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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 16, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Genetic Distance Study among Deoni Breed of Cattle Using Random Amplified DNA Markers
Appannavar, M.M. ; Govindaiah, M.G. ; Ramesha, K.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 315~319
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.315
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis was done with 19 oligonucleotide primers to study genetic similarities and divergence among different types of Deoni breed of cattle viz., Balankya, Wannera and Waghya. Six random primers produced low to high numbers of polymorphic bands between pooled DNA of different Deoni types. Of the 48 RAPD markers obtained 33 were common to all Deoni types, 3 were individual specific and 12 were polymorphic for different Deoni types. The mean average percentage difference values among Deoni types showed that Balankya and Wannera had less genetic divergence when compared to Waghya.
Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Meat Quality on Pig Chromosome 3, 4 and 7
Zuo, Bo ; Xiong, YuanZhu ; Su, YuHong ; Deng, ChangYan ; Zheng, Rong ; Jiang, Siwen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 320~324
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.320
The objective of this study was to localize QTL affecting meat quality in a pig family of three generations. All animals were genotyped for twenty-four microsatellites on SSC3 (Sus scrofa chromosome 3), SSC4 and SSC7. One hundred and forty
offsprings were scored for eleven meat quality traits. Least square regression interval mapping revealed quantitative trait loci (QTL) effect for meat pH (m. Semipinalis Capitis, SC) on SSC4 and SSC7; for moisture (m. Longissimus Dorsi, LD) on SSC3. Furthermore, there was suggestive evidence for a QTL on SSC4 affecting intramuscular fat (IMF) content that nearly approached the chromosomewise (p=0.05) significance threshold.
Association among Egg Productivity, Granulosa Layer IGF-I, and Ovarian IGF-I in Korean Native Ogol Chicken
Kang, W.J. ; Seo, D.S. ; Ko, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 325~330
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.325
There exists considerable evidence that insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is involved in the regulation of ovulation rate and follicle development. IGF-I is believed to modulate the effects of gonadotropins on follicular growth and cell differentiation via paracrine and autocrine mechanisms. Therefore, this study was performed to relate the expression of IGF-I on ovaries and follicles with egg productivity at 60 wk. The egg productivity of 70 KNOC was recorded from 20 to 60 wk. Blood was taken every 10 wk and ovaries and follicles were taken at 60 wk. Serum IGF-I and IGF-I of ovaries and follicles were measured by radioimmunoassay. Based on egg production levels up to 60 wk and ovarian IGF-I expression at 60 wk, respectively. Chickens were divided into two groups, high and low. Egg production and serum IGF-I in the high IGF-I group were higher than those in the low group. Moreover, the IGF-I expression of follicles in the high ovarian IGF-I expression group was higher than that in the low group. These finding are consistent with the report that IGF-I indirectly regulates ovulation in chickens, suggesting that this regulation may play an important role in improved egg productivity.
Reproductive Potentials of Gayal (Bos frontalis) under Semi-intensive Management
Giasuddin, M. ; Huque, K.S. ; Alam, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 331~334
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.331
The assessment of reproductive potentials of female gayal under semi-intensive management was conducted with 18 animals in Bandarban hilly area of Bangladesh. Age at first estrous (days), age at first conception (days), length of estrous cycle (days), number of service per conception (natural), gestation period (days), age at first calving (days), and calving interval (natural service) (days) of gayal were
respectively. Daily milk yield and lactation length of gayal were
. Gayal male calves had higher birth weight (19.67 kg) than female calves (15.58 kg) in first lactation. Birth weight increases in second and third lactation than first lactation in both male and female calves. Highest conception rate observed in winter season and 70.60% successful conception occur when service was given within 21-30 h of estrous. Maximum number of female gayal use to come in estrous in winter and calved in monsoon and autumn. Cervicitis and irregular heat were the most reproductive problems followed by metritis, case of abortion, anestrous and repeat breeding. From this study it was observed that the reproductive performance of gayal is very close with the domestic cattle. It may use as beef cattle for the hilly regions of Bangladesh.
Relationships of Concentrations of Endocrine Factors at Antemortem and Postmortem Periods to Carcass Weight and Backfat Thickness in Pigs
Yun, J.S. ; Seo, D.S. ; Rhee, M.S. ; Oh, S. ; Kim, B.C. ; Ko, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 335~341
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.335
Carcass weight and backfat thickness are two of important elements in determining the carcass trait in pigs and are studied on animal genetics, nutrition, and endocrinology. Growth factors stimulate or inhibit the proliferation and differentiation of various cells. In particular, insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), transforming growth factor (TGF)-
, and epidermal growth factor (EGF) are involved in the growth and maintenance of muscle. Also, dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) and cortisol are known to be related to the obesity and subcutaneous fat depth in pigs. Therefore, this study was performed to relate growth factors (IGFs, TGF-
, and EGF) and hormones (cortisol and DHEA-S) concentrations at antemortem and postmortem periods to carcass traits including carcass weight and backfat thickness. Blood and m. Longissimus were collected in pigs at antemortem (30 days before slaughter) and postmortem periods. After slaughtered, carcass weight and backfat thickness were measured. Growth factors and hormones in serum and m. Longissimus were measured by radioimmunoassay or enzyme-linked imuunosorbent assay. Before antemortem period, serum IGF-I and -II concentrations were positively correlated with the carcass weight and backfat thickness in gilts, and the concentrations of TGF-
and cortisol in barrows show the correlation with only carcass weight. Also, the positive correlations of muscular IGFs and TGF-
at postmortem 45 min with the carcass weight and backfat thickness were detected. Consequently, these results suggest that the serum and muscular endocrine factors are involved in the carcass weight and backfat thickness in pigs.
Changes in Ovarian and Placental 20α-hydroxysteroid Dehydrogenase Activity during the Pregnancy in the Rat
Seong, H.H. ; Min, K.S. ; Kang, M.H. ; Yoon, J.T. ; Jin, H.J. ; Chung, H.J. ; Chang, W.K. ; Yun, S.G. ; Shiota, Kunio ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 342~347
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.342
-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (
-HSD) catabolizes progesterone to
-OHP), and is appeared in rat corpora luteal and placenta. A polled samples of 10-15 placental and ovarian tissues collected from each individual rat were subjected to measurement of
-HSD activity. A
-HSD activity in the cytosol fraction was based on the generation of NADPH. In this study, it is designed to study cytosolic
-HSD activity in rat ovarian and placenta during pregnancy, and its relationship to embryonic mortality. It was found that from days 5 to 18 of pregnancy the
-HSD activities steady by decreased but at parturition time rapidly increased in ovary. On the other hand, placental cytosolic
-HSD activities were high detected from days 8 to 10 of pregnancy, not detectable from days 11 to 20 of pregnancy, but again very high at the time of parturition. Analysis of DEAE column chromatography revealed that two different types of
-HSD (HSD-1 and HSD-2) were found with similar activity in the placental cytosol on day 10 of pregnancy. The number of fetuses on day 10 of pregnancy was 15.4 and decreased significantly to 12.9 on day 12. The results suggested that expression of
-HSD in the placental tissues seems to be related the number of fetal survived in the specific time (days 11 and 12) which spontaneous fetal loss occurs.
Plasma Protein Profile of Neonatal Buffalo Calves in Relation to the Protein Profile of Colostrum/Milk during First Week Following Parturition
Lone, Abdul Gani ; Singh, Charanbir ; Singha, S.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 348~352
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.348
An investigation was made into the protein profile of colostrum/milk of ten Murrah buffaloes and of their ten buffalo calves during their first week of neonatal life to study the materno-neonatal transfer of immunoglobulins (Ig). Calves were pail fed 3.5 liter of colostrum and/or milk per calf/day exclusively from their dam. First blood sample from newborn calves was collected before colostrum feeding on the day of birth (day zero) and the sampling continued daily for seven days after colostrum/milk feeding. Colostrum/milk Ig and IgG values were
respectively during 0-7 days post partum. The concentration of total colostrum/milk proteins, Ig, IgG and albumin were highest within 12 h post-partum. Thereafter, the concentrations followed a declining trend which may be attributed to the reduced transfer of proteins from the maternal blood, declining synthesis by the mammary glands and/or depletion of stored proteins. The concentrations of plasma Ig and IgG before colostrum feeding on day zero were
respectively. The levels of plasma Ig were
and of IgG were
on days 1-7 after birth after colostrum/milk feeding. The concentrations of total plasma proteins, Ig, IgG were lowest before colostrum feeding and increased significantly (p<0.05) after colostrum feeding in buffalo neonates. The results suggest that the highest amounts of colostral Ig and IgG were available on the day of parturition and thus the calves should receive colostrum as early after birth as possible. Colostrum Ig and IgG concentrations were not correlated to plasma Ig and IgG concentrations in the post-suckle buffalo calves and therefore, colostrum Ig and IgG concentrations were probably not the principle determinants of calf post-suckle plasma Ig and IgG concentrations.
Effects of Vitamin A on Carcass Composition Concerning Younger Steer Fattening of Wagyu Cattle
Nade, T. ; Hirabara, S. ; Okumura, T. ; Fujita, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 353~358
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.353
Regarding the fattening of younger cattle that the Ministry of Agriculture Forestry and Fisheries (MAFF) recommends in Japan, this study looked at vitamin A control in feed and blood and its effect on performance of production and carcass composition of Wagyu steers. Five sets from 10 Wagyu artificial identical twins were divided to into 2 groups, a restricted group (Test) and a supplied group (Control). The body weight at the finishing time of the Test was significantly lower than that of the Control (p<0.05). The daily gain from 13 to 21 months old, as the animals in the Test were fed the concentrated feed without Vitamin A, was significantly different (p<0.05) between the Test and the Control. The total daily gains for the Test and the Control for the fattening period were 0.82 kg/day and 0.93 kg/day, respectively, which showed a significant difference (p<0.01). Regarding the rib thickness, the Test was thinner than the Control. The Beef Marbling Scores of the Test and Control were 3.60 and 2.80, respectively. The muscle weight of the Test was significantly smaller than that of the Control (p<0.01). However, regarding the ratio to the carcass, the Test was significantly higher than the Control (p<0.05). For the fat weight, the Test was smaller by about 15 kg than the Control (p<0.01). Furthermore, for the fat ratio to the carcass, the Test was significantly lower than the Control (p<0.05). The bone weights of the two groups were approximately the same. Regarding the ratio of bone to carcass, the Test was higher than the Control (p<0.01). For the younger fattening method, the low level vitamin A in the serum had the effect that the muscle ratio to the carcass weight was greater and the fat was less, but the carcass and muscle weight were less.
Effect of Supplementary Feeding Strategies on the Performance of Stall Fed Dual-purpose Dairy Cows Fed Grass Hay-based Diets
Bwire, J.M.N. ; Wiktorsson, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 359~367
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.359
Supplementary feeding strategies were evaluated from pre-calving throughout lactation on 24 dual-purpose Mpwapwa breed cows in their second or greater lactation, weighing 246-455 kg. The Mpwapwa breed is an established breed of 4 Bos indicus breeds and 8% of Bos taurus. The cows were penned and stall-fed individually. Eight weeks before calving to eight weeks after calving, the cows were divided into two groups and offered hay ad libitum with either 2 kg DM (L) or 4 kg DM/day (H) concentrates. Nine weeks after calving half of the cows on L-level continued with 2 kg DM/day (L-L) while the remainder received 4 kg DM concentrate daily (L-H). Half of the cows on H-group continued with 4 kg DM/day (H-H) while the remainder received 2 kg DM/day (H-L). The concentrate mixture comprised of sunflower seed cake (33%) and maize bran (67%). The cows consumed all the concentrate offered. Hay DM intake was similar (6.8 kg/day) and tended to decrease the last two weeks before calving increased again after calving. Live weight change and body condition score were similar across treatments before calving but differed after calving (p<0.05). Heavier cows with higher condition score pre-calving had a higher body weight loss and regained weight later. After treatment reallocation, live weight change and condition differed between treatments (p<0.05). Calves were allowed to suckle milk from one quarter. The amount of milk suckled and calf weight gains were not significantly different between treatments. The cows were removed from the experiment when the milk yield was below 4 kg per day. Cows on treatment H produced 6.2 kg and on treatment L 5.0 kg saleable milk/day (p<0.05) during the first 8 weeks post partum. During the period 9-18 weeks post partum the saleable daily milk on H-H, L-H, H-L and L-L were 5.2, 4.8, 4.7 and 4.3 kg, respectively (p>0.05).
Effects of Ammonia, Urea Plus Calcium Hydroxide and Animal Urine Treatments on Chemical Composition and In sacco Degradability of Rice Straw
Fadel Elseed, A.M.A. ; Sekine, J. ; Hishinuma, M. ; Hamana, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 368~373
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.368
This experiment was conducted to examine the effects on the composition and rumen degradation in sacco of rice straw treated with animal urine (1 l of 2.9 g N/kg DM straw) and urea plus calcium hydroxide (2% urea plus 0.5%
/kg DM straw) as a cheap and relatively safe alternative for ammonia (3% ammonia solution/kg DM straw). Mold occurred in urine treated straw, but other treatments were apparently mold-free. All treatments significantly (p<0.05) increased CP content in the straw compared with untreated one. Ammonia-treated straw contained CP at about twice that in urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated straw. NDF and hemicellulose contents decreased significantly (p<0.05) in all treatments, while ADF and cellulose showed no differences compared with untreated straw. The degradable fraction of DM, CP, NDF, hemicellulose and cellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments than for urine treated or untreated straw except for CP of urine treated straw. Chemical treatment of rice straw increased the readily degradable fraction of CP, while it decreased the slowly degradable fraction for urine or urea-calcium hydroxide treated rice straw. The degradation rate of hemicellulose was significantly (p<0.05) increased for ammonia and urea-calcium hydroxide treatments compared to urine treated or untreated straw. However, no effect on cellulose degradation rate was found by any of the treatments. There was no improvement in the degradation kinetics caused by the urine treatment despite the improvement of the chemical composition. Although the improvement in rumen degradability was less in the urea-calcium hydroxide treatment than in the ammonia treatment, its use may be more desirable because it is less expensive to obtain, less hazardous nature, and readily available. For further improvement it is necessary to investigate the supplementation of slowly degradable nitrogen to ureacalcium hydroxide treated rice straw diet.
Effect of Diet on Enzyme Profile, Biochemical Changes and In sacco Degradability of Feeds in the Rumen of Buffalo
Kamra, D.N. ; Saha, Sudipto ; Bhatt, Neeru ; Chaudhary, L. C. ; Agarwal, Neeta ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 374~379
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.374
Four rumen fistulated Murrah buffaloes were used to study the effect of four diets differing in roughage to concentrate ratio on rumen biochemical changes, microbial enzyme profile and in sacco degradability of feed in a
Latin Square design. The animals were fed four diets consisting of 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 ratios of wheat straw and concentrate mixtures, respectively. Wheat straw and concentrate mixture were mixed with water (0.6 l/kg feed) and complete feed mixture was offered to the animals at 8:00 h and 16:00 h in two equal parts. The variation in pH of rumen liquor (difference of maximum and minimum during 0-8 h post feeding) increased with increasing level of concentrate mixture in the diet. There was no effect of diet composition on volatile fatty acids, total nitrogen and trichloro-acetic acid precipitable nitrogen in the rumen liquor, but ammonia nitrogen increased with increasing level of concentrate mixture in the ration. Major portions of all fibre degrading enzymes were present in the particulate material (PM) of the rumen contents, but protease was absent in PM fraction. The activities of micro-crystalline cellulase, acetyl esterase and protease increased with increase in the level of concentrate mixture, but the activities of other enzymes (carboxymethylcellulase, filter paper degrading activity, xylanase,
-xylosidase) were not affected. The in sacco degradability and effective degradability of feeds increased with increasing level of concentrate mixture in the ration.
Estimation of Rumen Gas Volume by Dilution Technique in Sheep Given Two Silages at Different Levels of Feeding
Sekine, J. ; Kamel, Hossam E.M. ; Fadel El-Seed, Abdel Nasir M.A. ; Hishinuma, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 380~383
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.380
The gas dilution technique was used to evaluate the possibility of estimating the volume of gaseous phase in the rumen from its composition in sheep given rice whole crop silage (RWS) or dent corn silage (DCS) at a level of maintenance (M) or 2 M, and in the course of fasting. The rumen gas composition was determined at 2 and 7.5 h after morning feeding. Nitrogen gas was injected by using an airtight syringe into the rumen immediately after collecting the rumen gas sample as a control. Then rumen gas samples were collected at 5, 10, 20, 40 and 60 min. after injection. Dry-matter intakes were
for DCS, and
for RWS, at 1 M and 2 M levels, respectively. Animals ingested both silages about 20% less than expected at 2 M level. The rumen gas composition did not differ significantly between 2 h and 7.5 h after feeding except for
. Content of
in gas composition was significantly higher at 2 M level than at 1 M (p<0.05) for both RWS and DCS, whereas
showed no significant difference between feeding levels. At both feeding levels,
showed a higher (p<0.05) percentage in DCS than RWS. A dilution technique by using
injection is not appropriate for the determination of gas production in vivo, unless the rate of rumen gas turnover is considered. Changes in composition at fasting indicate that the rumen fermentation may reach the lowest level after 72 h fasting for sheep given silage as their sole diet.
Effects of Enzyme Application Method and Levels and Pre-treatment Times on Rumen Fermentation, Nutrient Degradation and Digestion in Goats and Steers
Hong, S.H. ; Lee, B.K. ; Choi, N.J. ; Lee, Sang S. ; Yun, S.G. ; Ha, J.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 389~393
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.389
Present study investigate the effect of enzyme supplementation, methods (applied to rumen or enzyme treated diet) compared with no enzyme diet, on rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility in a
Latin square design with three rumen cannulated Korean Native goats. In situ rumen degradation kinetics was studied in three rumen cannulated Holstein steers. Three diets were, no enzyme, 1% enzyme in rumen and 1% enzyme in diet. The enzyme was sprayed onto forage, and the forage: concentrate ratio was 30:70. Degradation kinetics was studied with three enzyme levels (0, 1 and 2%, w/w) and four pre-treatment times (0, 1, 12 and 24 h). Results suggested that enzyme application method did not affect rumen fermentation, ruminal enzyme activity and total tract apparent digestibility. Nutrient degradation rate and effective degradability of DM, NDF and ADF increased with increasing enzyme level and pre-treatment times. Degradation of nutrients was affected by enzymes levels or pre-treatment times. Therefore, it is probable that the improved degradation may be due to the supplemented exogenous hydrolytic enzymes under a certain condition.
Influence of Phytase and Xylanase Supplementation on Growth Performance and Nutrient Utilisation of Broilers Offered Wheat-based Diets
Selle, P.H. ; Ravindran, V. ; Ravindran, G. ; Pittolo, P.H. ; Bryden, W.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 394~402
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.394
Individual and combined supplementation of phosphorus-adequate, wheat-based broiler diets with exogenous phytase and xylanase was evaluated in three experiments. The effects of the enzyme combination in lysine-eficient diets containing wheat and sorghum were more pronounced than those of the individual feed enzymes. The inclusion of phytase plus xylanase improved (p<0.05) weight gains (7.3%) and feed efficiency (7.0%) of broilers (7-28 days post-hatch) and apparent metabolisable energy (AME) by 0.76 MJ/kg DM. Phytase plus xylanase increased (p<0.05) the overall, apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids by 4.5% (0.781 to 0.816); this was greater than the responses to either phytase (3.6%; 0.781 to 0.809) or xylanase (0.7%; 0.781 to 0.784). Absolute increases in amino acid digestibility with the combination exceeded the sum of the individual increases generated by phytase and xylanase for alanine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, histidine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, threonine, tyrosine and valine. These synergistic responses may have resulted from phytase and xylanase having complementary modes of action for enhancing amino acid digestibilities and/or facilitating substrate access. The two remaining experiments were almost identical except wheat used in Experiment 2 had a higher phytate concentration and a lower estimated AME content than wheat used in Experiment 3. Individually, phytase and xylanase were generally more effective in Experiment 2, which probably reflects the higher dietary substrate levels present. Phytase plus xylanase increased (p<0.05) gains (15.4%) and feed efficiency (7.0%) of broiler chicks from 4-24 days post-hatch in Experiment 2; whereas, in Experiment 3, the combination increased (p<0.05) growth to a lesser extent (5.6%) and had no effect on feed efficiency. This difference in performance responses appeared to be 'rotein driven'as the combination increased (p<0.05) nitrogen retention in Experiment 2 but not in Experiment 3; whereas phytase plus xylanase significantly increased AME in both experiments. In Experiments 2 and 3 the combined inclusion levels of phytase and xylanase were lower that the individual additions, which demonstrates the benefits of simultaneously including phytase and xylanase in wheat-based poultry diets.
Enzyme Activities Related to Lipid Metabolism in the Liver and Adipose Tissue of Tsaiya Ducks under Fasting and Ad libitum Feeding Conditions
Lien, Tu-Fa ; Jan, Der-Fang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 403~408
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.403
The study investigated the lipid metabolism of Tsaiya ducks under fasting and ad libitum feeding conditions. Sixty Tsaiya ducks in their growing period (8-12 wk-old) and sixty Tsaiya ducks in their laying period (26-30 wk-old, 10-14 weeks after the onset of laying) were randomly divided into ad libitum feeding and 3-day fasting groups. The activities of lipid metabolism related enzymes were determined. Experimental results indicated that fasting depressed the activities of lipogenesis related enzymes such as fatty acid synthetase and NADP-malic dehydrogenase in both periods (p<0.05). Fasting also increased the activities of liver fatty acid
-oxidation enzymes (p<0.05). However, the activities of lipoprotein lipase in adipose tissue, heart and ovarian follicle in both periods and the hormone-sensitive lipase of adipose tissue in the growing period were decreased by fasting (p<0.01).
Cholesterol Removal and Flavor Development in Cheddar Cheese
Kwak, H.S. ; Jung, C.S. ; Seok, J.S. ; Ahn, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 409~416
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.409
This study was carried out to find a cholesterol removal rate, flavor development and bitter amino acid productions in Cheddar cheese treated with
-cyclodextrin (CD): 1) Control (no homogenization, no
-CD), and 2) Milk treatment (1000 psi milk homogenization, 1%
-CD). The cholesterol removal of the cheese was 79.3%. The production of short-chain free fatty acids (FFA) increased with a ripening time in both control and milk treated cheese. The releasing quantity of short-chain FFA was higher in milk treated cheese than control at 5 and 7 mo ripening. Not much difference was found in neutral volatile compound production between samples. In bitter-tasted amino acids, milk treatment group produced much higher than control. In sensory analysis, texture score of control Cheddar cheese significantly increased with ripening time, however, that in cholesterol-reduced cheese decreased dramatically. Our results indicated that the cheese made by
-CD treated milk with low pressure homogenization showed an effective cholesterol reduction and a rapid cheese ripening, while no capture of flavor compounds by
Angiotensin I-converting Enzyme Inhibitory Activities of Porcine Skeletal Muscle Proteins Following Enzyme Digestion
Katayama, K. ; Fuchu, H. ; Sakata, A. ; Kawahara, S. ; Yamauchi, K. ; Kawamura, Y. ; Muguruma, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 417~424
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.417
Inhibitory activities against angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) of enzymatic hydrolysates of porcine skeletal muscle proteins were investigated. Myosin B, myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin and water-soluble proteins extracted from pork loin were digested by eight kinds of proteases, including pepsin,
-chymotrypsin, and trypsin. After digestion, hydrolysates produced from all proteins showed ACE inhibitory activities, and the peptic hydrolysate showed the strongest activity. In the case of myosin B, the molar concentration of peptic hydrolysate required to inhibit 50% of the activity increased gradually as digestion proceeded. The hydrolysates produced by sequential digestion with pepsin and
-chymotrypsin, pepsin and trypsin or pepsin and pancreatin showed weaker activities than those by pepsin alone, suggesting that ACE inhibitory peptides from peptic digestion might lose their active sequences after digestion by the second protease. However, the hydrolysates produced by sequential digestion showed stronger activities than those by
-chymotrypsin, trypsin or pancreatin alone. These results suggested that the hydrolysates of porcine meat were able to show ACE inhibitory activity, even if they were digested in vivo, and that pork might be a useful source of physiologically functional factors.
Detection and Identification of
-lactamase, Enterotoxin and Other Exotoxins Genes of Staphylococcus aureus by PCR
Yoon, Y.H. ; Kim, K.I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 425~429
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.425
Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen for cattle, causing various forms of subclinical and clinical mastitis and could be a causative agent of food poisoning, it produces various superantigenic exotoxins which have a great public health significance. A total of 72 S. aureus clinical isolates from dairy farms located in Kyunggi Province Korea were examined for the species identification by biochemical method, and for the detection of
-lactamase, enterotoxin and other exotoxins genes by PCR. The results of species identification by biochemical method agreed with those of PCR done with species specific primer STA-AU.
-lactamase is an enzyme closely associated with the resistance to antibiotic penicillin, which is an important means of treatment of mastitis, all the isolates were positive for the presence of genes encoding
-lactamase, which were reproduced in penicillin susceptibility disc assay. Six types of toxin genes, Staphylococcal enterotoxin (SE)A, SEB, SEC, SEE, toxic shock syndrome toxin (TSST-1) and exfoliative toxin A (ET A) were detected in 72 isolates by PCR associated genotypic method in this study, none of the isolates carried the genes for enterotoxin D (SED) and exfoliative toxin B (ETB). The occurrence rate of exotoxin genes rated as 12.5%, and the precision of the PCR identification results has been confirmed using the reference strains.
In vivo Antagonistic Effect of Lactobacillus helveticus CU 631 against Salmonella enteritidis KU101 infection
Bae, Jin-Seong ; Byun, Jung-Ryul ; Yoon, Yung-Ho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 430~434
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.430
In vivo antagonistic effect of Lactobacillus helveticus CU 631 and Lactobacillus spp. against typical enteritis causing pathogen Salmonella enteritidis KU 101 have been determined, which showed an increase in survival rate and the decline in viable cell numbers of pathogen in liver and spleen at sacrifice. A signifcant difference in the antagonistic effect against KU 101 were observed, which was species and/or strain dependent of Lactobacillus (p<0.01), the survival rate of the mice in the Salmonella infection by feeding L. helveticus CU 631 has been shown to be 157%, whereas those of L. rhamnosus GG ATCC 53103, L. acidophilus ATCC 4356, L. johnsonii C-4 were 137%, 132%, 119% respectively on the basis of lactobacilli non-associated control KU101 fed mice to be 100%. Viable cells of S. enteritidis KU101 in the liver and in the spleen at sacrifice were decreased in Lactobacillus spp. fed group with no significant difference. The higher level of total secretory IgA concentration in the intestinal fluid of lactobacilli fed mice than control mice have been observed. In vitro antagonistic activity of Lactobacillus spp. against KU101 have been determined, a prominent antagonistic activity of CU 631 against KU 101 were demonstrated.
Biological Aspects of Selenium in Farm Animals
Kim, Y.Y. ; Mahan, D.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 435~444
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.435
In 1957, Schwarz and Foltz discovered that selenium (Se) was an essential trace mineral and nutritionists then started extensive studies to figure out the metabolic function of this element which has been called as toxic mineral. The discovery that glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) contained Se demonstrated a biochemical role for Se as an essential trace element. The major physiological function of Se containing GSH-Px is thought to maintain low levels of
and other hydroperoxides in the cell to prevent tissues from peroxidation damages. It is known that the GSH-Px activity is increased when animals were fed high dietary levels of Se. Chemical properties of Se have much in common with sulfur (S) therefore Se would follow the sulfur pathways in its metabolism in animal body. Two sources of Se are available for supplementation of Se in animal feed. Inorganic Se can also exist in selenide (-2), elemental (0), selenite (+4) and selenate (+6) oxidation state with other minerals. When sulfur in S containing amino acids is replaced by Se, organic Se can be made and named "eleno"prior to the name of S containing amino acid, i.e. selenomethionine. Selenium deficiency affects humans as well as animals and dysfunctions such as exudative diathesis, retained placenta, mastitis, liver necrosis, Keshan disease, numerous diseases and cancer. From several centuries ago, Se toxicity was recognized in various animal species and much of the current toxic Se levels has been established largely based upon the controlled toxicity studies used inorganic Se. Toxic effects of Se in animal result in reduced feed intake, growth retardation, ataxia, diarrhea, alopecia and sloughing of hooves. However, several experiments demonstrated that Se deficiencies or toxicities were varied by dietary Se levels and sources. Recent studies demonstrated that the incidence of colorectal and prostate cancer was reduced by approximately 50% when humans consumed 200
of Se daily.
Essentiality of Histidine in Ruminant and Other Animals Including Human Beings
Onodera, Ryoji ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 445~454
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.445
Concept and establishment of essential amino acids in animals and human beings rendered immeasurable contributions to animal production and human health. In ruminant animals, however, essential amino acids have never been completely established. The present review proposes a hypothesis that histidine may not be an essential amino acid for normal growing cattle (Japanese black) at least at the growing stage after about 450 kg of body weight on the basis of the experimental results of histidinol dehydrogenase activities in some tissues of the cattle together with hints from which the hypothesis was derived. At the same time, histidinol dehydrogenase activities in liver, kidney and muscle of swine, mouse, fowl and wild duck will be shown and the essentiality of histidine in these animals will be discussed. Finally, the essentiality of histidine for adult human will briefly be discussed.
Recent Advances in Biotechnology Applications to Aquaculture
Lakra, W.S. ; Ayyappan, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 455~462
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.455
Biotechnological research and development are moving at a very fast rate. The subject has assumed greatest importance in recent years in the development of agriculture and human health. The science of biotechnology has endowed us with new tools and tremendous power to create novel genes and genotypes of plants, animals and fish. The application of biotechnology in the fisheries sector is a relatively recent practice. Nevertheless, it is a promising area to enhance fish production. The increased application of biotechnological tools can certainly revolutionise our fish farming besides its role in biodiversity conservation. The paper briefly reports the current progress and thrust areas in the use of synthetic hormones in fish breeding, production of monosex, uniparental and polyploid individuals, molecular biology and transgenesis, biotechnology in aquaculture nutrition and health management, gene banking and the marine natural products.
Manipulation of Cassava Cultivation and Utilization to Improve Protein to Energy Biomass for Livestock Feeding in the Tropics
Wanapat, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 3, 2003, Pages 463~472
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.463
Cassava (Manihot esculenta, Crantz), an annual tropical tuber crop, was nutritionally evaluated as a foliage for ruminants, especially dairy cattle. Cultivation of cassava biomass to produce hay is based on a first harvest of the foliage at three months after planting, followed every two months thereafter until one year. Inter-cropping of leguminous fodder as food-feed between rows of cassava, such as Leucaena leucocephala or cowpea (Vigna unculata), enriches soil fertility and provides additional fodder. Cassava hay contained 20 to 25% crude protein in the dry matter with good profile of amino acids. Feeding trials with cattle revealed high levels of DM intake (3.2% of BW) and high DM digestibility (71%). The hay contains tannin-protein complexes which could act as rumen by - pass protein for digestion in the small intestine. As cassava hay contains condensed tannins, it could have subsequent impact on changing rumen ecology particularly changing rumen microbes population. Therefore, supplementation with cassava hay at 1-2 kg/hd/d to dairy cattle could markedly reduce concentrate requirements, and increase milk yield and composition. Moreover, cassava hay supplementation in dairy cattle could increase milk thiocyanate which could possibly enhance milk quality and milk storage, especially in small holder-dairy farming. Condensed tannins contained in cassava hay have also been shown to potentially reduce gastrointestinal nematodes in ruminants and therefore could act as an anthelmintic agent. Cassava hay is therefore an excellent multi-nutrient source for animals, especially for dairy cattle during the long dry season, and has the potential to increase the productivity and profitability of sustainable livestock production systems in the tropics.