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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 16, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene in 12 Pig Breeds and Its Relationship with Pig Growth and Carcass Traits
Wang, Wenjun ; Huang, Lusheng ; Gao, Jun ; Ding, NengShui ; Chen, Kefei ; Ren, Jun ; Luo, Ming ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 161~164
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.161
The polymorphism of the growth hormone gene in 12 pig breeds (total n=475) was detected by PCR-Apa I-RFLP, and allele A (449 bp, 101 bp and 55 bp) or allele B (316 bp, 133 bp, 101 bp and 55 bp) were observed. In these pig breeds, we found that European pig breeds had high frequencies of allele B, while Chinese native pig breeds had high frequencies of allele A. In addition, the role of porcine GH was investigated in 117 Nanchang White pigs and 361 Large Yorkshire pigs. Eight traits about growth and carcass were recorded for analyzing associations between GH gene polymorphism and performance quantitative traits. In the Nanchang White pigs, no significant difference was observed between different genotypes and different growth and carcass traits. In Large Yorkshire pigs, those with BB genotype had more lean percentage than pigs with AA genotype (p<0.05). Based on these results, we conclude that the GH locus should be further investigated in commercial breeds to determine its suitability for use in marker-assisted selection programmes.
Effect of Buffer Composition, Sephadex Grade and Column Size on Filtration Based Quality Improvement of Semen from Murrah Buffalo Bull
Maurya, V.P. ; Tuli, R.K. ; Goyal, R.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 165~171
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.165
Sixty semen ejaculates collected at weekly interval from four Murrah Buffalo bulls over a period of seven months (Nov.1999 to May 2000) were used in the present study. Three buffer medium (sodium citrate, TES and Tris) were used for soaking of sephadex. Three grades of sephadex (G-15,G-100, and G-200) were used for preparation of columns. Columns of three different height (one, two and three cm) were used for separation of semen. Twenty semen ejaculates were used in each project. In the first experiment each semen ejaculates was divided into four parts. One part was kept as control and other three parts were passed thought one cm column of sephadex G-15 prepared in three different buffers. There was significant (p<0.05) increase in percent progressive sperm motility and percent live spermatozoa and decrease in percent abnormal spermatozoa and percent spermatozoa with damaged acrosome as well as sperm numbers after filtration through all the three columns. Sperm quality obtained in the filtrate of column prepared in Tris buffer was better in comparison to other two buffers. So the Tris buffer was used in the second trial. Twenty semen ejaculates were used in this experiment. Each semen ejaculate was divided into four parts. One part was kept as control (non-filtered) and other three parts were passed through columns of different grade of sephadex (G-15, G-100 and G-200). Progressive sperm motility and live sperm percentage improved significantly while decline in percent abnormal spermatozoa and percent spermatozoa with damaged acrosome and sperm concentration was observed after filtration through all the columns as compared to control (non-filtered) semen. Since post filtration quality of semen was better in the sephadex G-100 column, therefore it was selected for the next experiment. In third experiment, Tris buffer and sephadex G-100 were used for preparing columns of different height (one, two and three cm) and twenty semen ejaculates were filtered. The quality characteristics of semen (percent progressive sperm motility, percent live spermatozoa and sperm concentration) after filtration through one cm column were significantly (p<0.05) higher than after filtration through columns of two and three cm height. However non -significant (p>0.05) difference due to height of columns was observed for percent abnormal and percent damaged acrosome but 1 cm column comparatively gave better result than of 2 and 3 cm column height.
Regression Studies of Dry Weight of Planktonic Biomass on Physico-chemical Parameters of Ponds with Special Reference to Fertilization
Mahboob, Shahid ; Sheri, A.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 172~175
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.172
The regression equations of dry weight of planktonic biomass upon physico-chemical characteristics of fifteen ponds in three replicates under the influence of artificial feed, broiler manure, buffalo manure, N:P:K (25:25:0) and a control pond was obtained after one year of experimental period by using stepwise regression method. Water samples from each of the ponds were analyzed daily. However, the average values were calculated on the basis of 15 day intervals designated as fortnight. In artificial feed supplemented pond the regression of average nitrates on dry weight of planktonic biomass accounted for 71.7% of the variation in biomass. In broiler manure fertilization pond the regression of total nitrogen on dry weight of planktonic biomass held it responsible for more than 74.6% of variation in biomass. In buffalo's manure fertilized pond more than 82% of the variations in biomass were due to total nitrogen. In case of N:P:K (25:25:0) treated pond 66% of the variation in the dry weight of planktonic biomass was due to average nitrates. The control pond showed the dependence of biomass on light penetration. This equation explained more than 62 percent of variation in biomass. Other variables also showed some contribution towards variation in biomass under all the treatments in these regression studies.
Effect of Serum IGF-I on Progesterone Concentration during Early Pregnancy in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo)
Ryu, Yang-Hwan ; Yang, Jong-Yong ; Seo, Dong-Sam ; Ko, Yong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 176~179
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.176
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a polypeptide that has the function of regulating the expression of steroid hormones through endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine actions in reproductive organs. Moreover, IGF-I is involved in ovulation, implantation, maintenance of pregnancy, and development of fetuses in animals. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the effects of serum IGF-I concentration on progesterone (
) concentration and pregnancy rates in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). Blood was collected at estrus (Day 0) and Day 11. Artificial insemination was performed at Day 0. Serum IGF-I and
concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Overall,
concentration was higher at Day 11 than Day 0, whereas the pattern of IGF-I concentration was reversed. When animals were divided into two groups depending on the pregnancy status,
concentrations of the pregnant group was significantly higher than that of the non-pregnant group at Day 0 (p<0.05) and Day 11 (p<0.05). But, lower IGF-I concentrations were detected in the pregnant group at Day 0 (p<0.05) and Day 11 (p<0.05) compared to the non-pregnant group. In conclusion, these results indicated that serum IGF-I is inversely associated with
concentration during early pregnancy in Hanwoo.
A New Device for Intrauterine Artificial Insemination in the Dog
Kong, I.K. ; Yu, D.J. ; Jeong, S.R. ; Oh, I.S. ; Yang, C.J. ; Cho, S.G. ; Bae, I.H. ; Oh, D.H. ; Kim, H.R. ; Cho, S.K. ; Park, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 180~184
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.180
The intrauterine inseminator (IUI) was developed to provide the method of depositing dog semen into the uterine body instead of the vagina. The IUI consists of a vaginal endoscope, a balloon sheath, and injection catheter. When the endoscope is inserted into the vagina and the balloon expanded with air, the cervical os becomes visible so a injection catheter can be inserted through the cervix for deposition of the frozen-thawed semen. The efficacy of the IUI device was compared to intra-vaginal artificial insemination using semen that had been collected and frozen from pooled sperm-rich fraction of ejaculates collected from two Jindo dog donors. Aliquots of semen were extended with a Tris-egg yolk diluent, centrifuged, the seminal plasma removed, the pellet resuspended with the same diluent, and cooled to
over a 2 h period. A Tris-egg yolk-glycerol extender was added at
; after 1 h, semen was loaded into 0.5 ml straws, and straws were frozen in LN vapor for 5 min, and immersed in LN for storage. The final sperm concentration for freezing was approximately
. The straws were thawed at
for precisely 6 sec, 1.5 ml Tris-egg yolk buffer at
added, and the 2 ml of thawed semen was used for a single insemination using the IUI device. Each bitch was inseminated at optimal insemination point, which was estimated by vaginal epithelial cells staining and progesterone concentration analysis. Use of the IUI device resulted in 21 of 26 females giving birth to 89 pups (
pups per litter), while intra-vaginal AI resulted in 6 of 15 females whelping a total of 17 pups (
pups per litter). We believe the IUI device is easier to use than previously described devices used for intrauterine insemination. In our experience the expansion of the balloon has a calming effect on the bitch that aids the inseminator. These results indicate that the IUI device was able to provide high fertility with 50 million frozen sperm per insemination and two inseminations.
Fertility of Holstein Cows in Chengdu, China
Zi, X.D. ; Ma, L. ; Zhou, G.Q. ; Chen, C.L. ; Wei, G.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 185~188
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.185
Data on the use of breeding records of dairy cattle farm of Fenghuang-shan in Chengdu areas during a period of six years is systematically analyzed. The results show that Holstein heifers have their 1st estrus at an average age of
d which is not related to the calving season. Estrus mostly occurs in the months with mild ambient temperature (March, April, May, November and December). There is a very poor rate of estrus detection; only 30.0% successive estrus is observed within 24 d, 29.3% within 25-48 d, 40.6% over 48 d. The average number of insemination per conception is 1.50 for heifers and 1.74 for cows, but conception rate (CR) is lower in the relatively warm months (July, August and September) ranged from 48.1% to 51.9% compared with 58.1% to 68.5% in other months. High temperature is the most important factor affecting fertilization in warm months, but neither did CR decline immediately with the increased air temperature in June, nor did it increase immediately with the declined air temperature in September. Post partum anestrous period is
d. The average interval from calving to conception is
d with only 19.8% of the cows conceived within 85 d of calving. Cows with high milk yield have longer acyclic periods and lower conception rates. Improvement of efficient managements must be a precedent condition in Chengdu areas.
Effects of Intraruminal Soluble Glass Bolus on Blood Selenium and Plasma Mineral Level of Grazing Does under Backyard Conditions in Selected Areas in Nueva Ecija, Philippines
Hayashida, M. ; Orden, E.A. ; Cruz, E.M. ; Cruz, L.C. ; Fujihara, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 189~197
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.189
Soluble glass bolus with selenium (Se), copper (Cu) and cobalt (Co) was administered intraruminally to Philippine grazing does fed under backyard farming conditions to determine its effect on blood mineral status. Forty-five does were dosed with SGB intraruminally every 6 months, whereas 15 were without SGB during this experimental period of 10 months. Blood of does in both treatment groups were collected every other month and blood Se, plasma Cu, Ca, P and Mg were determined in this study. All does did not show clinical Se, Cu, Ca, P or Mg deficiency during this experimental period. Selenium concentration of treated does increased (p<0.01) after beginning of this experiment, whereas the level of control does decreased slowly (p<0.01). Two months after SGB administration, all treated does had higher blood Se than the lower limit of
suggested by NRC (1981), whereas some control does had lower blood Se concentration than the lower limit of
. On the other hand, plasma Cu concentration of treated does started to increase more remarkably than control does 4 months after this experiment had started although the difference was insignificant. There were no significant differences between plasma Ca, P or Mg concentration of does in both treatment groups. Soluble glass bolus had no harmful effects on plasma macro mineral concentrations of grazing does. This study showed that SGB was available as mineral supplement to improve imbalances of selected mineral of grazing goats in the traditional backyard conditions in Luzon Island, Philippines.
Effects of Intraruminal versus Intravenous Infusions of Acetone on the Ruminating and Masticating Behavior of Goats
Asato, N. ; Hirayama, T. ; Higa, T. ; Onodera, R. ; Shinjo, A. ; Oshiro, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 198~203
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.198
Acetone, which is produced from butyric acid when it passes through the rumen wall, was infused into the rumen and jugular veins of three female goats to investigate the role of acetone in ruminating and masticating behavior. The ruminating behavior, as measured by the number of boli and the ruminating time, decreased (p<0.05) with intraruminal acetone infusion. However, the ruminating behavior did not change significantly in response to intravenous acetone infusion. Feed intake significantly decreased with intraruminal acetone infusion, but not with intravenous acetone infusion. The concentrations of acetone in the plasma increased significantly (p<0.05) with both acetone infusion regions. Ruminal fluid acetone, and isopropyl alcohol (IPA), which is one of the ketone bodies, produced from acetone by bacterial action in rumen, concentrations were significantly increased (p<0.05) with both acetone infusion regions. These results suggest that the chemoreceptors sensitive to acetone are more likely to be in the rumen epithelium, portal system, or liver, where they can respond to acetone levels.
Effect of Feeding Saturated Fat on Milk Production and Composition in Crossbred Dairy Cows
Sarwar, Muhammad ; Sohaib, Amer ; Khan, Muhammad Ajmal ; Nisa, Mahr-un ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 204~210
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.204
To see the effect of Beragfat T-300, a by pass fat, on the production and composition of milk, four primiparous crossbred cows in their early lactation were used in a
Latin Square Design. Each period was of 30 days including 15 days of adjustment period. The diets were formulated to contain 0, 2.5, 3.5 and 4.5% of Bergafat and were isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. The intake of DM, OM, CP, NDF, ADF, Cellulose and ADL were not affected, however, the EE intake was increased by the supplementation of Bergafat in the diet of cows. The digestibilities of NDF and EE remained unaffected, whereas the digestibilites of DM, OM and CP were reduced. Milk yield remained unaltered, while 4%FCM yield increased as a result of adding Bergafat in the daily ration. Bergafat upto 4.5% of the diet DM can be added in the diet of crossbred cows without any adverse effect on the DM intake and digestibilities of DM and NDF. Furthermore, Bergafat does not cause any butter fat depression in the milk of cows.
Ruminal Degradability of Tropical Feeds and Their Potential Use in Ruminant Diets
Chanjula, P. ; Wanapat, M. ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Uriyapongson, S. ; Rowlinson, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 211~216
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.211
The objective of this study was to determine the degradability of cassava chip (CC), cassava waste (CW), yellow sweet potato (YP), white sweet potato (WP), purple sweet potato (PP), corn meal (CM), and rice bran (RB) using in situ technique. Two ruminally fistulated steers with an average weight of
were used to determine in situ degradabilities of DM and OM. Seven feed sources were weighted in nylon bags (
pore size) and incubated ruminally for 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h. The results showed that asymptote (a+b) and effective degradability (ED) of DM of energy sources ranked from the highest to the lowest; CC, YP, WP, PP, RB, CW, and CM (99.3, 92.5; 97.6, 87.9; 97.5, 87.9; 97.2, 87.8; 87.5, 63.6; 78.6, 63.0 and 81.7; 59.3, respectively) and for OM asymptote (a+b) and effective degradability (ED) were similar to those of degradation of DM (99.4, 93.4; 98.8, 89.8; 98.5, 89.4; 98.4, 88.1; 92.4, 65.8; 85.1, 66.9 and 83.6, 63.3, respectively). It was concluded that disappearance characteristic of CC was the highest and it may potentially facilitate the achievement of optimal ruminal availability of energy: protein especially with NPN for microbial protein synthesis.
Status of Antioxidant Enzymes in Normal Cycling and α-Tocopherol Supplemented Anestrus Buffalo Heifers (Bubalus bubalis)
Kahlon, R.S. ; Singh, Rajvir ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 217~221
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.217
The present investigation was undertaken to study status of erythrocytic antioxidant enzymes in normal cycling and
- tocopherol supplemented anestrus buffalo heifers. The pre-supplementation erythrocytic activities of superoxide dismutase (U/mg Hb), glutathione peroxidase (U/mg Hb) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (U/g Hb) upregulated significantly (p<0.05) in anestrus heifers (
) when compared to normal cycling ones (
). The oral supplementation of
-tocopherol (a) 3,000 mg per week per animal in anestrus heifers declined erythrocytic superoxide dismutase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities significantly (p<0.01) but led to non-significant increase in erythrocytic glutathione peroxidase activity. Results indicated that supplementation of
-tocopherol to anestrus buffalo heifers mitigated the effects of oxidative stress to improve their antioxidant status.
Effects of Dietary Chromium Picolinate Supplementation on Growth Performance and Immune Responses of Broilers
Lee, Der-Nan ; Wu, Fu-Yu ; Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang ; Lin, Rong-Shinn ; Wu, Po-Ching ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 227~233
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.227
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of chromium (Cr) on the growth performance, bone trait, serum traits, and immune responses in broilers. The broilers were fed corn-soybean meal basal diet supplemented with Cr at level of 0(control), 200, 400, or 800 ppb in the form of chromium picolinate (CrPic). The broilers were fed treated diets for 6 weeks in Exp. 1, but the Cr supplement was removed for the last 3 weeks in Exp. 2. Exp. 1 showed that dietary supplement of Cr did not affect growth performance of the broiler, though improved feed efficiency (p<0.05) was observed during 0 to 3 weeks. Moreover, serum total (p<0.05) and HDL cholesterols (p<0.06) were significantly higher in pooled Cr added group at 6 weeks of age, however, the difference was not significant in Exp. 2. The pooled Cr added group in Exp.1 had significantly lower (p<0.05) alkaline phosphatase activity and higher (p<0.09) calcium at 3 weeks. Significantly lower phosphorus was also observed in Exp. 2. With continued supplement of Cr as in Exp. 1, the alkaline phosphatase activity maintained higher at 6 weeks, as opposed to significantly lower in Exp. 2, which had no further Cr supplement. Higher bone breaking strength was observed in 400 ppb Cr supplemented in Exp. 1, though not significantly different. Serum glucose and triglyceride were not affected by Cr supplement. Antibody against Infectious Bronchitis (IB) was significantly (p<0.05) higher with 400 ppb Cr supplemented, and anti-Newcastle disease (ND) antibody also tended to be higher (p<0.06) in pooled Cr added group at 6 weeks of age in Exp. 1. Peripheral blood blastogenesis activity was not different among the treatments. The results suggest that diet supplemented with 400 ppb CrPic may be beneficial to the broiler.
Performance of Broiler Chicks Fed Normal and Low Viscosity Rye or Barley with or without Enzyme Supplementation
He, T. ; Thacker, P.A. ; McLeod, J.G. ; Campbell, G.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 234~238
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.234
This experiment was conducted to measure nutrient digestibility and performance in broiler chicks fed diets based on normal and low viscosity rye or barley fed with and without enzyme (pentosanase and
-glucanase) during a 17 day growth trial. A total of 150 one-day old, male broiler chicks (5 birds per pen and 5 pens per treatment) were randomly assigned to one of six dietary treatments in a
factorial design experiment (3 cereals
2 enzyme levels). Digestibility coefficients were determined using chromic oxide. Digestibility coefficients for dry matter and crude protein were significantly (p=0.0001) higher for the barley-based diets than for any of the rye-based diets. Digestibility coefficients for gross energy did not differ (p>0.05) due to cereal grain. There were no differences in the digestibility coefficients for dry matter and gross energy between chicks fed normal and low viscosity rye. However, the digestibility coefficient for crude protein was higher (p=0.01) for the low viscosity rye compared with the normal viscosity rye. Addition of enzyme to the diet significantly (p=0.0001) increased digestibility coefficients for dry matter, crude protein and energy. There were no significant differences in weight gain, feed intake or feed conversion between birds fed barley or rye or between birds fed normal or low viscosity rye. Enzyme supplementation significantly improved (p=0.0001) weight gain, intake and feed conversion. The overall results of this experiment indicate that unsupplemented barley and rye do not support adequate growth rates in poultry. Enzyme supplementation dramatically improved broiler performance. In addition, genetic selection to reduce the viscosity of rye had only a modest effect on the nutritive value of rye for broilers.
Effects of Microbial Phytase Replacing Partial Inorganic Phosphorus Supplementation and Xylanase on the Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Broilers Fed Wheat-based Diets
Peng, Y.L. ; Guo, Y.M. ; Yuan, J.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 239~247
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.239
Two experiments were conducted with broilers to investigate the feasibility of microbial phytase replacing partial inorganic phosphorus supplementation and the synergistic effects of xylanase (320 FTU/kg) supplementation alone or in combination with phytase (750 U/kg) replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic phosphorus, on the growth performance and utilization of nutrients in broilers fed wheat-based diets. In Experiment 1, 540 broilers were fed five diets for 6 weeks. Diets C0 and C1 were corn-based diets and 0.08% inorganic P supplementation was replaced with 750 U phytase/kg feed in Diet C1. Diets W0, W1 and W2 were wheat-based diets supplemented with microbial phytase 0, 750, 750 U/kg feed and 0, 0.08% and 0.16% dietary inorganic P were replaced, respectively. In Experiment 2, 432 broilers were divided into four treatments to determine the synergistic effects of supplemental xylanase and phytase replacing 0.08% inorganic P. Four experimental diets were arranged according to a
factorial design. The results indicated that addition of phytase increased the digestibility of phytic P by 31.0 to 55%, dramatically decreased the excretion of phytic P and total P by 31.6 to 55.0% and 13.8 to 32.9%, respectively (p<0.01). It is feasible to completely replace 0.08% inorganic phosphorus supplementation with microbial phytase 750 U/kg in corn- or wheat-based diets for broilers. Addition of xylanase alone or in combination with phytase replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic P, increased body weight gain and feed utilization efficiency of broilers fed wheat-based diets (p<0.10) and decreased overall mortality (p<0.10). In the groups of birds supplementing xylanase 320 FTU/kg feed, a marked elevation of the dietary AME was observed (p<0.05). Addition of phytase replacing 0.08% dietary inorganic phosphorus, concurrently with xylanase supplementation had additive effects on the apparent digestibility of dietary phytic P and overall feed conversion ratio (p<0.05).
Effects of Expander Processing and Enzyme Supplementation of Wheat-based Diets for Finishing Pigs
Park, J.S. ; Kim, I.H. ; Hancock, J.D. ; Wyatt, C.L. ; Behnke, K.C. ; Kennedy, G.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 248~256
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.248
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of expander processing and enzyme supplementation of wheat-based diets on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in finishing pigs. For Exp. 1, 60 finishing pigs (average initial BW of 49.5 kg) were fed meal, standard pellets and expanded pellets in a 70 d growth assay. From 49.5 to 79.0 kg, 79.0 to 111.8 kg, and overall (49.5 to 111.8 kg), ADG and ADFI were not affected by pelleting or standard vs expander conditioning (p>0.22). However, from 49.5 to 79.0 kg, pigs fed pellets have greater gain/feed than pigs fed mash (p<0.04), and pigs fed expanded pellets tended to have greater (p<0.10) gain/feed than pigs fed standard pellets. Overall (i.e. from 49.5 to 111.8 kg), gain/feed (p<0.02) and apparent fecal digestibilities of DM (p<0.001) and N (p<0.02) were improved by pelleting the diets. Also, expander processing further improved gain/feed (p<0.06) and digestibility of DM (p<0.04) compared to standard steam conditioning. Scores for keratinization (p<0.002) and ulceration (p<0.003) of the stomach were increased by pelleting, but the mean scores for the various treatments ranged only from 0.05 to 1.08 (i.e., low to mild keratosis and ulceration). For Exp. 2, 80 pigs (average initial BW of 54.1 kg) were fed mash and pellets (standard or expander) without and with xylanase. The enzyme was added to supply 4,000 units of xylanase activity/kg of diet. Adding xylanase to the mash diet improved gain/feed from 90.7 to 115.9 kg (p<0.04) of the growth assay and digestibility of DM (p<0.05) on d 39. However, in pelleted diets, adding the enzyme did not improve growth performance or digestibility of nutrients. Pelleting tended to increase scores for ulceration (p<0.06), and enzyme supplementation decreased stomach keratinization scores for pigs fed the standard pellets (p<0.01). However, as in Exp. 1, the mean scores for all treatment groups were quiet low (i.e., ranging from normal to mild). In conclusion, pelleting improved efficiency of growth, but additional benefits from expander conditioning were observed only in Exp. 1. Finally, xylanase tended to improve growth performance and nutrient digestibility, only in pigs fed mash diets but not in pigs fed pellets.
Phenotypic and Genetic Parameters for Inosine Acid in Relation to Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Pigs
Jiang, X.P. ; Liu, G.Q. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ; Ding, J.T. ; Xie, K.Z. ; Zhang, J.Q. ; Zuo, B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 257~260
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.257
A total of 135 F2 finishing pigs (65 barrows and 69 gilts) from resource population (Large White
Meishan) were slaughtered at about 87.8 kg BW. Contents of inosine acid (IMP) and carnine (HR) in muscle were assayed by HLPC and genetic parameters for IMP content and HR content were estimated using full sibs model. There was significant sex effect on IMP content(p<0.05),
for gilt and
for barrow. Heritability estimates for IMP and HR content were 0.127 and 0.357, respectively. The phenotypic correlation between IMP content and HR was 0.335, pH (A) 0.024, water lose rate (WLR) -0.069, intramuscular fat (IMF) -0.214, average marbling score (MARB) -0.143, average backfat measurements (AVBF) -0.084 and average color value (CV) -0.156, respectively. The result indicated that inosine acid content in meat might be retained or slightly improved by reducing backfat depth in pig breeding.
Utilization of Transglutaminase for the Development of Low-fat, Low-salt Sausages and Restructured Meat Products Manufactured with Pork Hams and Loins
Chin, K.B. ; Chung, B.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 261~265
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.261
This study was performed to determine whether transglutaminase (Aciva-TG, TGase) can be used to reduce the salt level in low-fat sausages and to replace emulsified meats (10%) for the manufacture of restructured meat products (RMP). Pork hams and loins were collected from a local retail market in Gwangju, Korea and used for the manufacture of sausages and RMPs, respectively. TGase at the level of 0.1% can permit the reduction of the salt level from 1.5% to 1.0% in low-fat comminuted sausages without any quality defects, however a crumbly texture was found if the salt level was reduced below 1.0% even though it combined with certain amounts of TGase. No differences in chemical composition and physical properties were observed (p>0.05) among treatments. Approximately 0.3% of TGase can replace 10% emulsified meats, which are normally used for improvement of binding capacity to manufacture RMPs, without quality defects. This study suggests that TGase could be used for the manufacture of low-fat, low-salt functional meat products for the improvement of textural characteristics and binding capacity without adverse effects.
Preliminary Study on the Level of Evolutionary Differentiation between Domestic Quails and Wild Japanese Quails
Wang, H.Y. ; Chang, H. ; Xu, W. ; Chang, G.B. ; Lu, S.X. ; Du, L. ; Sun, W. ; Xu, M. ; Wang, Q.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 266~268
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.266
This paper makes an analysis of the ecological behaviours of 3 categories of quails, namely wild Japanese quails from the Weishan Lake Area, medium-sized domestic quails and pint-sized domestic quails. The study indicates as follows: (1) There is difference in morphological and biological habits between domestic quails and wild Japanese ones. (2) The cross-breeding between the wild and domestic quails is a cross from exclusion to affinity. (3) The behaviours of quails such as pursuit,paw and mating are selective. (4) The wild Japanese quails and domestic ones can succeed in mating and in reproducing fertilized eggs but with a low rate. (5) Evolutionary differentiation has been formed in varying degrees between the domestic quails and their wild ancestors in morphological and ecological characteristics.
Microbial Transglutaminase Modifies Gel Properties of Porcine Collagen
Erwanto, Y. ; Kawahara, S. ; Katayama, K. ; Takenoyama, S. ; Fujino, H. ; Yamauchi, K. ; Morishita, T. ; Kai, Y. ; Watanabe, S. ; Muguruma, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 269~276
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.269
We studied the gel properties of porcine collagen with microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) as a catalyst. A creep meter was used to measure the mechanical properties of gel. The results showed samples with high concentration of MTGase gelled faster than those with a low concentration of MTGase. The gel strength increased with incubation time and the peaks of breaking strength for 0.1, 0.2 and 0.5% MTGase were obtained at 40, 20 and 10 min incubation time, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE, the MTGase was successfully created a collagen polymer with an increase in molecular weight, whereas no change in formation was shown without MTGase. The sample with 0.5% MTGase began to polymerize after 10 or 20 min incubation at
, and complete polymerization occurred after 40-60 min incubation. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed that the gel of porcine collagen in the presence of MTGase produced an extremely well cross-linked network. The differential scanning calorimetric analysis showed the peak thermal transition of porcine collagen gel was at
, and that with MTGase no peak was detected during heating from 20 to
. The melting point of porcine collagen gel could be controlled by MTGase concentration, incubation temperature and protein concentration. Knowledge of the structural and physicochemical properties of porcine collagen gel catalyzed with MTGase could facilitate their use in food products.
Diversity in Six Goat Populations in the Middle and Lower Yangtze River Valley
Jiang, X.P. ; Liu, G.Q. ; Ding, J.T. ; Yang, L.G. ; Cao, S.X. ; Cheng, S.O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 277~281
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.277
Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLPs) markers were used to investigate the genetic variation in six autochthonous goat populations distributed in the middle and lower Yangtze River valley. The goat populations were Chengdu Grey Goat (CGG), Chuandong White Goat (CWG), Banjiao Goat (BG), Matou Goat (MG), Hui Goat (HG) and Yangtze River Delta White Goat (YRDWG). A total of 180 individuals (30 per population) were analysed using ten selected AFLP primer combinations that produced 78 clear polymorphism loci. The variability at AFLP loci was largely maintained within populations, as indicated by the average genetic similarity, and they were ranged from 0.745 to 0.758 within populations and 0.951 to 0.970 between populations. No breed specific markers were identified. Cluster analysis based on Nei' genetic distance between populations indicated that Chengdu Grey Goat is the most distant population, while CWG and YROWG were the closest populations, followed by BG, HG and MG. Genetic diversity of the goat populations didn' confirm what was expected on the basis of their geographical location, which may reflect undocumented migrations and gene flows and identify an original genetic resource.
Herbs and Botanicals as Feed Additives in Monogastric Animals
Wenk, Caspar ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 282~289
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.282
Animal feed additives are used worldwide for many different reasons. Some help to cover the needs of essential nutrients and others to increase growth performance, feed intake and therefore optimize feed utilization. The health status of animals with a high growth performance is a predominant argument in the choice of feed additives. The use of feed additives is more and more questioned by the consumers. Therefore, the feed industry is highly interested in valuable alternatives which could be accepted by the consumers. Probiotics, prebiotics, enzymes and highly available minerals as well as herbs can be seen as alternatives. Herbs, spices and their extracts (botanicals) have a wide range of activities. They can stimulate feed intake and endogenous secretions or have antimicrobial, coccidiostatic or anthelmintic activity. A major field of application of herbs is the protection of animals and their products against oxidation.
The Role of Magnesium and Calcium in Eggshell Formation in Tsaiya Ducks and Leghorn Hens
Shen, T.F. ; Chen, W.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 290~296
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.290
Tsaiya ducks and Leghorn hens are the two major laying birds raised in Taiwan. They are all excellent egg layers. Tsaiya ducks are small in body size (1.3 kg) with bigger egg weight (65 g) and stronger eggshell breaking strength than eggs from hens. The eggshell consists mainly of calcium carbonate, hence calcium plays an important role in the eggshell formation. Magnesium is also present in eggshell in small amounts, which may have effect on maintaining eggshell quality. In comparison studies, it was shown that the duck eggshells contained higher calcium and lower magnesium content than chicken eggshells. The eggshell magnesium content was not affected by the dietary magnesium levels (690-2380 ppm) in ducks, but in hens, it increased linearly with dietary magnesium levels. The palisade layer (
) of the eggshell was found to have a compact form for ducks while there are many hallow vesicles in chicken eggshells. The eggshell magnesium deposition model is different for ducks and hens with ducks having a one-peak and hens having a two-peak model. The calcium deposition model is similar for both birds. Both the carbonic anhydrase specific activity and total activity in the shell gland mucosa of ducks are higher than those in hens. Ducks retain higher magnesium and lower calcium in the shell gland mucosa and secret less magnesium and more calcium into the shell gland lumen for eggshell deposition. The ATPase specific activity is maintained fairly constant during the eggshell forming stage, indicating continuous calcium transport into the shell gland lumen for eggshell formation. The magnesium content in duck eggshells is much lower than that in hens indicating that the magnesium content in the eggshell may have an effect on eggshell quality.
A Review on the Role of Duckweed in Nutrient Reclamation and as a Source of Animal Feed
Goopy, J.P. ; Murray, P.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 297~305
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.297
The family of lemnacae colloquially known as duckweed contains the world' smallest species of flowering plants (macrophytes). Aquatic and free-floating, their most striking qualities are a capacity for explosive reproduction and an almost complete lack of fibrous material. They are widely used for reducing chemical loading in facultative sewage lagoons, but their greatest potential lies in their ability to produce large quantities of protein rich biomass, suitable for feeding to a wide range of animals, including fish, poultry and cattle. Despite these qualities there are numerous impediments to these plants being incorporated into western farming systems. Large genetically determined variations in growth in response to nutrients and climate, apparent anti-nutritional factors, concerns about sequestration of heavy metals and possible transference of pathogens raise questions about the safety and usefulness of these plants. A clear understanding of how to address and overcome these impediments needs to be developed before duckweed is widely accepted for nutrient reclamation and as a source of animal feed.
Biosynthesis of Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Its Incorporation into Ruminant's Products
Song, Man K. ; Kennelly, John J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 2, 2003, Pages 306~314
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.306
-unsaturated fatty acids released from the hydrolysis of dietary lipids in the rumen, in general, occurs rapidly but the range of hydrogenation is quite large, depending on the degree of unsaturation of fatty acids, the configuration of unsaturated fatty acids, microbial type and the experimental condition. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) is incompletely hydrogenated products by rumen microorganisms in ruminant animals. It has been shown to have numerous potential benefits for human health and the richest dietary sources of CLA are bovine milk and milk products. The cis-9, trans-11 is the predominant CLA isomer in bovine products and other isomers can be formed with double bonds in positions 8/10, 10/12, or 11/13. The term CLA refers to this whole group of 18 carbon conjugated fatty acids. Alpha-linolenic acid goes through a similar bio-hydrogenation process producing trans-11
, but may not appear to produce CLA as an intermediate. Although the CLA has been mostly derived from the dietary
alternative pathway may be existed due to the extreme microbial diversity in the reticulo-rumen. Regardless of the origin of CLA, manipulation of the bio-hydrogenation process remains the key to increasing CLA in milk and beef by dietary means, by increasing rumen production of CLA. Although the effect of oil supplementation on changes in fatty acid composition in milk seems to be clear its effect on beef is still controversial. Thus further studies are required to enrich the CLA in beef under various dietary and feeding conditions.