Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 16, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Heritabilities and Genetic Correlation, and Sire and Environment Effects on Meat Production Potential of Hanwoo Cattle
Baik, D.H. ; Hoque, M.A. ; Park, G.H. ; Park, H.K. ; Shim, K.S. ; Chung, Y.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1
Genetic parameters of live weight at slaughter (LWT), quantity index (QIX), yield grade (YGD), quality grade (QGD), pH of meat, and boiled meat tenderness in terms of mastication (BMAS), shear force (BSFR) and penetration (BPEN) in Hanwoo steers were estimated. Effects of sire, location and their interaction on these traits were also evaluated. Sire effects were found to be significant on all the traits studied except for pH and BSFR. The LWT, QIX and QGD were also significantly affected both by location and by interaction effect between sire
location. The BSFR and BPEN were significantly (p<0.01) affected by location but not significantly by sire
location interaction. The boiled meat tenderness and pH were negatively correlated (
) with LWT, QIX and QGD. All the other traits were positively correlated with each other. Positive and high genetic correlation (+0.56) between LWT and QGD was obtained indicating that selection for LWT would improve QGD. The
estimates were 0.43, 0.37, 0.37, 0.35 and 0.32 for QGD, LWT, pH, BSFR and BPEN, respectively.
Relationship between Peripheral Plasma Inhibin and Progesterone Concentrations in Sahiwal Cattle (Bos Indicus) and Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Mondal, S. ; Prakash, B.S. ; Palta, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 6~10
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.6
The present study investigated peripheral plasma immunoreactive inhibin (ir-inhibin) concentrations in relation to the stage of oestrous cycle and progesterone concentrations in cycling Sahiwal cattle (Bos indicus) and Murrah buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Blood samples were collected once daily for thirty-two consecutive days from cattle and buffaloes (5 each) during winter months of January and February. Mean (
S.E.M.) plasma ir-inhibin concentrations ranged from
in cattle and from
in buffaloes. In cattle, ir-inhibin concentrations increased from
on day -4 (day 0=day of oestrus) to reach a maximum value of
on day -2. Thereafter, ir-inhibin concentrations showed a decline to reach a low of
on day 11 of the oestrous cycle. In buffaloes, ir-inhibin concentrations increased from
on day -4 to reach a maximum concentration of
on day -2. Ir-inhibin concentrations then declined to reach a low of
on day 9 of the cycle. In both cattle and buffaloes, ir-inhibin concentrations which were lowest (
, respectively) during the mid-luteal phase of the oestrous cycle increased (p<0.05) to
, respectively, during the late luteal phase, and then further to the highest value of
, respectively, during the perioestrus phase, following which these declined to
, respectively, during the early luteal phase. The variations in peripheral plasma ir-inhibin profile in both the species appear to be related to the changes in characteristics of follicular populations during the oestrous cycle. Peripheral plasma ir-inhibin concentrations were negatively correlated with progesterone concentrations in cattle (r=-0.51, p<0.01) and buffaloes (r=-0.30, p<0.01) indicating that the corpus luteum is not a source of peripheral ir-inhibin in these species.
Reproductive Performance of Three Iranian Sheep Breeds
Kiyanzad, M.R. ; Panandam, J.M. ; Emamjomeh Kashan, N. ; Jelan, Z.A. ; Dahlan, I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 11~14
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.11
To evaluate the ewe reproductive performances of three Iranian local sheep breeds, namely Moghani, Chal and Zel, 27 rams and 473 ewes were used as the foundation flock in a crossbreeding program. The three breeds were crossed amongst themselves reciprocally. Ram breed and ewe breed showed a two-way interaction on apparent fertility. The Zel ewes showed higher fertility than the Chal and Moghani ewes (94.4 vs 77.3 and 84.6%). Prolificacy among main and individual mating groups were not significantly different (p>0.05). Zel ewes were 22.3 and 14.8% more reproductive (p<0.05) than Chal and Moghani ewes, respectively. Zel and Moghani ewes showed higher (p<0.05) ewe productivity than Chal ewes. Ram breed had a significant (p<0.05) effect on ewe efficiency. The Zel rams were not completely successful to mate with Chal ewes, this caused a to way-interaction between ram and ewe breeds. The Zel ewes mated with Chal and Moghani rams showed 26.1 and 28.5% more efficiency than those mated with Zel rams. This observation strongly supports the use of crossbreeding to improve the efficiency of the Zel ewes. With decreasing lamb mortality, through supplemented feeding of lambs in pre-weaning period, and increasing litter weight, through crossbreeding, it should be possible to improve the efficiency of Zel ewes even better than Chal and Moghani ewes. Small body size of Zel ewes that needs the lower maintenance requirements would be a well advantageous to using Zel ewes as the dam herd to produce commercial lambs in north area of Iran.
Differential Influences in Sizes and Cell Cycle Stages of Donor Blastomeres on the Development of Cloned Rabbit Embryos
Ju, Jyh-Cherng ; Yang, Jyh-Shyu ; Liu, Chien-Tsung ; Chen, Chien-Hong ; Tseng, Jung-Kai ; Chou, Po-Chien ; Cheng, San-Pao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 15~22
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.15
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of blastomere diameters and cell cycle stages on the subsequent development of nuclear transplant rabbit embryos (NT-embryos) using nuclei derived from the 16- or 32-cell stage embryos. All blastomeres and NT-embryos were cultured individually in modified Ham's F-10 medium supplemented with 10% rabbit serum (RS) at
in air. The diameter of blastomeres from 16-cell stage embryos was found twice of those from 32-cell stage (51 vs 27
). Significant differences were observed in cleavage rates (
3 divisions) in the isolated single blastomeres (54 vs 48 for 16-cell; 28 vs 14 for 32-cell, p<0.05), but the fusion rates of oocytes with transferred nuclei were similar between small and large single blastomeres derived from either 16-cell or 32-cell stage embryos. When 16-cell stage blastomeres were used as nuclear donors, cleavage rates (
3 divisions) of the NT-embryos were greater in the small nuclear donors than in the large donors (73 vs 55%, p<0.05). On the contrary, significantly higher cleavage (43 vs 6%, p<0.05) and developmental rates (14 vs 0%, p<0.05) were observed in the large blastomere nuclear donor group of the 32-cell stage embryos. When the cell cycle stages were controlled by a microtubule polymerization inhibitor (Demicolcine, DEM) or the combined treatment of DEM and Aphidicolin (APH), a DNA polymerase inhibitor, fusion rates were 88-96% for the 16-cell donor group (without DEM treatment), which were greater than the 32-cell donor group (54-58%). Cleavage rates were also greater in the transplants derived from G1 nuclear donor group (93-95%) than those from the DEM and APH combined treatment (73%) for the 16-cell donor group (p<0.05). No significant difference was detected in the morula/blastocyst rates in either donor cell stage (p>0.05). In conclusion, it appeared that no difference in the developmental competence between large and small isolated blastomeres was observed. When smaller 16-cell stage blastomeres were used as nuclear donor, the cleavage rate or development of NT-embryos was improved and was compromised when 32-cell stage blastomeres were used. Therefore, control nuclear stage of the donor cell at
phase in preactivated nuclear recipients seemed to be beneficial for the cleavage rate of the reconstructed embryo in the 16-cell transplant, but not for subsequent morula or blastocyst development.
Survival and In Vitro Development of Immature Bovine Oocytes Cryopreserved by Vitrification
Yang, Byoung-Chul ; Im, Gi-Sun ; Chang, Won-Kyong ; Lee, Yun-Keun ; Oh, Sung-Jong ; Jin, Dong-Il ; Im, Kyong-Sun ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 23~28
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.23
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of PVP concentration and exposure temperature to vitrification solution on the post-thaw survival, in vitro maturation and development of immature bovine oocytes (germinal vesicle stage). The vitrification solution (VS) consisted of 40% ethylene glycol (EG)+0.5 M sucrose (S)+10% FBS. PVP was added to VS: 0%, 5% or 10%. The cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) were diluted in VS as one step, after 2 min the COCs were loaded in straw and vitrified by direct immersion into liquid nitrogen. For thawing, the straws were plunged into
water bath for 10s. After thawing, the oocytes were diluted in 0.5 M (in DPBS with 10% FBS) sucrose solution for 5 min. The survival rate (FDA-test and trypan blue) of immature bovine oocytes was measured. The survival rate was higher in 5% PVP (91.5%) than in 0% (64.2%) or in 10% PVP (79.7%). The proportion of metaphase II formation was 69.35% in control (no vitrified COCs), 9.3% in 40% EG+0.5 M S+0% PVP and 21.05% in 40% EG+0.5 M S+5% PVP (p<0.05). The effect of room temperature (
for 10 min) and cold temperature (
for 10 min) on COCs were determined in this study. After IVF, the cleavage and blastocysts rate of oocytes exposed to room temperature and cold temperature in VS+5% PVP was significantly different (2 cell: 63.20% vs 37.97%, blastocysts: 18.40% vs 2.53%). The cleavage rates of frozen-thawed oocytes were 20.53% with PVP and 22.13% without PVP (p>0.05). Two out of 151 oocytes (1.32%) developed to blastocyst stage after frozen-thawed with 5% PVP (p>0.05). Development of oocytes after frozen-thawing to the 2 cell were not significantly affected with or without PVP following IVF. However, the vitrification of immature bovine oocytes with PVP maintained the ability to develop to the blastocyst stage after IVM-IVF and IVC, while no blastocysts were obtained from oocytes vitrified without PVP. These results suggested that PVP has a protective role for vitrification of immature bovine oocytes as far as survival is concerned, however, the protection was not sufficient enough to support blastocyst formation.
Relative Performance of Fattening Lambs on Raw and Processed Cottonseed Meal Incorporated Diets
Nagalakshmi, D. ; Sastry, V.R.B. ; Agrawal, D.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 29~35
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.29
In order to find the feasibility of feeding raw or processed cotton (Gossypium) seed meal (CSM), 30 male crossbred lambs were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments with 6 animals each. Lambs were fed each of the isonitrogenous and isocaloric concentrate mixtures containing 30% deoiled groundnut cake (DGNC) (reference diet), 40% raw, 45 minute cooked, 1%
or iron (1 part free gossypol:0.3 parts iron) treated CSM (replacing about 50% nitrogen moiety of reference concentrate mixture). The concentrate mixture was fed to meet 80% of CP requirements (NRC, 1985) along with ad libitum maize (Zea mays) hay for 180 days. Incorporation of raw or processed CSM did not affect the palatability of diets as evidenced by higher (p<0.01) or comparable overall daily intakes of DM and protein (CP and Digestible CP) per kg
by lambs in comparison to reference group. Intakes of DE and ME increased (p<0.01) due to inclusion
treated CSM in diets, while the intakes were lower (p<0.01) on iron treated CSM based diet when compared with reference diet. The intakes of DM, CP, TDN, DE and ME by reference and experimental lambs were higher than the requirements stipulated by NRC (1985). The growth rate was highest (p<0.01) in lambs fed on diets with cooked CSM followed by those fed raw or
treated CSM based diets. The growth of lambs fed on iron treated CSM diets was depressed (p<0.01) in comparison to that of other experimental lambs probably due to increased iron intake (889 mg/kg DM of diet) which was much higher than the toxic levels of 500 ppm (NRC, 1980). The lambs on various diets utilized DM with similar efficiency while the utilization of energy (TDN, DE and ME) was more efficient (p<0.01) when the diets contained raw or cooked CSM in comparison to that of reference diet. The lambs fed raw and
treated CSM incorporated diets utilized DCP with higher (p<0.01) efficiency than the lambs fed reference diet. The feed cost per kg weight gain was lower (p<0.01) on raw, cooked and
treated CSM based diets in comparison to reference diet. Cooking of CSM for 45 minutes further reduced the feed cost of weight gain.
Effect of Different Ratios of Concentrate and Roughage on Lipid Synthesis by Rumen Microorganisms In Vitro
Sasaki, H. ; Horiguchi, K. ; Takahashi, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 36~38
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.36
The effect of different feeding ratios of concentrate to roughage on ruminal lipid synthesis in vitro was examined. Three sheep fitted with a rumen fistula were fed three different ratios (8:2, 4:6 and 0:10) of concentrate and roughage, and their rumen liquor were used for incubation.
-labeled glucose or sodium acetate as substrate was added to cultures of rumen liquor, and they were incubated for 6 h. The total lipid in the culture of the rumen liquor was extracted, and the percentage of
excess was analyzed. The percentage of
excess recovered when incubated with glucose increased with increased ratio of concentrate in the diet. The values of cultures incubated with glucose were higher than those incubated with sodium acetate except the roughage-only feeding. In the roughage-only diet, the percentage of
excess when incubated with sodium acetate was highest of all diets. The recovery percentage of
from glucose increased with increased ratio of concentrate. The recovery percentage of
from sodium acetate addition in only roughage feeding was highest among the three diets. The recovery percentage of
from glucose was markedly higher than that of sodium acetate addition in all feedings. The results indicate that high concentrate feeding facilitates lipid synthesis by rumen microorganisms, and that glucose may be the precursor for lipid synthesis rather than acetic acid.
Dietary Fatty Acid Increases Body Weight Gain without a Change in Rumen Fermentation in Fattening Cattle
Kita, K. ; Oka, M. ; Yokota, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 39~43
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.39
Dietary fatty acid including mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid was fed to fattening cattle and its effect on body weight gain, plasma lipid contents and rumen liquid fermentation in vitro was examined. In expt. 1, the effect of dietary fatty acid on body weight gain and plasma lipid concentrations was examined. In the control diet group, cattle were fed 1 kg/day of rice straw and concentrate which satisfied the requirement. In the fatty acid group, cattle were given 250 g/d of fatty acid with the same diet of the control diet group. In the excess concentrate group, cattle were given the same diet of the control diet group plus 735 g/d of concentrate corresponding to the same TDN of 250 g/d of fatty acid. Diets were given for 7 days. Body weight gain of cattle given dietary fatty acid was significantly greater than that of cattle fed only rice straw and concentrate. When dietary fatty acid was added to cattle feed, plasma NEFA and HDL-cholesterol concentrations increased. In expt. 2, the influence of dietary fatty acid on gas production and VFA profile in the rumen liquid was investigated in vitro. In the control group, 10 mg of rice straw and 90 mg of concentrate were incubated in the rumen fluid. In the excess concentrate group, 10 mg of rice straw and 97.5 mg of concentrate were incubated. In the fatty acid group, 10 mg of rice straw, 90 mg of concentrate and 2.5 mg of fatty acids were incubated. The rumen liquid mixed with feed materials was incubated for 24 h and the cumulative gas volume was measured. The VFA profile was also measured. Cumulative gas volume in the rumen liquid with fatty acid was equal to the control. Excess concentrate increased cumulative gas volume compared to the fatty acid group. There was no significant difference in total VFA concentration between experimental diet groups. It is suggested that dietary fatty acid has the potency to improve growth performance in fattening cattle without failure in rumen fermentation.
Comparison of Some Selected Growth, Physiological and Bone Characteristics of Capon, Slip and Intact Birds in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
Lin, Cheng-Yung ; Hsu, Jenn-Chung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 50~56
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.50
An experiment was carried out to compare the body weight, shank length, rectal temperature, comb area, abdominal fat, blood parameters and bone traits of capon, slip and intact birds in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. One hundred and sixty-six Taiwan country chicken cockerels were randomly assigned to caponized or intact male groups. Caponized birds were surgically altered at 10 weeks old and raised to 28 weeks old. At 28 weeks of age, the capons were separated into capon and slip groups, depending on the atrophy of the comb and wattle in size. The results showed that body weight and shank length in slips were significantly (p<0.05) greater than in intact birds. Intact birds had the highest (p<0.05）feather scores and the lowest (p<0.05) rectal temperature. Compared with intact birds and slips, capons had a significantly (p<0.05) smaller comb area. Bone percentage, stress and cortical thickness, and bone and ash calcium content and plasma testosterone concentration, in intact birds were the highest (p<0.05) followed by slips and capons. However, intact birds had the lowest (p<0.05) plasma ionized calcium and phosphorus concentrations. Bone and ash manganese contents in capons were significantly (p<0.05)lower than those in others. These findings support the hypothesis that androgenic effects on secondary sexual characteristics are stronger than anabolic growth promoting response. Androgens can directly influence calcium fluxes in male chickens. Caponized caused a reduction in the bone percentage, stress, cortical thickness and bone calcium content.
Comparative Performance of Broilers Fed Diets Containing Processed Meals of BT, Parental Non-BT Line or Commercial Cotton Seeds
Elangovan, A.V. ; Mandal, A.B. ; Johri, T.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 57~62
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.57
An effort was made to assess comparative production performance in broiler chickens fed diets containing solvent extracted cottonseed meal (CSM) processed from BT and Parental Non-BT lines. Processed meal of national check and commercial produce cottonseeds were also used for comparison. The free gossypol contents were 0.02, 0.02, 0.44 and 0.03% in meals of BT, Parental Non-BT, national check and commercial produce cottonseeds, respectively. Day-old broiler chicks (n=243) were divided to 27 groups of 9 each. Nine dietary treatments (iso-nitrogenous, 23% CP and iso-caloric, 2,800 kcal ME/kg) were formulated viz., D1 (control, soybean meal-SBM based), D2 and D3 (BT CSM at 10% of diet with and without additional iron), D4 and D5 (non-BT CSM with and without additional iron), D6 and D7 (national check CSM with or without additional iron), and D8 and D9 (commercial produce CSM with or without additional iron at 2 ppm for every 1 ppm of free gossypol, respectively). Each dietary treatment was offered to three replicated groups up to 6 weeks of age. At the end of 6 weeks of age, 10 birds were taken out randomly from each treatment and were sacrificed to study carcass traits, organs' yield and histo-pathological changes in vital organs. The broiler chickens received CSM processed from BT (D2, 1,753 g and D3, 1,638 g) and Parental Non-BT (D4, 1,653 g and D5, 1,687 g) with or without additional Fe grew at same rate as observed in soybean meal (solvent ext.) based diet (D1, 1,676 g). The feed intake and feed conversion efficiency (feed: gain) in these dietary treatments (BT, non-BT line based diets) also did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from control diet. Similar observation was also observed in dietary treatments (D8 and D9) containing solvent extracted cottonseed meal of commercial produce origin. However, a decrease (p<0.05) in body weight gain and feed intake was observed in D6 containing national check CSM with high gossypol content. Addition of Fe in the diet (D7) improved (p<0.05) feed intake and weight gain but not to the extent as observed in diets containing BT, parental non-BT, and commercial produce CSM or control. However, any type of CSM did not affect feed conversion efficiency when fed with or without additional iron. The carcass characteristics in terms of dressing percentage, liver weight and heart weight was not significantly (p>0.05) different between the treatments. The eviscerated yields emanated from diets containing either BT, non-BT or commercial produce were statistically similar to control. However, eviscerated yield of broilers fed national check CSM with or without iron supplementation was lower (p<0.05) than BT cotton with Fe supplementation and commercial produce CSM. The study envisaged that BT, parental non-BT and commercial produce solvent extracted cottonseed meal can be included at 10% in soybean meal based broiler diet replacing soybean meal and rice bran without additional iron.
Effects of Moist Extruded Full-fat Soybeans on Gut Morphology and Mucosal Cell Turnover Time of Weanling Pigs
Qiao, Shiyan ; Li, Defa ; Jiang, Jianyang ; Zhou, Hongjie ; Li, Jingsu ; Thacker, P.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 63~69
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.63
Ten barrows, weaned at 28 days (7.2
0.1 kg BW), were used to evaluate the effects of feeding extruded full-fat soybeans on intestinal morphology and mucosal cell turnover time. All pigs were fed corn-based diets with half of the pigs receiving diets supplemented with 15.5% soybean meal and 3% soybean oil and the remaining pigs fed a diet in which the soybean meal and oil were replaced by 18.5% extruded full-fat soybeans. The pigs were individually placed in
metabolic cages and fed twice daily an amount approximately equal to their ad libitum intake for a period of 14 days. On day 14, pigs were weighed and then injected intraperitoneally with
of BW, specific activity 20 Ci/mmol) 6 h after the morning meal. A pig from each treatment was killed 1, 4, 8, 16, or 24 h postinjection and intestinal tissues were collected. Daily gains for pigs fed the soybean diet and extruded full-fat soybean diet were 0.24 and 0.31 kg/day (p=0.05) with feed conversions of 1.58 and 1.39 (p=0.05), respectively. In comparison with pigs fed soybean meal, pigs fed moist extruded full-fat soybeans had a decreased crypt depth in their duodenum and cecum (p<0.1), while the villus height in the mid jejunum and ileum and the total height (villus height plus crypt depth) of the ileum and mid jejunum increased (p<0.05). The villus width in the duodenum and mid jejunum decreased (p<0.05). The number of crypt epithelial cells in the upper jejunum increased but decreased in the ileum, colon and cecum (p<0.05). The number of villus epithelial cells in the ileum and the upper and mid jejunum increased (p<0.05). The time for migration of epithelial cells in the crypt-villus column decreased (p<0.05) in all sites except the upper jejunum, ileum and cecum. The mucosal turnover rate for all intestinal sites except the upper jejunum, colon and cecum decreased (p<0.05). From these data, we conclude that inclusion of moist extruded full-fat soybeans in weanling pig diets can improve the intestinal morphology and slow the migration rate and turnover time of epithelial cells of the small intestine, especially in the mid jejunum compared with soybean meal.
Effects of Amylase and Cellulase Supplementation in Sorghum-based Diets for Finishing Pigs
Park, J.S. ; Kim, I.H. ; Hancock, J.D. ; Hines, R.H. ; Cobb, C. ; Cao, H. ; Hong, J.W. ; Kwon, O.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 70~76
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.70
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of a sorghum-specific enzyme system, derived from an Aspergillus niger and Bacillus subtilis fermentation extract (carbohydrase activity of 1,650
-amylase units and cellulase activity of 30 fibrinolytic units/mL), on growth performance of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1,192 pigs (average initial BW of 46.1 kg) were fed sorghum-based diets without or with 360 mL of enzyme system per ton of sorghum in a 78 d growth assay. For d 0 to 39, gain/feed was improved (p<0.03) with enzyme supplementation, but ADG was not affected (p>0.15). For d 39 to 78 and overall (d 0 to 78), ADG, gain/feed, and digestibilities of DM and N were not affected (p>0.13) by enzyme supplementation. Backfat thickness, fat-free lean index, and scores for stomach keratinization and ulcers also were not affected (p>0.15) by the dietary treatments. In Exp. 2,168 pigs (average initial BW of 58.4 kg) were fed diets without or with 150, 300, or 450 mL/ton of the same enzyme system used in Exp. 1. Adding as much as 450 mL enzyme system / ton of sorghum did not affect (p>0.15) ADG or gain/feed for d 0 to 29 of the growth assay. However, during d 29 to 63, ADG increased by 11% (linear effect, p<0.02) and gain/feed increased by 10% (linear effect, p<0.06) as enzyme concentration was increased from none to 450 mL/ton of sorghum. For the overall period (d 0 to 63), ADG tended to increase (p<0.08) with enzyme supplementation, but gain/feed and digestibilities of DM and N were not affected (p>0.14). Carcass characteristics (dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and fat free lean index) also were not affected (p>0.20) by addition of the enzyme system. In Exp. 3,176 pigs (average initial BW of 46.7 kg) were fed diets without or with 450, 900, or 1,350 mL/ton of the same enzyme system used in Exp. 1 and 2 in a 71 d growth assay. Adding up to 1,350 mL/ton of enzyme had no effects (p>0.15) on ADG, gain/feed, digestibilities of DM and N, and carcass characteristics (dressing percentage, backfat thickness, and fat-free lean index). In conclusion, finishing pigs fed diets with a sorghum-specific enzyme system showed some positive trends for improved growth performance, but those effects were not large and (or) consistent.
Effect of Dietary Formic and Propionic Acids Mixture on Limiting Salmonella pullorum in Layer Chicks
Al-Tarazi, Y.H. ; Alshawabkeh, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 77~82
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.77
This investigation was conducted to study the effect of dietary formic acid (FA) and propionic acid (PA) mixture on inhibitory effect of Salmonella pullorum in layer chicks. Nine groups of one day-old layer chicks in addition to positive and negative controls, were fed with acids treated feed containing mixture of different acids concentrations, from 0.5% and 0.5% up to 1.5% and 1.5% FA and PA, respectively. Positive and negative controls were fed untreated feed. Groups except the negative control were challenged orally on day three with
cfu/ml S. pullorum. Cloacal swabs were taken at three successive days and at 7, 14 and 21 days of challenge. After 1, 2 and 3 weeks after challenge, 4 chicks from each group were sacrificed and crop and cecal contents were examined for S. pullorum and pH. The numbers of S. pullorum positive culture from the excretion of all treated groups except groups treated with mixture of 0.5% and 0.5%, 1% and 0.5%, 0.5% and 1% FA and PA decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared with the positive control. The mortality rates of all treated groups except the group treated with 0.5% FA and 0.5% PA were decreased significantly (p<0.05) as compared with the positive control. The treatment significantly (p<0.05) lowered the pH of the crop and cecal contents in all groups except the group treated with 0.5% FA and 0.5% PA as compared with the control. Also, the treatment significantly (p<0.05) lowered the pH of the crop and cecal contents in all groups after three weeks of treatment compared to the first and second weeks. The treatments significantly (p<0.05) lowered the frequency of S. pullorum recovery from crop and cecal contents in six groups treated with 1.5 and 0.5, 1 and 1, 1.5 and 1, 0.5 and 1.5, 1 and 1.5, 1.5% and 1.5% FA and PA respectively. These results indicate that addition of FA and PA mixture in a total concentration of 2 % or more to the diet of newly hatched infected layer chicks significantly decreases the crop and cecal colonization by S. pullorum and significantly decreases S. pullorum fecal excretion and reduced the chick mortality rate.
Effects of Surfactant Tween 80 on Enzymatic Accessibility and Degradation of Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) at Different Growth Stages
Goto, M. ; Bae, Hee-Dong ; Yahaya, M.S. ; Karita, S. ; Wanjae, K. ; Baah, J. ; Sugawara, K. ; Cheng, K.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 83~87
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.83
The study evaluates the enzymatic dry matter (DM) degradability and water holding capacity of leaf and stem fractions of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) at different growth stages with or without the presence of surfactant Tween 80. While Tween 80 significantly (p<0.05) increased water and enzyme holding capacities in the leaf blades fraction, less was observed in the fraction of leaf sheath and stem of orchardgrass. The enzyme holding capacity in the leaves was also altered more than that for water holding capacity. This resulted in the increased rate and extent of enzymatic hydrolysis of the leaf blade fractions at two growth stages, whereas little was with leaf sheath and stem fractions. It was also observed that at 0.005% concentrations of Tween 80 the enzymatic DM degradability of young leaf blades was higher (p<0.05) by 20-30% compared to that of the control, as well as for water and enzyme holding capacity. For matured leaf blades the DM degradability were increased with over 0.01% concentrations of the surfactant, but the increase was less than leaf blades of young orchardgrass. This result suggests the possibility of using the surfactant Tween 80 to improve forage digestibility in the rumen.
Effects of Exogenous Bovine Somatotropin on Mammary Function of Late Lactating Crossbred Holstein Cows
Tanwattana, P. ; Chanpongsang, S. ; Chaiyabutr, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 88~95
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.88
The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of exogenous bovine somatotropin on the mammary function in late lactating crossbred Holstein cows. Twelve 87.5% late lactating Holstein cows, approximately 30 weeks postpartum, were divided into two groups of 6 animals each. Animals in the control group were given sodium bicarbonate buffer by subcutaneous injection, while animals in the treated group were given recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) by subcutaneous injection with 500 mg of bST (14 day prolonged-release bST). After bST injection, milk yield significantly increased from the control level on day 8 to day 20 (p<0.05) with a concomitant increase in mammary blood flow (p<0.01). An increase in mammary blood flow in response to bST treatment was greater than an increase in milk production. An increased plasma concentration of IGF-I coincided with an increase in mammary blood flow in animals treated with bST. There were no significant changes in the concentration of arterial plasma glucose concentration, the arteriovenous concentration difference (A-V difference) and mammary extraction ratio while the mammary glucose uptake increased when compared to the control group. The concentration of arterial plasma triglyceride decreased throughout the experimental period in animals give bST. The plasma concentration of acetate, and the mammary uptake for acetate significantly increased (p<0.05) after bST treatment. The action of bST did not affect the plasma concentration, A-V difference and extraction ratio across the mammary gland for
-hydroxybutyrate. The concentrations of milk fat and lactose tended to increase during bST treatment. Milk protein concentration initially increased in the first few days and decreased after bST injection when compared to the pretreated period. The present results indicated that bST could affect the mammary function in late lactating cows by increase in milk yield involving changes in both extra-mammary and intra-mammary mechanisms. The exogenous bST exerted its galactopoietic action through an increase in circulating IGF-I of the late lactating Crossbred Holstein cattle.
Effect of Organic Acids on Microbial Populations and Salmonella typhimurium in Pork Loins
Kang, Seoknam ; Jang, Aera ; Lee, Sang Ok ; Min, Joong Seok ; Kim, Il Suk ; Lee, Mooha ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 96~99
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.96
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of various organic acids on microbial characteristics and Salmonella typhimurium in pork loins. Fresh pork loins were sprayed with various organic acids such as lactic acid, citric acid and acetic acid at various concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2%). After spraying, the samples were packaged by HDPE film under air and stored at
for 14 days, and analyzed. Microbial deterioration of pork loins during the aerobic cold storage was delayed by organic acid spray. The bactericidal effect of acids increased with the increasing concentration. However, the inhibitory activity of organic acids during the storage varied with the kinds and concentrations of the acids. As for total plate counts, acetic acid was found to have the highest bactericidal activity, whereas citric acid was found to be the most inhibitory for coliform and S. typhimurium.
Association of a Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in the 5'-Flanking Region of Porcine HSP70.2 with Backfat Thickness in Duroc Breed
Chen, Ming-Yu ; Huang, San-Yuan ; Lin, En-Chung ; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung ; Lee, Wen-Chuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 100~103
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.100
Higher environmental temperature affects the economic performance of pigs. Heat shock protein 70 has been shown to play an important role in thermoresistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of a single nucleotide polymorphism in the 5'-flanking region of porcine HSP70.2 on growth performance in Taiwanese Duroc. The genotype of this nt 393 polymorphic site could be verified by digestion with Bsa WI restriction enzyme of a PCR product. Pigs with TT and TC genotypes have thinner backfats than those with CC type (p<0.05). The result suggested that the polymorphic Bsa WI site in the 5'flanking region of porcine HSP70.2 may be used as a marker for the early selection of ultrasonic backfat thickness in Duroc pigs.
Effects of Non-ionic Surfactants on Enzyme Distributions of Rumen Contents, Anaerobic Growth of Rumen Microbes, Rumen Fermentation Characteristics and Performances of Lactating Cows
Lee, S.S. ; Ahn, B.H. ; Kim, H.S. ; Kim, C.H. ; Cheng, K.-J. ; Ha, J.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 104~115
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.104
A series of experiments was carried out to determine the possibility for the non-ionic surfactant (NIS) as a feed additive for ruminant animals. The effect of the NIS on (1) the enzyme distribution in the rumen fluids of Hereford bulls, (2) the growth of pure culture of rumen bacteria and (3) rumen anaerobic fungi, (4) the ruminal fermentation characteristics of Korean native cattle (Hanwoo), and (5) the performances of Holstein dairy cows were investigated. When NIS was added to rumen fluid at the level of 0.05 and 0.1% (v/v), the total and specific activities of cell-free enzymes were significantly (p<0.01) increased, but those of cell-bound enzymes were slightly decreased, but not statistically significant. The growth rates of ruminal noncellulolytic species (Ruminobacter amylophilus, Megasphaera elsdenii, Prevotella ruminicola and Selenomonas ruminantium) were significantly (p<0.01) increased by the addition of NIS at both concentrations tested. However, the growth rate of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria (Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens) were slightly increased or not affected by the NIS. In general, NIS appears to effect Gram-negative bacteria more than Gram-positive bacteria; and non-cellulolytic bacteria more than cellulolytic bacteria. The growth rates of ruminal monocentric fungi (Neocallimastix patriciarum and Piromyces communis) and polycentric fungi (Orpinomyces joyonii and Anaeromyces mucronatus) were also significantly (p<0.01) increased by the addition of NIS at all concentrations tested. When NIS was administrated to the rumen of Hanwoo, Total VFA and ammonia-N concentrations, the microbial cell growth rate, CMCase and xylanase activities in the rumen increased with statistical difference (p<0.01), but NIS administration did not affect at the time of 0 and 9 h post-feeding. Addition of NIS to TMR resulted in increased TMR intake and increased milk production by Holstein cows and decreased body condition scores. The NEFA and corticoid concentrations in the blood were lowered by the addition of NIS. These results indicated that the addition of NIS may greatly stimulate the release of some kinds of enzymes from microbial cells, and stimulate the growth rates of a range of anaerobic ruminal microorganisms, and also stimulate the rumen fermentation characteristics and animal performances. Our data indicates potential uses of the NIS as a feed additive for ruminant animals.
Characterising Forages for Ruminant Feeding
Dynes, R.A. ; Henry, D.A. ; Masters, D.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 116~123
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.116
Forages are the most important feed resource for ruminants worldwide, whether fed as pastures, forage crops or conserved hay, silage or haylage. There is large variability in the quality of forages so measurement and prediction of feeding value and nutritive value are essential for high levels of production. Within a commercial animal production system, methods of prediction must be inexpensive and rapid. At least 50% of the variation in feeding value of forages is due to variation in voluntary feed intake. Identification of the factors that constrain voluntary feed intake allows these differences to be managed and exploited in forage selection. Constraints to intake have been predicted using combinations of metabolic and physical factors within the animal while simple measurements such as the energy required to shear the plant material are related to constraints to intake with some plant material. Animals respond to both pre- and post-ingestive feedback signals from forages. Pre-ingestive signals may play a role in intake with signals including taste, odour and texture together with learned aversions to nutrients or toxins (post-ingestive feedback signals). The challenge to forage evaluation is identification of the factors which are most important contributors to these feedback signals. Empirical models incorporating chemical composition are also widely used. The models tend to be useful within the ranges of the datasets used in their development but none can claim to have universal application. Mechanistic models are becoming increasingly complex and sophisticated and incorporate both feed characteristics and use of biochemical pathways within the animal. Improvement in utilisation through the deliberate selection of pasture plants for high feeding value appears to have potential and has been poorly exploited. Use of Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy is a simple method that offers significant potential for the preliminary screening of plants with genetic differences in feeding value. Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy will only be as reliable as the calibration sets from which the equations are generated.
Application of Phytase, Microbial or Plant Origin, to Reduce Phosphorus Excretion in Poultry Production
Paik, InKee ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 1, 2003, Pages 124~135
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.124
In order to prevent pollution from animal waste, the excretion of nutrients should be reduced through proper nutritional management. Among the many nutrients of concern, such as N, P, Cu, Zn and K, P is one of the most concerned nutrients to be managed. Seven feeding trials, three with layers and four with broilers, were conducted to determine if microbial phytase supplementation can reduce non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) level in diets and results in concomitant reductions of P excretion. The results showed that microbial phytase can be successfully used to achieve these purposes. Activity of natural phytase in certain plant feedstuffs is high enough to be considered in feed formulation. Three experiments have been conducted to study the characteristics of plant phytase and its application to feeding of broilers. Selected brands of wheat bran could be successfully used as a source of phytase in broiler feeding.