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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 15, Issue 12 - Dec 2002
Volume 15, Issue 11 - Nov 2002
Volume 15, Issue 10 - Oct 2002
Volume 15, Issue 9 - Sep 2002
Volume 15, Issue 8 - Aug 2002
Volume 15, Issue 7 - Jul 2002
Volume 15, Issue 6 - Jun 2002
Volume 15, Issue 5 - May 2002
Volume 15, Issue 4 - Apr 2002
Volume 15, Issue 3 - Mar 2002
Volume 15, Issue 2 - Feb 2002
Volume 15, Issue 1 - Jan 2002
Selecting the target year
Detection of DNA Fragment to Differentiate Korean Cattle
Yeo, J.S. ; Kim, J.W. ; Chang, T.K. ; Nam, D.H. ; Han, J.Y. ; Choi, C.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1071~1075
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1071
In order to identify and develop the specific DNA marker for the identification of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) from other breeds, a specific DNA marker of 519 bp was identified and sequenced from polymorphic analysis using RAPD-PCR for 6 cattle breeds. Two different repetitive sequences,
, were selected and designed to use specific probe to develop a DNA marker for Hanwoo specific. When the
probe was applied, the 10 kb specific DNA marker showed in the DNA fingerprinting from 237 of 281 Hanwoo individuals. This novel Hanwoo specific DNA probe is useful to perform the marker-assisted selection for screening Hanwoo purity as an unique genetic source.
Genetic Analyses of Carcass Characteristics in Crossbred Pigs: Cross between Landrace Sows and Korean Wild Boars
Choy, Y.H. ; Jeon, G.J. ; Kim, T.H. ; Choi, B.H. ; Cheong, I.C. ; Lee, H.K. ; Seo, K.S. ; Kim, S.D. ; Park, Y.I. ; Chung, H.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1080~1084
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1080
Carcass characteristics of 241 crossbred pigs (Korean wild boars
Landrace sows) were analyzed to examine variations in fasted body weight (FASTWT), carcass weight (CARCWT), dressing percentage (DP), back fat thickness (BFT) and longissimus muscle weight (LMW), and to estimate genetic and phenotypic parameters using three different slaughter-end points. Covariates in the least squares full sib model were slaughter age, fasted body weight and back fat thickness of the carcass. Coefficient of variation was highest for BFT followed by LMW, CARCWT, FASTWT and DP in magnitude. Regressions of three covariates on traits were all linear. However, slaughter age was not significant as a linear covariate for five traits while FASTWT was significant for CARCWT and LMW and BFT was significant for all remaining traits. Genetic and phenotypic variation was considerably reduced by regressing FASTWT or BFT in the model. Heritability estimates of FASTWT, CARCWT, DP and BFT were 0.68, 0.61, 0.11 and 0.49, respectively, using slaughter age as covariate (model 1). Those of CARCWT, DP, BFT and LMW were 0.15, 0.15, 0.30 and 0.11, respectively, using FASTWT as covariate (model 2). Heritability estimates of the traits using LMW as covariate (model 3) were similar to the estimates from Model 1 except that the estimate of CARCWT was reduced to 0.39. Genetic or phenotypic correlations among FASTWT, CARCWT and BFT were all positive and moderate to high. Those between BFT and LMW were also positive and low to moderate. However, genetic and phenotypic correlations between DP and CARCWT were positive while those between DP and FASTWT were negative. It was suggested from this study that differences in carcass yield traits be determined using slaughter age or back fat thickness as slaughter-end point and carcass quality traits using fasted body weight as slaughter-end point.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Calving Ease by Heifers and Cows Using Multi-trait Threshold Animal Models with Bayesian Approach
Lee, D.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1085~1090
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1085
Genetic parameters for birth weights (BWT), calving ease scores observed from calves born by heifers (CEH), and calving ease scores observed from calves born by cows (CEC) were estimated using Bayesian methodology with Gibbs sampling in different threshold animal models. Data consisted of 77,458 records for calving ease scores and birth weights in Gelbvieh cattle. Gibbs samplers were used to obtain the parameters of interest for the categorical traits in two univariate threshold animal models, a bivariate threshold animal model, and a three-trait linear-threshold animal model. Samples of heritabilities and genetic correlations were calculated from the posterior means of dispersion parameters. In a univariate threshold animal model with CEH (model 1), the posterior means of heritabilities for calving ease was 0.35 for direct genetic effects and 0.18 for maternal genetic effects. In the other univariate threshold model with CEC (model 2), the posterior means of heritabilities of CEC was 0.28 for direct genetic effects and 0.18 for maternal genetic effects. In a bivariate threshold model with CEH and CEC (model 3), heritability estimates were similar to those in unvariate threshold models. In this model, genetic correlation between heifer calving ease and cow calving ease was 0.89 and 0.87 for direct genetic effect and maternal genetic effects, respectively. In a three-trait animal model, which contained two categorical traits (CEH and CEC) and one continuous trait (BWT) (model 4), heritability estimates of CEH and CEC for direct (maternal) genetic effects were 0.40 (0.23) and 0.23 (0.13), respectively. In this model, genetic correlation estimates between CEH and CEC were 0.89 and 0.66 for direct genetic effects and maternal effects, respectively. These estimates were greater than estimates between BWT and CEH (0.82 and 0.34) or BWT and CEC (0.85 and 0.26). This result indicates that CEH and CEC should be high correlated rather than estimates between calving ease and birth weight. Genetic correlation estimates between direct genetic effects and maternal effects were -0.29, -0.31 and 0.15 for BWT, CEH and CEC, respectively. Correlation for permanent environmental effects between BWT and CEC was -0.83 in model 4. This study can provide genetic evaluation for calving ease with other continuous traits jointly with assuming that calving ease from first calving was a same trait to calving ease from later parities calving. Further researches for reliability of dispersion parameters would be needed even if the more correlated traits would be concerned in the model, the higher reliability could be obtained, especially on threshold model with property that categorical traits have little information.
Role of Diacyl Glycerol (DAG) in Caprine Sperm Acrosomal Exocytosis Induced by Progesterone
Somanath, P.R. ; Gandhi, K.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1091~1097
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1091
Capacitated goat spermatozoa generated diacyl glycerol (DAG) when suspended in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate medium and induced by progesterone or
ionophore A23187. We have added Sn-1-oleoyl-2-acetyl glycerol externally, to study the effect of DAG in goat sperm acrosomal exocytosis. Addition of neomycin abolished the DAG generating capacity of progesterone in a dose dependent manner, suggesting the involvement of a phosphoinositidase C activated phospholipase C system in the process. The level of increase in phosphatidic acid was considerably low and was produced well after the DAG generation thereby suggesting the involvement of a DAG kinase which phosphorylates DAG to produce PA. The inhibition of progesterone mediated effect by inhibitors of
channels further supports the evidence that the events of binding of agonist to the receptor(s), opening of
channels and the activation of phospholipase C are reconciled to perform the function of acrosome reaction in capacitated goat spermatozoa.
Current Level of Reproductive Performances in Japanese Black Cows
Uchida, Hiroshi ; Kobayasi, Jin ; Inoue, Tatsushi ; Suzuki, Keiichi ; Oikawa, Takuro ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1098~1102
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1098
A set of 313,169 reproduction records of Japanese Black cows calving between 1987 and 1996 were collected in nation widely Japan to investigate the current level of reproductive performances and the factors influencing the performances such as calving interval, first calving age, services per conception, calving difficulty, non-gestation period and gestation length. All the records of reproductive performances are outcome of artificial insemination. The means of first calving age, calving interval, non-gestation period and gestation length were 25.0 months, 389.9, 101.9 and 287.5 days, respectively. Services per conception were 1.41 and degree of calving difficulty was 1.07, which suggests most of the calving, did not need assistance. There were chronological tendencies that first calving age became younger while calving interval became longer. Differences in reproductive performance were found for seasons and calving numbers. Calving interval became shorter towards the fourth calving but became longer afterwards. The cows calving in May had the shortest calving interval followed by those in April and June and first calving age had a similar tendency. The cows with the standard body condition score showed more favourable reproductive performances compare with those with rather fatty or thin body condition scores.
Influence of 2-bromo-α-ergocryptine on Plasma Prolactin, Oestradiol-17β and Progesterone Levels in Domestic Hen
Reddy, I.J. ; David, C.G. ; Singh, Khub ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1103~1109
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1103
This study investigated the effect of 2-bromo-
-ergocryptine (anti prolactin agent) on plasma levels of prolactin, oestradiol-17
and progesterone in domestic hen during the active period of lay. Fifty healthy female White Leghorn birds were administered with anti prolactin agent (2-bromo-
-ergocryptine, Sigma-USA., methane sulphonate salt,
body weight at weekly intervals from 17th to 36th week of age. Another group of fifty birds as controls were given placebo in place of bromocriptine. The level of prolactin remained lower in treated birds than in the control birds from 19 to 36 weeks of age. Level of prolactin even in the control group was found to decrease during the peak production period. Oestradiol-
and progesterone concentration in treated birds were significantly (p<0.01) higher than the controls during the treatment. Egg production, is positively correlated with oestradiol-
(r=0.02; r=0.67) and progesterone (r=0.49; r=0.90) in control and treated groups respectively where as prolactin level is positively correlated with egg production in the control birds (r=0.07). Prolactin levels were negatively correlated with egg production (r=-0.55) in treated birds; and oestradiol-
(r =-0.71; r=-0.53) and progesterone (r=-0.22; r=-0.27) respectively in control and treated groups. The total number of pause days during the treatment period decreased significantly (p<0.01) in the treated group compared to the control group. The reduction in pause days in treated group resulted in 1.76% increase in egg production over that in control group. The increase in egg laying days and the total egg production were found to be significant (p<0.01). These results indicate that a lower level of prolactin in circulatory blood enhances egg production in the domestic hen.
Economic Assessments of Hormonal and Nutritional Treatments for Improvement of Awassi Sheep Production in Jordan
Nasr, R.E. ; Haddad, S.G. ; Al-Karablieh, E.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1110~1114
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1110
The animal production sector in Jordan is characterized by shortages of locally produced feedstuffs derived from rangeland, forage plants or from human food crops as by products. This is exacerbated by insufficient rainfall, overgrazing, early grazing and high stocking rate. Thus, subject to these constraints, other technological improvements are highly desirable to meet the needs of crop growth and animal production. Alternative adapted technologies are also desirable in order to meet the increased demand for red meat in relation to population growth along with the changes in the price subsidy for feedstuff. The technologies are those, which have been introduced to the animal production sector, obtained in agricultural research stations besides on-farm demonstrations. They include technologies suited for increasing birth and twining rates, synchronizing the mating period, introducing the early weaning method, and animal feed and sheep production. Economic assessments conducted in this study demonstrate promising results of hormonal and nutritional practices in improving production efficiency of Awassi sheep in Jordan. Jordanian published data between 1991 and 1998 were used. The examined practices were: 1) use of PMSG in estrus synchronization in ewes, 2) introduction of early lamb weaning program, 3) supplementation with
for ewes and 4) the use of agro-industrial feed block as a feed supplement for grazing lambs. Production data were then subjected to partial budgeting for economical evaluation. The use of PMSG outperformed the control groups in fertility and net returns per ewe by US$ 8.36/ewe. The early weaning of lambs increased the net returns by US$ 3.90/lamb. The injection with vitamin
showed an average additional net return of US$ 5.66/ewe. Feeding agriculture by-product blocks improved weight gain in the feed block groups and resulted in additional net returns of US$ 3.5/lamb. The economic viability and reproductive performance indicators demonstrate that efforts should be undertaken to disseminate these new practices in the development program.
Addition Effect of Seed-associated or Free Linseed Oil on the Formation of cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Octadecenoic Acid by Ruminal Bacteria In Vitro
Wang, J.H. ; Song, M.K. ; Son, Y.S. ; Chang, M.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1115~1120
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1115
The effects of seed-associated or free linseed oil on fermentation characteristics and long-chain unsaturated fatty acids composition, especially the formation of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and octadecenoic acid (trans-11
) by mixed ruminal bacteria were examined in vitro. Concentrate (1% of culture solution, w/v, as-fed basis) with ground linseed (0.6% of culture solution, w/v, DM basis) or linseed oil as absorbed onto ground alfalfa hay was added to 600 ml mixed solution consisting of strained rumen fluid and artificial saliva at the ratio of 1:1 in a glass culture jar. The culture jar was covered with a glass lid with stirrer, and placed into a water-bath (
) and incubated anaerobically up to 24 h. Seed-associated or free linseed oil did not significantly affect the pH and ammonia concentration in the culture solution. Molar percent of acetate tended to increase while that of propionate decreased with the addition of free oil treatment throughout the incubation. Differences in bacterial number were relatively small, regardless of the form of supplements. Decreasing trends in the compositions of linoleic acid (
) and linolenic acid (
) but increasing trends of stearic acid (
and CLA compositions were found from culture contents up to 12h incubation when incubated with both ground linseed and linseed oil. The compositions of
were greater but those of oleic acid (
and CLA were smaller in a culture solution containing ground linseed than those containing linseed oil. The ratio of
to CLA was lower in the culture solutions containing linseed oil up to 12h incubations as compared to those containing ground linseed.
Dietary Protein Restriction on Growth and Immuno-biochemical Response of Crossbred Calves during Post-ruminant Phase of Life
Sahoo, A. ; Mishra, S.C. ; Pathak, N.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1121~1127
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1121
Sixteen crossbred (Bos indicus
Bos taurus) calves were randomly distributed in two groups (NP and LP) of eight calves each to study the effect of restricted (75%) protein supply on growth and immuno-biochemical response as an indicator of production and health of under-nourished animals during 3 to 9 months of age. The normal requirement of protein was provided to group NP and a less of 25% to group LP through calculated amount of concentrate and roughage in their daily ration. Assessment was made for weekly change in live weight, periodic alteration in blood metabolites and immunological status at six months of age in calves. An initial (during 3 to 6 months of age) depression (p<0.05) in growth was seen in low protein fed group (LP) compared to NP, which became non-significant in the later period of life (6 to 9 months of age). There was no significant effect on haemoglobin, total protein, albumin and globulin concentration except that of urea, which was decreased significantly (p<0.05) in animals fed on low protein diet (
). The treatment effect that was seen in different periods of life was not uniform for other parameters except for urea, which showed a regular depression in LP compared to NP. The assessment of immunological status by indirect haemagglutination (IHA) test against Pasteurella multocida (P52 strain) was considerably (p<0.05) reduced in animals on LP ration compared to those on NP. It is thus argued that with poor nutrition (low protein) and state of compromised immunological response the production and health of the animals will be adversely affected.
The Influences of Addition of Sugar with or without L. buchneri on Fermentation and Aerobic Stability of Whole Crop Maize Silage Ensiled under Anaerobic Silos
Guan, Wu-tai ; Driehuis, F. ; van. Wikselaar, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1128~1133
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1128
The whole plant of crop maize was chopped and ensiled in airtight 1-L capacity glass jars to determine the influence of residual sugar on anaerobic yeast growth and on the fermentation of lactic acid by L. buchneri in whole crop maize silage. There were a total of six treatments used in this experiment as follow: added 25 g de-mineralised water per kg chopped maize serving as control (con), 37.5 g glucose solution containing 12.5 g glucose (
), 75 g glucose solution containing 25 g glucose (
), 25 g L. buchneri suspension intended for
All silos were stored in the dark at
until end of experiment. Jars were opened on duplicates at day 2, 7, 14, 28, 56 or triplicates at day 91 after ensiling for measuring the pH, microbiological enumeration and fermentative products. Results indicated that acidification rates for all silages were very fast, no difference occurred among treatments before day 28. After day 28 the pH values for silages inoculated by L. buchneri. with or without sugar tended to increase especially for treated only with L. buchneri, resulting in higher (p<0.01) finial pH than uninoculated silages. Compared with control silage, the added sugar significantly (p<0.01) increased dry matter (DM) loss, L. buchneri enhanced (p<0.01) DM loss further at different sugar existence. Silages inoculated by L. buchneri only or in combination with sugar addition contained less (p<0.01) lactic acid than the correspondent silages without inoculation with L. buchneri. In comparison with control, ethanol production is about 3 or 6 fold higher due to addition 12.5 or 25 g glucose per kg chopped maize at ensiling. The added sugar resulted in less acetic acid concentration (p<0.01) than control, but inoculation with L. buchneri increased (p<0.01) acetic acid than correspondent uninoculated silages at different sugar levels. No butyric acid and propionic acid were found in uninoculted silages, silages inoculated with L. buchneri. produced more propionic acid, 1-propanol and butyric acid. Lactobacilli counts were not influenced by added sugar, but increased (p<0.01) with inoculation of L. buchneri. The added sugar increased significantly (p<0.01) the yeast count, whereas L. buchneri showed the contrary effect. No differences were found in the aerobic stability among all treatments. In conclusions, 1) the added sugars encourage the growth of yeast and yeasts convert extra sugar into ethanol in maize silages. 2) The added sugars and L. buchneri do not influence the aerobic stability of silages stored in anaerobic silos.
Effects of Intraruminal Isopropyl Alcohol Infusions on the Ruminating Behavior of Goats
Asato, N. ; Hirata, T. ; Hirayama, T. ; Onodera, R. ; Shinjo, A. ; Oshiro, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1134~1138
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1134
Isopropyl alcohol (IPA), produced from acetone by rumen bacterial action, was infused into the rumen of three female goats kept in a climatically controlled experimental room during feeding to investigate the mechanism and roles of IPA in ruminating behavior (number of boli and ruminating time). The ruminating behavior measured by the number of boli, ruminating time, number of remastications, and remasticating time increased (p<0.05) with intraruminal IPA infusion. The concentrations of IPA and acetone in the rumen and the plasma significantly increased (p<0.05) during intraruminal IPA infusion. These data suggest that rumination receptors sensitive to IPA and acetone may be in an area such as the rumen epithelium and the brain stem where they can respond to metabolite levels.
Voluntary Intake and Digestibility of Fresh, Wilted and Dry Leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) at Four Levels to a Basal Diet of Guinea Grass (Panicum maximum)
Aregheore, Eroarome Martin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1139~1146
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1139
Sixty crossbred Anglo-Nubian goats (growing females), 18-24 mo of age, with a mean pre-experimental live weight of
were used to investigate voluntary dry matter intake (DMI) and digestibility of supplements of Leucaena leucocephala (LL) leaves to a basal diet of guinea grass. The experiment was a 3 forms of presentation: fresh, wilted and
levels of supplementation: 10, 20, 30 and 40% of total forage allowance with LL leaves. The goats were assigned based on weight and age to one of the twelve diets in a randomized manner and each level had five animals (replicates) per diet for 56 days. The form of presentation of LL leaves had effects on dry matter (DM) and nutrient composition. DM and NDF were higher in the dry LL leaves (p<0.05). In the diets, CP increased as the level of supplementation with LL leaves increased (p<0.05). Mean CP was similar in the fresh (
), wilted (
) and dry forms (
). Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increase in levels of supplementation. Organic matter (OM) followed the trend of CP concentration (p<0.05). Drying was observed to reduce the availability of CP at the different levels of supplementation and subsequently this affected the NDF of the diets. DM intake of the goats on the fresh and wilted LL leaves was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in those on the dry LL leaves. DM intake of the basal diet was observed to decrease as the level of supplementation (p<0.05) increased regardless of the form of presentation of LL. Growth rate was best (p<0.05) on the fresh form followed by wilted and the least in the dry form. Growth rate decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increase in the level of supplementation in the dry form. The form of presentation and level of supplementation influenced DM, CP and OM digestibility (p<0.05). Except for NDF, the digestibility of DM, CP and OM were better (p<0.05) in the goats on fresh LL leaves compared to the wilted and dry leaves. Based on the data on DMI, growth rate and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients, the results suggest that LL leaves is best utilized when fed fresh or wilted to goats. In the dry form of presentation, the best level of supplementation without a reduction in voluntary DMI and growth rate is the 20%. In the fresh and wilted form, LL leaves could be fed up to the 40% level with improved DMI, growth rate and nutrient utilization.
Effects of Palm Kernel Cake on Performance and Blood Lipids in Rats
Loh, T.C. ; Foo, H.L. ; Tan, B.K. ; Jelan, Z.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1165~1169
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1165
Palm kernel cake (PKC), a by-product of oil palm seeds after extraction of their oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of PKC on growth performance and blood lipids in rats. A total of 64 Sprague-Dawley (8 weeks of age) male rats were assigned individually to four treatments with different levels of PKC in the diet: 0, 15, 20 and 25%. No differences (p<0.05) were found in daily feed intake (6-8 g/day), body weight, growth rate and epididymal fat weight for all the dietary groups. Plasma protein and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol (TG) were higher (p<0.05) for 20% PKC fed rats than the control rats. Conversely, the plasma cholesterol and TG and VLDL-phospholipid (PL) concentrations of the control rats were higher (p<0.05) than those of PKC fed rats. The VLDL-protein, total cholesterol, free cholesterol (FC) and cholesteryl ester (CE) were not significantly different (p>0.05) among the treatment groups. Rats fed PKC had greater (p<0.05) ratios of total surface to core lipid components [(FC+PL)/(CE+TG)] than control rats. The results reflect dissimilarities of VLDL particle size between PKC treatment and control rats, where the plasma of the PKC treated rats contained more lipid rich VLDL. In conclusion, there was no adverse effect on growth performance when inclusion of PKC up to 25%. However, fibre content may affect the plasma lipid concentrations.
Genotype by Dietary Lysine Interaction for Growth and Response to Sheep Red Blood Cells and Escherichia coli Inoculation in Commercial Broiler Chicks
Praharaj, N.K. ; Reddy, M.R. ; Panda, A.K. ; Rama Rao, S.V. ; Sharma, R.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1170~1177
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1170
An experiment was conducted to assess the interaction between genotypes and dietary lysine content in commercial broiler chicks by measuring growth, and response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and Escherichia coli (E.coli) inoculation. Female chicks from four genotypes (A=Anak 2000; B=Hubbard; C=Cobb and D=Synthetic broiler) were fed four levels of lysine in diet from d old till the end of experiment. The lysine content of the diet was 9.61, 10.51, 11.41 and 12.31 g/kg. Body weights at 0, 14, 28 and 42 d of age and pen-wise feed intake till 14, 28 and 42 d of age were recorded. Production of antibody against SRBC and resistance to E.coli were measured at 5 d of post inoculation (PI) at 43 d of age. Also, response to phytohemaglutinin-P (PHA-P) was measured at 12 and 24 h of PI at 48 d of age. Genotype by dietary lysine interaction was significant for body weights at 14 and 28 d of age, but not at 42 d of age. Genotype by dietary lysine interaction was not significant for feed efficiency, for antibody titers against SRBC, and for air sac lesion score, relative bodyweight change, and relative weights of bursa and spleen in response to E.coli inoculation. However, a significant interaction was observed between the levels of lysine and dosage of SRBC for antibody titers. There was significant genotype by dietary lysine interaction for cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity (CBH) response to PHA-P at 12 and 24 h of PI. It may be concluded that to obtain optimum body weight and immunity in commercial broilers the dietary lysine requirement may be recommended specific to the genotype.
Ear Type and Coat Color on Growth Performances of Crossbred Pigs
Choy, Y.H. ; Jeon, G.J. ; Kim, T.H. ; Choi, B.H. ; Chung, H.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1178~1181
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1178
Records from a total of 202 crossbred pigs were classified by their ear type and coat color to examine the presence of interrelationships with growth performances. Crossbred pigs were F2 generations of full sib family out of ten Landrace sows bred by 5 Korean domestic boars. Heavily drooped ear type was predominant, 195 out of 202 pigs over the other two types (1 straight and 6 slightly drooped). Coat colors were classified as four categories, all white, all black, dominant white or dominant black. Ratio among coat color categories did not fall within Mendelian principle of independence regarding two loci involved. There was dependency between ear type and coat color. However, due to rarity of ear types other than heavy drooped, dependency comes from distribution of those rare ear types. Three least squares models to test the effect of ear type and coat colors on growth performances were analyzed. First model analyzed effects on birth weight, body weight at 3 and 6 weeks and ADG' before weaning and between 3 and 5 weeks of age. This model included sex in addition to ear type and coat color. Second model analyzed postweaning growth traits (initial weight, final weight and ADG between these periods) upon initiation of performance testing. This model included effects of sex, test group and start age (as a covariate) in addition. Third model was fit for fasted weight before slaughter and included the effects of sex, test group and age at slaughter (as a covariate). The effects of sex and ear type were not significant source of variation for all traits. Test group was a significant source of variation for all the postweaning traits. Effect of coat color was not significant until the initiation of performance testing and became significant then after. Least squares means of dominantly black pigs were significantly lower than the other three coat colored pigs in final weight around 195 days of age and in ADG from the start of performance test and final weight measure.
Effect of Extreme Light Regime on Production and Characteristics of Egg in Laying Geese
Wang, S.D. ; Wang, C.M. ; Fan, Y.K. ; Jan, D.F. ; Chen, L.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1182~1185
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1182
The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of long light regime (20 h light and 4 h dark, 20L:4D) and short light regime (4 h light and 20 h dark, 4L:20D) on egg production and egg characteristics of laying geese. Thirty-six laying birds, 4 replicates of 3 birds per treatment were allotted to three light regimes, i.e., 20L:4D, 4L:20D, and natural light (NAT) from March 7 to June 20. Results showed that the geese in 20L:4D consumed 54 g less feed per goose daily and laid 17.5 less eggs per goose (p<0.05) comparing to those in 4L:20D. The number of days from initiation of light treatment till cease of laying was 22 days shorter (p<0.05) in 20L:4D comparing to that in NAT. Five geese (41.7%) in 4L:20D kept laying by the end of applying light regime. Weight and surface area of the eggs in 4L:20D were greater (p<0.05) comparing to those in the other two light regimes. It is concluded that the period of egg production in goose could be manipulated by light regime in the ways such as using short light regime of 4 h light daily to prolong egg production through summer and using long light regime of 20 h light daily to induce cease of egg production.
Processing Procedures and Feeding Systems for Sorghum-based Diets Given to Lactating Sows
Kim, I.H. ; Hancock, J.D. ; Kim, J.H. ; Kennedy, G.A. ; Hines, R.H. ; Behnke, K.C. ; Nichols, D.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1186~1190
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1186
One hundred and twenty nine primiparous sows were used to determine the effects of alternative processing procedures and feeding systems on the nutritional value of sorghum grain-based diets for lactating sows. Treatments were a ground sorghum control, steam-flaked sorghum and extruded sorghum fed in meal form and the ground sorghum control given as pellets or gruel (1:1 ratio of water and feed on a volume:volume basis). Average daily feed intake was greater for sows fed pelleted and gruel diet forms than sow fed the diets with steam-flaked and extruded sorghum (p<0.04). However, no differences occurred in sow weight or backfat losses among the treatments (p>0.14). Number of pigs weaned and livability rates were similar among treatments except that steam-flaked sorghum supported greater litter weight gains than extruded sorghum (p<0.02). Apparent digestibilities of DM, N and GE in sows fed steam-flaked and extruded sorghum were greater (p<0.001) than in sows fed pelleted or gruel diets. Of the various treatments, sows fed extruded sorghum tended to have the highest digestibilities of DM, N and GE, and lowest excretions of DM and N in the faeces. Severity of ulceration was not significantly affected by treatments (p>0.35), but keratinization was greatest for sows fed extruded sorghum (p<0.01). In conclusion, the alternative processing methods (steam-flaking and extrusion) and feeding system (pellets and gruel) had little effect on sow and litter performance. However, nutrient digestibilities were improved for all treatments that involved heating (steam flaking, extrusion and pelleting) and, thus, these treatments resulted in less fecal excretion of DM and N.
Effects of Replacing Corn with Chinese Brown Rice on Growth Performance and Apparent Fecal Digestibility of Nutrients in Weanling Pigs
Li, Defa ; Zhang, D.F. ; Piao, X.S. ; Han, In K. ; Yang, Chul J. ; Li, J.B. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1191~1197
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1191
This experiment was conducted to study the effects of replacing corn with Chinese brown rice on performance and apparent fecal digestibility of nutrients in weanling pigs. Seventy-two cross-bred (Duroc
Large White) weanling pigs, weighing an average of
, were randomly assigned to either a corn-soybean meal diet (treatment 1), a corn-brown ricesoybean meal diet (treatment 2) and a brown rice-soybean meal diet (treatment 3). The brown rice used in this experiment was husked from one kind of early, long grain, non-glutinous rice (ELGNR, indica rice). The growth performance of weanling pigs in the experiment was similar during weeks 1 and 2, but feed conversion ratio (FCR) was significantly better in treatment 2 during weeks 3 and 4. During week 2, only the digestibility of organic matter in treatments 2 and 3 was significantly higher than that in treatment 1. During week 4, the digestibility of gross energy, ether extract, organic matter and dry matter in brown rice treatment, especially in treatment 3, were significantly higher than in treatment 1. At the end of the experiment, the concentration of serum urea nitrogen of pigs in treatment 2 was lower than that in treatment 1 and 3 and no difference was found in serum glucose and phosphorus. It could be concluded from this experiment that replacing 50% of corn with brown rice in the corn-soybean meal diet caused no negative effects to weanling pig performance, and apparent fecal digestibility was unaffected. It is feasible to replace corn with brown rice in weanling pig diets in southern China.
Expression of Stat5a Gene in Bovine Mammary Gland and its Effect on Proliferation of Mammary Epithelial Cells
Jeon, D.H. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Baik, M.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1198~1203
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1198
To understand molecular mechanisms involved in bovine mammary gland growth, expression of stat5a gene was examined in bovine mammary tissues. We found that stat5a gene was highly induced at pregnant 7 and 8 months compared to virgin mammary tissues. To examine function of bovine stat5a in mammary epithelial cell proliferation, stat5a expression vector was transfected into mammary epithelial HC11 cells. Cell proliferation rate in stat5a gene-transfected cells was 26%, 95% and 85% higher at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h after seeding, respectively, compared to control vector-transfected cells. Results demonstrate that bovine stat5a enhances proliferation of mammary epithelial cells.
Effect of Heating on Polymerization of Pig Skin Collagen Using Microbial Transglutaminase
Erwanto, Yuny ; Muguruma, Michio ; Kawahara, Satoshi ; Tsutsumi, Takahiko ; Katayama, Kazunori ; Yamauchi, Kiyoshi ; Morishita, Toshiro ; Morishita, Toshiro ; Watanabe, Shohei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1204~1209
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1204
Polymerization of heated or unheated pig skin collagen using microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was investigated. Pig skin collagen samples were heated or left unheated, then enzymatically polymerized with MTGase. SDS-PAGE was conducted to confirm the intermolecular polymer and the results showed similar bands between samples without MTGase and unheated samples with MTGase. The polymerized product of pig skin collagen was not formed in unheated samples, even when MTGase was added during incubation. Different results were obtained from samples heated at
for 2 min, whereas the SDS-PAGE pattern indicated that a polymer band was generated in both cases. The heat treatment successfully modified the native structure of collagen and also made collagen more reactable in the MTGase polymerization system. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) investigation of pig skin collagen showed a biopolymer structure through intermolecular collagen crosslinking, while there were no intermolecular crosslinks in samples not treated with MTGase. There were no significant differences in fibril diameter between treated samples and controls. These results suggest that heat treatment of native pig skin collagen enhanced the polymerization capability of MTGase.
Effects of Gut Extract Protein and Insulin on Glucose Uptake and GLUT 1 Expression in HC 11 Mouse Mammary Epithelial Cells
Myung, K.H. ; Ahn, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1210~1214
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1210
The large and rapid changes of glucose utilization in lactating mammary tissue in response to changes in nutritional state must be largely related by external signal of insulin. This also must be related with the quantity and composition of the diet in vivo. To characterize the mode of gut extract protein with insulin, in vitro experiment was conducted with HC11 cells. The gut extract protein has not only the same effect as insulin alone but also the synergistic effect with insulin in 2-Deoxy[3H] glucose uptake. Although the gut extract did not modulates glucose uptake via increasing the rate of translation of the GLUT1 protein, northern blot analysis indicated that the gut extract protein increased the expression of GLUT1 mRNA by a threefold and also there was a dose-dependent increase in the expression of GLUT1 mRNA. The gut extract protein is therefore shown to be capable of modulating glucose uptake by transcription level with insulin in HC 11 cells.
Biochemical, Haematological and Thyroid Hormone Profile in Healthy Indian Kathiawari Horses
Gupta, A.K. ; Kumar, Sanjay ; Pal, Yash ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1215~1221
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1215
Normal haematological and biochemical indices along with thyroid hormone status were studied in healthy Kathiawari horses of different age groups (yearling, young stock, adults and old stock) belonging to either sex. Effect of both age and sex was observed on thyroid hormone levels, haematological and biochemical indices. In females, hemoglobin levels was significantly lower in yearlings than adult animals while total leukocyte counts were higher in yearlings than equids of other age groups. Sex had effect only on total erythrocyte counts, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular hemoglobin in horses of 1-3 years age group (young stock) and on packed cell volume in adult female and male equids. Among biochemical indices, activities of enzymes were observed to be influenced both by age and sex. Creatine kinase, gamma glutamyl transferase, glutamate pyruvate transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase activities were significantly higher in young and adult equids than animals of other age groups in Kathiawari horses while activity of alkaline phosphatase was significantly higher in yearlings than equids belonging to other age groups in both male and females. However, activity of sorbitol dehydrogenase was unaltered due to both sex and age factor. Albumin, bilirubin direct, bilirubin total, cholesterol, creatinine, protein, triglyceride and uric acid were statistically different in various age and sex groups of horses. Calcium, magnesium and chloride contents were almost same in various age groups of male horses. Significantly higher levels of
were observed in both male and female yearlings as compared to equids of other age groups in both the sexes.
On the Negative Estimates of Direct and Maternal Genetic Correlation - A Review
Lee, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 15, issue 8, 2002, Pages 1222~1226
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2002.1222
Estimates of genetic correlation between direct and maternal effects for weaning weight of beef cattle are often negative in field data. The biological existence of this genetic antagonism has been the point at issue. Some researchers perceived such negative estimate to be an artifact from poor modeling. Recent studies on sources affecting the genetic correlation estimates are reviewed in this article. They focus on heterogeneity of the correlation by sex, selection bias caused from selective reporting, selection bias caused from splitting data by sex, sire by year interaction variance, and sire misidentification and inbreeding depression as factors contributing sire by year interaction variance. A biological justification of the genetic antagonism is also discussed. It is proposed to include the direct-maternal genetic covariance in the analytical models.