red and fallow deer, with a significant interaction between animal species and feed ingredient. Deer digested straws and hays better (p<0.05) than sheep. In vitro digestibility was lower (p<0.05) than in vivo digestibility, but significantly correlated with in vivo digestibility for red and fallow deer. The in vitro method for digestibility estimation has potential as a rapid feed evaluation system for deer, but needs further validation.
Effects of Rumen Undegradable Protein and Minerals Proteinate on Early Lactation Performance and Ovarian Functions of Dairy Cows in the Tropics
Kanjanapruthipong, J. ; Buatong, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 806~811
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.806
A 90 d study was designed to investigate the effects of rumen undegradable protein (RUP) and a mixture of Cu, Zn and Mn proteinate (CZMP) on milk yield and composition and ovarian functions during rainy months. Twenty four Holstein
indigenous cows in their 2nd and 3rd lactation were randomly allocated to total mixed rations (TMR) containing soy bean meal (SBM) as a source of rumen degradable protein (RDP), SBM plus CZMP, and formalin treated SBM (FSBM) as a source of RUP. Maximum and minimum temperature humidity index during the experimental period were 83.6-84.7 and 75.4-76.1. There were no differences (p>0.05) in intakes of dry matter, crude protein and net energy and in contents of butterfat, lactose and minerals. Cows on TMR containing FSBM not only lost less weight (-278, -467 and -433 g/d) with more intake of RUP (0.92, 0.58 and 0.59 kg/d) but also produced more milk (19.27, 18.23 and 18.13 kg/d) and 4% fat corrected milk (18.57, 17.57 and 17.51 kg/d) with more protein (3.06, 2.81 and 2.80%), solids-not-fat (8.69, 8.38 and 8.38%) and less milk urea N (9.3, 15.4 and 15.0 mg/dl) compared with those on TMR containing SBM and SBM+CZMP, respectively (p<0.01). However, cows on TMR containing SBM and SBM+CZMP did not differ in these respects (p>0.05). Whereas incidence of cystic ovaries at 20 and 90 d pospartum was less (p<0.01) in cows on TMR containing SBM+CZMP (37.3 and 12.5%) than those on TMR containing SBM (62.5 and 25%), it was nil for cows on TMR containing FSBM. Cows in all three group differed (p<0.01) from each other for the recurrence of first observed estrus with those on TMR containing FSBM having least days (22, 36 and 47 d) compared with their counterpart on TMR containing SBM+CZMP and SBM, repectively. The results suggest that RUP is one of the limiting factors affecting milk yield and its composition and ovarian functions during early lactation of dairy cows in the tropics.
Effect of Different Seasons on the Performance of Grey Giant Rabbits under Sub-Temperate Himalayan Conditions
Bhatt, R.S. ; Sharma, S.R. ; Singh, Umesh ; Kumar, Davendra ; Bhasin, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 812~820
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.812
An experiment was conducted on 190 progeny (winter -74; summer -59; rainy -57) of 12 Grey Giant rabbits (10 female +2 males), to assess the effect of different seasons in a year, on their reproductive, growth and productive performances along with feed efficiency, under sub-temperate Himalayan conditions. The daily meteorological attributes recorded during winter (October to March), summer (April to June) and rainy (July to September) seasons, and analysed were minimum and maximum temperature, relative humidity and rainfall. Various biological parameters recorded were doe weights at mating and kindling, litter size at birth, litter weight at birth, kit mortality, litter size at weaning, litter weight at weaning, weekly body weight up to 98 d and weaner mortality. Individual weight gains, dressing percentages, meat weights, liver weights, raw-pelt weights, processed pelt weights and processed pelt areas at slaughter on d 84 and 98, respectively were also recorded. The feed and fodder compositions and their nutritive values during different seasons were also analysed. Average ambient temperature during winter, summer and rainy seasons were
, respectively. The average relative humidity and total rainfall for winter, summer and rainy seasons were
mm, respectively. The weight of doe at mating and kindling, litter size at birth, litter weight at birth and litter size at weaning were comparatively higher whereas litter weight at weaning was significantly (p<0.05) higher during winter as compared to summer and rainy seasons. The kit mortality was significantly (p<0.05) higher during winter while the weaner mortality was significantly (p<0.05) higher during rainy season. At 84 d, the live weight per doe, slaughter weight, dressing percentage and liver weight were significantly (p<0.05) higher during winter than summer and rainy. Similarly, the gain in weight and meat weight at 84 and 98 d were significantly (p<0.05) higher during winter. The weight of raw pelt and processed pelt were recorded significantly (p<0.05) higher during winter while no difference in the area of processed pelts during different seasons could be observed. No difference in the biological performance could be observed between sexes in any of the seasons. Roughage analysis revealed comparatively higher crude protein percent and lower crude fibre percent during summer and rainy seasons than in winter. The roughage dry matter intake was comparatively higher during summer and rainy seasons vis-a-vis constant amount of concentrate supplied during all the three seasons. The digestibilities of dry matter was significantly (p<0.05) lower, whereas that of crude fiber, acid detergent fibre and cellulose were negative during winter. Interestingly, the feed:gain was exceedingly well during winter than in other seasons and it is concluded that it was the best season for production of rabbits under sub-temperate Himalayan conditions.
Effects of Dietary Heat Extruded Soybean Meal and Protected Fat Supplement on the Production, Blood and Ruminal Characteristics of Holstein Cows
Chen, Kuen-Jaw ; Jan, Der-Fang ; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ; Yang, Der-Wei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 821~827
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.821
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of protected fat and heat-extruded soybean meal on the lactation performance of Holstein cows. Twenty-four cows, consisting of 20 lactating cows and 4 rumen-fistulated dry cows, were randomly allocated into four groups with 5 lactating cows and 1 fistulated cow in each group. A replicated 4
4 Latin square design with four 21 day periods, including 14 days of adaptation and 7 collection days within each period was employed. The experiment was a 2
2 arrangement, with or without heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat inclusion. The dietary treatments consisted of supplements of (a) soybean meal (the control), (b) heat-extruded soybean meal, (c) protected fat, and (d) heat-extruded soybean meal and protected fat. The results showed that there were no significant differences in feed intake, milk yield, milk protein content, milk lactose content and body weight change between the dietary treatments. However, cows supplemented with protected fat showed a significantly increased (p<0.05) milk fat yield, 3.5% FCM and total solid yield. The increase in undegradable intake protein (UIP) via heat extruded soybean meal supplement significantly decreased the urea nitrogen concentration in the blood (p<0.05). Dietary fat inclusion significantly increased the blood cholesterol concentration (p<0.01) and decreased the ruminal pH value (p<0.01). Increased dietary UIP significantly decreased the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen (p<0.01), but did not significantly influence the pH and VFA molar percentage in the rumen. It appears that dietary protected fat inclusion could improve milk fat and solid content. Increased dietary undegradable intake protein through heat extruded soybean meal did not improve milk yield. But it could alleviate the adverse effect of decreased milk protein due to dietary fat supplementation. Increased UIP could also decrease the ammonia nitrogen concentration in the rumen and plasma urea nitrogen concentration in the blood.
Effects of Different Foliages and Sugar Cane in the Diet in Late Pregnancy on Ewe and Lamb Performance
Van, Do Thi Thanh ; Ledin, Inger ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 828~833
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.828
Thirty mature pregnant ewes of the Phan Rang breed with an initial live weight of 30 to 45 kg were used to compare the effects of three different diets in late pregnancy on ewe and lamb performance. All diets contained 20% of whole sugar cane, 16% rice bran, 26% cassava root and 6% molasses urea block. The remaining 32% of dry matter consisted of Jackfruit (JF diet), 16% each of Jackfruit and Cassava foliage (JF+CS diet) or Jackfruit and Flemingia foliage (JF+FM diet). The diets were fed at 3.5% of actual BW of the individual animal. The foliages were offered at 120% of the amount decided in the diets of the requirements. The JF+CS diet resulted in significantly higher feed intake than the JF diet, and also a higher feed intake than the JF+FM diet, but this difference was not significant. The ewe weight changes during the last 8 weeks of pregnancy, or from start to 24 h after lambing, were significantly different. The highest weight gain was obtained from the ewes fed the JF+CS diet. Diets had no effect on weight changes of ewes during 3 weeks after lambing but a significant effect on the litter birth weight, with the JF+CS diet giving the highest litter birth weight. There was, however, no effect on the litter weight at 21 days or litter growth rate from birth to 21 days due to the experimental diets.
Use of Undecorticated Sunflower Cake as a Critical Protein Supplement in Sheep and Goats Fed Wheat Straw
Dutta, Narayan ; Sharma, K. ; Naulia, Uma ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 834~837
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.834
The effect of undecorticated sunflower cake (USFC) as critical protein supplement was assessed and compared with deoiled groundnut cake (DGNC) in adult goats and sheep. The animals were fed a basal diet of wheat straw ad libitum and supplemented with either USFC or DGNC to meet their protein requirement for maintenance. Total dry-matter intake by sheep and goats (g/kg
) on USFC was similar to their counterparts on DGNC supplemented group. However, while intake of cake moiety was significantly (p<0.05) higher in USFC, the intake of wheat straw was significantly (p<0.05) higher by animals on DGNC. Digestibility of various nutrients, except lower crude protein digestibility by goats in USFC group, did not differ significantly between animals given DGNC or USFC. DCP and TDN concentration (% DM) was comparable in sheep and goats irrespective of dietary supplement. Similarly, the intake (g/kg
) of DCP, DDM, DOM, and TDN was similar between DGNC and USFC in both sheep and goats. It may be concluded that undecorticated sunflower cake is comparable to deoiled groundnut cake as a critical protein supplement to the roughage based diet of small ruminants.
Effects of Feeding Patterns and Sexes on Growth Rate, Carcass Trait and Grade in Korean Native Cattle
Choi, B.H. ; Ahn, B.J. ; Kook, K. ; Sun, S.S. ; Myung, K.H. ; Moon, S.J. ; Kim, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 838~843
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.838
The objectives of this study were to examine growth performance and meat quality by three different feeding patterns in Korean native cattle (KNC). In each of 3 years, fifteen KNC were randomly assigned in a (3 feeding management)
(3 sex) factorial design experiment; thus, in total, there were 5 animals in each of the 9 treatments. The three feeding management treatments were longterm (24 month) restriction feeding (LTFR), long-term restriction feeding-hormone implant (LTFR-tH), and short-term (18 month) nonrestriction feeding (STFNR). Three sexes were bull, steer, and heifer. Concentrate diet was fed restriction-feeding method based on body weight in LTFR and LTFR-tH. However, the diet was fed ad libitum in STFNR. Hormonal implantation was made three times with M-
for bulls and with F-
for heifers at 18, 20, 22 month of age in LTFR-tH. Animal were purchased from the local cattle market and managed in two local farms and at the university research unit. Animals were slaughtered at 24 months for long-term trial and at 18 month for short-term trial. The growth rate was the highest in bulls and the lowest in heifers. However, the differences were diminished in F-
implanted heifers. The average daily gain was high in STFNR due to ad libitum feeding. The carcass grade was similar among the treatments on percentage bases. Hormonal implants improved significantly the meat quality grade in all sexes. Castration increased body fat content and improved meat quality grade by intramuscular fat deposition. In conclusion, long-term feeding and hormone treatment increased meat quality grade more than short-term feeding. However, ADG was higher in the short-term trial although feedefficiency was lower.
Nutritive Evaluation of Some Fodder Tree Species during the Dry Season in Central Sudan
Fadel Elseed, A.M.A. ; Amin, A.E. ; Khadiga, ; Abdel Ati, A. ; Sekine, J. ; Hishinuma, M. ; Hamana, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 844~850
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.844
The potential nutritive value was studied on leaves of seven fodder trees in Central Sudan during dry season at two distinct periods, the early dry and the late. The chemical composition, mineral concentration, in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), in situ OM or nitrogen degradability and estimated metabolizable energy showed a wide variation among fodder tree species and between different periods of the dry season. Crude protein (CP) ranged from 285 to 197 g/kg DM at early dry season, with a significant reduction in late dry season. Ziziphus spina-christi and Balanites aegyptiaca showed the least reduction in CP content. The NDF, ADF and lignin were about 200, 160 and 19 g/kg DM, respectively at the early period, and significantly increased at the late period of the dry season, except for lignin of Z. spina-christi. For mineral concentration, all fodder tree leaves were rich in calcium but poor in phosphorus. In situ OM degradability significantly decreased at the late period of dry season, but values remained as high as over 600 g/kg OM. At both periods, Z. spina-christi showed the highest value, while the lowest was recorded in Acacia seyal. The IVOMD showed a similar trend to those of in situ OM degradability, except for A. seyal. The nitrogen degradability was highest in B. aegyptiaca and lowest in Z. spina-christi at both periods. A significant and positive correlation had existed between CP and IVOMD or in situ OM degradability (r=0.68, p<0.05; r=0.77, p<0.05, respectively). Also, a significant but negative correlation was found between condensed tannins and nitrogen degradability (r=-0.87, p<0.01). Results demonstrated that Z. spina-christi potentially has a good nutritive value as dry season feed or supplement, while A. seyal tends to be less promising. A. nubica and B. aegyptiaca may be a useful source for degradable protein, even though it may have a limited supply of energy to animals. A. tortilis, A. mellifera and A. ehrenbergiana may have potential value for a supplementation of energy or protein, if they were harvested in the early dry season or in wet season as preserved feed. It is highly recommended to supplement with an appropriate amount of phosphorus when these fodder trees were used.
Effects of Corn Processing on In Vitro and In Situ Digestion of Corn Grain in Holstein Steers
Lee, S.Y. ; Kim, W.Y. ; Ko, J.Y. ; Ha, J.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 851~858
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.851
This study was conducted to determine effects of whole (intact), coarsely-ground (4 mm), finely-ground (1 mm), steam-flaked and steam-flaked-ground (1 mm) corns on in vitro and in situ DM digestibilities and also in vitro fermentation characteristics. After 48 h incubation, in vitro dry matter digestibilities of whole, steam-flaked, coarsely-ground, steam-flaked-ground, and finely-ground corns were 6.79, 61.68, 76.48, 85.72 and 90.31%, respectively. Steam-flaked-ground corn showed the highest digestibility until 24 h incubation (p<0.01). After 48 h incubation, pH of whole corn decreased with a small range. However the values of pH of other media significantly decreased (p<0.01). The gas productions of finely-ground and steam-flaked-ground corns were higher than those of the other corns (p<0.01). After 24 h incubation,
-N concentration of finely-ground and steam-flaked-ground corns increased rapidly. Total VFA was the highest in finely-ground corn, followed by steam-flaked-ground, steam-flaked, coarsely-ground and whole corns. Incorporating steam-flaked corn resulted in the highest propionate concentration (p<0.01) and the lowest acetate : propionate value (p<0.05). Finely-ground corn showed the highest in situ DM digestibility throughout the incubation period (p<0.01), followed by coarsely-ground, steam-flaked and whole corns, respectively. Overall, DM of whole corn was merely digested in vitro as well as in situ.
Direct Effect of a Hot Environment on Ruminal Motility in Sheep
Sunagawa, Katsunori ; Arikawa, Yuji ; Higashi, Mika ; Matsuda, Hiroshi ; Takahashi, Hiroshi ; Kuriwaki, Zyunichi ; Kojiya, Zuikou ; Uechi, Syuntoku ; Hongo, Fujiya ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 859~865
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.859
The aim of this research was to clarify the direct effects of a hot environment on ruminal motility in sheep fed twice a day. In the first experiment, in order to equalize variable factors excluding the ambient temperature between the thermoneutral environment (
, relative humidity 80%) and the hot environment (
, relative humidity 80%), sheep were fed equal amounts of the same quality feed twice a day. The sheep were allowed free access to water for the duration of the two one-hour feeding periods (10:00 am-11:00 am, 5:00 pm-6:00 pm). On the fourth day after exposure to the hot environment, the frequency and strength of ruminal contractions were continuously recorded between 9:30 am and 11:00 pm. Prior to the exposure to a hot environment the frequency and strength of ruminal contractions were recorded in a thermoneutral environment during the period 9:30 am-11:00 pm. In the second experiment, in order to maintain the stomach content of the sheep at equal levels in both environments, the sheep were fed equal amounts of the same quality feed twice a day. Following the completion of the two one-hour feeding periods, a fixed amount of warm water was infused into the rumen. Rumen motility was then recorded during the same period as for the first experiment (9:30 am-11:00 pm). In the first experiment, when the frequency of ruminal contractions prior to (24, 24 frequency/15 min), during (48, 47 frequency/min) and after (22, 19 frequency/min) both the morning and afternoon feeding in a hot environment was compared with the values from the thermoneutral environment (20, 22; 50, 50; 21, 20 frequency/min), there was found to be no difference. However, the strength of ruminal contractions after morning and afternoon feeding (3.7, 3.1 mm Hg) in the hot environment decreased significantly in comparison with the thermoneutral environment (4.3, 3.8 mm Hg). In the second experiment, the frequency of ruminal contractions in the hot environment was not significantly different from that in the thermoneutral environment. The strength of ruminal contractions after ruminal infusion of warm water in the hot environment (morning: 4.6, afternoon: 4.5 mm Hg) was significantly lower than that in the thermoneutral environment (morning: 5.6, afternoon: 5.0 mm Hg). The results suggest that a hot environment acts directly on the strength of ruminal contractions in sheep fed twice a day rather than on the frequency.
Use of Duckweed as a Protein Supplement for Breeding Ducks
Men, Bui Xuan ; Ogle, Brian ; Lindberg, Jan Erik ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 866~871
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.866
An experiment was conducted at the experimental duck farm of Cantho University to determine the effects of feeding duckweed (Lemna minor) that replaced commercial protein supplements in diets for local and Cherry Valley breeding ducks. The experiment included a total of 180 ducks, with five treatments and three replicates and six breeding ducks (one male plus five females together) per replicate, for both local and exotic Cherry Valley ducks. The five diets were fed ad libitum and were based on rice byproducts supplemented with roasted soya bean meal plus dried fishmeal at levels of 100% (SF100, control), 75 (SF75), 50 (SF50), 25 (SF25) or zero (SF0) % of the protein in the control diet, corresponding to 18, 15, 13, 10 and 8% CP in the diets for both breeds, respectively. Fresh duckweed was supplied ad libitum for all treatments. These diets were fed to local breeding ducks from 7 to 12 months of age, and to exotic breeding ducks (Cherry Valley) from 8 to 13 months of age. Total mean daily dry matter (DM) intakes were 183, 178, 176, 177 and 174 g (p<0.05) for the local ducks, and 221, 208, 215, 219 and 210 g (p<0.01) for the exotic ducks for the SF100 (control), SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0 diets, respectively. Laying rates of the local ducks were 66.5, 65.2, 62.9, 63.1 and 62.3%, and of the Cherry Valley ducks 61.9, 58.4, 58.9, 59.1 and 53.5% (p<0.001) for the control (SF100), SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0 treatments, respectively. Fertile egg rates were 95.6, 95.6, 97.8, 97.8 and 92.2%, and hatchabilities 89.4, 80.6, 87.2, 88.6 and 77.8% (p<0.05) for the local breed, and 97.8, 97.8, 91.1, 92.2 and 90.0% (p<0.05) and 72.8, 74.7, 75.0, 74.3 and 76.7% for the Cherry Valley ducks for diets SF100, SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0, respectively. Corresponding feed conversion ratios (dry matter basis) were 3.83, 3.82, 3.89, 4.01 and 3.96 kg feed per kg egg mass for the local ducks and 4.52, 4.56, 4.58, 4.73 and 5.02 kg feed per kg egg mass for the Cherry Valley ducks for the SF100, SF75, SF50, SF25 and SF0 treatments, respectively. Replacement of 100% of the protein supplement by fresh duckweed in the diets of the local laying ducks decreased the feed costs by 25% compared to the control diet.
Corn Particle Size Affects Nutritional Value of Simple and Complex Diets for Nursery Pigs and Broiler Chicks
Kim, I.H. ; Hancock, J.D. ; Hong, J.W. ; Cabrera, M.R. ; Hines, R.H. ; Behnke, K.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 872~877
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.872
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of reducing particle size of corn from 1,000 to 500
in simple and complex diets for nursery pigs and broiler chicks. In Exp 1., 192 nursery pigs were used in a 24 d growth assay. Treatments were: 1) 1,000
corn in a simple diet; 2) 500
corn in a simple diet; 3) 1,000
corn in a complex diet; and 4) 500
corn in a complex diet. Overall, pigs fed complex diets had 9% greater ADG (p<0.005) and 5% greater gain/feed (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed simple diets. Also, pigs fed the 500
treatments had 3% better overall gain/feed than those fed the 1,000
treatments (p<0.007). At d 9, apparent digestibilities of DM, N and GE were greater for complex diets and diets with smaller particle size (p<0.02). At d 23, there were no differences in nutrient digestibility resulting from diet complexity, but pigs fed diets with corn ground to 500
had greater digestibility of DM (p<0.02) and GE (p<0.003) than pigs fed diets with corn ground to 1,000
. A second experiment was designed to determine if four days old broiler chicks were an acceptable model for predicting the effects of feed processing procedures on nursery pigs. Chicks fed complex diets had 3% greater gain/feed than chicks fed simple diets (p<0.001). Rate of gain and feed intake were improved by 3 and 2%, respectively, for chicks fed crumbled diets (p<0.03). However, there were several significant interactions among the main effects. For instance, crumbling did not affect gain/feed in chicks fed complex diets, but rate of gain and feed intake were increased by 7 and 6%, respectively, when simple diets were crumbled (diet complexity
diet form, p<0.001). Also, gain/feed of chicks was improved by 3% when particle size was reduced in meal diets, but not affected in chicks fed crumbles (diet form
particle size, p<0.005). Thus, our data suggested that reduction of particle size of corn was important for simple and complex diets and that a complex diet with 1,000
corn gave no better performance than a simple diet with 500
Comparative Feeding of Male Dairy, Beef Cattle and Swamp Buffalo I. Economics of Beef Production
Skunmun, P. ; Chantalakhana, C. ; Pungchai, R. ; Poondusit, T. ; Prucsasri, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 878~883
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.878
Due to rising trend of beef demand in Asia in the next two decades it is necessary to find additional sources of beef supply. In most Southeast Asian countries, male dairy and swamp buffalo have not yet been raised for a primary purpose of quality beef production. This study was aimed to compare growth and feeding performances as well as economic returns from feeding male dairy, beef cattle and swamp buffalo for quality beef. Thirty-six animals, 12 of each breed group, were used in feeding trial to compare the cost of beef production. Two levels of concentrate feeding, 1.75% of body weight (BW) and 1.00% of BW, were used for each breed group in order to compare feeding methods i.e. high and low levels. Within each breed group two animals of similar initial BW were randomly assigned to the two levels of feeding. The animals were fed from about 150 kg BW until reaching the final weight of about 400 kg. The results from this study showed that under the prevailing economic conditions in Thailand the cost of beef production from buffalo was lowest due to very low cost of feeder stocks, followed by dairy and beef. However, the cost of feeding per kg of BW gain was lowest in beef and highest in buffalo i.e. when disregarding the differences in cost of feeder stocks. Beef calves grew faster than dairy and buffalo, with better feed efficiencies. The results indicated that beef cattle could be more suitable for beef production for high-quality beef market, while buffalo could be more suitable for small farms where high roughage feeding is common. Male dairy calves appeared to require higher level of concentrate feeding than 1% BW in order to maintain good body conditions.
Catch per Unit Effort and Size Composition of Crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz 1823, in Lake İznik
Balik, Ismet ; Ozkok, Ergun ; Ozkok, Remziye ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 884~889
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.884
This paper was carried out from 15 June to 24 December in 2000 in Lake İznik of Turkey, to determine catch per unit effort (CPUE) and size composition of crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus Eschscholtz 1823, captured by fyke-nets of local fishermen. The average CPUE of all size groups was found as 1.65 crayfish/fyke-net/night for fishing season in 2000, but 26.4% of which was below the legal minimum size (crayfish<90 mm). The average CPUE of legal-sized (crayfish
90 mm) crayfish was 1.10 crayfish/fykenet/night. The annual catch of crayfish was estimated as 2990 tonnes. The length and weight compositions of crayfish captured in the fyke-nets have varied between 60 and 130 mm, and 6 and 71 g, respectively. The mean length and weight were found as 95.5 mm and 28.8 g for all size groups and 100.1 mm and 33.0 g for legal-sized individuals.
Lactation and Function of Curve Parameters in Yankasa Sheep
Afolayan, R.A. ; Abubakar, B.Y. ; Osinowo, O.A. ; Dim, N.I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 890~894
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.890
The accuracy of the gamma function to describe lactation curve of Yankasa ewes was investigated using milk production data obtained from 168 ewes with either complete or incomplete 84 day lactation records. Ewes were daily hand milked after over-night separation from lamb and thorough disinfection of the udder. The daily milk yield on the average was estimated from the weekly total yield. The effect of type of birth, parity, season of birth and lactation length on the components of lactation curve (a, b, c and s) were analysed by least-square procedures. All factors except parity significantly (p<0.01) influenced the curve parameters. The goodness of fit of the function did not differ between the two classes of varying duration of lactation; incomplete lactation however, showed a lower persistency and as expected lower level of production. Correlations (
) between lamb weight gain and milk yield using the weight records from lamb weighed at weekly intervals indicated a high and positive relationship in the early lactation that decreased in intensity as the lactation advanced.
Lysozyme Activity in Buffalo Milk: Effect of Lactation Period, Parity, Mastitis, Season in India, pH and Milk Processing Heat Treatment
Priyadarshini, Subhadra ; Kansal, Vinod K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 895~899
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.895
Lysozyme activity in buffalo milk in relation to the period of lactation, parity of animal, weather conditions and udder infections was studied. Effect of storage and heat processing of milk on lysozyme activity was determined. Lysozyme activity was higher in buffalo milk than in cow milk. Buffalo colostrum showed lysozyme activity 5 times of that in mature milk. Lysozyme activity in buffalo milk was not influenced by the parity of animal and the stage of lactation, however, it increased during extreme whether conditions (winter and summer). Lysozyme in both cow and buffalo milk exhibited maximum activity at pH 7.4. Buffalo milk lysozyme was fully stable while the cow milk lysozyme was partly inactivated by pasteurization (low temperature-long time as well as high temperature-short time treatments). Lysozyme in buffalo milk was more stable than in cow milk during storage and heat treatment. A 10 to 50-fold increase in milk lysozyme activity was observed in mastitic cows. An assay of lysozyme activity in milk can be used to diagnose mastitis in cattle but not in buffaloes. Some buffaloes exhibited 1000 fold greater lysozyme activity and moderately raised somatic cell count in milk, but there was no sign of mastitis in these animals. A possible role of milk lysozyme in prevention of mastitis in buffaloes is discussed.
Cattle Do Remember Locations of Preferred Food over Extended Periods
Ksiksi, T. ; Laca, E.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 900~904
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.900
The duration of spatial memory in cattle is potentially important for grazing management. The ability of livestock to remember the location of food patches may lead to uneven range use. In this experiment, how long cattle are able to remember food locations was determined. Six steers were used to conduct this study in a pasture with an 8 row by 8 column grid of 64 plastic containers 5 meters apart. Four randomly chosen containers were loaded with feed pellets. All steers were trained to find the loaded locations until a minimum of empty containers were visited. After this initial training, each steer was tested at 5, 10, 20 and 48 days post-training. Total number of visits (TV), number of containers visited (NC), the ratio of loaded containers (LC) to NC were recorded. Once the steers learned the locations of loaded containers NC did not increase with time since last training up to 48 days (p>0.05). Logarithmic transformation of NC (LNC) was 0.70 and 0.80 for the control and 48 day treatments, respectively. Steers were equally efficient in locating containers with feed. The steers also showed that their ability in locating food was much better than expected by chance (Z>1.62). Findings of the present study do not suggest using spatial memory decay as a tool to promote better grazing distribution. Because steers remembered food locations accurately for at least 48 days.
Evaluation of Ascorbic Acid Treatment in Clinical and Subclinical Mastitis of Indian Dairy Cows
Naresh, Ram ; Dwivedi, S.K. ; Swarup, D. ; Patra, R.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 905~911
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.905
A study was carried out to assess the therapeutic effect of ascorbic acid in mastitis of dairy cows. The herd with a population of 250-275 lactating cows was screened for clinical and subclinical mastitis for a period of 5 months. Based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, eighteen animals each with clinical and subclinical mastitis in one quarter only were selected as study population. Twelve cows (group A) with normal udder and health were also selected as a healthy control. Clinical mastitis cows were grouped as B (n=12) and C (n=6). Cows of group B were treated with ascorbic acid at 25 mg/kg, subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days and intramammary infusion (Ampicillin sodium 75 mg and Cloxacillin sodium 200 mg/infusion) based on antibiotic sensitivity test, till complete recovery. Group C cows received only intramammary infusion till the complete recovery. Eighteen subclinical mastitis cows were divided in group D (n=12) and E (n=6). Cows of group D were treated with ascorbic acid at 25 mg/kg subcutaneously for 5 consecutive days while group E did not receive any treatment. California mastitis test (CMT), somatic cell count (SCC), physical changes of udder and milk were used to diagnose and classify the mastitis. Evaluation of the therapy was based on CMT score and physical changes of udder and milk. Sample size calculation was also performed but was not followed for control groups due to scarcity of cases. Adequate blinding was done when and where required to avoid the biases. Confounding variables like herd, age of the cow, stage of the lactation, season and geographical region were duly considered and adequate blocking was followed. Ascorbic acid was administered in clinical and subclinical cases even after cure considering its immunostimulatory and healing inducing effects. The recovery rate was faster in cases of clinical mastitis treated with ascorbic acid along with an intramammary infusion (group B) than the quarters of group C cows. Quarter wise the average duration/number (3.16
0.11 days) of antimicrobial intramammary infusion was significantly (p<0.01) less in group B than that of average duration/number (5.33
0.20 days) of group C. Subclinical mastitis cows treated with ascorbic acid showed 83.33% recovery while 16.77% did not respond to treatment till last day of study. Cows of group E (untreated) did not recovered from the mastitis. Subjective parameters viz. swelling, pain reflex of udder and physical changes in milk from quarter of ascorbic acid treated cows (group B) disappeared earlier than that of group C cows. It is concluded from this study that the ascorbic acid might be useful as an adjunct in case of clinical mastitis to get quick recovery with less number of intramammary infusions. High recovery rate in subclinical mastitis quarters of group D cows is appreciable and opens a new avenue to conduct further trials in a larger population in various field conditions. However, the pharmacology of ascorbic acid with particular reference to health of mammary gland needs to be investigated.
Nutritional Modulation of Resistance and Resilience to Gastrointestinal Nematode Infection - A Review
Walkden-Brown, Stephen W. ; Kahn, Lewis P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 6, 2002, Pages 912~924
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.912
Disease susceptibility is linked to nutritional status for a wide range of human and animal diseases. Nutritional status can influence both resistance (ability to resist the pathogen) and resilience (ability to tolerate or ameliorate the effects of the pathogen). This review focuses on the nutritional modulation of gastro-intestinal nematode infection in domestic ruminants, primarily sheep. It highlights the duality of the adverse consequences of infection on host nutritional status and the adverse consequences of poor host nutritional status on resistance to infection. Central to both phenomena is the complex, gut-based immune response to gastrointestinal nematode infection. The potential for strategic nutritional supplementation to enhance host resistance and resilience is reviewed together with recent findings on responses to increased ME supply, and long term effects on host immunity of short term protein supplementation.