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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 16, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
The Relation between Genetic Polymorphism Markers and Milk Yield in Brown Swiss Cattle Imported to Slovakia
Chrenek, P. ; Huba, J. ; Vasicek, D. ; Peskovicova, D. ; Bulla, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1397~1401
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1397
The aim of this study was to determine genotypes of four genetic markers and to investigate their association with milk production traits in Brown Swiss cattle imported to Slovakia. The bovine
-lactoglobulin, growth hormone and prolactin genotypes of 107 cows were identified by polymerase chain reaction. Effects all four genetic markers on milk, fat, protein and lactose yields and fat, protein and lactose percentage were estimated from a data set of 249 lactations. The frequency of desirable B allele of
-casein gene to milk production was 0.46, alleles A of
-lactoglobulin gene was 0.55, allele and L of growth hormone gene was 0.45 and allele A and B of bovine prolactin gene were 0.61 and 0.39. The results of milk production obtained in our work showed that BB genotypes of
-CN gene, AA genotypes of
-LG gene, LL genotypes of bGH gene were significantly associated with better milk production traits, mainly about the fat content. Association of a bovine prolactin genotypes with milk production were not found.
Linkage Mapping and QTL on Chromosome 6 in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)
Kim, J.W. ; Park, S.I. ; Yeo, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1402~1405
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1402
The QTL(quantitative traits loci) linkage mapping of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) chromosome 6 for daily gain and marbling score was performed using 378 individuals from 18 paternal half-sib families in Hanwoo. Hanwoo chromosome 6 were mapped to total length of 394.2 cM between 28 microsatellite loci using 36 microsatellite primers of BTA 6 linkage group. The QTL analysis for daily gain in Hanwoo showed 8 microsatellite loci (BM3026-5.66, EL03-5.58, BM4311-5.29, ILSTS035-4.50, BMS1242-4.37, BM1329-3.67, BM415-3.11, BMS2460-3.03) in larger than LOD score 3.0. Based on the QTL analysis for marbling score, LOD scores of 12 microsatellite loci (BM415-8.88, BM3026-7.15, ILSTS093-5.45, ILSTS035-4.91, EL03-4.69, BMS690-4.52, BM1329-4.43, BMS511-3.74, BMS1242-3.66, BMS518-3.65, BM4311-3.41, BMC4203-3.36) were found larger than 3.0.
RAPD Fingerprinting for the Species Identification of Animals
Huang, Mu-Chiou ; Horng, Yan-Ming ; Huang, Hsiu-Lin ; Sin, Yen-Long ; Chen, Ming-Jaw ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1406~1410
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1406
The studies were based on the RAPD fingerprinting for the species identification of animals. The genomic DNA samples of ostriches, Taiwan local chickens, Aboracres broilers, Leghorn chickens, quails, doves, emus, Beltville small white turkeys, pheasants, Chinese geese, mule ducks, Holstein cattle and Landrace pigs were amplified with random primers by RAPD-PCR for fingerprinting. The results showed that the varied band patterns of DNA fingerprints were generated from templates depending on the kinds of primers or animal species. The same primer applied to the same breed, all of the main bands are similar, but which were different among species. In order to try to identify the species from the mixture of meat by RAPD fingerprinting, the meat of ostrich and cattle was mixed in different ratios for this study. The results showed that it could be easily and precisely distinguished according to the band distribution of RAPD patterns.
Current Status of Comparative Mapping in Livestock
Lee, J.H. ; Moran, C. ; Park, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1411~1420
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1411
Comparative maps, representing chromosomal locations of homologous genes in different species, are useful sources of information for identifying candidate disease genes and genes determining complex traits. They facilitate gene mapping and linkage prediction in other species, and provide information on genome organization and evolution. Here, the current gene mapping and comparative mapping status of the major livestock species are presented. Two techniques were widely used in comparative mapping: FISH (Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization) and PCR-based mapping using somatic cell hybrid (SCH) or radiation hybrid (RH) panels. New techniques, using, for example, ESTs (Expressed Sequence Tags) or CASTS (Comparatively Anchored Sequence Tagged Sites), also have been developed as useful tools for analyzing comparative genome organization in livestock species, further enabling accurate transfer of valuable information from one species to another.
Cross Fertility between the Wild Japanese Quail in the Weishan Lake Area and Domestic Quail
Xu, W. ; Chang, H. ; Wang, H.Y. ; Chang, G.B. ; Du, L. ; Lu, S.X. ; Yi, H.Q. ; Xu, Q. ; Xu, M. ; Wang, Q.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1421~1423
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1421
Cross fertility between wild Japanese quail and domestic quail was explored in an experiment conducted on 18（3♂, 15♀）wild Japanese quails in Weishan Lake area, 18（3♂, 15♀）medium-sized domestic quails and 18（3♂, 15♀）pint-sized domestic quails, which were divided into nine groups. This study demonstrated that wild quail could succeed in crossing with domestic quail,producing fertilized eggs and hatching first filial generation. The findings indicated that there were no reproduction isolation between the wild Japanese quail and domestic quail, and that the best cross combination was between wild male quail and medium-sized domestic female quail, in which the fertility rate and hatchability of fertilized eggs amounted to 42.86% and 29.63% respectively. Based on the results, a new way could be adopted to protect, exploit and utilize genetic resources of wild quail.
Post-thaw Thermal Resistance Test on Motility and Acrosomal Integrity of Filtered and Non-filtered Frozen Semen of Murrah Buffalo Bulls
Maurya, V.P. ; Tuli, R.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1424~1428
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1424
Present investigation was conducted to determine the post-thaw sperm motility and acrosomal damage of filtered and non-filtered frozen semen of Murrah buffalo bulls. Twenty semen ejaculates (from four Murrah buffalo bulls collected at weekly interval) were diluted in Tris egg yolk glycerol extender and divided into two parts. One was filtered through sephadex G-100 column and the other portion was kept as such (non-filtered). Both fractions were frozen in liquid nitrogen (
) by the standard method developed in the laboratory. After 24 h of freezing, non-filtered and filtered semen samples were thawed at
for 1 min. These samples were incubated at
in a water both. The different seminal characteristics i.e. percent progressive sperm motility, live and abnormal spermatozoa and spermatozoa with damaged acrosome were assessed at hourly interval till they remained motile. The filtered frozen and thawed semen showed significantly (p<0.05) high sperm viability and acrosomal integrity as compared to non-filtered semen.
Nutritive Evaluation of Some Browse Tree Legume Foliages Native to Semi-arid Areas in Western Tanzania
Rubanza, C.D.K. ; Shem, M.N. ; Otsyina, R. ; Ichinohe, T. ; Fujihara, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1429~1437
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1429
Browse tree legume leaves from Acacia spp (A. nilotica, A. tortilis, A. polyacantha), Dichrostachys sp, Flagea villosa, Piliostigma thonningii, Harrisonia sp were evaluated for nutritive potential (chemical compositions and degradability characteristics) compared to Gliricidia sepium. Effect of tannins anti-nutritive activity on digestibility was also assessed by polyethylene glycol (PEG) tannin bioassay. Crude protein (CP), ash, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL) differed (p<0.05) between legume foliages. Mean CP, ash, NDF, ADF and ADL for fodder species tested were 158, 92, 385, 145, and 100 g/kg DM, respectively. CP ranged from 115 (P. thonningii) to 205 g/kg DM (G. sepium). Acacia spp had moderate CP values (g/kg DM) of 144 (A. nilotica), to high CP in A. tortilis (188) and A. polyacantha (194) comparable to G. sepium. The forages had relatively lower fiber compositions. A. nilotica had (p<0.05) lowest NDF, ADF and ADL (182, 68 and 44) compared to P. thonningii (619, 196 and 130) g/kg DM, respectively. Except G. sepium, all fodder species had detectable high phenolic and tannin contents greater than 5% DM, an upper beneficial level in animal feeding and nutrition. Mean total phenolics (TP), total tannins (TT) and condensed tannins (CT) (or proanthocyanidins) for fodder species tested were 139, 113 and 43 mg/g DM, respectively. F. villosa had (p<0.05) lowest TP and TT of 65 and 56 mg/g DM, respectively, compared to A. nilotica (237 and 236 mg/g DM, respectively). The CT varied (p<0.05) from 6 (F. villosa) to 74 mg/g DM (Dichrostachys sp). In vitro organic matter (OM) degradability (OMD) differed (p<0.05) between fodder species. G. sepium had (p<0.05) high degradability potential compared to A. polyacantha that had (p<0.05) the lowest OMD values. Forage degradability ranked: G. sepium>A. nilotica>P. thonningi>F. villosa>Dichrostachys sp>A. tortilis>A. polyacantha. Addition of PEG resulted to (p<0.05) improvement in in vitro OM digestibility (IVD). Increase in IVD was mainly due to binding action of PEG on tannins; and represents potential nutritive values previously depressed by tannins anti-nutritive activity. Browse fodder has potential as sources of ruminal nitrogen especially for ruminants consuming low quality roughages due to high protein, lower fiber compositions and high potential digestibility. However, utilization of browse supplements in ruminants is hampered by high phenolic and tannin contents. Deactivation of tannin anti-nutritive activity, possibly by feeding tanniniferous browse with other readily available nitrogen sources to dilute tannin anti-nutritive activity could improve utilization of browse fodder supplements. Further studies are needed to assess browse fodder palatability and intake, and their effect on growth performance in ruminants.
A Method for Determination of Nitrogen in Ruminant Feedstuffs and Products
Islam, M.R. ; Ishida, M. ; Ando, S. ; Nishida, T. ; Yamada, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1438~1442
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1438
A method for the determination of nitrogen in ruminant feedstuffs, products and excreta (e.g. milk and urine) using a spectrophotometer is developed, where samples processed for P determination are also used to determine N. Samples are digested with sulphuric acid and subsequently with hydrogen peroxide in Kjeldahl tubes. Digested solutions along with phenol and buffered alkaline hypochlorite reagents are incubated in a water bath at
for 30 min and presented in the spectrophotometer. The spectrophotometer set at 625 nm measures the concentration of N of each sample. Nitrogen in 261 of the samples was also determined by the classical Kjeldahl method in order to develop a relationship between N determined by the Kjeldahl method (Y) and the colorimetric method (X). The mean value of Y was as high as that of X (0.92 vs. 0.96; p>0.05). The colorimetric method predicted Kjeldahl N highly significantly (Y=0.985X-0.024,
, p<0.001; or more simply Y=0.974X,
, p<0.001). An analysis of regression found no difference (p>0.05; both t-test and F-test) between colorimetric (0.96% N) and adjusted (0.96% N) N. In comparison with the Kjeldahl method, the analytical capacity of N by colorimetric method increases greatly, where 200-300 determinations of N are possible in a working day. In addition, the system provides an opportunity to use not only the same digested solution for both N and P determination of a particular sample, but also uses the same spectrophotometer to assay both N and P. Therefore, the system may be attractive in situations where both elements of a sample are to be determined. In conclusion, the speed of N determination, low cost, efficient use of labour, time and reagents, fewer items of equipment, and the reduction of environmental pollution by reducing effluent and toxic elements are the advantages of this method of N determination.
Influence of Grain Processing and Dietary Protein Degradability on Nitrogen Metabolism, Energy Balance and Methane Production in Young Calves
Pattanaik, A.K. ; Sastry, V.R.B. ; Katiyar, R.C. ; Lal, Murari ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1443~1450
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1443
Crossbred (Bos taurus
Bos indicus) calves were used from birth till 14 weeks of age to evaluate three sources of protein that differed in ruminal degradability viz. groundnut cake alone (HD) or in combination with cottonseed meal (MD) and meat and bone meal (LD), when fed along with two sources of non-structural carbohydrates viz. raw (R) and thermally processed (P) maize. Twenty four new born calves were arranged in six groups in a
factorial design and fed on whole milk up to 56 d of age. All the different calves received calf startes along with green oats (Avena sativa) from 14 d of age onwards free-choice. A metabolism trial of 6d starters duration, conducted after 90 d of experimental feeding, revealed greater (p<0.05) digestibility of DM, OM, total carbohydrates, NDF and ADF in calves fed on the P diets than on the R diets promoting greater (p<0.05) metabolizable energy intake. The digestibility of NDF was higher (p<0.01) on LD diets where as calves on MD diets exhibited significantly lower digestibility of ADF (p<0.01). The retention of nitrogen per unit metabolic body size was significantly (p<0.05) higher on the LD-P diet than on the diet HD-P which, in turn, was higher (p<0.05) than that of HD-R. Nitrogen retention as percentage of intake was significantly greater (p<0.05) on LD-P than on LD-R diets (52.2 vs. 36.4%). Also, P fed calves utilized nitrogen more efficiently than the R fed as shown by retention of significantly greater proportions of intake (47.4 vs. 40.9%) and absorbed (65.8 vs. 59.5%) nitrogen. Calorimetric evaluation of the diets through open-circuit respiration chamber revealed that the dietary treatments had no impact on methane production by calves. The intake of DE and ME was improved (p<0.01) because of maize processing resulting in greater (p<0.01) retention of energy. The protein degradability exerted no influence on the partitioning or retention of energy. A significant interaction between cereal and protein types was evident with respect to retention of both nitrogen (p<0.01) and energy (p<0.05). In conclusion, no discernible trend in the influence of cereal processing was apparent on the dietary protein degradability, but the positive effect of cereal processing on energy retention diminished with the increase in dietary undegradability.
Carcass Characteristics of Goats Fed Ammoniated Neem (Azadirachta indica) Seed Kernel Cake
Anandan, S. ; Musalia, L.M. ; Sastry, V.R.B. ; Agrawal, D.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1451~1454
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1451
The present investigation was carried out to study the affect of feeding urea ammoniated neem kernel meal on carcass characteristics and organoleptic properties of the meat in goats. Eight local weaned kids of 3-4 months age with mean body weight of
were assigned to two groups of four each in a completely randomised design and were offered diets containing isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures containing either peanut meal or urea ammoniated neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel meal (UANSKM) along with ad libitium oat hay or green sorghum as roughage for 13 fortnights. The animals were slaughtered at the end of the experimental period and the carcass characteristics and organoleptic evaluation of the meat was carried out. The carcass characteristics in terms of dressing percentage, meat bone ratio, percent edible and inedible did not differ between the treatments. Similarly the organoleptic characteristics and cooking loss were comparable between the treatments implying that UANSKM can be substituted for peanut meal in goat diets to alleviate the shortage and high cost of peanut meal without affecting meat quality.
Effect of Individual versus Group Rearing and Feeding of Different Levels of Milk and Skim Milk on Nutrient Utilization in Crossbred Calves
Babu, L.K. ; Pandey, H.N. ; Sahoo, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1455~1459
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1455
factorial design was used to study the impact of rearing systems, individual (I) vs. group (G) and different levels of milk/skim milk feeding (three schedules, F1, F2 and F3) on performance of crossbred (Bos indicus
Bos taurus) calves. Six calves (three from each sex) were taken in each group on the basis of their birth weight. All the calves were fed colostrum for three days and thereafter, were allotted to three different milk feeding schedules (F), i.e. milk fed upto 8 weeks of age (F1), milk upto 4 weeks followed by 50% (F2) and 100% (F3) replacement of milk with skim milk in the next 4 weeks. Calf starter and cereal green fodder were fed ad libitum to all the calves beginning from second week of age. A digestibility trial was conducted at 15th week of age to assess nutrient utilization during postweaning period. The digestibilty of dry matter (DM), organic matter, total carbohydrate, ether extract and crude protein (CP) were nonsignificant between the rearing systems and the feeding schedules. There was significantly higher digestibility of NDF and ADF in G than I and in F3 than F1 and F2. The concentration CP and total digestible nutrients of the diet ranged from 17.18 to 17.75% and 66.32 to 70.14%, respectively. The DM intake (kg/100 kg body weight) ranged from 1.74 to 2.14 kg during 0 to 8 weeks and 3.19 to 3.41 kg during 0 to 14 weeks of age. The effects during postweaning phase (9-14 weeks of age) showed increased performance in group housed calves compared to individually housed ones with a superior average daily gain (590 vs. 443 g) and dry matter intake (1.79 vs. 1.64 kg). Above all, replacement of milk with skim milk at 50% level after 4th week followed by complete removal after 6th week of age (F2) seemed to suit better in coping with immediate energy starvation due to sole feeding of skim milk (F3) and they performed the best under group housed system of rearing.
Flow of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen in the Liquid Phase of Digesta Entering the Omasum of Dairy Cows Given Grass Silage Based Diets
Choi, C.W. ; Choi, C.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1460~1468
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1460
An experiment was conducted to quantify the flow of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in the liquid phase of ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD), and to investigate diurnal pattern in SNAN flow in OD. Five ruminally cannulated Finnish-Ayrshire dairy cows in a
Latin square design consumed a basal diet of grass silage and barley grain, and that supplemented with four protein feeds (kg/d DM basis) as follows: skimmed milk powder (2.1), wet distiller' solubles (3.0), untreated rapeseed meal (2.1) and treated rapeseed meal (2.1). Ruminal digesta was sampled using a vacuum pump, whereas OD was collected using an omasal sampling system at 1.0 h interval during a 12 h feeding cycle. Both RD and OD were acidified, centrifuged to remove microbes and precipitated with trichloroacetic acid followed by centrifugation. The SNAN fractions (free amino acid (AA), peptide and soluble protein) in RD and OD were assessed using ninhydrin assay. Free AA, peptide and soluble protein averaged 60.0, 89.4 and 2.1 g/d, respectively, for RD, and 81.8, 121.5 and 2.5 g/d, respectively, for OD. Although free AA flow was relatively high, mean peptide flow was quantitatively the most important fraction of SNAN, indicating that degradation of peptide to AA rather than hydrolysis of soluble protein to peptide or deamination may be the most limiting step in rumen proteolysis. Diurnal pattern in flow of peptide including free AA in OD during a 12 h feeding cycle peaked 1 h post-feeding, decreased by 3 h post-feeding and was relatively constant thereafter. Protein supplementation showed higher flow of peptide including free AA immediately after feeding compared with no supplemented diet. There were no differences among protein supplements in diurnal pattern in flow of peptide including free AA in OD.
Performance of Weaner Lambs on Conventional Feeds or Supplemented with Mango Seed Kernel (Mangifera indica) and Babul Pods Chuni (Acacia nilotica) under Intensive Production System
Saiyed, L.H. ; Parnerkar, S. ; Wadhwani, K.N. ; Pandya, P.R. ; Patel, A.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1469~1474
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1469
Twenty four weaner lambs, eight each of Marwari, Patanwadi and Merino
Patanwadi breeds (9.9 to 10.8 kg) were randomly divided into two dietary treatments on body weight basis Viz.
-conventional (Maize-38%, GN Cake-25%, Rice Polish-24%, Jaggery solution-10%, Mineral mixture-3%) and
-supplemented non conventional group (GN Cake-25%, Rice Polish-14%, Mango seed kernel-25%, Babul Pods chuni-23%, Jaggery solution-10%, Mineral mixture-3%). The Jaggery solution was prepared by mixing 6.5 kg Jaggery and 3.5 kg water. The average final body weight at the end of the experiment was recorded to be
in conventional and non-conventional groups, respectively. The total dry matter intake (DMI) during the entire experiment period was recorded to be
in conventional and nonconventional groups, respectively. The body weight gain and body measurements did not influenced by diet. The ration effect was found to be significant when the DMI was expressed in terms of g/d. The crude protein (CP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) intake/head and per kg gain observed during experiment under conventional and non-conventional treatment group did not differ from each other. However, the total digestible nutrients (TDN) intake per kg gain was significantly (p<0.05) higher in supplemented non-conventional group. The intake values of DCP and TDN were more or less in agreement with Indian Council Agricultural Research (1985) recommendations. The estimated total feed cost (Rs./animal) for experimental lambs was
in conventional and non- group, respectively. The non-conventional group had significantly (p<0.05) lower feed cost (11.6%). The return as percent of feed cost and feed cost/kg dressed weight were
(%) and Rs.
(%) and Rs.
in conventional and non-conventional group (p<0.05), respectively which is the reflection of significantly lower total feed cost incurred during feeding in non-conventional group. Lambs fed non-conventional based diet had similar live weights as those fed conventional diets but costed less money to achieve those weights.
Evaluation of Diet for Buffalo Dairy Cows Using the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System
Calabro, S. ; Piccolo, V. ; Infascelli, F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1475~1481
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1475
The aim of this paper was to use the Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System (CNCPS), that reports diet energy and protein value and animal requirements, as net energy for lactation (
) and metabolizable protein (MP) respectively, to evaluate some rations for lactating Italian Mediterranean buffaloes. The investigation was carried out on six farms in the province of Caserta (southern Italy), where the milk production was controlled four times monthly on 10 animals (changing every time) chosen at different lactation days (5 categories): <2 months (A), 2-4 months (B), 4-6 months (C), 6-8 months (D), >8 months (E). Milk fat and protein were determined. Diet
and MP were estimated with the CPM-Dairy program (1998) using diet component chemical characteristics; then energy and protein intakes were estimated.
and MP requirements were estimated with two methods: 1) using CPM-Dairy that considers produced milk, fat and protein content, lactation phase and body condition score as main factors; 2) by applying the theory that to produce 1 kg of energy corrected milk, the buffalo needs 3.56 MJ of
and the efficiency to convert the absorbed aminoacids into milk protein is lower than cow (CNCPS). As regards energy, with method 1 the requirements were satisfactory starting from category A (4 out of 6 farms) and category B (5/6 farms); however, a surplus resulted for category E (5/6 farms). With method 2 a deficit in category A (5/6 farms) and B (3/6 farms) was observed, while the energy requirements were satisfied for all categories except E, where on only one buffalo farm had a surplus of energy intake. As regards protein, with method 1 the requirements were substantially satisfied for all the categories except E (3/6 farms); with method 2 the MP trend was much less favourable than with method 1. Indeed, a protein deficit was observed for all animals in categories A and B (5/6 farms). Moreover, on one farm the protein intake never satisfied animal requirements. In our experimental conditions, the use of the CNCPS to characterise diets for lactating buffalo and to calculate their requirements led to satisfactory results. By contrast, we cannot say the same for method 2, which applies a lower use efficiency of NE and MP for lactation in buffalo compared to cow.
Effects of Feeding System on Rumen Fermentation Parameters and Nutrient Digestibility in Holstein Steers
Li, D.Y. ; Lee, Sang S. ; Choi, N.J. ; Lee, S.Y. ; Sung, H.G. ; Ko, J.Y. ; Yun, S.G. ; Ha, J.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1482~1486
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1482
In order to compare effects of feeding systems on rumen fermentation characteristics and nutrient digestion, steers were fed either total mixed ration (TMR) or separate concentrate-roughage ration (CR). Total tract digestibility of nutrients was higher in steers receiving TMR. Especially, DM, ADF and NDF in TMR were digested to a greater extent than those in CR. Rumen pH was not influenced by the feeding systems. Holstein steers on TMR had higher ruminal
-N than those on CR. Feeding system did not alter VFA production but TMR feeding resulted in lower A/P ratio. TMR feeding tended to increase the number of bacteria and protozoa in the rumen fluid. Also steers fed TMR generally had higher fiber degrading enzyme activities, which might be the result of increased number of cellulolytic microbes in the rumen of animals on TMR. Our results indicate that TMR may provide more favorable condition for nutrient digestion both in the rumen and in the total tract of steers.
True Metabolisable Energy and True Amino Acid Availability in Chinese Varieties of Dehulled and Hulled Soybean Meals Determined with Adult Roosters
Wang, Jitan ; Li, Defa ; Gong, Limin ; Xing, Jianjun ; Shen, Huile ; Ma, Guolong Song Fabo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1487~1494
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1487
Studies were conducted with intact White Leghorn roosters to determine the true metabolisable energy (TME) and the true amino acid availability (TAAA) in five dehulled and hulled soybean meals produced in China. 60 roosters, kept in individual cages, were fasted for 48 h and then tube-fed 50 g of one of experimental feedstuffs and their excreta was then collected for the subsequent 48 h period. Two separate collection periods were used with each meal being fed to 12 roosters. The birds were given a 15-day recovery period between collection periods. An additional 12 roosters were either fasted or fed a protein-free diet in order to estimate the extent of endogenous losses of energy and amino acids in excreta. The average values per bird for nitrogen loss, endogenous energy losses (EEL) and endogenous energy losses corrected to zero-nitrogen balance (
) were found to be 0.74 g, 47.0 kJ and 21.5 kJ, respectively. It was found that the TME and TAAA values of dehulled soybean meal were higher than those of hulled soybean meal. The TME and nitrogen-corrected TME metabolisable energy values of dehulled soybean meal were 10.58 and 10.74 MJ/kg, respectively, while the corresponding values for hulled soybean meal were 10.03 and 10.27 MJ/kg, respectively. The average indispensable and dispensable amino acid availability of dehulled soybean meal was 92.1 and 93.5%, compared with 89.3 and 91.4% for hulled soybean meal. Dehulled soybean meal would therefore appear to be superior to hulled soybean meal as a source of protein and energy for use in poultry rations.
Turmeric (Curcuma longa) Root Powder and Mannanoligosaccharides as Alternatives to Antibiotics in Broiler Chicken Diets
Samarasinghe, K. ; Wenk, C. ; Silva, K.F.S.T. ; Gunasekera, J.M.D.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1495~1500
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1495
Two bio-assays were conducted to evaluate turmeric root powder and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS) as alternatives to feed antibiotics for broilers. In one trial, one hundred and eighty 19-days old broilers assigned to 18 groups of 10 were fed on one of six experimental diets with three replicates during four weeks. The diets included a basal feed without additives and with either virginiamycin, MOS, or turmeric at 1, 2 and 3 g/kg, respectively. In the second trial, one hundred and forty four 21-days old broilers arranged in 16 groups of nine were fed on the first four diets with four replicates for a similar period. Virginiamycin, MOS and turmeric (1 g/kg) in the first trial generally improved the weight gain of broilers by 3.4, 6.2 and 5.3%, respectively. In the second trial they increased the weight gain significantly (p<0.05) by 8.8, 8.0 and 15.1%, respectively. Additives improved the feed efficiency up to 15.1% and carcass recovery up to 3.1% (p<0.05). Virginiamycin, MOS and turmeric (1 g/kg) markedly reduced the abdominal fat content from 1.91% BW in the control to 1.44, 0.97 and 1.2% BW, respectively, in the first trial. The corresponding values obtained in the second trial were 1.01, 0.55 and 0.6%, respectively as compared to 1.22% in the control group. All additives showed a remarkable inhibition of duodenal coliform bacteria, yeast and mould in the caecum, and all viable microbes in the ileum. A significant (p<0.05) improvement in energy and protein utilization could be recorded with supplemented diets except for high turmeric diets. Dietary 2 and 3 g/kg addition of turmeric reduced energy and protein utilization as well as fat deposition. Present results reveal that turmeric and MOS are satisfactory alternatives to antibiotics in broiler feeds. Both MOS and turmeric possess an antimicrobial effect in vivo. Turmeric may also depress fat deposition in broilers.
Effects of Nutrient Specifications and Xylanase Plus Phytase Supplementation of Wheat-based Diets on Growth Performance and Carcass Traits of Broiler Chicks
Selle, P.H. ; Huang, K.H. ; Muir, W.I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1501~1509
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1501
The simultaneous addition of xylanase (5,600 EXU/kg) and phytase (500 FTU/kg) feed enzymes to wheat-based broiler diets was investigated. Starter, grower and finisher diets, with three tiers of nutrient specifications, were fed to 1,440 broiler chicks kept on deep litter from 1-42 days post-hatch, without and with xylanase plus phytase, to determine the effects of diet type and enzyme supplementation on growth performance. The nutrient specifications of type A diets were standard; energy density and protein/amino acid levels were reduced on a least-cost basis to formulate type B diets and further reduced to type C diets. Phosphorus (P) and calcium (Ca) levels were adjusted in supplemented diets. From 1-42 days post-hatch, diet type significantly influenced growth performance. Birds on type C diets had lower growth rates (2,429 vs. 2,631 g/bird; p<0.001), higher feed intakes (4,753 vs. 4,534 g/bird; p<0.005) and less efficient feed conversion (1.96 vs. 1.72; p<0.001) than birds offered type A diets. Enzyme supplementation increased growth rates by 3.2% (2,580 vs. 2,501 g/bird; p<0.005) and improved feed efficiency by 2.7% (1.80 vs. 1.85; p<0.05) over the entire feeding period. There were no interactions between diet type and enzyme supplementation. At 21 days, 5 out of 30 birds per pen were transferred to cages to ascertain treatment effect on apparent metabolisable energy (AME) and nitrogen (N) retention. Xylanase plus phytase enhanced AME (13.48 to 13.91 MJ/kg DM; p<0.001) and N retention (56.3 to 59.7%; p<0.005). Carcass and breast weights of the caged birds were determined following commercial processing. Diet type significantly influenced breast weight, carcass weight and yield. Birds offered Type A diets, in comparison to Type C diets, supported heavier breast (467 vs. 424 g; p<0.001) and carcass weights (1,868 vs. 1,699 g; p<0.001) with superior carcass yields (71.8 vs. 70.6%; p<0.005). Enzyme addition increased carcass weight by 3.9% (1,752 vs. 1,821 g; p<0.005) and breast weight by 5.8% (431 vs. 456 g; p<0.01) without influencing yields. Feed ingredient costs per kg live weight gain and per kg carcass weight indicated that enzyme addition was economically feasible, where supplementation of Type A diets generated the most effective results. Importantly, soluble and total non-starch polysaccharide and phytate contents of the wheat used were typical by local standards. This study confirms the potential of supplementing wheat-based broiler diets with xylanase plus phytase but further investigations are required to define the most appropriate inclusion rates and dietary nutrient specifications in this context.
Effect of Brewery Waste Replacement of Concentrate on the Performance of Local and Crossbred Growing Muscovy Ducks
Dong, Nguyen Thi Kim ; Ogle, R.Brian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1510~1517
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1510
Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the effects of brewery waste (BW) replacement of concentrate (C) in growing duck diets. In Exp. 1, which was carried out on-station, 300 ducklings were allocated in a
factorial experiment: Two breeds (local Muscovy and crosses of French and local Muscovy)
levels of C and with BW offered ad libitum. Concentrate only ad libitum as the control diet (C100), and levels of 75% (C75), 50% (C50), 25% (C25) and 0% (C0) of the amount of the control diet consumed, and with BW ad libitum. In Exp. 2, 200 ducklings were allocated in a
factorial experiment on five smallholdings: two breeds (local and crossbred Muscovy ducks)
diets (the C100 and C50 diets from Exp.1). In Exp.1 total dry matter (DM), BW, crude fiber (CF) and crude protein (CP) intakes were highest on the C0 diet and ME and lysine intakes lowest (p<0.001). Daily live weight gains were higher for the crossbred ducks than for the local Muscovies (p<0.05) and were highest for treatments C100 and C50, and lowest for treatment C0 (p<0.05). Weights of breast muscle, liver and abdominal fat were significantly higher for the crossbred ducks. Breast and thigh muscle and abdominal fat weights were significantly higher for the C100, C75 and C50 diets, while gizzard weights were highest for the C25 and C0 treatments. Net profits were higher for the crosses, and for treatments C50 and C25. In Exp. 2 total DM, CF and CP intakes were significantly higher for the C50 diet, and ME intakes lower (p<0.001). Daily gains of the crosses were significantly higher than those of the local Muscovy ducks, and were similar for the C100 and C50 diets. The highest net profits were from the crosses and ducks fed the C50 diet. It was concluded that BW can replace 50% of the concentrate in growing Muscovy duck diets without reducing daily live weight gains and with improved economic benefits.
Study on the Development of the Optimum Feeding Regimen for Pigs Weaned at 21 Days of Age
Ko, T.G. ; Lee, J.H. ; Min, T.S. ; Kim, Y.Y. ; Han, In K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1518~1523
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1518
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of various feeding regimens on growth performance, nutrient digestibilities, nitrogen retention, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and feed cost in young pigs weaned at 21 days of age. One hundred twenty crossbred pigs (Landrace
Duroc, average 6.8 kg BW), weaned at 21 days of age, were allotted to 5 treatments in a 5 replicates by a randomized completely block (RCB) design. Treatments were as follow: 1) 1P (1-4 weeks: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%), 2) 2P-I (1 week: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 2-4 weeks: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%), 3) 2P-II (1-2 weeks: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 3-4 weeks: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%), 4) 2P-III (1-3 weeks: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 4 week: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%), 5) 3P (1 week: CP 23% and lysine 1.60%, 2-3 weeks: CP 21% and lysine 1.45%, 4 week: CP 19% and lysine 1.30%). Three different diets were formulated and supplied according to phase feeding programs. Diet 1 contains 23% crude protein and 1.60% lysine, diet 2 contains 21% crude protein and 1.45% lysine and diet 3 contains 19% crude protein and 1.30 lysine, respectively. Although there was no significant difference in growth performances, there was a beneficial effect of 3 phase feeding. The ADG was higher in 3P treatment than other treatments and it was observed clearly in late period (3-4 weeks) than in early period. Also, with increase in age, growth rate of pigs in 3P treatment was higher than that in 1P treatment approximately 37% (p=0.1379). There were no significant differences among all treatments in nutrient digestibility. The concentration of BUN was higher in pigs were fed diet containing 21% crude protein and 1.45% lysine (eg, 2P-1 and 3P) than those supplied diet containing high nutrient value at 2 week. The lowest feed cost/kg weight gain of pigs showed in 3P among treatments (p<0.05) whereas, high feed cost/kg weight gain of pigs was calculated in 1P and 2P-II treatments compared with 2P-I and 2 P-II (p<0.05), because of high milk products were used in those diet.
Activities of Enzymes Involved in Fatty Acid Metabolism in the Colon Epithelium of Piglets Fed with Different Fiber Contents Diets
Zhu, Y.H. ; Lundh, T. ; Wang, J.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1524~1528
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1524
The present study was conducted to evaluate the influence of dietary fiber on the activities of malic enzyme and citrate lyase involved in fatty acid metabolism in the colon epithelium of pigs. Thirty-six weaned 5 weeks old crossbred (Yorkshire
Swedish Landrace) piglets originating from twelve litters were randomly assigned to either a low fiber diet containing 10% non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), a control diet containing 14.7% NSP or a high fiber diet containing 20% NSP. The activity of malic enzyme in the colonic epithelium of pigs significantly (p<0.05) increased with age during the suckling-weaning transition. There was a tendency (p<0.10) of decreased malic enzyme activity in the colonic epithelium of pigs fed on the high fiber diet. At week 6, a lowered (p<0.01) activity of malic enzyme in pigs fed on the low fiber diet compared with that in pigs fed on the high fiber and the control diets. Nevertheless, there were no significant differences in the activity of citrate lyase observed either between pigs with different ages or between pigs fed with various diets. The current data suggest that piglets during the suckling-weaning transition have a limited capacity to synthesize fatty acids from carbohydrate derivatives in the coloncytes. In addition, lipogenesis in coloncytes was enhanced with age during the suckling-weaning transition. A tendency (p<0.10) to an increased capacity to utilize acetyl-CoA in coloncytes of pigs has been observed for the high fiber diet. Moreover, the present work indicated that dietary fiber resulted in a lowered rate of lipogenesis and a reduced activity of malic enzyme.
Effects of Dietary Vitamin E Supplementation on Color Stability, Lipid Oxidation and Reducing Ability of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef during Retail Display
Lee, Sung Ki ; Kim, Yong Sun ; Liang, Cheng Yun ; Song, Young Han ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1529~1534
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1529
The effects of dietary vitamin E supplementation (control; 200 IU/head/day, 500 IU/head/day and 1,000 IU/head/day) on color stability, lipid oxidation and total reducing ability in M. longissimus and M. semimembranosus from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) steer during retail display (
, 1,200 lux) were investigated. The
, R630-R580 values and TRA (total reducing ability) of 1,000 IU group were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the other groups. The
, R630-R580 and TBARS values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in M. longissimus than in M. semimembranosus. The
, R630-R580 values and TRA for two beef muscles declined gradually during storage and the decline was more rapid in control and 500 IU groups. Hue angle and metmyoglobin (%) for two beef muscles increased (p<0.05) as display time increased, and 1,000 IU group had a lower rate of metmyoglobin accumulation during retail display. The TBARS values for two beef muscle were significantly (p<0.05) lower in 1,000 IU group than in the other groups over time. Consequently, the meat from 1,000 IU vitamin E-supplemented Hanwoo steer extended retail display life compared to the control and 500 IU/head/day.
Study on Genetic Variation of 4 Microsatellite DNA Markers and Their Relationship with Somatic Cell Counts in Cow Milk
Jin, Hai-Guo ; Zhou, Guo-li ; Yang, Cao ; Chu, Ming-Xing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1535~1539
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1535
Four microsatellite DNA loci BM1818, BM1258, BM1443 and BM1905 associated with the somatic cell counts (SCC) in cow milk were analyzed for genetic variation in 240 Beijing Holstein cows. The PCR amplified products of microsatellites DNA were detected by non-denatured polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The number of alleles for BM1818, BM1258, BM1443 and BM1905 were 4, 5, 8 and 6 in Beijing Holstein cows, respectively. The allele size ranges for BM1818, BM1258, BM1443 and BM1905 were 274 bp to 286 bp, 92 bp to 106 bp, 154 bp to 170 bp and 187 bp to 201 bp, respectively. The polymorphism information content/effective number of alleles/heterozygosity for BM1818, BM1258, BM1443 and BM1905 were 0.3869/1.7693/0.4348, 0.5923/2.9121/0.6566, 0.7114/3.9012/0.7437 and 0.5921/2.8244/0.6459. These data showed the microsatellite DNA locus BM1443 has the highest variability, followed by BM1258, BM1905 and BM1818. The results of the least squares means analysis showed as follows: the least squares mean of SCC for BM1818 284 bp/284 bp was significantly lower than that for BM1818 286 bp/286 bp (p<0.05). The least squares mean of SCC for BM1258 100 bp/100 bp was significantly lower than that for BM1258 102 bp/102 bp, 106 bp/106 bp, 106 bp/104 bp, 106 bp/102 bp, 106 bp/100 bp, 104 bp/100 bp (p<0.05). The least squares mean of SCC for BM1443 166 bp/160 bp and 166 bp/166 bp was significantly lower than that for BM1443 170 bp/160 bp, 160 bp/157 bp, 165 bp/160 bp (p<0.05). The least squares mean of SCC for BM1905 187 bp/187 bp was significantly lower than that for BM1905 197 bp/195 bp, 193 bp/187 bp (p<0.05).
Influence of Age at Weaning on Caecal Content Characteristics and Post-weaning Performance and Health of Rabbits
Taranto, S. ; Di Meo, C. ; Stanco, G. ; Piccolo, G. ; Gazaneo, M.P. ; Nizza, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1540~1544
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1540
This study chiefly aimed to ascertain the effect of age at weaning on caecal content characteristics, post-weaning performance and health of rabbits. A secondary aim was to study the effect of dietary restriction on performance and health of rabbits. After delivery, 30 litters of 8 pups each, were housed in separate cages. Fifteen litters were weaned 24 days from birth (group W 24) while the other 15 were weaned at 28 days (group W28). After weaning, 53 rabbits of group W24 and 56 of group W28 were fed ad libitum (group LIB), while 53 rabbits of group W24 and 57 of group W28 were restricted (group RES). All the rabbits were kept in individual cages. Fourteen other rabbits of groups W24 (7 fed ad libitum and 7 restricted) and 7 of group W28 were sacrificed to obtain data regarding caecum weight and caecal content. Age at weaning affected neither the state of health nor the final live weight. In comparison with those of group W28, the rabbits weaned at 24 days had a lower daily gain until 35 days of age but gain was higher subsequently. From the 28th day, however, the feed intake and the feed conversion ratio of the group W24 rabbits were always better than those of W28. The restricted diet until 42 days resulted in a lower weight both at 42 days (1,078 vs. 1,164 g) and at 70 days (2,192 vs. 2,294 g). Indeed, from the 42nd day, despite receiving feed ad libitum the rabbits of the restricted group continued to ingest less feed (120.8 vs. 127.2 g) than those of the ad libitum group, and had a slightly lower daily gain (39.8 vs. 40.3 g). The measurements carried out on the caecum highlighted significant differences among the groups in caecal content (33.1 vs. 31.7 vs. 25.3 g respectively for groups W24LIB, W28 and W24RES), for total volatile fatty acids (53.2 vs. 50.6 vs. 44.5 mmol/l respectively for groups W24LIB, W28and W24RES) for ammonia (7.0 vs. 7.2vs 8.8 mmol/l respectively for groups W24LIB, W28 and W24RES), for propionate (5.7 vs. 6.3 vs. 8.1% respectively for groups W24LIB, W28 and W24RES) and for propionate/butyrate (0.33 vs. 0.36 vs. 0.49 respectively for groups W24LIB, W28 and W24RES).
Effects of Early Age Feed Restriction and Dietary Ascorbic Acid on Heterophil/ Lymphocyte and Tonic Immobility Reactions of Transported Broiler Chickens
Zulkifli, I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1545~1549
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1545
Broiler chickens were subjected to (i) pre-treatment for 24 h with 1,200 ppm L-ascorbic acid in their drinking water on day 42 (AA), (ii) 60% feed restriction on days 4, 5 and 6 (FR), (iii) combination of AA and FR (AAFR), or (iv) neither treatment (control). On day 43, the birds were crated and transported in an open truck for either 60 min or 120 min. Heterophil/lymphocyte ratios (HLR) were determined prior to (
) and 20 h following the 60 min (
) and 120 min (
) journeys. Prior to transportation, all treatment groups had similar HLR. Following
, the AAFR chicks had smaller increase in HLR than their control, AA and FR counterparts. The AA, FR and AAFR birds exhibited lower HLR than controls following
. The means HLR of AA, FR and AAFR did not differ significantly. Irrespective of journey time, AA and AAFR birds had shorter tonic immobility duration than their FR and control counterparts. The tonic immobility duration of all birds increased with journey duration.
Inhibitiory Activity of Lactic Acid Bacteria against Hazardous Microbes
Ham, J.S. ; Kim, H.S. ; Hong, K.H. ; Kim, J.G. ; Jeong, S.G. ; Chae, H.S. ; Ahn, J.N. ; Kang, D.K. ; Kim, H.U. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 10, 2003, Pages 1550~1554
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1550
One hundred of lactic cultures were evaluated for their ability to inhibit hazardous microbes, such as Salmonella enteritidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus by agar well diffusion method. None of them showed inhibitory halo against S. enteritidis, while 27 strains showed inhibitory activity against S. typhimurium, 6 against E. coli, 9 against ampicillin resistant E. coli, 31 against L. monocytogens, 10 against B. cereus. pH of the culture does not explain for the inhibitory activity except against B. cereus. A neutralized culture from corn silage showed highest inhibitory activity against S. typhimurium, and the size of inhibitory halo was same as 10 ug/mL of ampicillin. The culture was identified to be Lactobacillus buchneri on the basis of biochemical characteristics and utilization of substrates. Using the culture as probiotics could be expected to reduce antibiotics for animal feeding.