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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Genetic Differentiation between Sheep and Goats Based on Microsatellite DNA
Sun, W. ; Chang, H. ; Ren, Z.J. ; Yang, Z.P. ; Geng, R.Q. ; Lu, S.X. ; Du, L. ; Tsunoda, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 583~587
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.583
The 7 sheep microsatellite markersOarFCB48, OarAE101, MAF33, OarFCB11, MAF70, OarFCB304 and OarFCB128, which were located on chromosomes 2, 4, 6, 9, 17 and 19, were selected to PCR in Hu sheep, Tong sheep and their closely related species,the goat. They were studied with the amplifying result of 7 microsatellite sites of Hu Sheep, Tong Sheep and goats, the data of allele number and range of allele' size of amplifying were analyzed with ANOVA. The results showed that there were no significant differences (p<0.05) in microsatellite DNA sites among 3 populations. Concerning the conservation of microsatellites in closely related species, selecting microsatellite sites located on the chromosome where the Robertsonian fusion was caused between sheep and goat, may be used in research into genetic differentiation and evolutionary relationships between sheep and goats.
The Expression of Porcine Adiponectin and Stearoyl Coenzyme a Desaturase Genes in Differentiating Adipocytes
Wang, P.H. ; Ko, Y.H. ; Liu, B.H. ; Peng, H.M. ; Lee, M.Y. ; Chen, C.Y. ; Li, Y.C. ; Ding, S.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 588~593
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.588
The gene expression of porcine adiponectin and stearoyl coenzyme A desaturase (SCD) was investigated in this study. The partial gene sequences for adiponectin and SCD were amplified by RT-PCR from subcutaneous adipose tissue and cloned by TA cloning techniques. Sequences of these genes were determined and found to be highly homologous to that of other species, suggesting similar function of these genes as in other species. The transcripts of these adipocyte-related genes in pig tissues were measured by Northern analysis. The transcripts for adiponectin and SCD were highly expressed in porcine subcutaneous adipose tissue; the transcripts for SCD were also barely detected in the liver, but the greatest concentrations were in the adipose tissue. In porcine stromalvascular cells (S/V cells) cultured in vitro, transcripts for adiponectin and SCD increased gradually during adipocyte differentiation. The level of adipocyte adiponectin mRNA was associated with late adipocyte differentiation, indicating the gene may not be involved in adipocyte differentiation but has great importance in porcine adipocyte functions. The SCD transcripts were not detectable until 2 d after induction of adipocyte differentiation. It was highly expressed in differentiating porcine adipocytes (2 to 10 d after the induction of adipocyte differentiation), indicating a significant role of SCD in adipocytes.
Effects of Inbreeding on Lamb Survival in a Flock of Muzaffarnagari Sheep
Mandal, Ajoy ; Pant, K.P. ; Rout, P.K. ; Roy, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 594~597
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.594
A pedigree file of 4,628 records of Muzaffarnagari sheep, maintained at Central Institute for Research on Goats (CIRG), Makhdoom, was used to calculate the inbreeding coefficient of the flock. The flock had been closed for about 25 years (1978 to 2002). The investigation was aimed to study the effects of inbreeding on survivability of lambs. The cumulative survivability of lambs i.e., lambs survived up to 3, 7 and 15 days, 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after birth was considered for the study. The average level of inbreeding of lambs was 1.60%, ranging from 0 to 26.4%. The average inbreeding coefficient of dam over the periods was 1.00% and it ranged from 0 to 25.0%. Significant (p<0.05) adverse effect of lamb's inbreeding was observed on survivability of lambs at all ages except up to 3 and 7 days after birth. On an average, 1% increase in individual inbreeding coefficient should reduce the 0.31, 0.34, 0.32, 0.31, 0.33, 0.44 and 0.49 percent lamb survival up to the age of 15 day and 1, 2, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months, respectively. Ewes inbreeding had non-significant effects on lamb survival at all ages.
Genetic Status of ESR Locus and Other Unidentified Genes As sociated with Litter Size in Chinese Indigenous Tongcheng Pig Breed after a Long Time Selection
Zhu, M.J. ; Yu, M. ; Liu, B. ; Zhu, Z.Z. ; Xiong, T.A. ; Fan, B. ; Xu, S.P. ; Du, Y.Q. ; Peng, Z.Z. ; Li, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 598~602
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.598
The Tongcheng pig breed is a famous Chinese indigenous breed. The Ministry of Agriculture of China has filed it as 1 of 19 national key conservation breeds selected from more than 100 Chinese indigenous pig breeds in 2000. In order to improve the reproductive performance, it has been intensively selected to increase the litter size for about 10 years. The population randomly sampled from conservation nucleus of eight families in the Tongcheng pigs was genotyped for identification of their estrogen receptor locus polymorphisms with the PCR-RFLPs method. Only AB heterozygotes and BB homozygotes were detected, and
test demonstrated that the locus was in disequilibrium at a significant level (p<0.05). In the present paper, the litter sizes in different parities were regarded as different traits. Holistic status of other unspecific and unidentified genes was estimated by using the statistical methods. Coefficients of kurtosis and skewness showed that the litter size still presented segregating characteristic in the 2nd, 5th, 7th, 8th and 9th parities. Analysis of homogeneity of variance between families confirmed the results for the 5th, 7th and 8th parities. The heritability of litter size for the 1st to 10th parities was estimated with paternal half-sib model and individual estimated breeding values (EBVs) were evaluated by a single trait animal model as well. We found that the averages of EBVs for litter size in each parity did not differ significantly between genotypes, despite the significant difference for original phenotype records in the 3rd, 4th and 5th parities (p<0.05 or p<0.01). The results may be explained by the deduction that the polymorphisms of ESR locus are no longer the important genetic base of litter size variation when the frequency of allele B accumulated in the experience of selection procedure, and further conferring that there exist special genes associated with litter size in the recent Tongcheng pigs population can be made.
Genetic Identity between Bhadawari and Murrah Breeds of Indian Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Using RAPD-PCR
Saifi, H.W. ; Bhushan, Bharat ; Kumar, Sanjeev ; Kumar, Pushpendra ; Patra, B.N. ; Sharma, Arjava ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 603~607
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.603
Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA-Polymerase Chain Reaction (RAPD-PCR) analysis was carried out with a battery of 11 random decamer primers to study band frequency (BF), genetic identity index (I) and mean average percentage difference (MAPD) between Bhadawari and Murrah breeds of buffalo. The primers OPA04 and BG15 resolved a band of 460 bp, which was present only in animals of Bhadawari breed. Whereas, the primers OPA14, BG27 and BG28 produced Murrah specific fragments of sizes 730 bp and 1,230 bp, respectively. The estimate of genetic identity index was highest (0.845) with the primer OPA01 and the lowest (0.479) with the primer BG27. The genetic identity index pooled over the primers was 0.596
0.037 between these two breeds. The highest MAPD estimate (53.9) between the two breeds was obtained with the primer BG27 and the lowest (14.3) with the primer OPA01. It might be concluded that the genetic identity index between these two breeds calculated on the basis of BF showed moderate level of genetic identity with the primers employed. MAPD calculated on the basis of uncommon bands also demonstrated lower to medium level of genetic difference between Bhadawari and Murrah breeds of buffalo.
Antioxidant Enzymes in Postpartum Anoestrus Buffaloes Supplemented with Vitamin E and Selenium
Anita, Anita ; Singha, S.P.S. ; Dhillon, K.S. ; Nayyar, Shashi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 608~611
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.608
The 15 buffaloes were divided into three groups, viz. group 1: normal cyclic buffaloes; group 2: postpartum anoestrus buffaloes and group 3: post partum anoestrus buffaloes supplemented with intramuscular injections of Vit. E.-care Se containing 500 mg
-tocopheryl acetate and 15 mg selenium at weekly intervals for two months. The postpartum anoestrus buffaloes had significantly higher levels of erythrocytic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase activities but lower glutathione peroxidase activity as compared to normal cyclic buffaloes. The supplementation of vitamin E and selenium lowered the level of erythrocytic lipid peroxidation, superoxide dismutase and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase activities but it had no effect on whole blood selenium and erythrocytic gluathione peroxidase activity. All the animals in group 3 became cyclic and showed 60% conception rate.
Comparison of Semen Characteristics, Frozen-Thawed Sperm Viability, Testosterone Concentration and Embryo Development between Yorkshire Boar A and B
Yi, Y.J. ; Lee, S.H. ; Park, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 612~616
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.612
This study was carried out to compare the semen characteristics, frozen-thawed sperm viability and testosterone concentration and in vitro fertilization (IVF) and development of in vitro matured pig oocytes between two Yorkshire boars. Semen and blood samples were collected once per week from October to November 2002 from two adult Yorkshire boars at 18 months of age with 170 kg body weight. Sperm were deep frozen in 5 ml maxi-straws with lactose-egg yolk and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (LEN) diluent and stored in liquid nitrogen. Blood samples were obtained at 10 a.m. by inserting a 21 gauge, hypodermic needle attached to 10 ml syringe into surface veins in the ear. The concentration of testosterone was determined by Competitive Enzyme Immunoassay. Ovaries were collected from prepubertal gilts at a local slaughter house. Cumulus oocyte complexes were aspirated from antral follicles (3 to 6 mm in diameter). The medium used for oocyte maturation was modified TCM 199. After about 22 h of culture, oocytes were cultured without cysteamine and hormones for 22 h at
in air. For IVF, one frozen 5 ml straw was thawed at
in 40 sec and was diluted with 20 ml Beltsville thawing solution at room temperature. Sperm were washed 2 times in mTLP-PVA and inseminated without preincubation after thawing. Oocytes were inseminated with
/ml sperm concentration. Oocytes were coincubated for 6 h in 500
l mTBM fertilization medium. At 6 h after IVF, oocytes were transferred into 500
l NCSU-23 culture medium for further culture of 48 and 144 h. There were no significant differences in the semen volume, motility, normal acrosome morphology and sperm concentration of raw semen between A and B of Yorkshire boar. However, motility and normal acrosome of boar A were higher than those of boar B at 0.5, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 h incubations of frozen-thawed sperm. Testosterone concentration (3.75 ng/ml) of boar A was higher than that (2.34 ng/ml) of boar B. The rate of blastocyst formation (15.1%) of boar A was higher than that (10.4%) of boar B. In conclusion, serum testosterone concentration of boar showed very important role for the frozen-thawed sperm viability and the blastocyst formation of pig oocytes matured in vitro.
Developmental Rate of Rabbit Parthenogenetic Embryos Derived Using Different Activating Protocols
Chrenek, P. ; Makarevich, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 617~620
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.617
The present study compares development of rabbit embryos generated using different oocyte activation protocols and reconstructed with embryonic or cumulus cells as nuclear donor. In vivo matured oocytes were collected from New Zealand White rabbits at 16 h after ovulation treatment and were activated at18 h of post-ovulation treatment. The following schemes of oocytes activation were tested: 1) single electric pulse (EP, 3.2 kV/cm, 3
s, 0.3 M mannitol)+5 min culture in the presence of 5 mM Ionomycin, 2) single electric pulse (EP, 3.2 kV/cm, (
s, 0.3 M mannitol)+1 h culture in the presence of 2 mM 6-DMAP, and 3) three electric pulses 30 min apart. Cleavage rate, percentage of expanded and hatched blastocysts as well as total cell number of blastomeres of parthenogenetic embryos were significantly higher using either EP+6-DMAP or 3
EP schemes, comparing with EP+Ionomycin. Development rate up to hatched blastocyst stage of cloned rabbit embryos using the EP+6-DMAP for activation of nuclei were 19% for embryonic cell nuclei and 36% for cumulus cell nuclei. The best activation protocol optimalized in this study was the combined treatment "P+6-DMAP" which may be potentially used for nuclear transfer protocol.
Catalytic Supplementation of Urea-molasses on Nutritional Performance of Male Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Calves
Sahoo, A. ; Elangovan, A.V. ; Mehra, U.R. ; Singh, U.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 621~628
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.621
Twenty male buffalo calves of 6-9 months of age (average body weight, 97 kg) were randomly allocated into two main groups of four (control) and sixteen (supplemented) calves. The supplemented group was further divided in to four equal sub-groups, with the two groups supplemented with a liquid preparation of urea-molasses, UML1, containing fish meal and UML2, containing formaldehyde treated deoiled mustard cake (FDMC) and the other two, with a semi-solid preparation, UMC1 with FDMC and deoiled rice bran (DORB) contributing similar level of CP as in UML2 and UMC2 with double the level of FDMC to that in UMC1. The control group was fed with DORB along with ad libitum wheat straw at 40:60 ratios. The rest of the groups were fed on the above diet supplemented with 500 g (as fed basis) of urea-molasses preparations. The experimental feeding was carried out for 24 weeks including a metabolism trial towards the end of experimental feeding. Daily feed intake and fortnightly change in live weight were also recorded during the study. Catalytic supplementation of 500 g urea-molasses induced 8-25% higher voluntary feed intake of wheat straw, resulting in 15-25% higher DM and OM intake. The digestibility of DM, OM, total carbohydrate, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose in all the dietary groups were comparable. The CP digestibility of calves in supplemented groups were higher (p<0.05) than the control group. The balance of nutrients, viz. N, Ca and P, was also higher in the supplemented groups. Significantly higher intake of digestible CP coupled with other digestible nutrients attributed to higher TDN (1.67-1.78 vs. 1.37 kg) and ME (5.94-6.31 vs. 4.87 Mcal) intake in urea-molasses supplemented groups which resulted in higher live weight gain compared to that in control group (p<0.01). Between the supplements, UML2 and UMC2 faired non-significantly, indicating formalin treated mustard cake as a suitable replacement to fishmeal in the supplement. The overall ranking based on intake and digestibility of nutrients, live weight gain, economic evaluation and input-output relationship revealed that the rations with UML2 and UMC1 to be of greater value compared to other types. From the study it can be concluded that young ruminants can be reared successfully on a basal diet of deoiled rice bran and wheat straw supplemented with cheaper urea-molasses-mineral mix.
Substituting Bread By-product for Barley Grain in Fattening Diets for Baladi Kids
Haddad, S.G. ; Ereifej, K.I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 629~632
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.629
The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of substituting bread by-product (BBP) for barley grain in high concentrate fattening diets for kids on nutrient intake, growth performance, and nutrient digestibility. Twenty-eight Baladi kids (body weight=17.1
1.0 kg) were assigned randomly to 4 experimental finishing diets (7 kids/treatment) in a completely randomized design for 70 days. The control (CON) diet contained 20, 60, 11, 7 and 2% (DM basis) alfalfa hay, barley grain, soybean meal, corn grain, and mineral and vitamin mix, respectively. Bread by-product substituted barley grain by 10, 20 and 30% of the diet DM in the LBBP, MBBP, and HBBP diets, respectively. Dry matter intakes for the CON, LBBP and MBBP diets were similar (p>0.05; avg.=592 g/day), however, kids fed the HBBP diet had a lower (p<0.05) DM intake (451 g/day). Organic matter and CP intakes showed similar patterns to that observed for DM. Dietary treatments did not affect (p>0.05) average daily gain for kids fed the CON, LBBP and MBBP diets (avg.=150 g/day). Final body weights for kids fed the CON, LBBP and MBBP diets (avg. 27.1 kg) were greater (p<0.05) than for kids fed the HBBP diet (23.7 kg). Feed to gain ratio was greater for the CON, LBBP and MBBP diets (avg. 3.9) compared with the HBBP diet (5.0). No significant (p>0.05) effect of the dietary treatment was observed for DM, OM and NDF digestibility. Substituting BBP for barley grain up to 20% of the diet DM did not affect nutrient intake, growth performance and nutrient digestibility of kids and resulted in a decrease in feed cost.
Effects of Amino Acids Fermentation By-product on Fermentation Quality and In situ Rumen Degradability of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) Silage
Yimiti, W. ; Yahaya, M.S. ; Hiraoka, H. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Inui, K. ; Takeda, M. ; Tsukahara, A. ; Goto, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 633~637
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.633
The experiment of silage for preservation of fresh Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was carried out to examine whether the fermentation quality and microbial degradation in the rumen can be altered by the treatment of amino acids fermentation byproduct (AFB). The plant was ensiled for 40 days with 4 treatments of different ratios of AFB and sugarcane molasses (SCM) mixture. The treatment 2 (T2, AFB:SCM=100:0) and treatment 3 (T3, AFB:SCM=40:60) silages showed higher (p<0.05) concentrations of lactic acids, lower (p<0.05) pH and dry matter (DM) losses than the Control (T1, none additive) and treatment (T4, AFB:SCM=0:100) silages. The treatments 2 and 3 contained higher (p<0.05) DM and crude protein contents in silages compared to treatments 1 and 4 silages. The NDF, ADF and cellulose contents were also lower (p<0.05) in T2, T3 and T4 silages than T1 silage and fresh material before ensiled. The in situ rumen DM, NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose degradability was also higher (p<0.05) in T2, T3 and T4 silages than T1 silage, while the highest improvement was achieved with addition of AFB:SCM at level of 40:60 at ensiling. The result in this study indicates that the addition of AFB and SCM additives improved the silage fermentation and cell wall degradability of Italian ryegrass silage.
Effect of Salt Level in the Feed on Performance of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer
Ru, Y.J. ; Fischer, M. ; Glatz, P.C. ; Bao, Y.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 638~642
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.638
In Australia, many cropping areas are affected by salt. In these regions, Chenopodiaceous plants, such as Atriplex, Kochia and Bassia spp have been planted to improve soil conditions. These plants have become invaluable feed resources for grazing animals in dry summers, but have a high sodium content. To assess the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted. The first experiment used 30 fallow weaner deer to examine the effect of salt level in the diet on feed intake, water intake and body weight of fallow deer. Salt was added to lucerne chaff at 0, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5 and 6% and fresh water was offered all the time. Increasing the salt level in the diet from 0 to 6% didn't affect feed intake, osmotic pressure and mineral concentration in blood of fallow deer. However, water intake was significantly higher (p<0.05) in deer fed diets containing more than 3% salt. Body weight was lower (p
0.056) for fallow deer in July and August when salt content was over 3%, suggesting they can ingest over 15 g sodium/day without significant depression in both feed intake and growth rate if the fresh water is available. In the second experiment, 18 red weaner deer were fed lucerne chaff diets containing 1.5, 4.5 and 6.0% salt with 6 deer/diet. The results revealed that feed intake and blood osmotic pressure were similar (p>0.05) for red deer fed different levels of salt although the feed intake declined from 1.91 to 1.67 kg with the increase of salt level from 1.5% to 6.0% in the diet. Water intake was significantly higher for deer fed diets containing over 4.5% salt, but there was no difference in body weight during the experiment. However, no recommendation can be made on the salt tolerance of red deer due to limited increment of salt level in the diet.
Effects of Bacterial Fraction and Proportion of Silage and Concentrate on Rumen Fermentation and Gas Production Profile
Lee, Sang S. ; Chang, M.B. ; Ha, J.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 643~647
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.643
An in vitro experiment was carried out to investigate effects of solid associated (SAB) and liquid associated bacteria (LAB) and the type of incubation substrate on ruminal fermentation and gas production profiles. Bacterial fraction did not influence total numbers of bacteria. Gas production degradation parameters were significantly influenced by bacterial fraction and type of substrate (p<0.05). There was significant interaction between bacterial fraction and type of substrate in gas production (p<0.01). Total VFA concentration and acetic and propionic acid ratio were also influenced by bacterial fraction and type of substrate with little differences in individual VFA concentration.
Changes in Serum Metabolites and Growth Characteristics of Korean Native Steers Fed Alcohol-fermented Feeds
Lin, G.Z. ; Kim, B.W. ; Kim, C.H. ; Kim, H.S. ; Sung, K.I. ; Ohh, S.J. ; Hong, B.J. ; Shin, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 648~654
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.648
This study was carried out to assess whether feeding of alcohol-fermented feeds (AFF) affects the nutritional metabolism and growth characteristics of Korean native steers. Ten steers were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. The dietary treatments were AFF (50% commercial beef cattle feed+30% alcohol-fermented soybean curd dregs+20% rice straw) and control (80% commercial beef cattle feed+20% rice straw). The change of serum metabolites and growth characteristics were measured every two months during the whole twelve months experimental period and the relationships between serum metabolites and growth characteristics were simultaneously analyzed. Four hours after feeding AFF, serum alcohol concentration reached its peak with a significantly higher value than that after control feeding (11.9 and 4.9 mg/dl, respectively). Serum glucose and inorganic phosphorus (IP) concentrations (63.1 and 8.4 mg/dl, respectively) of steers fed AFF were higher than those (56.6 and 7.0 mg/dl) fed the control diet. In both treatments, the serum glucose concentration rapidly increased when body weight (BW) of the steer reached about 600kg, while IP concentrations were rapidly diminished at that BW. Lower concentrations of both blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and cholesterol were observed in steers fed AFF up to 450 kg of BW. The IP concentration was correlated with concentrations of BUN, cholesterol and glucose in AFF fed cattle but not in the cattle fed control diets. Average daily gain was higher in steers fed AFF than steers fed control, particularly during the growing stage of cattle. These findings indicated a capability of AFF to improve BW gain of Korean native steers by decreased protein degradation as well as increased fat synthesis.
Effects of Heat Exposure and Restricted Feeding on Behavior, Digestibility and Growth Hormone Secretion in Goats
Hirayama, Takuji ; Katoh, Kazuo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 655~658
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.655
Heat stress is known to affect physiological systems in goats. This study investigated changes in nutrient digestibility, behavior and growth hormone secretion among goats in a hot environment (H; 35
, [RH] 80
7.2%, 13 d), and in a thermoneutral environment (T; 20
, [RH] 80
3.4%, 20 d), and accompanied by the same restricted diet as provided in the hot environment. The following results were obtained: rectal temperature and water intake were higher in the H treatment than in the T treatment or TR treatment, while hay consumption was lower. CP, NDF and ADF digestibility was highest in H treatment. Time spent eating in the H treatment was also the highest, followed in order by T treatment and TR treatment. Ruminating time was lower in H treatment than in T treatment or TR treatment, and reposing time was highest in the TR treatment. Growth hormone concentrations in T increased 4.5 h after feeding. In H, growth hormone concentrations increased 0.5 h after feeding. However, growth hormone concentrations were not changed following TR feeding. In conclusion, heat exposure in goats decreased feed intake, but increased digestibility. However, when goats in a thermoneutral environment received the same restricted feeding as they received in the hot environment, digestibility increased. Between the H treatment and TR treatment, the changes in digestibility were accomplished by coordinate changes in hormone secretion in order to maintain body homeostasis. To maintain energy balance under a hot temperature or a restricted feeding condition, goats may control their metabolism by changing growth hormone release.
Effects of Substituting Cottonseed Meal with Sunflower Meal in Rations for Growing Buffalo Calves
Yunus, A.W. ; Khan, A.G. ; Alam, Z. ; Sultan, J.I. ; Riaz, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 659~662
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.659
A growth trial of 60 days with 16 male buffalo calves (10 to 11 months age; 100
7 kg live weight mean) was conducted to investigate comparative efficacy of cottonseed meal (CSM) and sunflower meal (SFM). Cottonseed meal was substituted isonitrogenously with SFM at 0, 12, 24 and 36% levels in four rations viz. A, B, C and D. Daily feed consumption was 5.07, 4.30, 4.17 and 3.20 kg, while daily weight gain was recorded to be 0.98, 0.74, 0.57 and 0.33 kg under rations A, B, C and D, respectively. In the digestibility and nitrogen balance trial using eight calves, digestibility of organic matter was 63.2, 62.9, 62.1 and 61.7, respectively. Nitrogen retained as percent of intake did not differ significantly. Sunflower meal was purchased at half the price of CSM but economics of weight gain did not favor SFM inclusion in rations. Results suggested that SFM should not be fed to buffalo calves gaining more than 0.7 kg/day.
Supplementation of Cassava Hay and Stylo 184 Hay to Replace Concentrate for Lactating Dairy Cows
Kiyothong, K. ; Wanapat, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 670~677
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.670
Sixteen multiparous Holstein-Friesian crossbred cows in mid-lactation were blocked according to days in milk (DIM) and previous lactation and randomly assigned according to a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with four replications to receive four dietary treatments. The dietary treatments consisted of T1: No cassava hay (CH) or stylo 184 hay (SH) supplementation, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:2 (control), T2: Supplementation of 1 kg of CH/hd/d, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:2, T3: Supplementation of 1 kg of CH+SH/hd/d, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:2, T4: Supplementation of 2 kg of CH+SH/hd/d, supplementation of concentrate to milk yield at 1:3. All animals received Ruzi grass from a cut-and-carry system as roughage source. The feeding trial lasted for 9 weeks. The results revealed that DMI of concentrate of supplemented treatments were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those in the control, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3. There was no significant difference in forage DM intake between the control and supplemented treatments. CP and NDF digestibility of supplemented treatments were significantly (p<0.05) greater than the control and there were no significant differences among supplemented treatments. Milk yield and 3.5% FCM (14.3, 14.5, 14.7 and 14.8; 13.9, 14.3, 14.3 and 14.6 kg/hd/d, respectively) were not significantly different among treatments. Milk protein percentage of supplemented treatments was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control, but there were no significant differences among supplemented treatments. There was no significant difference in milk fat percentage between the control and supplemented treatments. However, milk fat percentage tended to be higher for supplemented animals as compared to the control group. There were also no significant differences in lactose, solids-not-fat and total solids percentages among treatments. Cows in supplemented treatments gave incomes over supplement cost (IOSC) of 2.72, 2.74 and 2.93 US$/hd/d, respectively which were greater than for cows on control treatment. Furthermore, IOSC were greatest for cows in T4 as compared to other treatments. Based on this study it was concluded that, feeding cassava hay solely or in combination with stylo 184 hay as a supplemental protein source could be a potential valuable strategy in small-holder dairy farming systems in the tropics. This strategic supplementation significantly reduced concentrate use, which resulted in improved milk yields and milk quality for the supplemented cows. Moreover, it resulted in higher economical returns through increased productivity and lower ratios of concentrate to milk yield, from 1:2 to 1:3.
Effect of Hen Weight on Egg Production and Some Egg Quality Characteristics in Pheasants (Phasianus colchicus)
Kirici, Kemal ; Cetin, Orhan ; Gunlu, Aytekin ; Garip, Mustafa ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 684~687
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.684
A study was conducted to determine the effect of live weight of pheasants on egg production and egg quality characteristics. A total of 48 ring-necked pheasants were divided into control, heavy, middle and light BW groups. Live weights of the control were 1,187 g, 1,352.92 g for heavy group, 1,247.92 g for middle group and 1,003.33 g for light group. Egg production of groups were found as 47.32, 42.82, 45.79 and 46.51% respectively, in 10 weeks of period. There were no statistical differences on egg production among the groups. The effect of live weight on egg weight, shape index, specific gravity, shell weight, shell thickness, Haugh Unit, yolk weight and albumen weight were found statistically significant (p<0.05). The effect of live weight on albumen index, membrane weight and membrane thickness were found not important (p>0.05). On the other hand, other important factors to be effective on the egg quality of pheasants should be investigated. As a result of this study, live weight of pheasant hens is not an important factor to obtain high egg production in pheasants. But, body conformation of breeding materials should be in good conditions.
Utilization of Energy and Protein in Local Indian Crossb red Gilts Fed Diets Containing Different Levels of Rice Bran
Soren, N.M. ; Bhar, R. ; Chhabra, A.K. ; Mandal, A.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 688~692
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.688
Fifty four crossbred gilts of 26.38
0.85 kg body weight and 25 weeks of age were randomly divided into three groups, having six replicates of three animals each and were assigned to one of the three dietary treatments containing corn, wheat bran and rice bran (RB) at 35, 47 and 0% in
; 17.5, 23.5 and 41% in
and 0, 0 and 82% in
. Soybean meal and fishmeal were used as source of protein at 10 and 6%, respectively, in all the rations. Average daily CP, DCP, DE and ME intake per kg
and body weight gains were lowest (p<0.01) in gilts fed 82% RB (
), followed by
and R1. Utilization of protein with respect to nitrogen balance and DCP conversion efficiency did not differ (p>0.05) between the treatment groups. All the gilts were in positive nitrogen balance. However, the excretion of dietary nitrogen and energy through faeces was higher (p<0.01) in gilts fed RB. However, the DE and ME conversion efficiency were higher (p<0.01) in gilts fed RB. Therefore, it can be concluded that the digestibility of energy and protein in diets containing rice bran goes on decreasing with the increasing level of fat and fibre, but the metabolizability of the energy and protein was better in pigs fed RB in the diet.
Using Linear Body Measurements of Live Sheep to Predict Carcass Characteristics for Two Iranian Fat-tailed Sheep Breeds
Kiyanzad, M.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 693~699
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.693
Live animal selection programs that favor animals with a minimum amount of carcass fat are used for improving breeding flocks of sheep. To predict carcass characteristics of live sheep using body measurements in breeding flocks, 200 male and female lambs of two fat-tailed Iranian sheep breeds (Moghani and Makui) were used. Depth of soft tissue over the 12th rib of the live animals was measured with ultrasound (ULGR) and with hypodermic needle (NGR). The height at withers (HW), body length (BL), circumference of heart girth (CH) and width of hooks (WH), were measured. All animals were slaughtered; carcasses were cut into joints and dissected. Breed had a significant effect on all of the live easurements. The Moghani breed showed a higher value for HW, CH, ULGR and NGR, compared to that of Makui. Except for soft tissue depths; ULGR, NGR and GR, the male lambs showed higher values in live and carcass measurements than females. Percentages of carcass, total fat and intermuscular fat in females were higher than that of male lambs. In spite of the higher amount of subcutaneous and intermuscular fat in female (which is usually used for their physiological need, such as pregnancy and lactation), the male lambs had a heavier fat-tail than females. There was a wide range of variation of percentage of total carcass fat and total chemical fat content of carcass in the two breeds. Eventually this wide variation could be use by animal breeders for selection of animals with a lesser amount of carcass fat. Live weight of lambs showed a relatively low correlation with percentage of carcass lean, total fat and subcutaneous and intermuscular fat. Total lean meat was predicted with relatively high coefficients of determination in the two breeds (
=0.61 and 0.89, respectively). Live weight and carcass traits were predicted using simple measurements, but with
ranging from 0.53 to 0.93.
Determination of Quality Changes throughout Process ing Steps in Chinese-style Pork Jerky
Chen, W.S. ; Liu, D.C. ; Chen, M.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 700~704
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.700
Chinese-style pork jerky is a typical intermediate moisture meat product obtained by curing, drying and roasting pork samples. The chemical, physical and microbiological characteristics of pork jerky were evaluated throughout processing. The moisture content varied from 72.5% to 23.4 or 19.6% and aw varied form 0.97 to 0.74 or 0.72 in accordance with processing steps. The pork jerky roasted at
had higher shear value than roasted at
because the moisture content and aw of the former sample was lower than the later sample. The nitrite losses during whole processing steps amount to nearly 50%. The TBA value of pork jerky varied from 0.34 to 9.25 or 9.83 mg of malonaldehyde depended on processing steps. The VBN value of pork jerky ranging from 0.25 to 22.4 or 23.5 mg/kg depended upon processing steps. The ATPase activity of myofibrillar proteins during processing steps were partly or entirely denatured by the heat-drying or heat-roasting treatment. A gradual decrease in microorganism count during processing of pork jerky was also observed.
Optimization of the Viability of Probiotics in a Fermented Milk Drink by the Response Surface Method
Chen, Ming-Ju ; Chen, Kun-Nan ; Lin, Chin-Wen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 705~711
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.705
Growth promoters were added to skim milk to retain the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum to help the product meet the "therapeutic minimum" at the time of consumption. The experiments were divided into two parts. The first part of the study used chicory inulin, isomalto-oligosaccharides and sucrose to investigate the effects of sugars on the activity of L. acidophilus and B. longum. The results indicated that the addition of isomalto-oligosaccharides stimulated growth of L. acidophilus and B. longum, resulting in a higher level of the probiotics after one month storage and yielded better
-galactosidase activity during fermentation. The second part studied the effects of three growth promoters on the viability of the probiotic cultures and the response surface method was employed to find the optimal ratio for addition of the growth promoters. The optimal ratio for added calcium gluconate, sodium gluconate and N-acetylglucosamine in fermented milk drinks were established. The response surface method proved to be a very effective way of optimizing the activity of probiotic cultures when developing a new fermented milk drink.
Separation of Calcium-binding Protein Derived from Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Cheese Whey Protein
Kim, S.B. ; Shin, H.S. ; Lim, J.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 712~718
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.712
This study was carried out to separate the calcium-binding protein derived from enzymatic hydrolysates of cheese whey protein. CWPs (cheese whey protein) heated for 10 min at
were hydrolyzed by trypsin, papain W-40, protease S, neutrase 1.5 and pepsin, and then properties of hydrolysates, separation of calcium-binding protein and analysis of calcium-binding ability were investigated. The DH (degree of hydrolysis) and NPN (non protein nitrogen) of heated-CWP hydrolysates by commercial enzymes were higher in trypsin than those of other commercial enzymes. In the result of SDS-PAGE (sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis),
-LA in trypsin hydrolysates were almost eliminated and the molecular weight of peptides derived from trypsin hydrolysates were smaller than 7 kDa. In the RP-HPLC (reverse phase HPLC) analysis,
-LA was mostly eliminated, but
-LG was not affected by heat treatment and the RP-HPLC patterns of trypsin hydrolysates were similar to those of SDS-PAGE. In ion exchange chromatography, trypsin hydrolysates were shown to peak from 0.25 M NaCl and 0.5 M NaCl, and calcium-binding ability is associated with the large peak, which was eluted at a 0.25 M NaCl gradient concentration. Based on the results of this experiment, heated-CWP hydrolysates by trypsin were shown to have calcium-binding ability.
Mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) Pods as a Feed Resource for Livestock - A Review -
Sawal, R.K. ; Ratan, Ram ; Yadav, S.B.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 719~725
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.719
Mesquite or Vilayati babul (Prosopis juliflora) is a drought resistant, evergreen, spiny tree with drooping branches and a deep laterally spreading root system. It grows in semi-arid and arid tracts of tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world and is spreading because the leaves are unpalatable and animals do not digest its seed. The mesquite has become a major nuisance; cutting or pruning its branches to form a canopy would provide shade for travelers, aid harvesting of pods, as well as make available wood for fuel. An average plant starts fruiting by 3-4 years of age and yields annually 10-50 kg pods/ tree, which can be collected from May-June and September-October. Availability of pods worldwide is estimated to be about 2-4 million metric tonnes. Ripe pods are highly palatable; on dry matter basis they contain 12% crude protein, 15% free sugar, a moderate level of digestible crude protein (7% DCP) with a high level of energy (75% TDN). The pods contain low tannin levels below those toxic to animals. Seeds contain 31-37% protein; pods should be finely ground before feeding to facilitate utilization of the seeds. Mesquite pods could replace costlier feed ingredients such as grain and bran contributing 10-50% of the diet. Phosphorus supplements need to be added when mesquite pod, exceeds 20% of animals' diet.
Diversity of Chinese Indigenous Goat Breeds: A Conservation Perspective - A Review -
Li, M.H. ; Li, K. ; Zhao, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 5, 2004, Pages 726~732
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.726
In this manuscript, a review of the diversity of Chinese indigenous goat breeds according to data from body stature and appearance, chromosome group, blood proteins, DNA molecular markers (mitochondria DNA, random amplified polymorphic DNA, microsatellite DNA, major histocompatibility complex) has been introduced. All of these provide efficient tools for the diversity analysis of Chinese indigenous goat breeds and are very important for biodiversity conservation, restoration of declining goat breeds, the priority defining in Chinese indigenous goat breeds' protection and the selection of nature preservation zones. Many Chinese indigenous goat breeds with small population size in the isolated mountains or reservoir areas are verging the potential threat of extinction, effectively lost with the rapid destroying of ecological environment. On the other hand, as a result of the introduction of modern commercial goat breeds and shortage of effective conservation, some populations, such as Small-xiang goat and Tibetan goat decrease rapidly in number of sires. In the interests of the long-term future of the goat breeds in China, conservation of goat breeds' genetic resources should be considered urgently and some conservation measures should be adopted. In addition, the continuing development of molecular biology will further enhance conservation of diversity of Chinese indigenous goat breeds.