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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 16, Issue 12 - Dec 2003
Volume 16, Issue 11 - Nov 2003
Volume 16, Issue 10 - Oct 2003
Volume 16, Issue 9 - Sep 2003
Volume 16, Issue 8 - Aug 2003
Volume 16, Issue 7 - Jul 2003
Volume 16, Issue 6 - Jun 2003
Volume 16, Issue 5 - May 2003
Volume 16, Issue 4 - Apr 2003
Volume 16, Issue 3 - Mar 2003
Volume 16, Issue 2 - Feb 2003
Volume 16, Issue 1 - Jan 2003
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Cofactor Markers for Controlling Genetic Background Noise in QTL Mapping
Lee, Chaeyoung ; Wu, Xiaolin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 473~480
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.473
In order to control the genetic background noise in QTL mapping, cofactor markers were incorporated in single marker analysis (SMACO) and interval mapping (CIM). A simulation was performed to see how effective the cofactors were by the number of QTL, the number and the type of markers, and the marker spacing. The results of QTL mapping for the simulated data showed that the use of cofactors was slightly effective when detecting a single QTL. On the other hand, a considerable improvement was observed when dealing with more than one QTL. Genetic background noise was efficiently absorbed with linked markers rather than unlinked markers. Furthermore, the efficiency was different in QTL mapping depending on the type of linked markers. Well-chosen markers in both SMACO and CIM made the range of linkage position for a significant QTL narrow and the estimates of QTL effects accurate. Generally, 3 to 5 cofactors offered accurate results. Over-fitting was a problem with many regressor variables when the heritability was small. Various marker spacing from 4 to 20 cM did not change greatly the detection of multiple QTLs, but they were less efficient when the marker spacing exceeded 30 cM. Likelihood ratio increased with a large heritability, and the threshold heritability for QTL detection was between 0.30 and 0.05.
Relationships of Circulating Concentrations of Insulin-like Growth Factor (IGF)-I and -II to Egg Production and Growth Rate in the Korean Native Ogol Chicken
Yun, J.S. ; Kang, W.J. ; Seo, D.S. ; Lee, C.Y. ; Oh, S. ; Ko, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 481~488
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.481
Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGFs) and IGF-binding protein act as intra-ovarian regulators that modulate the proliferation and differentiation of the granulosa and theca cells. Moreover, the IGF system is involved in metabolism by modulating the synthesis and degradation of glycogen and protein in animals. However the effect of the IGF system on egg productivity or body growth in KNOC has not been studied in depth. Therefore, this study was performed to investigate differences of serum IGFs and binding protein expressions between two groups showing high and low egg production or body weight and to elucidate the relationship of IGFs with egg productivity and body growth. KNOCs were divided into high and low groups depending on their egg productivity or body growth, and sera were collected every 10 wk from 20 till 60 wk. Serum IGF-I and -II concentration were measured by RIA using human and mouse antiserum and chicken standards. IGFBP was detected by Western ligand blotting. IGF-I concentrations were significantly greater in the high egg production group compared with those in the low egg production group (30 wk, p<0.01; 20 and 40 wk, p<0.05). Also, differences in IGF-II amounts between the two groups were detected at 60 wk (p<0.05). But IGFBPs in the low egg production group were more intense than that in the high egg production group through the egg laying period. The correlation between IGF-I concentration and number of egg production is significantly positive (20 wk, r=0.2729: p<0.05; 40 wk, r=0.3500: p<0.01), while IGF-II shows no correlation with egg productivity. In male KNOC, IGF-I and -II concentrations in the high body weight group are lower than that in the low body weight group. Body weight also shows a negative correlation with the serum IGF-II concentration in male chickens (20 wk, r=-0.5901: p<0.01). Consequently, we suggest that IGFs and binding protein are (in)directly involved in the egg productivity and body growth in KNOC.
Effects of Sire Breed on the Subsequent Reproductive Performances of Landrace Sows
Huang, Y.H. ; Yang, T.S. ; Lee, Y.P. ; Roan, S.W. ; Liu, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 489~493
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.489
Reproductive traits of sows are determined chiefly by the genetic background of the dam herself. Whether the breed of the serviced boars also contributes is not yet clear. A total of 8,946 litters of Landrace (L) sows from 68 farms were examined. Of these, 876, 1,260, and 6,810 litters were produced from natural mating with L, Yorkshire (Y), and Duroc (D) breeds, respectively. The birth litter size (BLS), weaning litter size (WLS), live born piglets (LBP), and survival rate % (SR), of every litter were recorded. A general linear-model procedure was followed to estimate the effects of boars' breed (B), parity (P) and B
P interaction on the reproductive traits of the sows. Results show that BLS, WLS, and LBP were all significantly (p<0.001) affected by B and P. SR% was significantly influenced by B but not by P. L sows crossbred with Y or purebred with L produced litters with higher BLS, WLS, and LBP values than those bred with D. Pure L breeding yielded litters with lower SR% than did crossbreeding with D, while the difference between SR% due to LY and that due to LD crossbreeding was not significant. The interaction of B with P was significant with respect to BLS, WLS, and LBP (p<0.001), but not SR%. No significant B effect on reproductive traits was measured in sows at their first parity; but at latter parities, LL or LY produced litters with similarly high BLS, WLS and LBP, which values were all significantly greater than those of LD litters. The breed of boar evidently affected the subsequent reproductive performance of L sows and this effect may be further manipulated by the parity effect. Breed differences in semen quality and the success of fetus development with different interactions of the genetic background with the uterus function of the sow that may contribute to these effects are discussed.
Growth Hormone Gene Polymorphism and Its Effect on Birth Weight in Cattle and Buffalo
Biswas, T.K. ; Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Narayan, A.D. ; Badola, S. ; Kumar, Pushpendra ; Sharma, Arjava ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 494~497
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.494
The study was carried out in Sahiwal, Holstein Friesian, Jersey and crossbred cattle and Murrah, Bhadwari, Jaffarabadi, Nagpuri and Surti buffaloes maintained at different organized herds to work out the polymorphism at growth hormone locus and study its effect on birth weight. A 223 bp fragment of the gene was amplified and digested with Alu I restriction enzyme. Two alleles, L and V with three genotypes LL, LV and VV were observed in Jersey, Holstein and cross bred cattle. Sahiwal cattle and buffalo were monomorphic for this locus producing only one genotype LL and one allele L. The frequency of L allele was comparatively higher in Holstein and crossbred cattle while in Jersey breed, the frequency of this allele was intermediate. The effect of genotype on birth weight was significant and LV genotype had higher birth weight than other genotypes. Hence, LV genotype in Holstein Friesian favored higher birth weight.
Production of Biological Active Single Chain Bovine LH and FSH
Min, K.S. ; Kang, M.H. ; Yoon, J.T. ; Jin, H.J. ; Seong, H.H. ; Chang, Y.M. ; Chung, H.J. ; Oh, S.J. ; Yun, S.G. ; Chang, W.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 498~503
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.498
Luteinizing hormone as other glycoprotein hormones is characterized by a heterodimeric structure composed a common
-subunit noncovalently linked to a specific
-subunit. The correct conformation of the heterodimer is important for efficient secretion, hormonal-specific post-translational modifications, receptor binding and signal transduction. To determine whether
- subunits can be synthesized as a single polypeptide chain (tethered-bLH and -bFSH) and also display biological activities, the tetheredbLH and -bFSH molecules were constructed and transfected into chinese hamster ovary (CHO-K1) cells. LH and FSH activities were assayed by using the human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells expressing rat LH and FSH receptor genes. The tethered-bLH and - bFSH proteins were efficiently secreted and showed a similar activity to the dimeric bovine LH and FSH
wild type and native purified from bovine pituitary. The tethered-molecules can be permit development of potent new analogues that stimulate ovarian development. Taken together, a single-chain analog can also be constructed to include additional hormone-specific bioactive generating potentially efficacious compounds. These data indicate the potentiality of the single chain approach to further investigate structurefunction relationships of LH and FSH.
Comparative Study between Swamp Buffalo and Native Cattle in Feed Digestibility and Potential Transfer of Buffalo Rumen Digesta into Cattle
Wanapat, M. ; Nontaso, N. ; Yuangklang, C. ; Wora-anu, S. ; Ngarmsang, A. ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Rowlinson, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 504~510
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.504
Rumen ecology plays an important role in the fermentation process and in providing end-products for ruminants. These studies were carried out to investigate variations in rumen factors namely pH,
and microorganisms in cattle and swamp buffaloes. Furthermore, studies on diurnal patterns of rumen fermentation and the effect of rumen digesta transfer from buffalo to cattle was conducted. Based on these studies, diurnal fermentation patterns in both cattle and buffaloes were revealed. It was found that rumen NH3-N was a major limiting factor. Rumen digesta transfer from buffalo to cattle from buffalo to cattle was achievable. Monitoring rumen digesta for 14d after transfer showed an improved rumen ecology in cattle as compared to that of original cattle and buffalo. It is probable that buffalo rumen digesta could be transferred. However, further research should be undertaken in these regards in order to improve rumen ecology especially for buffalo-based rumen.
Increase in Plasma HDL-Cholesterol Concentration in Goats Fed Sesame Meal Is Related to Ether Extract Fraction Included in the Meal
Hirano, Y. ; Yokota, H. ; Kita, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 511~514
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.511
Previously, we reported that a diet including sesame meal (SM) increased plasma total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentrations in goats. In the present study, the components in the sesame meal that can increase plasma total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations have been examined. In experiment 1, we gave goats defatted sesame meal diet (DSM) to investigate the influence of ether extract fraction remained in sesame meal. Corn gluten meal diet (CGM) was also fed to goats as a high-protein diet to examine the influence of high dietary protein level caused by usage of sesame meal. Plasma total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations of goats fed DSM and CGM did not change during experimental periods though they were elevated by feeding SM. In experiment 2, the influence of sesame oil and corn oil added in diets on plasma total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations in goats was investigated. Plasma total and HDL-cholesterol concentrations were increased by feeding both corn oil diet and sesame oil diet. In conclusion, the increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol concentration by feeding sesame meal was resulted by the effect of ether extract fraction including sesame oil or some lipid-soluble components remained in sesame meal.
Effects of Gestational Status on Apparent Absorption and Retention of Copper and Zinc in Mature Angus Cows and Suffolk Ewes
Vierboom, M.M. ; Engle, T.E. ; Kimberling, C.V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 515~518
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.515
Six mature purebred Angus cows (
years of age,
), three pregnant (
days pregnant) and three non-pregnant and eight mature Suffolk ewes (
years of age,
) four pregnant
days pregnant) and four nonpregnant were utilized in a five-day metabolic trial to determine the effects of gestational status (pregnant vs. non-pregnant) on apparent absorption and retention of copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn). Animals were selected based on body weight, age, and gestational status, and randomly assigned to metabolic crates for total fecal and urine collection. Animals were allowed to acclimate to their new environment for seven days. Pregnant and non-pregnant cows and ewes were then paired (within a species) by body weight and pair-fed throughout the 5 day collection period. Copper and Zn intakes were similar for pregnant and non-pregnant animals within a species. Apparent absorption of Cu (p<0.06) and Zn (p<0.04) were higher in pregnant cows relative to non-pregnant cows. Pregnant cows also had a higher apparent retention of Cu (p<0.05) and Zn (p<0.06) relative to non-pregnant cows. Pregnant ewes had a higher (p<0.01) apparent absorption and retention of Zn compared to non-pregnant ewes. However, apparent absorption and retention of Cu were similar for pregnant and non-pregnant ewes. These data indicate that certain physiological and/or metabolic parameters are altered in pregnant cows and ewes consuming an alfalfa-based diet that enhance the apparent absorption and retention of certain trace minerals.
Studies on Serum Micro-mineral, Hormone and Vitamin Profile and Its Effect on Production and Therapeutic Management of Buffaloes in Haryana State of India
Sharma, M.C. ; Raju, S. ; Joshi, C. ; Kaur, H. ; Varshney, V.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 519~528
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.519
A survey was conducted in certain parts of Haryana to record the prevalence of micro mineral deficiency in buffaloes. The prevalence of soil Cu, Co, Zn and Fe deficiency was 55.26%, 6.9%, 59.12% and 7.89% respectively. While that of fodder Cu, Co, Zn and Fe was 60.64%, 6.7%, 61.22% and 11.37% respectively. The overall prevalence of serum Cu, Co, Zn and Fe deficiency in Haryana was 59.2%, 19.1%, 59.2% and 19.9% respectively. The correlation co-efficient of Cu, Co, Zn and Fe in soil, fodder and serum was significant in most of the cases the values were above 0.8. Blood examination revealed significant decrease in haemoglobin and TEC level. However, no variation in level of TLC were observed in mineral deficient buffaloes. In micro mineral deficiency, thyroid hormone (T3 and T4) levels were decreased in buffaloes. Marginally lower concentration of vitamin A and E were observed in mineral deficient buffaloes in Haryana. The highest deficiency of micro minerals was 61.76% in copper at Ambala followed by 65.86% in zinc at Rhotak. For therapeutic studies a mineral mixture was prepared according to defiency obtained and fed to three groups of animals. Observation was recorded on 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Group A consist of normal healthy animals and group B mineral deficient animal untreated and group C mineral deficient animal, treated with prepared mineral mixture. 25 gram of mineral mixture was fed daily along with normal ration. There was increase in body weight, milk yield, haemoglobin concentration and total erythrocyte level in group C animals when compared to group B animals. The milk yield in group C animals increased to 6.970
0.41 after 60th day of supplement in comparison to 0 day where it was 5.910
0.37, similarly the body wt. of group C animals increased from 129.42
01.13 (at 0 day) to 159.31
03.61 at 60th day of treatment.
A Comparative Study on Digestive Parameters in an Indigenous Fat-tailed and a Conventional Dorper Sheep Fed on Maize Stover Crop Residue
Mwenya, B. ; Wollny, C. ; Blummel, M. ; Banda, J. ; Takahashi, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 529~533
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.529
The intake, dry matter (DM) digestibility, total mean retention time (TMRT) and weight changes were investigated in four fat tailed and four Dorper sheep fed on a maize stover crop residue. Animals were subjected to five dietary treatments, which were: 90, 135 and
of chopped maize stover offered with urea, and in subsequent dietary treatments
of stover supplemented with either dried bean husks or poultry manure. Although not statistically different (p>0.05) fat tailed sheep had higher maize stover intake than the Dorper sheep when expressed per metabolic body weight. The DM intake and digestibility increased significantly (p<0.001) in both sheep breeds when the maize stover offer levels were increased from 90 to
. Dorper sheep had significantly (p<0.001) higher DM digestibility and longer total mean retention times for both the liquid and solid matter than the fat-tailed sheep. Fat-tailed sheep gained 4.75 kg while Dorper sheep gained 3.75 kg over the entire experimental period. The weight change per dietary treatment was affected by the amount of maize stover and the type and amount of supplement consumed. The higher DM digestibility and longer total mean retention time in Dorper sheep shows that the breed has adapted to utilize the low quality roughage diets. An indigenous fat tailed, has the potential to ingest high volumes of fibrous feed and has higher voluntary intakes relative to its body size. The two sheep breeds are a valuable genetic resource in sub Saharan Africa that is characterized by long dry season with no readily available and affordable conventional feeds for small ruminants.
Methane Emission, Nutrient Digestibility, Energy Metabolism and Blood Metabolites in Dairy Cows Fed Silages with and without Galacto-oligosaccharides Supplementation
Santoso, B. ; Kume, S. ; Nonaka, K. ; Kimura, K. ; Mizukoshi, H. ; Gamo, Y. ; Takahashi, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 534~540
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.534
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of supplementation of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) on methane emission, nutrient digestibility, energy utilization and blood metabolites by Holstein cows fed silages. In two sequential digestion and respiratory trials, two non-lactating Holstein cows were arranged to a balanced incomplete block design. Experimental diets consisted of two silage types; orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) based silage (OS), mixed silage (orchardgrass based silage and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage) (MS), while two GOS levels were without supplementation (0) and 2% of dry matter intake supplementation (2). Four combination diets were OS-0, OS-2, MS-0 and MS-2. Significant effects of silage types and GOS supplementation levels were not observed for DM and OM intake. Whereas the digestibility of OM, NDF and ADF was significantly (p<0.05) higher in cows fed OS with and without GOS compared cows fed MS diets. As percentage of GE intake, fecal energy loss for OS diets was significantly (p<0.05) declined than for MS diets. In contrast, cows fed MS diets had lower (p<0.05) urine energy loss as a proportion of GE intake compared to OS diets. Energy loss as CH4 and heat production was numerically increased when cows fed both OS and MS with GOS supplementation. Compared to OS, CH4 emission in cows fed MS was numerically decreased by 10.8 %. Methane conversion ratio (energy loss as CH4 per unit of GE intake) for OS-0, OS-2, MS-0 and MS-2 were 7.1, 7.2, 6.8 and 7.0, respectively. Plasma of glucose and urea-N concentration were significantly (p<0.05) elevated from 1 h to 6 h after feeding, otherwise total protein in plasma was declined (p<0.01) at 6 after feeding.
Isotyping of Immunoglobulin G Responses of Ruminants and Mice to Live and Inactivated Antigens of Cowdria ruminantium the Causative Agent of Cowdriosis in Ruminants
Kibor, A.C. ; Sumption, K.J. ; Paxton, E.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 541~548
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.541
isotype immune responses of domestic ruminants and mice to Cowdria. ruminantium live infection or by immunization with inactivated organisms were determined by the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Western blotting. Immunization of goats with inactivated elementary bodies (IEBs) led to a predominant
isotype response. This indicated that a Th2 response was induced. After challenge, the IgG isotype responses were mixed whereby both
antibodies were detected. Two goats that survived virulent challenge had a predominant
isotype response. In cattle live infection by natur l challenge or experiment led to a predominant
isotype response. Immunization of cattle with IEBs however led to mixed IgG responses characterized by similar
ratios. In the mouse live infection led to a predominant
isotype response. This indicated the mouse developed a true Th1 type cell mediated immune response when inoculated with live organisms. Immunization with inactivated organisms on the other hand led to a dominant
response. It is evident from this work that the immune responses of ruminants and mice to C. ruminantium are different and that using mice as the experimental model for immune responses to Cowdria ruminantium. is not the appropriate.
Determination of Intestinal Disappearance of Lysine and Methionine Derived from Ruminally Protected Lysine and Methionine in Holstein Heifers
Watanabe, K. ; Sato, H. ; Kobayashi, T. ; Katoh, K. ; Obara, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 549~554
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.549
In order to estimate the availability of ruminally-protected Lys (RPLys) and Met (RPMet), quantitative changes of free Lys and Met in the total abomasal outflow and feces were determined in three Holstein heifers with a T-shaped duodenal cannula. RPLys was prepared by coating Lys with fat and RPMet with a pH-sensitive polymer. RPLys and RPMet containing 30 g of each amino acid were supplied together to heifers, and total abomasal outflow was collected hourly from the T-shaped duodenal cannula for a 48 h period. Collected abomasal outflows were fractionated into liquid and solid phases to measure free Lys and Met concentration. At 2 wk after total abomasal outflow sampling, heifers were supplied RPLys and RPMet together again, and total feces were collected every 12 h for a 3 d period t estimate excreted RPLys and RPMet in feces. The amounts of Lys and Met recovered from the liquid fractions of abomasal outflow were estimated to be
(p=0.008) of RPLys and RPMet ingested, respectively. Final intestinal disappearances of Lys and Met were estimated to be
(p=0.015) of ingested RPLys and RPMet, respectively.
Effect of Litter Materials on Broiler Performance and Evaluation of Manureal Value of Used Litter in Late Autumn
Monira, K.N. ; Islam, M.A. ; Alam, M.J. ; Wahid, M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 555~557
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.555
A total of 168 seven days-old Arbor Acres chicks were reared in late-autumn on 4 types of litters; sawdust, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse or wheat straw up to 49 days of age to compare the growth performance, evaluate the manureal value and Coccidial oocyst population in used litter. Sadust, rice husk, sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw did not differ statistically for live weight, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and survivability (p>0.05). However, live weight and survivability tended to increase on sawdust. The highest moisture content of used litter was found in sugarcane bagasse followed by sawdust, rice husk and wheat straw (p<0.05). Rice husk contained the highest amount of of nitrogen, phosphurus and potassium followed by sawdust, sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw (p<0.01). Oocyst content of all treatment groups increased suddenly up to 5 weeks of age and thereafter suddenly declined up to 7 weeks of age. Litter materials did not differ at 35 and 42 days of age for oocyst content, but significantly differed at 49 days of age (p<0.01). So, the above findings reveal that sawdust may be suitable litter followed by rice husk, sugarcane bagasse and wheat straw in late-autumn in Bangladesh in respect of broiler growth performance.
Interaction between Iron and Vitamin A in Broilers
Zhang, Chunshan ; Jiang, Junfang ; Suo, Landi ; Wei, Jianmin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 558~564
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.558
VA) experiment with repeats was designed to study the interaction between iron and vitamin A in broilers. 504 broilers were divided into 9 groups (50% males, 50% femals), each group with 4 repeats. Iron supplemental amount was 0, 30 and 60 mg/kg; Vitamin A supplemental amount was 750, 1,500 and 2,700 IU/kg. Iron concentration in liver, serum, tibia and duodenum and vitamin A concentration in liver and serum were measured, and erythrocyte count was also observed. Results showed with the increase of dietary supplemental iron levels, vitamin A concentration in liver significantly decreased lineally (p<0.05) (0.861, 0.671, 0.639 mg/100 g at the end of 4th week; 0.900, 0.765, 0.739 mg/100 g at the end of 7th week), and vitamin A concentration in serum significantly increased lineally (p<0.05) (82.725, 97.842,
at the end of 4th week; 62.288, 91.900,
at the end of 7th week), meaning iron could promote the mobilization of vitamin A from liver to serum. With the increase of dietary supplemental vitamin A levels, liver iron concentration decreased and serum iron concentration increased, vitamin A could promote the mobilization of iron from liver to blood. Iron concentration in Duodenum and tibia and erythrocyte count increased significantly with higher dietary vitamin A supplementation (p<0.01), vitamin A could promote iron absorption, iron mobilization from liver to target tissues and erythropoiesis. Effects of the interaction between iron and vitamin A on vitamin A concentrations in liver and serum, iron concentration in tibia and erythrocyte count were significant (p<0.05).
Incorporation of n-3 Long-chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids into Duck Egg Yolks
Chen, Tian-Fwu ; Hsu, Jenn-Chung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 565~569
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.565
The objective of this experiment was to determine the effects of different levels of refined cod liver oil (RCLO) on laying performance, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids composition (n-3 PUFAs) and the organoleptic evaluation of duck egg yolks. A total of 180 30 wk old laying Tsaiya ducks, at the beginning of peak production, were allotted into 6 treatments with 3 replicates each. Ducks were fed one of the 6 experimental diets, supplemented with 2% tallow (control) and graded levels of RCLO at 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6% to a corn-soybean diets, respectively, for 6 wks. All of the experimental diets were formulated to be both isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Feed and water were supplied ad libitum throughout the experimental period. The results indicated that the RCLO supplementation levels did not affect (p>0.05) egg production, egg mass, feed intake, feed efficiency or body weight change. Egg weight was the lightest when the ducks received the 6% RCLO diet. The eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and total n-3 PUFAs contents in the yolks increased with increasing RCLO supplementation. The taste and general acceptability of the hard-boiled eggs were not significantly different among the treatments. However, a fishy flavor was much higher when ducks were fed diets supplemented with 5% and 6% RCLO diets.
Color Stability of Chinese-Style Sausage Inoculated with Staphylococcus Carnosus and Staphylococcus Xylosus
Guo, Hsiu-Lan ; Liu, Deng-Cheng ; Chen, Ming-Tsao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 570~574
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.570
This study investigate the effects of starter cultures on the color stability of Chinese-style sausage. The samples were inoculated with
meat of either Staphylococcus carnosus or Staphylococcus xylosus. After mixing, curing at either
for 20 h and then drying at
for 5 h, the samples were then either vacuum packed or hung at
(85% R. H.). The pH, nitrite content, nitrosyl pigment content, metmyoglobin and L-, a-, b- values were measured. The pH value still remained above 6.0 during storage. Nitrite residue of all samples decreased after storage at
for 7 days. The samples inoculated with S. carnosus and S. xylosus had higher nitrite content (20.9-34.7 ppm) than the control (p<0.05). Samples inoculated with S. carnosus and S. xylosus had higher nitrosyl pigment content and lower metmyoglobin content than those of the control. The L- and b- values of all samples decreased but the a- values increased with storage time. The result suggested that S. carnosus and S. xylosus starter cultures be used to improve color stability of Chinese-style sausage
Influence of Caponization on the Carcass Characteristics in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
Lin, Cheng-Yung ; Hsu, Jenn-Chung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 575~580
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.575
We determined the effect of caponization on the carcass and giblet characteristics, and skin and muscle color in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Caponized birds were surgically altered at 10 weeks old and were fed growing and finishing diets ad libitum during an eighteen-week experimental period. The results showed that the percentage of dressing, heart, feet, thigh, head and neck were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the intact birds, while the capons had a higher (p<0.05) percentage of abdominal fat, intestine, back, wing and breast. Eviscerated weight, breast width, gizzard, liver and spleen ratios were not affected by the treatments. The breast skin color values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values in the capons were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the intact birds, but the thigh and back skin were not significantly（p>0.05）different. Compared with the intact birds, the capons had a significantly (p<0.05) less redness (a*) values in the back skin, but were not significantly (p>0.05) different in the breast and thigh skin. The L* value of the thigh muscle was significantly (p<0.05) greater in the capons than in the intact birds, but were not significantly (p>0.05) different in breast and back muscles. The b* values in the breast, back and thigh muscles of the capons were significantly (p<0.05) greater whereas the intact birds had a higher (p<0.05) a* values in the breast, back, and thigh muscles. Moreover, our findings also indicate that the castration resulted in a significant alteration in dressing percentage, carcass region and organ percentage.
Microencapsulated Iron for Drink Yogurt Fortification
Kim, S.J. ; Ahn, J. ; Seok, J.S. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 581~587
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.581
This study was designed to examine the effect of icroencapsulated iron fortified drink yogurt and vitamin C as a bioavailable helper of iron on chemical and sensory aspects during 20 d storage. Coating material was polyglycerol monostearate (PGMS), and ferric ammonium sulfate and vit C were selected as core materials. The highest efficiency of microencapsulation of iron and vit C were 73% and 95%, respectively, with 5:1:50 ratio (w/w/v) as coating to core material to distilled water. Iron fortification did not affect the fermentation time required for the drink yogurt to reach pH 4.2. The addition of uncapsulated iron decreased the pH during storage. TBA absorbance was significantly lower in capsulated treatments than in uncapsulated treatments during storage. In sensory aspect, the yogurt sample added with uncapsulated iron and vit C, regardless of capsulation, showed a significantly high score of astringency, compared with those of control and other groups. A significantly strong sourness was observed in treatment containing capsulated iron and uncapsulated vitamin C at every time interval. The present study provides evidence that microencapsulation of iron with PGMS is effective for iron fortification in drink yogurt.
Quality Characteristics of Low-fat Ground Pork Patties Containing Milk Co-precipitate
Kumar, Manish ; Sharma, B.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 588~595
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.588
The optimum level of fresh granulated low-calcium (0.2%) skim milk co-precipitate, as fat substitute in low-fat ground pork patties was determined on the basis of physico-chemical, cooking and sensory properties. Low-fat ground pork patties (<10% total fat), formulated with 15 per cent water, 4 per cent added fat, 1.5 per cent salt and 4-10 per cent milk co-precipitate, were evaluated for proximate composition, cooking characteristics and compared with control patties with 15 % added fat. The moisture and protein content of raw and cooked low-fat patties were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control. The incorporation of milk co-precipitate in low-fat patties improved cooking yield, fat and moisture retention and reduced shrinkage. The sensory properties of low-fat patties were comparable with control patties. The overall acceptability of low-fat patties formulated with 7% milk co-precipitate was significantly (p<0.05) higher than patties with 10% level and non-significantly (p<0.05) higher than low-fat patties containing 4% milk co-precipitate and control. Instrumental Texture Profiles of developed low-fat patties and control patties were comparable with slight increases in hardness and gumminess of the low-fat product. The developed low-fat ground pork patties (7% milk co-precipitate) had lower TBA values, better microbiological and sensory refrigerated storage stability than high-fat control patties packaged in air permeable films for 21 days.
Dietary Regulations of the Intestinal Barrier Function at Weaning
Bosi, Paolo ; Gremokolini, Cyrien ; Trevisi, Paolo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 596~608
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.596
Weaning is a complex phase when the mammal suffers the action of different stressors that contribute to negatively affect the efficiency of the intestinal mucosa and of the whole local integrated system, that acts as barrier against any nocuous agent. The components of this barrier are mechanical, chemical, and bacteriological; immunological and not. The development of contact with a saprophyte microflora and the maintenance of feed intake after the interruption of motherly nutrition are essential for the maturation of an equilibrated local immune function and for a functional integrity of villi. Opportunities and limits of some dietary strategies that can contribute to reduce negative effects of weaning on health and performance are discussed. Knowledges on the possible mechanism of action of probiotics are upgraded, particularly for their supposed role in the balance between different immune functions (effectory/regulatory). Some tools to control pathogen microflora are reviewed (acids, herbs, immunoglobulin sources) and practical feeding systems are proposed.
Past and Present Definitions of the Energy and Protein Requirements of Ruminants
Corbett, J.L. ; Freer, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 609~624
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.609
The genesis of methods for defining the nutritional value of feeds and the nutrient requirements of animals, and their development in the late 19th and early 20th centuries in Europe and the USA are outlined. Current energy and protein feeding systems for ruminants are described. Particular reference is made to the Australian systems which are applicable to grazing animals as well as to those given prepared feeds, and enable the effective nutritional management of a imals at pasture by means of the decision support tool GrazFeed. The scheme for predicting intakes by cattle and sheep from pastures allows for the effects of selective grazing on the composition of the feed eaten, and for reduction in herbage intake when a supplementary feed is consumed. For herbage of any given concentration of metabolizable energy (ME) in the feed dry matter the changes with season of year in the net efficiency of use of the ME for growth and fattening and in the yield of microbial crude protein, g/MJ ME, which both vary with latitude, are defined. An equation to predict the energy requirements for maintenance (MEm) of both cattle and sheep includes predictions of the additional energy costs incurred by grazing compared with housed animals and the cost, if any, of cold stress. The equation allows for the change in MEm with feed intake. A flexible procedure predicts the composition of liveweight gain made by any given breed or sex of cattle and sheep at any stage of growth, and the variation with rate of gain. Protein requirements for maintenance, production including wool growth, and reproduction, are related to the quantities of microbial true protein and undegraded dietary protein truly digested in the small intestine.
Utilization of Oil Palm Frond - Based Diets for Beef and Dairy Production in Malaysia
Zahar, M. Wan ; Hassan, O. Abu ; Wong, H.K. ; Liang, J.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 16, issue 4, 2003, Pages 625~634
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2003.625
Oil palm fronds (OPF) are one of the main by-products of the oil palm industry in Malaysia. It contains about 38.5 % crude fibre with ME values of about 5.65 MJ/kg dry matter. OPF has great potential to be utilized as a roughage source or as a component in a complete feed for ruminant animals. This paper briefly reviews the availability of OPF in Malaysia and its importance in the local beef and dairy industry. About 26 million metric tonnes of OPF are produced on dry matter basis annually during pruning and replanting operations in the plantations. The nutritive value of OPF and studies to improve its feeding value is highlighted. The optimum level of inclusion for ruminant feeding is 30 % and improvement to intake and digestibility can be further enhanced with addition of other oil-palm by-products. Performances of beef and dairy cattle fed fresh OPF or as silage, pellets and cubes are shown. Good quality OPF silage can be produced without using any additive and the significant improvement on the rate of growth and milk yield were shown. With good formulations, OPF based diets can allow live weight gains of between 600-850 g/day and for local crossbred dairy animals, milk yield of about 11.1 to 20.3 liter/day can be obtained. Pellet based on ground OPF seemed to be less well utilized for ruminant feeding due to its smaller particle size. OPF based cubes which have longer particle size is more suitable for beef and dairy cattle. Long-term feeding of OPF based feeds have been shown to produce good quality carcasses, and the meat is safe for consumption.