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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 16, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Association between PCR-RFLP of Melatonin Receptor 1a Gene and High Prolificacy in Small Tail Han Sheep
Chu, M.X. ; Ji, C.L. ; Chen, G.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1701~1704
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1701
Melatonin regulates circadian rhythms and reproduction changes in seasonally reproductive mammals through binding to high-affinity, G-protein-coupled receptors. Small Tail Han sheep that has significant characteristics of high prolificacy and nonseasonal ovulatory activity is an excellent local sheep breed in P. R. China. The exon 2 of the ovine melatonin receptor 1a (MTNR1A) gene was amplified and a uniform fragment of 824 bp was obtained in 150 ewes of Small Tail Han sheep. The 824 bp PCR product was digested with restriction endonucleases Mnl I and Rsa I, and genetic polymorphism was detected by PCR-RFLP. Polymorphic Mnl I site was detected at base position 605 of the exon 2 of the MTNR1A gene. There were two kinds of genotypes in Small Tail Han sheep, AB (303 bp, 236 bp/67 bp) and BB (236 bp/67 bp, 236 bp/67 bp). The results indicated that genotype AA (303 bp, 303 bp) at Mnl I-RFLP site did not exist in non-seasonal estrous Small Tail Han sheep, which suggested that there was an association between genotype AA (303 bp, 303 bp) and reproductive seasonality in sheep. Polymorphic Rsa I site was detected at base position 604 of the exon 2 of the MTNR1A gene. Three kinds of genotypes were found in Small Tail Han sheep, AA (290 bp, 290 bp), AB (290 bp, 267 bp/23 bp) and BB (267 bp/23 bp, 267 bp/23 bp). Least squares means of litter size in the first parity and the second parity for genotype AA (290 bp, 290 bp) at Rsa I-RFLP site were 0.43 and 1.06 more than those for genotype AB (290 bp, 267 bp/23 bp) in Small Tail Han sheep.
Genetic Trends for Laying Traits in the Brown Tsaiya (Anas platyrhynchos) Selected with Restricted Genetic Selection Index
Chen, D.T. ; Lee, S.R. ; Hu, Y.H. ; Huang, C.C. ; Cheng, Y.S. ; Tai, C. ; Poivey, J.P. ; Rouvier, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1705~1710
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1705
A small body size of Brown Tsaiya laying duck is desirable to reduce maintenance requirements, so the body weight at 40 weeks of age (BW40) has to be maintained at its current level. Egg weight has to be maintained at around 65 g to meet market requirements. Eggshell strength at 40 weeks of age (ES40) must to be increased in order to maintain a low incidence of broken eggs. Thus, number of eggs laid up to 52 weeks of age (EN52) has to be increased without negative correlated response on ES40. A new linear genetic selection index was used:
where GEW40, GBW40, GES40 and GEN52 were the multitrait best linear unbiased prediction (MT-BLUP) animal model predictors of the breeding values respectively of egg weight and body weight at 40 weeks of age (EW40, BW40), ES40 and EN52. The coefficients
were calculated with constraints of 0.0 g, 0.0 g and
for expected genetic gains in EW40, BW40 and ES40 respectively and maximum gain in EN52. Since 1997, the drakes and the ducks were selected according to their own indexes, with this new genetic selection index. From G0 to G4, the average per generation predicted genetic responses in female duck were +0.05 g for EW40, +0.92 g for BW40,
for ES40 and +2.13 eggs for EN52. Which represented respectively 0.07%, 0.06%, 0.67% and 1.0% of the means of the EW40, BW40, ES40 and EN52. For ES40 and EN52, it represented also respectively 16.1% and 21.6% of the additive genetic standard deviation of these traits. Thevse results indicated that selection of laying Brown Tsaiya by a restricted genetic selection index and with MT-BLUP animal model could be an efficient tool for improving the efficiency of egg production, increasing egg shell strength and egg number while holding egg weight and body weight constants.
Study on Biochemical Constituents of Caprine Ovarian Follicular Fluid after Superovulation
Mishra, O.P. ; Pandey, J.N. ; Gawande, P.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1711~1715
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1711
The experiment was designed on 42 non pregnant Black Bengal goat. Out of which 18 were subjected to a superovulatory treatment comprising of eCG and hCG for embryo transfer study. The remaining 24 goats received no treatment and served as control for parameter studied as well as recipient for embryo transfer studies. Important biochemical constituents such as acid and alkaline phosphatase, total protein and cholesterol and inorganic phosphorus were estimated in the follicular fluid of control and treated group and the values were separately recorded for small medium and large size follicle. The results indicated a significant effect on acid phosphotase activity due to size of follicle. The value increased progressively from small to medium and from medium to large follicles. Alkaline phosphotase activity showed reverse trend. Alkaline phosphotase decreased progressively as size increased. The concentration of inorganic phosphorus did not reveal any significant difference between the control and treatment groups and also between the different size follicles. The concentration of protein decreased significantly from small to medium and from medium to large, although no difference was observed between the control and treatment groups. The concentration of Cholesterol in the follicular fluid indicated a significant increase from small to medium and to large follicle. Here also no difference was observed due to treatment. Similar in the composition of follicular fluid in the respect of above mentioned constituents indicated no of super ovulatory treatment on follicular fluid composition.
Co-expression and Sequence Determination of Estrogen Receptor Variant Messenger RNAs in Swine Uterus
Ying, C. ; Chan, M.-A. ; Cheng, W.T.K. ; Hong, W.-F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1716~1721
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1716
Steroid hormones and their receptors play an important role in reproductive process. Estrogen is intimately involved with pregnancy and its function is mediated through the estrogen receptor which has been chosen as a candidate gene to study litter size in pigs. In this study, we report that two estrogen receptor variants, designated pER-1 and pER-2 were co-expressed in the uteri of normal cycling Lan-Yu pig (Sus vittatus; a small-ear miniature in Taiwan) with the pER-1 expression level appeared to be several times higher than that of pER-2. These receptor variants were isolated using reverse transcription-PCR from the pig uteri and their sequences were determined. The pER-1 and pER-2 sequences, which are homologous to those found in other mammalian estrogen receptors, encode putative proteins consisting of 574 and 486 amino acids, respectively. A deletion in exon I was identified in both sequences, with deletion lengths of 63 bp in pER-1 and 327 bp in pER-2. The deletion in pER-1 is internal to that in pER-2 and both deletions resulted in a truncation of the B domain, which confers the transactivating activity of estrogen receptor protein. This result describes the existence of estrogen receptor variants with a deletion in exon I and implies the possibility that physiological functioning of an estrogen receptor may not require the presence of an intact B domain.
Effect of Cotton Stems Addition on the Chemical Composition and In Sacco Dry Matter Digestibility of Pearl Millet Silage
Grewal, R.S. ; Saijpaul, S. ; Kaushal, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1722~1724
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1722
The possibility of using cotton stems as a roughage source in animal feeding was explored. Ground cotton stems (T2 and T3) or stems treated with 0.5% urea (T4 and T5) were ensiled with pearl millet green fodder in double lined plastic bags of 3 kg capacity for 50 days. Formic acid (0.4% v/v) was sprayed on T3 and T5 silages. The treatments were compared with pearl millet silage alone (T1) which constituted the control. All the bags were placed in the silo pit of pearl millet silage. Results indicated that urea treatment of cotton stems increased and formic acid application reduced dry matter loss of the silages. Inclusion of cotton stems in the silage significantly (p<0.05) increased CF, ADF, cellulose and ADL due to its higher cell wall content. The hemicellulose was significantly lower in T3 (16.7%) and T5 (22.52%) as compared to T2 (23.45%) and T4 (24.6%) due to formic acid application. Ammoniation significantly increased NH3-N content in T4 (0.202%) and formic acid controlled NH3-N level in T5 (0.107%).The in sacco dry matter digestibility was significantly higher (p<0.05) in formic acid preserved silages T3 and T5 (47.73 and 47.93%) as compared to silages without formic acid (44.94 and 41.22 %) in T2 and T4 respectively, but lower than T1 (54.39%). It is concluded that cotton stems can be ensiled with pearl millet fodder in 1:4 ratio with or without urea treatment. Formic acid application further increases the silage quality.
Effect of Strategic Feed Supplementation during Gestation on Intake, Blood-biochemical Profile and Reproductive Performance of Goats
Rastogi, Ankur ; Dutta, Narayan ; Sharma, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1725~1731
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1725
Effect of strategically supplemented pregnancy allowance was ascertained during different phases of gestation on the reproductive performance of does. Gravid does (18) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments HH, HL and LH in a completely randomized block design. All does were provided wheat straw ad libitum and supplemented with concentrate mixture at the rate of
from 0-60 days post-mating. Subsequently, HH group was given concentrate at the rate of
from 61 d post-mating to term. HL group was offered concentrate from 61-90 d post-mating and 121d post mating to term at the rate of
and from 91-120 d post-mating at the rate of
. LH group was provided with concentrate from 61 to 120 d post-mating and 121 to term at the rate of 20 g and
, respectively. Mean total dry matter and concentrate intake (
) was significantly higher on HH in comparison to comparable intake of HL and LH treatments, however, wheat straw followed the reverse trend. Haematological and biochemical parameters except serum glucose, total serum protein and A:G ratio did not differ significantly among dietary treatments. The gross gain in weight, products of pregnancy at 21 weeks of gestation, pregnant does average daily gain, birth weight of kids and survivability of kids were significantly lower in treatment HL in comparison to comparable values for HH and LH treatments. The net gain in gravid does was significantly higher in treatment HH than the comparable values obtained in HL and LH treatments. The last month of pregnancy was found to be nutritionally most sensitive period of gestation for native goats.
Effect of Feeding Transgenic Cottonseed vis-à-vis Non-transgenic Cottonseed on Haematobiochemical Constituents in Lactating Murrah Buffaloes
Singh, Maha ; Tiwari, D.P. ; Kumar, Anil ; Kumar, M. Ravi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1732~1737
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1732
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding transgenic cottonseed (Bt.) vis-a-vis non-transgenic (non-Bt.) cottonseed on blood biochemical constituents in lactating Murrah buffaloes. Twenty Murrah buffaloes in mid-lactation were divided into 2 groups of 10 each. Animals of group I were fed with 39.5% non-transgenic cottonseed in concentrate mixture while the same percentage of transgenic (Bt.) cottonseed was included in the concentrate mixture fed to the animals of group II. Animals of both groups were fed with concentrate mixture to support their milk production requirements. Each buffalo was also offered 20 kg mixed green fodder (oats and berseem) and wheat straw ad libitum. The experimental feeding trial lasted for 35 days. There was no significant difference in the dry matter intake between the two groups of buffaloes. All the buffaloes gained body weight, however, the differences were non significant. Total erythrocyte count, hemoglobin content and packed cell volume were
, respectively in group I with the corresponding figures of
in group II. The values of total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin content and packed cell volume did not differ significantly between the two groups of buffaloes. The concentration of plasma glucose, serum total proteins, albumin, globulin, triglycerides and high density lipoprotein were non significantly higher in buffaloes fed non-transgenic cottonseed than in buffaloes fed transgenic cottonseed. The cholesterol concentration was significantly (p<0.01) higher in buffaloes of group I (
) than in buffaloes of group II (
). The serum alkaline phosphotase, glutamic-oxaloacetate transaminase and glutamic-pyruate transaminase activities did not differ significantly between two groups of buffaloes. However, serum glutamic-pyruate transaminase activity was considerably high in buffaloes fed nontransgenic cottonseed as compared to buffaloes fed transgenic cottonseed. Bt. proteins in serum samples of animals of group II were not detected after 35 days of feeding trial. It was concluded that transgenic cottonseed and non-transgenic cottonseed have similar nutritional value without any adverse effects on health status of buffaloes as assessed from haematobiochemical constituents.
The Influences of Addition of Sugar with or without L. buchneri on Fermentation and Aerobic Stability of Whole Crop Maize Silage Ensiled in Air-stress Silos
Guan, Wu-Tai ; Driehuis, F. ; Van Wikselaar, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1738~1742
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1738
The whole plant of crop maize was chopped and ensiled in double-layered polyethylene bags to determine the influence of residual sugar on the fermentation of lactic acid and aerobic stability by L. buchneri in whole crop maize silage made in airstress condition. There were a total of six treatments used in this experiment as follow: added 25 g de-mineralised water per kg chopped maize serving as control (con), 37.5 g glucose solution containing 12.5 g glucose (
), 75 g glucose solution containing 25 g glucose (
), 25 g, L,.buchneri suspension intended for
+L.b. All silos were opened at day 91 after ensiling for measuring the pH values, microbiological enumeration, fermentative products and aerobic stability. The dry matter loss increased significantly (p<0.01) due to inclusion of sugar or L. buchneri. The lower lactic acid concentrations were observed (p<0.01) in silages inoculated with L. buchneri only or in combination with sugar addition than the correspondent uninoculated silages. Compared with control silage, ethanol production was about 3 or 6-fold higher due to addition 12.5 or 25 g glucose per kg chopped maize at ensiling. The silages added with sugar contained less acetic acid concentration (p<0.01) than control, but silages inoculated with L. buchneri showed the contrary effects (p<0.01) at different sugar levels. No butyric acid was found in uninoculated silages, silages inoculated with L. buchneri. producted more propionic acid, 1-propanol and butyric acid. Lactic acid bacteria counts increased markedly (p<0.01) due to inoculation with L. buchneri, whereas it was reduced (p<0.01) by added sugar. No significant difference was observed in count of yeast, but inoculation with L. buchneri shows a decreasing trend. Mould count in all silages was less than 2 (log cfu
). The added sugar had negative effects on aerobic stability of maize silage made under air-stress conditions, whereas inoculation with L. buchneri improves (p<0.01) the aerobic stability.
pH Affects the In vitro Formation of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and trans-11 Octadecenoic Acid by Ruminal Bacteria When Incubated with Oilseeds
Wang, J.H. ; Song, M.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1743~1748
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1743
The effect of pH on the fermentation characteristics and the formation of cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and trans-11 octadecenoic acid by mixed ruminal bacteria was examined in vitro when incubated with linseed or rapeseed. Concentrate (1%, w/v) with ground linseed (0.6%, w/v) or rapeseed (0.5%, w/v) was added to 600 ml mixed solution of strained rumen fluid with artificial saliva (1:1, v/v), and was incubated anaerobically for 12 h at
. The pH of culture solution was maintained at level close to 4.5, 5.3, 6.1 and 6.9 with 30%
or 30% NaOH solution. pH increment resulted in increases of ammonia and total volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration in culture solutions containing both oilseeds. Fermentation did not proceeded at pH 4.5. Molar proportion of acetate decreased but that of propionate increased as pH increased when incubated with oilseeds. While the hydrogenating process was very slow at the pH range of 4.5 to 5.3, rapid hydrogenation was found from the culture solutions of pH 6.1 and 6.9 when incubated with linseed or rapeseed. As pH in culture solution of linseed or rapeseed increases proportions of oleic acid (cis-9
) and trans-11 octadecenoic acid increased but those of linoleic acid and linolenic acid decreased. The CLA proportion increased with pH in culture solution containing rapeseed but CLA was mostly not detected from the incubation of linseed.
Effect of Level of Feeding on the Performance of Crossbred Cows during Pre- and Post-partum Periods
Singh, Jatinder ; Singh, Balwant ; Wadhwa, M. ; Bakshi, M.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1749~1754
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1749
The study was undertaken to see the effect of elevated feeding during pre-partum or pre- as well as post-partum period on the productive and reproductive performance of crossbred cows. The experiment lasted for 60 d pre-partum to 120 d post-partum. Eighteen dry pregnant crossbred cows divided into three equal groups were fed either as per NRC feeding standard (C) or 20% above NRC during 60 d pre-partum (
) or fed 20% above NRC during both 60 d pre-partum to 120 d post-partum (
) period. During prepartum period body weight gain was significantly (
) higher in
groups than that of control group. The animals fed at higher plane of nutrition (
) took significantly lesser time for complete relaxation of pelvic muscles, act of calving and for expulsion of placenta than that of control group. Moreover, such cows delivered 2 to 3 kg heavier calves as compared to normal fed dams. During post-partum period, the average daily milk yield was significantly higher in
group than that in
and control groups. The peak yield was significantly higher in
group, it took longer time to reach peak production but it was more persistent in this group as compared to
and control groups. Average milk fat, solids-not-fat (SNF) and total solids were significantly higher in
groups as compared to control group. Body weight losses incurred during early lactation were not even compensated by end of 4th month of lactation in C and
groups whereas the animals in
group gained 2.0 kg. The 1st post-partum estrus and conception rate were better in high fed groups (
) than that of control group. The returns over feed cost of milk production were higher in
group followed by
and control groups indicating the advantage of elevated feeding during pre- and post-partum periods.
Effect of Total Mixed Ration Particle Size on Rumen pH, Chewing Activity and Performance in Dairy Cows
Schroeder, M.M. ; Soita, H.W. ; Christensen, D.A. ; Khorasani, G.R. ; Kennelly, J.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1755~1762
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1755
Two experiments were conducted to determine effects of particle size in total mixed ration (TMR) on performance of lactating cows. Three rumen cannulated Holstein cows were used in a
Latin square design for the metabolic experiment. The particle size of the diets was determined using the Penn State Particle Size Separator (PSPSS) and weighing the proportion of sample remaining on the top screen (19 mm diameter). The 3 treatments were short, medium or long diets (4.9, 24.2 and 27.8% of sample remaining on the top screen of the PSPSS, respectively). Nine farms in the Edmonton area were surveyed and the farms were placed into groups based on the particle size of the ration fed. The groups were short
, medium 7-12% and long
of sample weight remaining on the top screen of the PSPSS. Dry matter intake was greater (p=0.07) for the medium diet than the long diet in the metabolic study and resulted in a higher (p=0.07) efficiency of milk production. On the commercial farms, a significantly (p=0.002) lower milk fat percentage was observed for the long diet compared to the short diet. The results of these studies confirm that forage particle size influences milk composition and milk fat was negatively correlated to TMR particle size.
Effects of Timing of Initial Cutting and Subsequent Cutting on Yields and Chemical Compositions of Cassava Hay and Its Supplementation on Lactating Dairy Cows
Hong, N.T.T. ; Wanapat, M. ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Pakdee, P. ; Rowlinson, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1763~1769
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1763
Two experiments were conducted to examine the production and quality of cassava hay and its utilization in diets for dairy cows. In experiment I, a
Factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications was carried out to determine the effects of different initial (IC) and subsequent cutting (SC) on yield and composition of cassava plant. The results revealed that cassava could produce from 4 to 7 tonne of DM and 1.2 to 1.6 tonne of CP for the first six months after planting. CP content in cassava plant ranged from 20.8 to 28.5% and was affected by different SC regimes. Condensed tannin in cassava foliage ranged from 4.9 to 5.5%. Initial cutting at 2 months with subsequent cutting at 2 month intervals was the optimal to obtain high dry matter and protein yield. In the second experiment, five crossbred Holstein-Friesian cows in mid lactation with an initial live-weight of
and average milk yield of
were randomly assigned in a
Latin square design to study the effects of 2 levels of CH (1 and 2 kg/hd/d) and concentrate (1 to 2 kg of milk and 1 to 3 kg of milk) on milk yield and milk composition. The results showed that cassava hay increased rumen
and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) (p<0.05). Cassava hay tended to increase milk production and 4% FCM. Milk protein increased in cows fed cassava hay (p<0.05). Moreover, cassava hay could reduce concentrate levels in dairy rations thus resulting in increased economic returns. Cassava hay can be a good source of forage to reduce concentrate supplementation and improve milk quality.
Effect of Dietary Glutamine Supplement on Performance and Intestinal Morphology of Weaned Pigs
Lee, Der-Nan ; Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang ; Wu, Fu-Yu ; Sato, Hiroyuki ; Shinzato, Izuru ; Chen, Shih-Ping ; Yen, Houng-Ta ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1770~1776
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1770
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of dietary glutamine (Gln) supplement on the performance and villus morphology of weaned pigs. In Exp. 1, 48 pigs were fed diets supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5% Gln for 28 days. Dietary Gln supplemented levels did not influence performance and plasma Gln concentration of weaned pigs. In Exp. 2, 48 weaned pigs were fed the same treatment diets of Exp. 1 for 7 or 14 days. Dietary Gln supplement reduced the ratio of small intestine weight to empty carcass weight at d 14 postweaning. However, the villus height and villus height/crypt depth ratio at the duodenum were increased. IgA and protein in the bile from d 7 and d 14 postweaning were higher in the pigs fed the diet supplemented with 0.5% Gln. Plasma IgA concentration was not influenced by dietary Gln levels. In conclusion, dietary Gln supplement might benefit the development of the small intestine and bile IgA production in weaned pigs.
Dietary Lysine Requirement of Juvenile Yellowtail Flounder Pleuronectes ferrugineus
Kim, Jeong-Dae ; Lall, Santosh P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1777~1781
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1777
The lysine requirements of juvenile yellowtail flounder (Pleuronectes ferrugineus) having 19.5 g initial body weight were estimated by feeding six practical-type diets containing graded levels of lysine (1.21 to 2.69% of dry diet). Dietary amino acid profile simulated that of whole body of yellowtail flounder. Most of amino acids in the diets were provided by corn gluten meal, herring meal and gelatin. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) improved significantly until lysine level increased up to 2.1% (4.3% of protein). Same trend was observed in feed:gain ratio (FGR) which maintained constant in fish groups fed diets containing lysine above 2.1%. The highest nitrogen gain (0.34 g/fish) in whole body was found in fish fed 2.1% lysine, though the value was not different from those of fish fed above the level of lysine. Fish fed 2.1% lysine also showed the best nitrogen retention efficiency of 24.6%. The broken-line analysis of protein efficiency ratio and body nitrogen gain against dietary lysine level yielded an estimated lysine requirement of 2.2% (4.5% of protein) and 2.3% (4.7% of protein), respectively.
Determination of the Amino Acid Requirements and Optimum Dietary Amino Acid Pattern for Growing Chinese Taihe Silky Fowls in Early Stage
Li, Guanhong ; Qu, Mingren ; Zhu, Nianhua ; Yan, Xianghua ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1782~1788
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1782
A mathematical model has been constructed to estimate the amino acid requirements for growing Taihe silky fowls in early stage. A requirement was taken as the sum of the needs for maintenance, for gain in carcass weight without feathers, and for the feathers. The maintenance requirement was considered to be the sum of the needs for replacing skin and intestinal losses and for the obligatory creatinine excretion in the urine. A comparative slaughter trial and nitrogen balance trials with growing and adult Taihe silky fowls, respectively, were conducted to estimate the parameters in the model. The amino acid requirements were then calculated with the constructed models. The results showed as following: the replacement needs for skin nitrogen loss was determined at 213.41 mg/d for adult male fowls (body weight 1.60 kg); creatinine excretion in these birds was 4.04 mg/d. when fed an nitrogen-free diets, the adult male fowls with body weight 1.60 kg excreted a total of 246.10 mg/d endogenous nitrogen. The net protein requirement for maintenance was estimated at
Per gram of body weight gain contained 27.18 mg carcass nitrogen for growing birds in early stage, but feathers nitrogen in per gram of body weight gain increased with age. The amino acid requirements for growing Taihe silky fowls were slightly higher than for starting and growing pullets, but lower than that of broiler chicks. The amino acid requirements patterns changed with weeks of age.
Growth and Laying Performance of Japanese Quail Fed Graded Levels of Hazelnut Kernel Oil Meal Incorporated into Diets
Erener, G. ; Ozer, A. ; Ocak, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1789~1794
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1789
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of substituting different levels of hazelnut kernel oil meal (HKOM) for dehulled soyabean meal (DSBM) in diets for Japanese quail. Five diets in which HKOM was replaced with 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of DSBM protein in a growing diet for a 5 week period using 450 Japanese quails of initial age of 1 week and in a layer diet for a 112 days period using 180 Japanese laying quails of initial age of 7 week were examined in experiments 1 and 2, respectively. Hence, treatment groups were: control (0 HKOM), 0.25 HKOM, 0.50 HKOM, 0.75 HKOM and 1HKOM. In the experiment 1, 1 HKOM decreased BWG compared with the 0 HKOM and 0.25 HKOM, while it increased FCR compared with the 0HKOM at day 21 (p<0.05). Compared with the other groups, 0.75 HKOM and 1 HKOM decreased BWG (p<0.01) at day 28. While the FCR of 1 HKOM was higher (p<0.01) than that of 0 HKOM, 0.25 HKOM and 0.50 HKOM, respectively, that of 0.75 HKOM was higher than that of 0 HKOM and 0.25 HKOM diets at day 28. However, at day 42 of age, BWG, FCR and the feed intake (FI) were not affected (p>0.05) by inclusion of HKOM. Mortality rate, carcase yield and liver, heart and gizzard weight (% of body weight) were not affected (p>0.05) by inclusion of HKOM to the diet. In the experiment 2, egg production was decreased (p<0.05) by the 1 HKOM diet compared with the 0.50 HKOM diet. While FCR increased by the 1 HKOM diet compared with the 0.25 HKOM and 0.50 HKOM diets (p<0.05). Feed intake for quails fed with the 0 HKOM diet was higher (p<0.05) than for quails fed with 0.50 HKOM diet. The egg yolk weight for 0 HKOM diet group was lower (p<0.05) than for quails in 1 HKOM diet group. In conclusion, the results indicate that DSBM can be replaced by HKOM in diets for growing and laying Japanese quails. However 50% HKOM has higher laying performance than 100% HKOM in the laying period.
Isolation of Bacillus sp. as a Volatile Sulfur-degrading Bacterium and Its Application to Reduce the Fecal Odor of Pig
Ushida, Kazunari ; Hashizume, Kenta ; Miyazaki, Kohji ; Kojima, Yoichi ; Takakuwa, Susumu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1795~1798
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1795
Fecal malodor is an acute environmental issue to be solved for the intensive animal agriculture in Japan. Among these substances volatile sulfur such as hydrogen sulfide (HS), methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide, and dimethyl disulfide are the ones most strictly controlled in the Japanese national regulations. In this experiment, we have screened a range of standard strains of chemoheterotrophic bacteria and of the presently isolated soil bacteria for their capacity to decompose HS. We have demonstrated that Comamonas testosteroni
and our isolate Bacillus sp. had a potential to reduce malodor when applied to the pig feces.
Use of Lycopene, an Antioxidant Carotinoid, in Laying Hens for Egg Yolk Pigmentation
Kang, D.-K. ; Kim, S.-I. ; Cho, C.-H. ; Yim, Y.-H. ; Kim, H.-S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1799~1803
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1799
The possibility of lycopene affecting egg yolk pigmentation was studied with lycopene diets containing 0, 4, 8, and
meal, respectively. The addition of lycopene above
meal significantly improved yolk color after four days of supplementation. The transfer of lycopene into egg yolk was confirmed by thin layer chromatography, and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). The deposition rate of lycopene into egg yolk was approximately 2%, which was quantitatively determined using a HPLC with a UV detector. The result indicates that lycopene is a good candidate for egg yolk pigmentation and for making functional eggs.
Effects of Supplementary Mineral Methionine Chelates (Zn, Cu, Mn) on the Performance and Eggshell Quality of Laying Hens
Lim, H.S. ; Paik, I.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1804~1808
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1804
A layer experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplementary methionine chelates (Cu, Zn and Mn), individual or in combination, on laying performance, eggshell quality, gizzard erosion, and IgG level of serum for 8 weeks. Five hundred 96-wk-old force molted ISA Brown layers were assigned to five dietary treatments. Basal diet was formulated to meet or exceed the nutrients requirements listed in NRC (1994). Five experimental diets were control, Zn-methionine chelate (Zn-Met) supplemented, Cumethionine chelate (Cu-Met) supplemented, Zn-Mn-methionine chelate (Zn-Mn-Met) supplemented and Zn-Mn-Cu-Met supplemented diet. Each treated diet was supplemented with respective mineral(s) at the level of 100 ppm in the form of methionine chelate. Egg production was increased by Cu-Met supplementation but decreased by Zn-Met supplementation. Egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) lower in Cu-Met treatment than those of the control and Zn-Met treatment. Specific gravity of eggs and eggshell strength were highest and soft egg production was lowest in Cu-Met treatment. Gizzard erosion index was significantly increased by supplementation of Cu-Met, Zn-Mn-Met or Zn-Mn-Cu-Met. Zinc content in liver significantly increased by Zn-Met, but not by Zn-Mn-Cu-Met treatment. In conclusion, 100 ppm Cu in Cu-Met chelate improved laying performance and eggshell quality but also increased gizzard erosion index. Supplementation of Zn-Met or its combination with other mineral chelates had no beneficial effects on laying performance and eggshell quality.
Effect of Yeast Chromium and L-carnitine on Lipid Metabolism of Broiler Chickens
Wang, Jundong ; Du, Rong ; Qin, Jian ; Wang, Shaolin ; Wang, Wenkui ; Li, Hongquan ; Pang, Quanhai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1809~1815
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1809
(chromium and L-carnitine) experiment was designed to investigate the single and interactive effects of adding yeast Cr and L-carnitine to corn-soybean meal diets on lipid metabolism of broiler chickens. Four hundred and eighty one-day-old avian chickens were randomly allocated to 12 treatments of 40 each for 7 weeks. Levels of adding Cr were 0, 400,
and those of Lcarnitine was 0, 30, 50, 100 mg/kg, respectively. The result showed that adding
Cr or 100 mg/kg L-carnitine alone had better regulative effects on fat and cholesterol metabolism than lower adding levels. Effects were more significant at the end of the experiment. There were significantly interactive effects between Cr and L-carnitine on triaclyglycerol, whole cholesterol, HDL, dissociating FFA, and blood glucose, cholesterol and triaclyglycerol of liver, and cholesterol of chest muscle at the end of experiment (p=0.0001-0.0315). But Cr or L-carnitine had no significant effect on growth performance of broiler chickens (p>0.05).
Identification and Comparison of the Nucleotide Sequence of 16S-23S rRNA Gene Intergenic Small SR(Spacer Region) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103 with Those of L. casei, L. acidophilus and L. helveticus
Byun, J.R. ; Yoon, Y.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1816~1821
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1816
Reliable PCR based identification of lactobacilli has been described utilizing the sequence of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region. Those sequence comparisons showed a high degree of difference in homology among the strains of L. rhamnosus, L. casei, L. acidophilus and L. helveticus whose 16S-23S rRNA intergenic small SR's sizes were 222 bp, 222 bp, 206 bp and 216 bp respectively. The sequence of 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region of L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 revealed the close relatedness to those of L. casei strains by the homology ranges from 95.4% to 97.2%. 16S-23S rRNA intergenic spacer region nucleotide sequence of L. acidophilus showed some distant relatedness with L. rhamnosus ATCC 53103 with the homology ranges from 40.3% to 41.8% and that with L. helveticus was shown to be 30% of homology, which exists at the most distant phylogenetic relatedness. The identification of species and strain of lactobacilli was possible on the basis of these results. The common sequences among the 17 strains were CTAAGGAA located in the initiating position of the DNA and some discrepancies were found between the same strains based on these results.
Protease Inhibitors in Porcine Colostrum: Potency Assessment and Initial Characterization
Zhou, Q. ; He, R.G. ; Li, X. ; Liao, S.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1822~1829
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1822
Porcine colostrum and milk were separated into the acid-soluble and casein fractions by acidification followed by centrifuge. The acid-soluble fraction of porcine colostrum was further separated by liquid chromatography and anisotropic membrane filtration. Trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory capacity in porcine colostrum, milk and their components was determined by incubating bovine trypsin or chymotrypsin in a medium containing their corresponding substrates with or without addition of various amounts of porcine colostrum, porcine milk or their components. The inhibition of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) degradation in pig small intestinal contents by porcine colostrum was measured by incubating iodinated IGF-I or EGF with the intestinal contents with or without addition of porcine colostrum. Degradation of labeled IGF-I or EGF was determined by monitoring the generation of radioactivity soluble in 30% trichloroacetic acid (TCA). The results showed that porcine colostrum had high levels of trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity and increased the stability of IGF-I and EGF in pig intestinal contents. The inhibitory activity declined rapidly during lactation. It was also found that trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory activity and the inhibition on IGF-I and EGF degradation in the acid-soluble fraction were higher than that in the casein fraction. Heat-resistance study indicated that trypsin inhibitors in porcine colostrum survived heat treatments of
water bath for up to 10 min, but exposure to boiling water bath for 30 min significantly decreased the inhibitory activity. Compared with the trypsin inhibitors, the chymotrypsin inhibitors were more heatsensitive. Separation of the acid-soluble fraction of porcine colostrum by liquid chromatography and anisotropic membrane filtration revealed that the trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitory capacity was mainly due to a group of small proteins with molecular weight of 10,000-50,000. In conclusion, the present study confirmed the existence of high levels of protease inhibitors in porcine colostrum, and the inhibition of porcine colostrum on degradation of milk-borne growth factors in the pig small intestinal tract was demonstrated for the first time.
Comparison of Natural Resistance-associated Macrophage Protein (NRAMP)1 Expression between Cows with High and Low Milk Somatic Cells Counts
Joo, Y.S. ; Moon, J.S. ; Fox, L.K. ; Suh, G.H. ; Kwon, N.H. ; Kim, S.H. ; Park, Y.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1830~1836
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1830
Studies using natural resistance-associated macrophage protein (NRAMP) identification indicated that cattle could be selected for immunity. Several studies performed on intracellular organisms such as Mycobacterium, Salmonella, Brucella and Leishmania in human and mouse revealed that resistance against these bacteria was dependent on high activity of NRAMP1 in macrophages. However, hardly any researches have been done on Staphylococcus aureus in bovine mastitis, which is an intracellular organism and the main cause of bovine mastitis. The objectives of this study were to establish reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methods, through which NRAMP1 mRNA expression could be compared and analyzed between mastitis-resistant and -susceptible cows. NRAMP1 gene and its expression were investigated using 20 cows (Holstein Friesian) in Korea. Cows were evenly split into two groups, with and without histories of clinical mastitis. Equivalent numbers of cows were randomly selected from each group. Monocytes were isolated from the bovine peripheral blood of each selected cows and activated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). mRNA was separated from the monocytes and cDNA of NRAMP1 was synthesized and amplified using RT-PCR with amplification of
-actin as a control. The difference in NRAMP1 expressions of mastitis-resistant (n=10) and -susceptible (n=10) Holstein cows was analyzed. Results demonstrate that resistant cows produced more NRAMP1 mRNA than the susceptible ones, and ratios of NRAMP1:
-actin expression were higher in resistant cows with or without LPS activation. Therefore, this study could be applied to select bovine mastitis resistant cows before infection based on the expression of NRAMP1.
Molecular Cloning of Adipose Tissue-specific Genes by cDNA Microarray
Kim, Kee-Hong ; Moon, Yang Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1837~1841
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1837
In an attempt to isolate novel molecules that may play a regulatory role in adipocyte differentiation, we devised an experimental strategy to identify adipose tissue-specific genes by modifying cDNA microarray technique. We used genefilter membranes containing approximately 15,000 rat non-redundant EST clones of which 4,000 EST were representative clones of known genes and 11,000 ESTs were uncharacterized clones. A series of hybridization of genefilter membranes with cDNA probes prepared from various rat tissues and nucleic acids sequence analysis allowed us to identify two adipose-tissue specific genes, adipocyte-specific secretory factor (ADSF) and H-rev107. Verification of tissue-specific expression patterns of these two genes by Northern blot analysis showed that ADSF mRNA is exclusive expressed in adipose tissue and the H-rev107 mRNA is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue. Further analysis of gene expression of ADSF and H-rev107 during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation revealed that the ADSF and H-rev107 gene expression patterns are closely associated with the adipocyte differentiation program, indicating their possible role in the regulation of adipose tissue development. Overall, we demonstrated an application of modified cDNA microarray technique in molecular cloning, resulting in identification of two novel adipose tissue-specific genes. This technique will also be used as a useful tool in identifying novel genes expressed in a tissue-specific manner.
Goat Meat Production: Present Status and Future Possibilities
Dhanda, J.S. ; Taylor, D.G. ; Murray, P.J. ; Pegg, R.B. ; Shand, P.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 12, 2003, Pages 1842~1852
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.1842
The bulk of the world's goat population is found in South-East Asia and Africa, where goats are the major source of meat production. Unfortunately, lack of an organized goat meat industry and marketing structure in developing countries is primarily responsible for their poor export earnings compared to those in developed countries such as Australia and New Zealand. Goat meat is leaner than meat from other domestic red meat species as well as being comparable in terms of its nutritional constituents. Furthermore, there are few, if any, religious or cultural taboos limiting the consumption of goat meat. Development of a carcass grading system and a suitable infrastructure in developing countries are some of the key requirements needed to establish a sustainable goat meat industry in the world. With an increase in demand by consumers for low-fat red meat alternatives, the future of the goat meat industry looks promising.