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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Identification of New Microsatellite DNAs in the Chromosomal DNA of the Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)
Kim, J.W. ; Hong, J.M. ; Lee, Y.S. ; Chae, S.H. ; Choi, C.B. ; Choi, I.H. ; Yeo, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1329~1333
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1329
To isolate the microsatellites from the chromosomal DNA of the Korean cattle (Hanwoo) and to use those for the genetic selection, four bacteriophage genomic libraries containing the chromosomal DNA of six Hanwoo steers showing the differences in meat quality and quantity were used. Screening of the genomic libraries using
nucleotide as a probe, resulted in isolation of about 3,000 positive candidate bacteriophage clones that contain
-type dinucleotide microsatellites. After confirming the presence of microsatellite in each positive candidate clone by Southern blot analysis, the DNA fragments that include microsatellite and flanking sequences possessing less than 2 kb in size, were subcloned into plasmid vector. Results from the analysis of microsatellite length polymorphism, using twenty-two PCR primers designed from flanking region of each microsatellite DNA, demonstrated that 208 and 210 alleles of HW-YU-MS#3 were closely related to the economic traits such as marbling score, daily gain, backfat thickness and M. longissimus dorsi area in Hanwoo. Interestingly, HW-YU-MS#3 microsatellite was localized in bovine chromosome 17 on which QTLs related to regulation of the body fat content and muscle ypertrophy locus are previously known to exist. Taken together, the results from the present study suggest the possible use of the two alleles as a DNA marker related to economic trait to select the Hanwoo in the future.
Detection of Polymorphism of Growth Hormone Gene for the Analysis of Relationship between Allele Type and Growth Traits in Karan Fries Cattle
Pal, Aruna ; Chakravarty, A.K. ; Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Joshi, B.K. ; Sharma, Arjava ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1334~1337
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1334
The present study was conducted to detect polymorphism at growth hormone gene in Karan Fries bulls. A 428 bp fragment of growth hormone gene spanning over
exon was amplified and digested with AluI restriction enzyme to identify polymorphism at this locus. Karan Fries bulls were found to be polymorphic at this locus. Two genotypes LL and LV were identified in Karan Fries with higher allelic frequency for L allele. In Karan Fries males, the average birth weight, 3 months body weight and daily body weight gains of LL homozygotes were significantly higher than that of LV heterozygotes. Genetic distances of KF bulls with respect to genotype along with 3 months body weight and average daily body weight gain forms a single cluster of bulls with LL genotype, while individuals with LV genotype forms three distinct clusters indicating more influence of L allele on growth traits.
Establishment and Identification of a Debao Pony Ear Marginal Tissue Fibroblast Cell Line
Zhou, X.M. ; Ma, Y.H. ; Guan, W.J. ; Zhao, D.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1338~1343
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1338
The Debao pony ear marginal tissue fibroblast cell line (NDPEM 2/2) was uccessfully established using either primary explant technique or collagenase technique. The characterizations of the cell line were identified as following: the cells were adherent and of density limitation; population doubling time (PDT) of cells made with the two techniques were 35.9 h and 48 h, respectively; chromosome analysis showed that the frequency of cell chromosome number to be 2n=64 was 91.3%-92.8%. Confirmed by isoenzyme analysis, this cell line had no cross- contamination. Tests for microbial contamination from bacteria, fungi, virus or mycoplasma were negative. This newly established cell line meets all the standard quality controls of ATCC. It will provide a precious genetic resource for the conservation of the Debao pony breed, as well as effective experimental material for genetic studies on Debao ponies.
Cloning and Characterization of Bovine Titin-cap (TCAP) Gene
Yu, S.L. ; Chung, H.J. ; Jung, K.C. ; Sang, B.C. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Lee, S.H. ; Kata, S.R. ; Womack, J.E. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1344~1349
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1344
Titin-cap (TCAP), one of the abundant transcripts in skeletal muscles, was nvestigated in this study in cattle because of its role in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts by interacting with the myostatin gene. From the 5, and 3, RACE experiments, full-length TCAP coding sequence was identified, comprising 166 amino acids. The amino acid comparison showed high sequence similarities with previously identified human (95.8%) and mouse (95.2%) TCAP genes. The TCAP expression, addressed by northern blot, is limited in muscle tissues as indicated by Valle et al. (1997). The radiation hybrid analysis localized the gene on BTA19, where the comparative human and porcine counterparts are on HSA17 and SSC12. A few muscle-related genetic disorders were mapped on HSA17 and some growth-related QTLs were identified on SSC12. The bovine TCAP gene found in this study opens up new possibilities for the investigation of muscle-related genetic diseases as well as meat yield traits in cattle.
Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci on Porcine Chromosome 7 Using Combined Data Analysis
Zuo, B. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ; Su, Y.H. ; Deng, C.Y. ; Lei, M.G. ; Zheng, R. ; Jiang, S.W. ; Li, F.E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1350~1353
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1350
To further investigate the regions on porcine chromosome 7 that are responsible for economically important traits, phenotypic data from a total of 287 F2 individuals were collected and analyzed from 1998 to 2000. All animals were genotyped for eight microsatellite loci spanning the length of chromosome 7. QTL analysis was performed using interval mapping under the line-cross model. A permutation test was used to establish significance levels associated with QTL effects. Observed QTL effects were (chromosomewide significance, position of maximum significance in centimorgans): Birth weight (<0.01, 3); Carcass length (<0.05, 80); Longissimus muscle area (<0.01, 69); Skin percentage (<0.01, 69); Bone percentage (<0.01, 74); Fat depths at shoulder (<0.05, 54);Mean fat depth (<0.05, 81); Moisture in m. Longissimus Dorsi (<0.05, 88). Additional evidence was also found which suggested QTL for dressing percentage and fat depths at buttock. This study offers confirmation of several QTL affecting growth and carcass traits on SSC7 and provides an important step in the search for the actual major genes involved in the traits of economic interest.
Genealogical Relationship between Pedigree and Microsatellite Information and Analysis of Genetic Structure of a Highly Inbred Japanese Black Cattle Strain
Sasazaki, S. ; Honda, T. ; Fukushima, M. ; Oyama, K. ; Mannen, H. ; Mukai, F. ; Tsuji, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1355~1359
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1355
Japanese Black cattle of Hyogo prefecture (Tajima strain) are famous for its ability to produce high-quality meat and have been maintained as a closed system for more than 80 years. In order to assess the usefulness of microsatellite markers in closed cattle populations, and evaluate the genetic structure of the Tajima strain, we analyzed representative dams of the Tajima strain comprised of the substrains Nakadoi and Kinosaki. Genetic variability analyses indicated low genetic diversity in the Tajima strain. In addition, a recent genetic bottleneck, which could be accounted for by the high level of inbreeding, was detected in both substrains. In phylogenetic analyses, relationship coefficients and genetic distances between individuals were calculated using pedigree and microsatellite information. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed from microsatellite and pedigree information using the UPGMA method. Both trees illustrated that most individuals were distinguished clearly on the basis of the two substrains, although in the microsatellite tree some individuals appeared in clusters of different substrains. Comparing the two phylogenetic trees revealed good consistency between the microsatellite analysis tree and the pedigree information. The correlation coefficient between genetic distances derived from microsatellite and pedigree information was 0.686 with a high significance level (p<0.001). These results indicated that microsatellite information may provide data substantially equivalent to pedigree information even in unusually inbred herds of cattle, and suggested that microsatellite markers may be useful in revealing genetic structure without accurate or complete pedigree nformation. Japanese Black cattle of Hyogo prefecture (Tajima strain) are famous for its ability to produce high-quality meat and have been maintained as a closed system for more than 80 years. In order to assess the usefulness of microsatellite markers in closed cattle populations, and evaluate the genetic structure of the Tajima strain, we analyzed representative dams of the Tajima strain comprised of the substrains Nakadoi and Kinosaki. Genetic variability analyses indicated low genetic diversity in the Tajima strain. In addition, a recent genetic bottleneck, which could be accounted for by the high level of inbreeding, was detected in both substrains. In phylogenetic analyses, relationship coefficients and genetic distances between individuals were calculated using pedigree and microsatellite information. Two phylogenetic trees were constructed from microsatellite and pedigree information using the UPGMA method. Both trees illustrated that most individuals were distinguished clearly on the basis of the two substrains, although in the microsatellite tree some individuals appeared in clusters of different substrains. Comparing the two phylogenetic trees revealed good consistency between the microsatellite analysis tree and the pedigree information. The correlation coefficient between genetic distances derived from microsatellite and pedigree information was 0.686 with a high significance level (p<0.001). These results indicated that microsatellite information may provide data substantially equivalent to pedigree information even in unusually inbred herds of cattle, and suggested that microsatellite markers may be useful in revealing genetic structure without accurate or complete pedigree information.
Genetic Differentiation among Sheep Populations from Near-sea Mainland in East Asia
Lu, S.X. ; Chang, H. ; Du, L. ; Tsunoda, K. ; Ji, D.J. ; Sun, W. ; Yang, Z.P. ; Chang, G.B. ; Mao, Y.J. ; Wang, Q.H. ; Xu, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1360~1365
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1360
Using the method of 'random sampling in typical colonies of the central area of the habitat', 60 Small-tailed Han sheep were obtained in Jining city, Shangdong province. The variations of Small-tailed Han sheep at 12 structural loci encoding blood proteins were detected by several electrophoresis techniques and their gene frequencies were then estimated. The same data of four other sheep populations from Near-sea Mainland in East Asia were cited for the analysis of genetic differentiation. The average heterozygosities of five populations, namely Kharkhorin sheep, Ulaanbaatar sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep, Hu sheep and Cham Tribe sheep were 0.3447, 0.3285, 0.3157, 0.3884 and 0.2300, respectively. The coefficient of gene differentiation among four populations, Kharkhorin sheep, Ulaanbaatar sheep, Small-tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep, was 0.045557, and that between these four breeds and Cham Tribe sheep was 0.088005, indicating that the level of gene differentiation among the former four sheep populations of Mongolian group was comparatively lower than that between Cham Tribe sheep and other four sheep populations. The origin of Cham Tribe sheep deserve further research. The documentary research on the evolution of Small-tailed Han sheep and Hu sheep from Mongolian sheep was further verified by the biochemical experiments in the study. It was reasonably deduced that Hu sheep, Small Tailed Han sheep and Cham Tribe sheep were decreasingly influenced by the bloodline of Mongolian sheep.
Molecular Characterisation of the Mafriwal Dairy Cattle of Malaysia Using Microsatellite Markers
Selvi, P.K. ; Panandam, J.M. ; Yusoff , K. ; Tan, S.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1366~1368
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1366
The Mafriwal dairy cattle was developed to meet the demands of the Malaysian dairy Industry. Although there are reports on its production and reproductive performance, there has been no work on its molecular characterization. This study was conducted to characterize the Mafriwal dairy cattle using microsatellite markers. Fifty two microsatellite loci were analysed for forty Mafriwal dairy cows kept at Institut Haiwan Kluang, Malaysia. The study showed two microsatellite loci to be monomorphic. Allele frequencies for the polymorphic loci ranged from 0.01 to 0.31. Genotype frequencies ranged from 0.03 to 0.33. The mean overall heterozygosity was 0.79. All polymorphic microsatellite loci deviated significantly (p<0.01) from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The Mafriwal dairy cattle showed high genetic variability despite being a nucleus herd and artificial insemination being practiced.
Liquid Boar Sperm Quality during Storage and In vitro Fertilization and Culture of Pig Oocytes
Park, C.S. ; Kim, M.Y. ; Yi, Y.J. ; Chang, Y.J. ; Lee, S.H. ; Lee, J.J. ; Kim, M.C. ; Jin, D.I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1369~1373
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1369
The percentages of sperm motility and normal acrosome on the liquid boar semen diluted and preserved at
with lactose hydrate, egg yolk and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (LEN) diluent were significant differences according to preservation day and incubation time, respectively. The sperm motility steadily declined from 96.9% at 0.5 h incubation to 78.8% at 6 h incubation at 1 day of preservation. However, the sperm motility rapidly declined after 4 day of preservation during incubation. The normal acrosome steadily declined from 93.3% at 0.5 h incubation to 73.8% at 6 h incubation at 1 day of preservation. However, the normal acrosome rapidly declined after 3 day of preservation during incubation. The rates of sperm penetration and polyspermy were higher in 5 and
sperm/ml than in 0.2 and
sperm/ml. Mean numbers of sperm in penetrated oocyte were highest in
sperm/ml compared with other sperm concentrations. The rates of blastocysts from the cleaved oocytes (2-4 cell stage) were highest in
sperm/ml compared with other sperm concentrations. In conclusion, we found out that liquid boar sperm stored at
could be used for in vitro fertilization of pig oocytes matured in vitro. Also, we recommend
sperm/ml concentration for in vitro fertilization of pig oocytes.
Estrus Behavior and Superovulatory Response in Black Bengal Goats (Capra hircus) Following Administration of Prostaglandin and Gonadotropins
Mishra, O.P. ; Gawande, P.G. ; Nema, R.K. ; Tiwari, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1374~1377
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1374
The present study was conducted to explore the possibilities of estrus induction and superovulation in a native Indian breed of goats called 'Black Bengal'. Forty-two adult non-pregnant females were divided in two groups, of which 18 goats were subjected to a superovulatory treatment comprising of equine chorionic gonadotropin (eCG), Prostaglandin (PGF2
) and human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) to induce superovulation. The remaining 24 goats received no treatment and served as controls for the parameter under study as well as recipients for embryo transfer studies. The average duration of estrus was found to be significantly increased in treated goats (34.2
3.4 h) compared to controls 3.0
2.4 h). The average duration between PGF administration and occurrence of estrus was 2.0
5.2 h. After mid ventral laparotomy, superovulatory responses indicated a significant increase in the number of follicles, which was 8.27
0.37 in the treatment group compared to 4.16
0.17 in the control group. The number of corpora lutea was also significantly increased in treated animals compared to control (2.90
0.86 vs. 0.74
0.04) respectively per ovary per goat.
Effects of Zinc on Lipogenesis of Bovine Intramuscular Adipocytes
Oh, Young Sook ; Choi, Chang Bon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1378~1382
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1378
Zinc (Zn) is a micromineral and functions as a cofactor of many enzymes and its deficiency induces retardation of growth and dysfunction of the immune system in animals. This study was conducted to determine lipogenic activity of Zn in bovine intramuscular adipocytes. Preadipocytes were isolated from intramuscular fat depots of 26 month old Korean (Hanwoo) steers and cultured in media containing Zn. At confluence, the cells were treated with insulin, dexamethasone, and 1-methyl-3-isobutyl-xanthine to induce differentiation (accumulation of lipid droplets in cells). The sources of Zn were zinc chloride (
) and zinc sulfate (
), and the final concentrations of both Zn sources were 0, 5, 25, 50 and 100
M. Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH) activity, an index of adipocyte differentiation, was increased as the concentration of Zn in media increased showing the highest activity (25.74 ng/min/mg protein) at 25
. Supplementation of Zn during differentiation of bovine intramuscular adipocytes tended to decrease the production of nitric oxide (NO). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 2(PPAR
2) gene expression was increased 10 days after differentiation induction. The current results indicate that Zn has a strong lipogenic activity in cultured bovine intramuscular adipocytes with remarkable suppression of NO production.
Estimation of Nutritive Value of Whole Crop Rice Silage and Its Effect on Milk Production Performance by Dairy Cows
Islam, M.R. ; Ishida, M. ; Ando, S. ; Nishida, T. ; Yoshida, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1383~1389
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1383
The nutritive value and utilization of whole crop rice silage (WCRS), Hamasari, at yellow mature stage was determined by three studies. In first study, chemical composition, in vivo digestibility and metabolizable energy (ME) content of WCRS was determined by Holstein steers. WCRS contains 6.23% CP, its digestibility is 48.4% and estimated TDN is 56.4%. Its ME content was 1.91 Mcal/kg DM. Gross energy (GE) retention (% of GE intake) in steers is only 22.7% most of which was lost through feces (44.7% of GE intake). It takes 81 minutes to chew a kg of WCRS by steers. In another study, the effect of Hamasari at yellow mature stage at three stages of lactation (early, mid and late lactation) and two levels of concentrate (40 or 60%) on voluntary intake, ME content and ME intake, milk yield and composition using lactating Holstein dairy cows were investigated. Total intake increased with the concentrate level in early and mid lactation, but was similar irrespective of concentrate level in late lactation. WCRS intake was higher with 40% concentrate level than with 60% concentrate. ME intake by cows increased with the concentrate level and WCRS in early lactating cows with 40% concentrate can support only 90% of the ME requirement. Milk production in accordance with ME intake increased with the increase in concentrate level in early and mid lactating cows but was similar in late lactating cows irrespective of concentrate level. Fat and protein percent of milk in mid and late lactating cows were higher with for 60% concentrate than 40%, but reverse was in early lactating cows. Solids-not-fat was higher with for 60% concentrate than 40% concentrate. Finally in situ degradability of botanical fractions such as leaf, stem, head and whole WCRS, Hamasari at yellow mature stage was incubated from 0 to 96 h in Holstein steers to determine DM and N degradability characteristics of botanical fractions and whole WCRS. Both DM and N solubility, rate of degradation and effective degradability of leaf of silage was lower, but slowly degradable fraction was higher compared to stem and head. Solubility of DM and N of stem was higher than other fractions. The 48 h degradability, effective degradability and rate of degradation of leaf were always lower than stem or head. In conclusion, voluntary intake of silage ranged from 5 to 12 kg/d and was higher with low levels of concentrate, but milk yield was higher with high levels of concentrate. Fat corrected milk yield ranged from 19 to 37 kg per day. For consistency of milk, early lactating cows should not be allowed more than 40% whole crop rice silage in the diet, but late lactating cows may be allowed 60% whole crop rice silage.
Development of Transgenic Tall Fescue Plants from Mature Seed-derived Callus via Agrobacterium-mediated Transformation
Lee, Sang-Hoon ; Lee, Dong-Gi ; Woo, Hyun-Sook ; Lee, Byung-Hyun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1390~1394
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1390
We have achieved efficient transformation system for forage-type tall fescue plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Mature seed-derived embryogenic calli were infected and co-cultivated with each of three A. tumefaciens strains, all of which harbored a standard binary vector pIG121Hm encoding the neomycin phosphotransferase II (NPTII), hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT) and intron-containing
-glucuronidase (intron-GUS) genes in the T-DNA region. Transformation efficiency was influenced by the A. tumefaciens strain, addition of the phenolic compound acetosyringone and duration of vacuum treatment. Of the three A. tumefaciens strains tested, EHA101/pIG121Hm was found to be most effective followed by GV3101/pIG121Hm and LBA4404/pIG121Hm for transient GUS expression after 3 days co-cultivation. Inclusion of 100
M acetosyringone in both the inoculation and co-cultivation media lead to an improvement in transient GUS expression observed in targeted calli. Vacuum treatment during infection of calli with A. tumefaciens strains increased transformation efficiency. The highest stable transformation efficiency of transgenic plants was obtained when mature seed-derived calli infected with A. tumefaciens EHA101/pIG121Hm in the presence of 100
M acetosyringone and vacuum treatment for 30 min. Southern blot analysis indicated integration of the transgene into the genome of tall fescue. The transformation system developed in this study would be useful for Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation of tall fescue plants with genes of agronomic importance.
The Effect of Dietary Fat Inclusion on Nutrient Intake and Reproductive Performance in Postpartum Awassi Ewes
Oqla, H.M. ; Kridli, R.T. ; Haddad, S.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1395~1399
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1395
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary fat inclusion on nutrient intake, body weight, milk production, return to estrus, pregnancy and lambing of winter-lambing, postpartum Awassi ewes. Thirty multiparous, winter-lambing Awassi ewes (body weight=51
7.0 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (n=10) for 62 days using a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous, and were formulated to contain 0 (CON), 2.5 (MF), and 5% (HF) added fat, and 33% of the dietary crude protein (CP) as undegradable intake protein (UIP). On day 26 postpartum (day 0=parturition), ewes and their lambs were housed in individual pens for 28 days. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. At the end of this period, ewes and their lambs within each treatment were combined into one group and fed their respective diet ad libitum. One fertile Awassi ram fitted with a marking harness was allowed with each group for 34 days. No significant (p>0.05) differences in dry matter intake, organic matter intake, and crude protein intake were observed for ewes fed the three experimental diets. No difference was observed in metabolizable energy intake (MEI) for ewes fed the CON and the MF diets (average 8.3 Mcal/d) diet. However, ewes fed the HF diet had greater(p<0.05) MEI compared with the rest of the treatments. Ewe body weights increased throughout the study, unaffected by the experimental diets. No significant differences in milk production were found among ewes fed the three experimental diets. No significant differences were observed in pregnancy rate (6/10, 5/10, 6/10 for CON, MF and HF diets, respectively), lambing rate and the number of lambs per ewe among the three treatments. postpartum reproductive performance of well-fed, winter-lambing Awassi ewes.
Effect of Synchronizing Starch Sources and Protein (NPN) in the Rumen on Feed Intake, Rumen Microbial Fermentation, Nutrient Utilization and Performance of Lactating Dairy Cows
Chanjula, P. ; Wanapat, M. ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Rowlinson, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1400~1410
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1400
Eight crossbred (75% Holstein Friesian) cows in mid-lactation were randomly assigned to a switchback design with a 2x2 factorial arrangement to evaluate two nonstructural carbohydrate (NSC) sources (corn meal and cassava chips) with different rumen degradability and used at two levels of NSC (55 vs. 75%) with protein source (supplied by urea in the concentrate mix). The treatments were 1) Low degradable low level of corn (55%) 2) Low degradable high level of corn (75%) 3) High degradable low level of cassava (55%) and 4) High degradable high level of cassava (75%). The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2. Urea-treated rice straw was offered ad libitum as the roughage and supplement with 1 kg/hd/d cassava hay. The results revealed that total DM intake, BW and digestion coefficients of DM were not affected by either level or source of energy. Rumen fermentation parameters; NH3-N, blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen were unaffected by source of energy, but were dramatically increased by level of NSC. Rumen microorganism populations were not affected (p>0.05) by source of energy, but fungal zoospores were greater for cassava-based concentrate than corn-based concentrate. Milk production and milk composition were not affected significantly by diets containing either source or level of NSC, however concentrate than corn-based concentrate averaging (4.4 and 4.2, respectively). Likewise, income over feed, as estimated from 3.5% FCM, was higher on cassava-based concentrate than corn-based concentrate averaging (54.0 and 51.4 US$/mo, respectively). These results indicate that feeding diets containing either cassava-based diets and/or a higher of oncentrates up to 75% of DM with NPN (supplied by urea up to 4.5% of DM) can be used in dairy rations without altering rumen ecology or animal performance compared with corn-based concentrate.
Screening and Characterization of Lactate Dehydrogenase-producing Microorganism
Sung, Ha Guyn ; Lee, Jae Heung ; Shin, Hyung Tai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1411~1416
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1411
The objective of this work was to isolate a microorganism, able to produce high lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, for use as a microbial feed additive. The LDH is an important enzyme for lactate conversion in the rumen, thereby possibly overcoming lactic acidosis owing to sudden increases of cereal in the diets of ruminants. In the present study, various bacterial strains were screened from a variety of environments. Among the isolated microorganisms, strain FFy 111-1 isolated from a Korean traditional fermented vegetable food called Kimchi showed the highest enzyme activity, along with retaining strong enzyme activity even in rumen fluid in vitro. Based on morphological and biochemical characteristics as well as compositions of cellular fatty acids plus API analyses, this strain was identified as Lactobacillus sp. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were found to be 30
and pH 6.5, respectively. A maximum cell growth of 2.2 at
together with LDH activity of 2.08 U per mL was achieved after 24 h of incubation. Initial characterization of FFy 111-1 suggested that it could be a potential candidate for use as a direct-fed microbial in the ruminant animals.
Effects of Season, Housing and Physiological Stage on Drinking and Other Related Behavior of Dairy Cows (Bos taurus)
Lainez, Marielena Moncada ; Hsia, Liang Chou ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1417~1429
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1417
The objective of the paper was to study the drinking and other related behavior of dairy cows (Bos taurus). There were 142 Holstein dairy cows observed and compared in this study. The experiment was designed on the basis of two different housing systems (wet pad with forced ventilation cooling house and open house); two different seasons (winter and summer); four different stages (high milk yielding cows, low milk yielding cows, dry cows, and heifers); and grouping (home and visitor animals). All cows had free access to water. Dairy cows spent 13.8 min/day drinking in wet-pad house and 11.7 min/day in open house. owever, there was no significant difference in the duration of water drinking between these two housing systems (p>0.05). The water consumption was significantly higher in wet-pad housed animals (68 L/day) than open-housed animals (31.5 L/day) (p<0.05). A significant interaction between housing and grouping (p<0.05) was found. Home and visitor animals spent more time drinking in open house, wet-pad house, respectively. A highly significant interaction was found between housing and drinking time during the day (p<0.001). Animals in open house drank more during the morning (6:00 to 10:00 h), whereas wet-pad housed animals drank in the afternoon (14:00 to 15:00 h) and evening (18:00 to 20:00 h). The average time a cow spent in drinking in summer was not ignificantly different from that of drinking in winter. However, the water intake was significantly higher in summer (61.9 L/day) than in winter (38.6 L/day) (p<0.05). Drinking activity showed a highly significant interaction between season and physiological stage (p<0.01). High milk yield cows spent more time drinking in summer than in winter, whereas cows in all other stages followed the opposite drinking pattern. Grouping exchange did not influence the drinking behavior of dairy cows in either season (p>0.05); both home and visitor animals spent almost the same time in drinking water. A strong significant interaction between season and time during the day was found(p<0.01), suggesting that animal's high drinking frequency occurred during the daytime for both seasons, with a peak midday in winter and two peaks at 10:00 h in the morning and 19:00 h in summer. Thus, drinking behavior was associated with the cooler time of day in summer and with the warmer hours of day in winter. High and low milk yielding cows and heifers spent 15.3 min/day, 14.3 min/day, and 12.8 min/day, respectively, in water drinking activity, but there was no significant difference among them (p>0.05). There was, however, a significant difference in water drinking activity found in dry cows, which spent less time in drinking at 8.2 min/day (p<0.05).
Comparison of Different Alkali Treatment of Bagasse and Rice Straw
Suksombat, W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1430~1433
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1430
A study was conducted to determine the effect of different alkali treatments on changes in chemical composition and on degradability of bagasse and rice straw. This study divided into 2 experiments, the first with bagasse and the second with rice straw. Each experiment comprised 9 treatments which included: untreated control; 3% NaOH; 6% NaOH; 3% urea; 6% urea; 3% NaOH/3% urea; 3% NaOH/6% urea; 6% NaOH/3% urea; 6% NaOH/6% urea. In both experiments, crude protein contents were increased from 2.0 to 12.5 units for bagasse and 3.1 to 13.7 units for rice straw by urea treatments. Ash contents of the treated bagasse and rice straw were increased over the untreated control (1.5-9.7 units for bagasse; 4.2-8.8 units for rice straw). The effects on ether extract, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of the treated bagasse and rice straw were variable. Nylon bag degradability of dry matter and crude fiber were increased by treatments applying NaOH and NaOH plus urea but not urea alone. In contrast, the egradability of neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber were reduced compared with the untreated control. From these degradability studies, it can be concluded that the most efficient treatments of bagasse were those treatments with 6% NaOH, followed by treatments with 6% NaOH plus 3% or 6% urea and 3% NaOH plus 3% or 6% urea, respectively. However, when comparison was made on the cost of chemical used to treat the agricultural by-products, particularly in case of rice straw, 3-6% urea would be appropriate.
Effects of Montmorillonite Nanocomposite on Mercury Residues in Growing/Finishing Pigs
Lin, Xianglin ; Xu, Zirong ; Zou, Xiaoting ; Wang, Feng ; Yan, Xianghua ; Jiang, Junfang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1434~1437
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1434
The study was conducted to evaluate the effects of montmorillonite anocomposite (MNC) on mercury residues in growing/finishing pigs. A total of 96 cross bred pigs (
white, 48 barrows and gilts respectively), with similar initial weight (27.87
1.15 kg), were used in this study. The animals were randomly assigned to two concentrations of mercury (0.1 and 0.3 ppm from
) and two levels (0 and 0.3%) of MNC in a
factorial arrangement of treatments. Each group has 3 pens (replications), and each pen has 8 pigs (4 barrows and 4 gilts). The experiment lasted for 90 days. The results showed that pig growth performances were not affected significantly by inclusion of Hg and addition of MNC (p
0.05). It indicated that the extent of intoxication in these pigs were not severe enough to impair growth performances. Both on the bases of 0.1 ppm and 0.3 ppm mercury supplementations, addition of 0.3% MNC markedly decreased mercury levels of blood, muscle, kidney and liver tissue (p<0.05). These results implied that the addition of non-nutritive sorptive material, MNC, could effectively reduce the gastrointestinal absorption of mercury via its specific adsorption, with a consequent reduction of mercury residues in body tissues. MNC had offered an encouraging solution to produce safe animal products with mercury contaminated feed.
Effects of Dietary Zinc on Performance and Immune Response of Growing Pigs Inoculated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae
Roberts, E.S. ; Heugten, E. van ; Spears, J.W. ; Routh, P.A. ; Lloyd, K.L. ; Almond, G.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1438~1445
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1438
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of dietary Zn level on performance, serum Zn concentrations, alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP), and immune response of pigs inoculated with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus (PRRSv) and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. A
factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a randomized design. Factors included; 1) PRRSv and M. hyopneumoniae inoculation (n=36 pigs) or sham inoculation (n=36 pigs) with media when pigs entered the grower facility (d 0) at 9 weeks of age and 2) 10, 50, 150 ppm supplemental Zn sulfate (
) from weaning until the completion of the study, or 2,000 ppm supplemental
for two weeks in the nursery and then supplementation with 150 ppm
for the remainder of the trial. The basal diet contained 34 ppm Zn. Pigs were weighed on d 0, 10, 17, 24 and 31 and blood samples were collected on d 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28. Pigs inoculated with PRRSv were serologically positive at d 28 and control pigs remained negative to PRRSv. In contrast, the M hyopneumoniae inoculation was inconsistent with 33.3% and 52.8% of pigs serologically positive at d 28 in the control and infected groups, respectively. A febrile response was observed for approximately one week after inoculation with PRRSv. Feed intake (p<0.01) and gain (p<0.1) were less in PRRSv infected pigs than control pigs for the 31 d study. However, performance did not differ among pigs in the four levels of
. Assessments of immune responses failed to provide unequivocal influence of either PRRSv inoculation or
level. These data suggest that PRRSv and M. hyopneumoniae act to produce some performance deficits and the influence of Zn supplementation of nursery age pigs does not have clear effect in grower pigs affected with disease.
Effects of Dietary Crude Protein on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization, Immunity Index and Protease Activity in Weaner to 2 Month-old New Zealand Rabbits
Lei, Q.X. ; Li, F.C. ; Jiao, H.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1447~1451
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1447
An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of different dietary crude protein (CP) levels on growth performance, nutrient utilization, small intestine protease activity and immunity index of weaner to 2 month-old New Zealand rabbits. Eighty weaner rabbits were allocated in individual cages to five treatments in which they were fed diets with CP at 14%, 16%, 18%, 20% and 22%, respectively. The growth performance and nutrient digestibility of rabbits increased firstly when dietary CP increased, then decreased. The average daily gain was the highest and feed conversion rate was the lowest when dietary CP reached 20%, namely 34.9 g/d and 2.74:1, respectively. Maximum CP digestibility was 72.1% in the 18% CP group, maximum crude fiber digestibility of 28.4% occurred in the 16% CP group and was significantly different from other treatments (p<0.01), apparent digestibility of Lys and Val followed the same trend as CP digestibility, and reached their maximum when dietary CP was 18%. Apparent digestibility of Cys, Tyr, Leu and Thr also had a similar trend to CP digestibility. Nitrogen retention (RN) increased with CP level (p>0.05), and was highest for 20% CP treatment (1.5 g/d). The effect of CP level on the rate of digestible nitrogen (DN) converted RN was small. The spleen index, thymus index, chymotrypsin and trypsin activities in small intestine were highest when dietary CP was 16%, which were 1.0, 2.8, 15.7 U/g and 125.7 U/g, respectively. There was no significant difference among treatments (p>0.05). According to the above results, the appropriate dietary CP level from weaner to 2 month-old meat rabbits was 18-20%.
Effects of Sex and Market Weight on Performance, Carcass haracteristics and Pork Quality of Market Hogs
Piao, J.R. ; Tian, J.Z. ; Kim, B.G. ; Choi, Y.I. ; Kim, Y.Y. ; Han, In K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1452~1458
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1452
An experiment was conducted to examine the effects of sex and market weight on performance, carcass characteristics and pork quality. A total of 224 crossbred pigs (initially 26.64 kg BW) were allotted in a
factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. The variables were sex (gilts and barrows) and different market weights (100, 110, 120 and 130 kg). Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were significantly higher (p<0.01) in barrows than gilts, ADFI and feed conversion ratio (FCR) increased as body weight increased (p<0.05). Gender differences were observed in carcass characteristics. Backfat thickness and drip loss were greater in barrows (p<0.01), while loin eye area (p<0.01), flavor score (p<0.05) and lean content (p<0.001) were higher in gilts. Carcass grade and water holding capacity were the highest in 110 kg market weight pigs. The 100 kg arket weight pigs showed lower juiciness, tenderness, shear forces and total palatability than the other market weights (p<0.01). Hunter values (L*, a* and b*) were increased as market weight increased (p<0.05). Hunter a* value was greater in gilts (p<0.01) but L* value and b* value were not affected by sex of pigs. Net profit [(carcass weight
price by carcass grade)-(total feed cost+cost of purchased pig)] was higher in gilts than barrows (p<0.01), and was higher (p<0.05) in the pigs marketed at 110 and 120 kg market weight compared with 100 kg market weight. These results demonstrated that gilts showed higher carcass characteristics, pork quality, feed cost per kg body weight gain and net profit compared with barrows. Moreover, 110 or 120 kg body weight would be the recommended market weight based on pork quality and net profit for swine producers.
Calcium-binding Peptides Derived from Tryptic Hydrolysates of Cheese Whey Protein
Kim, S.B. ; Lim, J.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1459~1464
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1459
The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential use of cheese whey protein (CWP), a cheese by-product. The physiological activity of calcium-binding peptides in CWP may be used as a food additive that prevents bone disorders. This research also examined the characteristics of calcium-binding peptides. After the CWP was heat treated, it was hydrolyzed by trypsin. Then calcium-binding peptides were separated and purified by ion-exchange chromatography and reverse phase HPLC, respectively. To examine the characteristics of the purified calcium-binding peptides, amino acid composition and amino acid sequence were analyzed. Calcium-binding peptides with a small molecular weight of about 1.4 to 3.4 kDa were identified in the fraction that was flowed out from 0.25 M NaCl step gradient by ion-exchange chromatography of tryptic hydrolysates. The results of the amino acid analysis revealed that glutamic acid in a calcium-binding site took up most part of the amino acids including a quantity of proline, leucine and lysine. The amino acid sequence of calcium-binding peptides showed Phe-Leu-Asp-Asp-Asp-Leu-Thr-Asp and Ile-Leu-Asp-Lys from
-LA and Ile-Pro-Ala-Val-Phe-Lys and Val-Tyr-Val-Glu-Glu-Leu-Lys from
Effect of Claw Abrasives in Cages on Claw Condition, Feather Cover and Mortality of Laying Hens
Glatz, P.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 10, 2004, Pages 1465~1471
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1465
A trial was conducted to determine the effect of abrasive strips and abrasive paint in layer cages on claw length and claw sharpness, foot condition, feather cover and mortality of hens. During the preparation of the cages for the experiment it was simpler and took less time to apply the pre-prepared paint with a spatula to the egg guard compared to sticking the abrasive strips onto the egg guard. Fitting the strips took longer because it had to be cut from a 25 mm roll, cut into the appropriate lengths, the tape backing removed and then stuck onto the egg guard section. Abrasive paint was more effective as a claw shortener than abrasive strips. The birds using the abrasive paint had the shortest (p<0.05) claw length and lowest (p<0.05) claw sharpness. One of the original reasons for reducing claw length with claw shorteners was to reduce mortality by minimising skin skin abrasions caused by the claws. Surprisingly hen mortality from prolapse and cannibalism was higher (p<0.05) in cages fitted with abrasives. There are no other reports in the literature showing an increase in prolapse and cannibalism from hens using abrasives.