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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
A Comparison on Polymorphism of Beta-lactoglobulin Gene in Bos indicus, Bos taurus and Indicine×Taurine Crossbred Cattle
Badola, S. ; Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Biswas, T.K. ; Shivakumar, B.M. ; Kumar, Pushpendra ; Sharma, Arjava ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 733~736
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.733
The study was carried out on eight Bos indicus cattle breeds namely, Sahiwal, Tharparkar, Nimari, Khilari, Deoni, Amritmahal, Hariana and Hilly cattle; two Bos taurus cattle breeds namely, Jersey and Holstein Friesian and Indicine
Taurine crossbred cattle to find out the polymorphic pattern of beta-lactoglobulin gene. The polymorphism at beta-lactoglobulin gene was detected by conducting PCR-RFLP studies on 398 bp fragment spanning over 104 bases of exon IV and 294 bases of intron IV. Two alleles A and B and three genotypes AA, AB and BB were observed in all the cattle breeds. The frequency of B allele was comparatively higher than that of A allele. The allelic frequency of A varied from 0.20 to 0.30 in Bos indicus cattle breeds and 0.19 to 0.34 in Bos taurus breeds while in crossbred cattle the frequency was estimated as 0.21. The weighted frequency of A allele was highest in Indian cattle and lowest in crossbred cattle while the frequency in taurine cattle was found to be in between indicus and crossbred cattle. The non-significant differences of allelic frequency amongst Bos indicus, Bos taurus and crossbred cattle was observed. The effect of genotype on fat percentage was also found to be non-significant in cattle.
Breeding Prolific Garole with Malpura Sheep for In creased Reproductive Efficiency in Semi Arid Tropics of India
Sharma, R.C. ; Arora, A.L. ; Mishra, A.K. ; Kumar, S. ; Singh, V.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 737~742
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.737
Garole, a prolific small sized sheep breed of West Bengal, was introduced in the Mutton project of the Institute in 1997 to explore the possibility of incorporating fecundity gene(s) into monotocus Malpura sheep of Rajasthan. Results of reproduction and production traits in respect of Garole
M) half-breds have been obtained. Of 35 lambing obtained so far from the ewes of Garole
Malpura, 45.71% were twin lambing, whereas, Malpura sheep produced mostly single lamb except 2.55% twin lambing on an average. Other reproduction traits in G
M ewes such as lambing rate, litter size at birth and weaning were considerably improved over Malpura ewes. Results revealed that the fecundity genes responsible for increasing ovulation rate and litter size have been incorporated in to the G
M genotype and it might prove a valuable germ plasm towards evolving a new prolific strain of sheep. Interestingly, survivability of G
M half-breds was almost at par with the local Malpura sheep in harsh climatic conditions of semi-arid tropics. The body weights at different ages of G
M half-breds were on little lower side compared to contemporary Malpura lambs. Average kilogram of lambs weaned/ewe lambed in Malpura and G
M genetic group was 11.86 and 11.07 kg respectively. In view of minimizing the differences in body weights and kg of lambs weaned/ewe lambed between the two genetic groups, G
M ewes has to be backcrossed with Malpura rams to raise the inheritance of latter up to 75% level. However, further research is needed to reach on certain conclusions regarding net returns from such crosses.
Expression of Human Serum Albumin in Milk of Transgenic Mice Using Goat β-casein/Human Serum Albumin Fusion Gene
Wu, H.T. ; Chou, C.K. ; Huang, M.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 743~749
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.743
The gene encoding human serum albumin (HSA) was cloned from human liver cDNA library by PCR. The HSA cDNA in size of 2,176 bp, including 1,830 bp of open reading frame, was cloned into the plasmid carried with the 5'flanking sequence of goat
-casein gene (-4,044 to +2,025 bp) to get a tissue specific expression vector in mammary gland named pGB562/HSA (12.5 kb). A 9.6 kb DNA fragment in which the sequence is in order of goat
-casein gene regulatory sequence, HSA cDNA and SV40 polyadenylation signals was isolated from the pGB562/HSA by SacI and DraIII cutting, and used to microinject into the pronuclei of mouse fertilized eggs to produce transgenic mice. Three transgenic mice (2 female and 1 male) were identified by PCR and dot Southern blot analysis. The copy numbers of integrated transgene were more than 10 copies in line #21 and #26 as well as over 50 copies in line #31 of transgenic mice. HSA protein collected from the milk of lactating transgenic mice was confirmed by immuno-detection of Western and slot blot. The concentrations of HSA in the milk were from 0.05 to 0.4 mg/ml. An obvious antigen and antibody conjugate could be observed in immunohistochemical stain of mammary gland tissue from lactating day 11 of HSA transgenic mice. The transmission of transgene and its expression was recognized according to the results of RT-PCR and sequences analyses of their progeny.
Microsatellite DNA Typing Using 16 Markers for Parentage Verification of the Korean Native Horse
Cho, G.J. ; Cho, B.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 750~754
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.750
This study was performed for parentage verification of the Korean native horse (KNH). 103 random KNH samples (including 19 foals for parentage testing) were genotyped by using 16 microsatellite markers. The number of alleles per locus varied from 5 to 13 with an average value of 8.56 in the KNH. The observed heterozygosity and the expected heterozygosity ranged 0.398-0.893 (the average value was 0.683) and 0.368-0.871 (the average value was 0.727) in the KNH, respectively. The PIC value and the exclusion probability ranged 0.347-0.853 (the average value was 0.692) and 0.208-0.736, respectively, and the total exclusion probability of 16 microsatellite loci was 0.9999. Of the 16 markers, AHT4, AHT5, ASB2, ASB17, HMS2, HMS3, HTG10, LEX33, TKY321 and VHL20 loci have a relatively high PIC value (>0.7) in the KNH. Of the 19 foals, 5 foals were disqualified by an incompatibility of 4-7 markers according to a Mendelian fashion in the present DNA typing for parentage testing. These results present basic information for developing a system for parentage verification and individual identification in the KNH.
Quality and Fertility of Post Thaw Sephadex Filtered Bull Semen
Kumar, A. ; Singh, J. ; Nanda, A.S. ; Pangaonkar, G.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 755~759
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.755
The present investigation was carried out to assess the effect of Sephadex (G-15) filtration on the post thaw bull semen quality and conception rate. Post thaw unfiltered (control) and Sephadex filtered semen from four healthy bulls (three cross bred and one pure bred Holstein Friesian) were subjected to microscopic examination viz. sperm concentration, individual motility, live sperm count and sperm morphology. Sixty-two healthy, normal cycling crossbred cows were inseminated with post thaw unfiltered (n=32) and filtered semen (n=30). Sephadex filtration of post thaw semen significantly (p<0.05) decreased total sperm concentration and sperm with abnormal head, mid piece and tail. The overall average total sperm concentration, head and tail defects in filtered semen decreased significantly (53.4, 1.2 and 6.4 million) than in the unfiltered semen (80.4, 2.4 and 15.7 million, respectively). However, after filtration significant (p<0.05) increase in overall average motile and live sperm concentration were observed (38.8 and 38.0) as compared to unfiltered semen (29.2 and 32.0 million, respectively). The overall conception rate recorded was 21.9% with post thaw unfiltered semen and 56.7% with filtered semen. It was concluded that Sephadex filtration of post thaw semen improved its quality and conception rate.
Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Early Pregnancy Diagnosis in Doe
Singh, N.S. ; Gawande, P.G. ; Mishra, O.P. ; Nema, R.K. ; Mishra, U.K. ; Singh, Mohan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 760~768
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.760
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the accuracy of ultrasonography in early pregnancy diagnosis in goats. Ultrasonographic scanning with real time B-mode ultrasound machine having 5 MHz linear array transducer was performed on gravid uterus (n=24) obtained from slaughterhouse (Group I). Crown rump length (CRL) measured by ultrasound was found significantly different (p<0.05) with actual CRL measured after dissection in early pregnancy. However, age predicted by ultrasound through the measurement of CRL was found highly correlated (r=0.92) with age measured after dissection through CRL and the weight of fetus. Ages predicted by ultrasound through the measurement of trunk diameter (TD) and uterine diameter (UD) and ages measured after dissection were found highly and equally correlated (r=0.98) and did not differ significantly. Data from six does synchronized (Group II) with PGF2
(Estrumate) at 11 days apart were collected through ultrasound from 17 to 42 days post breding. The correlation between CRL and gestational age was high (r=0.97) in day 30 to 42 post breeding. A high coefficient of correlation (r=0.98) was also observed between predicated age by ultrasound and actual age calculated after kidding. The correlation between CRL and gestational age by the formula Y=(a+bX) i.e. Y=24.42+0.39 X where Y=gestational age and X=CRL, was recorded very high (r=0.99). Accuracy of ultrasonography was lowest on day 17 to 19 (66%) and reached 100% on day 34. Data from 30 does (group III) randomly subjected to only one time ultrasounds scanning to assess the accuracy of pregnancy diagnosis were also obtained. Ages predicted by TD and UD measurements were observed to be non-significantly different with actual age obtained after kidding and correlation between ages predicted by TD and UD measurement with actual age after kidding was found equally and highly correlated (r=0.98). The operator's accuracy in the whole experiment including all three groups was found to be 92%. The sensitivity was 93% and specificity was 86%. From the present study, it was observed that CRL was the most reliable parameter to find out gestational age in early pregnancy and the new formula derived was found very accurate to find out gestational age. TD and UD were also found to be equally reliable parameter to find out gestational age in mid and late stage of pregnancy through ultrasonography. It was concluded that ultrasonography by real time B mode with 5 MHz transrectal transducer was found to be reliable, safe and accurate and practicable means in diagnosing early pregnancy diagnosis as early as 25 days post breeding.
Deriving Nutrient Requirements of Lactating Indian Cattle under Tropical Condition Using Performance and Intake Data Emanated from Feeding Trials Conducted in Different Research Institutes
Paul, S.S. ; Mandal, A.B. ; Mandal, G.P. ; Kannan, A. ; Pathak, N.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 769~776
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.769
Data from 24 feeding trials conducted on lactating cattle from different institutes across India were subjected to regression analysis to derive requirements of ME, TDN, CP and DCP for maintenance, milk production and body weight gain. Maintenance requirements for ME, TDN, CP and DCP were 598 KJ, 39.5 g, 6.27 g and 2.90 g/kg
, respectively and the corresponding requirements for production of 1 kg 4% FCM were 5,023 KJ, 332 g, 82 g and 58 g. The corresponding requirements for one g gain in BW were 27 KJ, 1.78 g, 0.44 g and 0.19 g. Regression equations had high
values (0.67 to 0.90) and the equations (Fvalue) as well as coefficients were highly significant (p<0.001). Regressed values were used to develop feeding standards. Derived values matched well with the actual intake versus performance of animals under diverse feeding conditions. The new standards so derived predicted requirements and intake of nutrients for different production levels better than existing feeding standards; as these are based on a more thorough analysis of a larger database, the new feeding standards will be appropriate for wide use in India.
Evaluation of Forest Tree Leaves of Semi-hilly Arid Region as Livestock Feed
Bakshi, M.P.S. ; Wadhwa, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 777~783
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.777
Samples of 13 species of forest tree leaves fed to livestock in the semi-hilly arid zone of Punjab State in India were collected at 30 d interval for 12 months, in order to assess their nutritional worth for livestock. The ground samples were pooled for 4 different seasons viz. dry hot, hot humid, fall and winter. The chemical composition irrespective of the season revealed that CP content varied between 8.9 (Carrisa) to 22.0% (Leucaena). Globulin was the major protein fraction in most of the leaves. The lowest concentration of cell wall constituents was observed in Morus alba and Grewea. The leaves in general became fiberous and lignified during winter and fall as compared to summer season. The leaves of Grewea, Morus alba, Leucaena, Carrisa and Acacia were rich in Ca, P and most of the trace elements. The total phenolics ranged between 1.88% (Azardirachta) to 15.82% (Acacia). The leaves of Acacia had the highest concentration of hydrolysable tannins (14.6%) whereas that of Carrisa had that of condensed tannins (5.9%). The condensed tannins (more than 3%) were negatively correlated to the digestibility of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and crude protein (CP). The digestion kinetic parameters for DM, NDF and CP revealed that leaves of Morus alba, Zizyphus and Ehretia had highest insoluble but potentially degradable fraction. The minimum rumen fill values also revealed that leaves of Grewea, Azardirachta, Morus, Ehretia and Leucaena had great potential for voluntary DM intake. The leaves of Ougeinia, Malha, Dodenia and Carrisa had significantly higher rumen fill value indicating poor potential for voluntary DM intake. Season did not have any significant impact on digestion kinetic parameters except that most of the leaves had low potentially degradable fraction, which was degraded at slow rate during winter. It was concluded that the leaves of Morus, Ehretia, Grewea and Leucaena had great potential as livestock feed, while feeding of Ougeinia, Malha and Dodonea leaves should be avoided.
Responses of Holstein Cows to Different Bovine Somatotropin (bST) Treatments during the Transition Period and Early Lactation
Gulay, M.S. ; Garcia, A.N. ; Hayen, M.J. ; Wilcox, C.J. ; Head, H.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 784~793
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.784
Major objective was to evaluate three doses of bST (POSILAC(R)) injected into Holstein cows during the transition period and through 56 d of lactation for potential to improve DMI, BCS, BW, metabolites, hormones, IGF-I and milk production. Biweekly injections of bST (0, 5.1, 10.2, or 15.3 mg bST/d) began 28 d before expected parturition and continued through 56 d postpartum. Twenty-three of the 25 multiparous Holstein cows assigned randomly to four groups completed experiment (7, 5, 6 and 5 cows/group, respectively). The DMI, BW and BCS were recorded weekly throughout the prepartum and postpartum periods and blood samples were collected thrice weekly for analyses of ST, insulin,
, IGF-I, glucose and NEFA. Milk yields were recorded daily through 60 d postpartum and milk components measured once weekly. Mathematical model for data analyses for prepartum and postpartum periods included treatment, calving month, and the two-factor interaction. Cows injected with 10.2 and 15.3 mg bST prepartum had greater mean prepartum concentrations of ST and IGF-I. Prepartum injections of bST did not affect prepartum BW or BCS. On average, cows injected postpartum better maintained their BCS during first 60 d of lactation (3.15
0.006 and 3.58
0.009). Treatments did not affect mean prepartum DMI but cows injected with 15.3 mg bST/d had greatest DMI and greatest mean daily MY during the first 3 wk and tended to be greater during first 60 d of lactation. Cows injected with two highest bST doses (10.1 and 15.2 mg/d) had greater mean postpartum concentrations of ST and
, but IGF-I,
, glucose and NEFA did not differ across groups. No adverse effects of bST treatment were observed.
Effect of Stepped Pattern of Feed Intake Using Rice Straw as Roughage Source on Regulation of Growth, Reproduction and Lactation in Dairy Heifers
Jin, M.G. ; Lee, H.G. ; Lee, H.J. ; Hong, Z.S. ; Wang, J.H. ; Yin, Y.H. ; Jin, R.H. ; Cho, K.K. ; Choi, Y.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 794~798
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.794
An attempt was made to improve the efficiency of growth and lactation performance of dairy heifers subjected to a stair-step growth scheme using rice straw as the sole roughage source. Twenty-four young Holstein heifers were randomly assigned to either control or test group. The control diet met the National Research Council (NRC) requirement, with heifers calving at 24 to 26 mo of age. The test group was individually fed according to a schedule of 3, 2, 4, 2, 5 and 2 mo in which feed intake was alternately 20% below or 25% above the NRC requirements. Heifers on the stair-step growth pattern gained more body weight and consumed less dry matter (10.80 and 11.22%, respectively), resulting an increasing growth efficiency compared with the control. Body condition, first estrus, first conception, services per conception and calving difficulty (data not shown) were not affected. Milk yield of the test group was 8.5% higher than that of the control group. During the early lactation period, the milk yield was significantly higher in the stair-step group than in that of the control group (p<0.05). Milk composition was not affected by compensatory growth induced by the stair-step scheme. Also, weight at calving and calf growth performance was not affected by stair-step growth. The results indicate that using rice straw as a sole roughage source in a stair-step compensatory growth scheme can contribute to the improvement of growth efficiency and early lactation performance.
Growth, Hay Yield and Chemical Composition of Cassava and Stylo 184 Grown under Intercropping
Kiyothong, K. ; Wanapat, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 799~807
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.799
The objective of this field experiment was to investigate the growth, hay yield and chemical composition of cassava and stylo 184 grown under intercropping. The experiment was arranged in a Randomized Complete Block (RCB) design with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The treatments were: sole crop cassava (C); sole crop stylo 184 (S) and three intercropping treatments comprising an additive series of one (SC), two (SSC) and three (SSSC) rows of stylo 184 to one row of cassava. The results showed that leaf area per plant (LA) of cassava was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the sole crop relative to the intercropping treatments. Both total hay yield and CPDM yield were significantly higher (p<0.05) for C treatment and lower (p<0.05) for SSSC treatment. The total hay yield and CPDM yield were significantly greater (p<0.05) in the sole crop relative to the intercropping treatments. At the first and second harvests, CP content was similar among treatments; while at third and fourth harvests, CP contents were significantly greater (p<0.05) for the intercropping treatment relative to the sole crop. At the first and second harvest, NDF contents were significantly greater (p<0.05) in the sole crop relative to the intercropping treatments, whereas NDF contents were similar among intercropping treatments. Leaf area of stylo 184 at first and second harvest were significantly greater (p<0.05) for C, SC and SSC as compared with the SSSC treatments. At each harvesting, there were no significant differences in ash, CP, NDF, ADF and ADL contents of stylo 184 hay between the sole crop and intercropping treatments, except for the first harvest. ADF contents were significantly greater (p<0.05) in S, SC treatments relative to SSC and SSSC treatments. Both collective hay yield and CPDM yield of cassava and stylo 184 were significantly greater (p<0.05) for the SSC treatment and significantly lower (p<0.05) for the S treatment. Collective hay yield and CPDM yield were significantly greater (p<0.05) for the intercropping treatments relative to the sole crop. Based on this research, it was concluded that stylo 184 showed potential for intercropping with cassava. Intercropping cassava with stylo 184 has beneficial effects and can improve foliage biomass yield and soil fertility, which would be a more sustainable system than growing the cassava as a pure stand. In terms of hay yield and CP production, two rows of stylo 184 to one row of cassava could be the optimal pattern for this intercropping system.
Effects of Adding Glucose, Sorbic Acid and Pre-fermented Juices on the Fermentation Quality of Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Silages
Shao, Tao ; Ohba, N. ; Shimojo, M. ; Masuda, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 808~813
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.808
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of adding glucose (G), sorbic acid (S), pre-fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) and their combinations on the fermentation qualities and residual mono-and di-saccharides compositions of guineagrass silage. The additives used in this experiment were 1% glucose, 0.1% sorbic acid and FJLB at a theoretical application rate of 9.0
on the fresh weight basis of guineagrass, respectively. There was a total of eight treatments in this experiment: (1) C (without additives), (2) FJLB, (3) S, (4) G, (5) FJLB+S, (6) FJLB+G, (7) S+G, (8) FJLB+S+G. After 30 days of storage, the silos were opened for chemical analyses. Based on the results, all additives were efficient in improving the fermentation quality of guineagrass silage. This was well indicated by significantly (p<0.05) lower pH and BA content and significantly (p<0.05) higher LA content in the treated silages except for the FJLB than in the C. However, there was only a slight increase in LA for the FJLB as compared with the C, which might be due to the low WSC content of the original guineagrass (34.4 g
). When the FJLB+S and FJLB+G were added, there were significant (p<0.05) decreases in pH and significant (p<0.05) increases in LA as compared with the FJLB alone. This indicated that the G, S and FJLB were of synergestic effects on the silage fermentation quality. The G combination treatments including the G alone showed large improvements in the fermentation quality as compared with the treatments without the G. This suggested that adding fermentable substrates (G) to plant materials such as guineagrass, which contain low WSC, intermediate population of epiphytic LAB, CP and DM content, is more important and efficient for improving the fermentation quality of silages than adding a number of species of domestic LAB (FJLB) and aerobic bacteria inhibitor (S).
Studies on Feed Intake and Nutrient Utilization of Sheep under Two Housing Systems in a Semi-arid Region of India
Bhatta, Raghavendra ; Swain, N. ; Verma, D.L. ; Singh, N.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 814~819
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.814
An investigation was carried out to study the effect of two housing systems on feed intake and nutrient utilization of sheep in a semi-arid region of India. Two types of housing managements were adopted. The first was a shed- 20'
10' structure with all the four sides of 6' chain link fencing with central height of 10'. The roof was covered with asbestos sheets, with mud floorings. The second was an open corral- 20'
10' open space with all the four sides covered with 6' chain link fencing. Thirty-four (32 ewes and 2 rams) sheep were grazed together on a 35 ha plot of native range. All the sheep were grazed as a flock from 08:00 to 17:00 h during the yearlong study. The flock was divided into two groups (16 ewes+1 ram) in the evening and housed according to two housing systems (Shed and Open Corral). Three digestion trials were conducted during three defined seasons of monsoon, winter and summer seasons to determine the effect of housing on nutrient intake and utilization. Blood samples were collected in three seasons for the estimation of hemoglobin and glucose. Dry and wet bulb temperatures were recorded at 06:00 A.M. and 09:00 P.M. using suitable thermometers both inside the shed and in the open corral and temperature humidity index (THI) was calculated. There was significant (p<0.05) difference in the THI between shed and open corral in all the seasons, indicating that the shed was always warmer compared to open corral. The daily dry matter intake (DMI, g/d) was 965, 615 and 982 in sheep housed under shed and 971, 625 and 1,001 in those housed in open corral during monsoon, winter and summer season, respectively. These differences were however non-significant (p>0.05). The digestibility of DM was 45.92, 45.13 and 50.30 in sheep housed under shed and 43.64, 45.02 and 55.02 in sheep housed in open corral during monsoon, winter and summer seasons, respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) difference in the digestibility of nutrients in sheep maintained under shed and in open corral. Blood Hb concentration was 13.97, 14.13 and 13.15 in sheep housed under shed and 15.27, 13.63 and 14.82 in those kept in open corral, whereas blood glucose concentration was 59.67, 59.70 and 52.33 in sheep under shed and 61.00, 61.00 and 57.83 in open corral, during monsoon, winter and summer, respectively. There was also no significant effect of housing on the body weight changes, wool yield and survivability in ewes. Although housing had no significant effect on nutrient intake, their utilization and blood parameters, there was significant effect on the physiological responses and energy expenditure of sheep maintained under the two housing systems (Bhatta et al., 2004). It can be concluded from this study that the housing systems didn't have any significant effect on the nutrient intake and utilization of native breed like Malpura, which were well adapted to the hot semi-arid conditions of India. However, while deciding provisions for housing of different breeds of sheep (both crossbred and native) parameters like physiological responses, energy expenditure, health conditions and overall economics of the systems should be taken into consideration.
Influence of an Anaerobic Fungal Culture (Orpinomyces sp.) Administration on Growth Rate, Ruminal Fermentation and Nutrient Digestion in Calves
Dey, Avijit ; Sehgal, Jatinder Paul ; Puniya, Anil Kumar ; Singh, Kishan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 820~824
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.820
The study was to see the effect of administration of ruminal fungi on feed intake, growth rate, rumen fermentation and nutrient digestion of calves (Tharparkar
Holstein-Friesian, average age: 10 months, average body weight: 130 kg). The 6 calves in first group were fed a mixture consisted of 50% wheat straw and 50% concentrate (Maize 62%, Groundnut cake 35%, Mineral mix. 2% and Common salt 1%) along with 1 kg green oats
while second group calves were fed the above-mentioned diet in addition to a dose of 160 ml (
CFU/ml) fungal culture
. The average dry matter intake per day was slightly lowered in fungal fed calves yet feed conversion ratio was higher. The average daily weight gain was significantly higher (15.37%) in fungal administered group as compared to control. The nutrient digestibility was increased for crude fibre, NDF and ADF with fungal administration. Digestible energy value of straw-based diet in terms of percent TDN also increased. The pH and
-N were lower whereas TVFA, total-N, TCA-N and number of zoospores were higher in rumen liquor in fungal administered group.
Nutritive Value of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with or without Corn Steep Liquor for Lactating Nili-ravi Buffaloes
Nisa, Mahr-un ; Sarwar, M. ; Khan, M. Ajmal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 825~829
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.825
Influence of different levels of corn steep liquor (CSL) on chemical composition of urea treated wheat straw (UTWS) and its dietary effect on nutrient intake, digestibility, milk yield and its composition were studied. The 5% UTWS was ensiled with 0, 3, 6 and 9% CSL on dry matter (DM) basis. Total nitrogen and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents of UTWS ensiled with 0, 3, 6 and 9% CSL increased linearly with the increasing level of CSL. Increase in NDF content was due to increased neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen contents. Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 35% UTWS ensiled without CSL (control), 45 (WS45), 55 (WS55) and 65% (WS65) UTWS ensiled with 9% CSL, respectively. Dry matter, NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF) intakes by lactating buffaloes fed diets containing varying levels of UTWS ensiled with or without CSL remained similar across all treatments. However, DM, NDF and ADF intakes as a percent of body weight and digestible DM, NDF and ADF intakes were higher in animals fed WS65 diet compared to those fed other diets. Apparent DM, crude protein (CP), NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher in diets containing UTWS ensiled with CSL compared to control. These differences may be attributed to higher rates of degradability of UTWS ensiled with 9% CSL than that ensiled without CSL. The 4% fat corrected milk and CP were statistically higher with WS65 diet compared to other diets. Percent milk fat, solid not fat and total solid remained unchanged across all treatments.
Influence of Supplemental Enzymes, Yeast Culture and Effective Micro-organism Culture on Gut Micro-flora and Nutrient Digestion at Different Parts of the Rabbit Digestive Tract
Samarasinghe, K. ; Shanmuganathan, T. ; Silva, K.F.S.T. ; Wenk, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 830~835
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.830
An experiment of 10 weeks duration was carried out to study the influence of supplemental effective microorganism (EM) culture, yeast culture and enzymes on nutrient digestibility and gut microflora in rabbit gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Twenty four eight to nine weeks old, New Zealand White rabbits were allotted to four dietary treatments; a basal (control) feed, basal feed supplemented with either EM (1%), yeast culture or enzymes (400 ppm). Nutrient flow in digesta and their digestibility at ileum, caecum, colon and in the total tract as well as gut microflora distribution were studied. Feed dry matter was diluted from 92% to about 14% up to the ileum and about 95% of this water was reabsorbed by the colonic rectal segment followed by caecum (25%). EM and yeast improved protein digestibility at a lower rate than enzymes. Ileal, caecal, colonic and total tract digestibility of crude protein with enzymes were higher by 10.8, 9.4, 11.3 and 10.7%, respectively, as compared to the control. Yeast and enzymes increased crude fiber digestibility at ileum, caecum, colon and in the total tract by 8.5, 9.6, 9.0 and 8.3%, respectively, while EM improved them at a lower rate. Irrespective of treatments, total tract digestibility of crude protein (0.698-0.773) and fiber (0.169-0.183) were greater (p<0.05) than the ileal digestibility. Even though a post-caecal protein digestibility was observed, fiber digestion seemed to be completed in the caecum especially with yeast and enzymes. High precaecal digestibility of crude fiber (97%) and protein (95%) were observed even without additives probably due to caecotrophy. EM and yeast culture promoted the growth of lactic acid bacteria especially in the caecum but they did not influence gut yeast and mould. Present findings reveal that even though rabbits digest nutrients efficiently through hind gut fermentation, they can be further enhanced by EM, yeast and enzymes. Of the three additives tested, enzymes found to be the best.
Replacement of Yellow Maize with Pearl Millet (Pennisetum typhoides), Foxtail Millet (Setaria italica) or Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) in Broiler Chicken Diets Containing Supplemental Enzymes
Rama Rao, S.V. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Reddy, M.R. ; Panda, A.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 836~842
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.836
An experiment was conducted to study the performance of broilers chicks (2 to 42 d of age) fed diets containing pearl millet (PM, Pennisetum typhoides), foxtail millet (FOM, Setaria italica) or finger millet (FIM, Elusine coracana) totally replacing (w/w) yellow maize (YM) with and with out supplementing non-starch polysaccharide (NSP) hydrolysing enzymes at the rate of 0.5 g/kg diet. Enzyme preparation contained amylase 2,400 units, hemi-cellulase 5,400 units, cellulase 12,000 units, protease 2,400 units and beta-glucanase 106 units/g. Each diet was fed to eight replicates (five female Vencob broilers/replicate) housed in stainless steel battery brooders. The estimated metabolizable energy (ME) contents of YM, PM, FOM and FIM were FM (PM) were about 3,389, 2,736, 3,303 and 2,846 kcal/kg, respectively. Total replacement of YM with FOM did not influence the body weight gain, ready to cook yield, relative weights of giblet, liver, intestine, lymphoid organs (bursa and spleen) and length of intestine, antibody titers and livability at 42 d of age. But the food efficiency decreased significantly in FOM fed broilers compared those fed YM. Further, the fat content in thigh muscle reduced with FOM fed groups compared to those fed YM. The performance of broilers decreased significantly in PM and FIM fed broilers compared to those fed YM. The relative weights of giblet, gizzard and liver increased in FIM fed groups compared to those fed YM as the principal source of energy in broilers. Incorporation of NSP hydrolysing enzymes in commercial broiler diets improved the efficiency of feed utilization during starter phase but not at 42 d of age. The results thus indicate that yellow maize can be replaced in toto on weight basis in commercial broiler diets without affecting the performance. Supplementation of NSP hydrolysing enzymes was beneficial in enhancing feed utilization during the starter phase.
Effects of Different Oils on the Production Performances and Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids and Cholesterol Level of Yolk in Hens
Kehui, Ouyang ; Wenjun, Wang ; Mingshen, Xu ; Yan, Jiang ; Xinchen, Shangguan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 843~847
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.843
In order to understand the effects of different oils on the production performances and polyunsaturated fatty acids and cholesterol level in the yolk. 160 Hexices hens at 42 wks were divided into four groups randomly. Each group fed with control diet (CG), control diet+5% fish oil (FG), control diet+5% palm oil (PG) and control diet+5% soybean oil (SG), respectively. After three weeks' experiment, the results showed that: different oils showed no significant effect on feed/egg weight, egg white weight, body weight, C16, C18:3 n-6 and C20:4 n-6 contents in the yolk (p>0.05). But the egg mass of PG was higher than SG (p<0.05), the average egg weight of CG was lower than FG (p<0.05), and the of PG was lower than FG (p<0.05), during the experiment, FG gained more than SG (p<0.05), the cholesterol level in yolk of FG was lower than PG and CG (p<0.01), meanwhile the C20:5 n-3 content of FG was higher than CG and SG (p<0.01), and no C20:5 n-3 was detected in PF, as far as C22:6 n-3 in the yolk was concerned, FG was higher than PG (p<0.01), the C18:1 n-9 content of SG was lower than PG (p<0.05), the C18:2 n-6 content of SG was the highest than other three groups (p<0.01), and CG was the lowest, showed significant to FG (p<0.05), the C18:3 n-3 content of FG was higher than SG and PG (p<0.05), and the C20:1 n-9 content of FG was higher than other groups (p<0.01). The results demonstrated that fish oil could decrease the cholesterol and increase the n-3 fatty acids content in the yolk, and increase the n-3/n-6 level.
Meat Production Characteristics of Black Bengal Goat
Chowdhury, S.A. ; Faruque, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 848~856
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.848
Black Bengal goat is primarily reared for meat, skin comes here as a by-product. The present trial describes the effect of age on different carcass characteristics of Black Bengal goats of either sex. A total of 61 Black Bengal goats of different age and sex groups were slaughtered. They were reared under semi-intensive management on milk alone or with concentrates (of 10.14 MJ ME and 10.48 g M/kg DM) and freshly cut Napier grass (2 MJ ME and 25 g CP/kg of fresh matter) that provides the estimated NRC (1981) requirement. The four age groups were: pre-weaned kids (0-90 day), post-weaned kids (91-180 days), growing (181-365 days) and adult (>365 days). Goats were slaughtered according to 'Halal' method by severing the major vessels of the throat by a transverse cut. Different slaughter parameters of Black Bengal goat can be best predicted from the equations as follows: live weight (kg)=0.801 (shoulder height (cm))-24.32, (
=0.94); carcass weight (kg)=0.364 (height at hind legs (cm))-11.54, (
=0.91); edible weight (kg)=0.623 (shoulder height (cm))-19.94, (
=0.91) and saleable weight (kg)=0.701 (shoulder height (cm))-21.99, (
=0.92). Live weight, carcass weight, edible weight and saleable weight of castrated goat at one-year onward ranges from 20-22, 9.4-10.5, 14-16 and 16.6-18.8 kg, respectively, which are about 80% higher than most of the reported observations on Black Bengal goat of same age and sex. Slaughter weight, warm carcass weight, edible weight and saleable weight increased curvilinearly with age of slaughter but not affected (p>0.05) by sex. However, linearity of the response curve of affect of age on mentioned parameters ends at around 9 months. Visceral fat as per cent of live weight increased curvilinearly with age and attain its maximum (about 6%) at about 500 days. However, linear part of the quadratic model ends at about 300 days when visceral fat content is about 4.8% of body weight. Blood and skin yield for one-year old male goat was 797 g and 1.61 kg, respectively. Absolute yield of blood and skin increased curvilinealry and attained maximum level at about 400 days (13.3 months). Average proportion of different carcass cut were - round 27%, rump 7%, loin 10%, ribs (6-12th) 14%, shoulder 21%, Neck 7%, chest 14%. Thigh and shoulder constituted about 48.3% of the cold carcass weight. Overall crude protein content of meat samples of different carcass cuts progressively decreased with age starting from 57 at 0-90 days to 58, 47 and 33 per cent, respectively at 91-180, 181-365 and >365 days, respectively. Overall meat fat content increased almost linearly from 11.1% during 91-180 days to 22.9 and 39.5% during 181-365 and >365days, respectively. Results from this trial suggest that both carcass yield and carcass composition changes with age; and sex have little or no effect on carcass yield and carcass composition. However, caution should be made in using second conclusion as there were few female animals slaughtered relative to the male. Optimum slaughter age for Black Bengal goat reared under semi-intensive management with adequate feeding and management would be about 9 months when their live weight, warm carcass weight, edible and saleable weight of carcass can be about 16.74, 7.28, 12.05 and 13.81 kg, respectively.
Functional Properties of Cholesterol-removed Compound Whipping Cream by Palm Oil
Shim, S.Y. ; Ahn, J. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 857~862
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.857
The present study was carried out to examine the changes in functional properties of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream made by
-CD treated cream and palm oil. Six different ratios of cream to palm oil (10:0 as control, 9:1, 8:2, 7:3, 6:4, and 5:5, v/v) were tested. The overrun percentage increased with an increased amount of palm oil. When the ratio of cream to palm oil was 10:0 (control), the overrun was 130%, which was significantly lower than other ratios reached to 150%. Foam instability was measured as 3.1 ml defoamed cream in control, however, the value of foam instability decreased with an increase of palm oil addition. The TBA value of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream increased from 0.08 to 0.13 with no addition of palm oil during 4 wk storage. When the ratio of cream to palm oil was 5:5, TBA value increased dramatically at 3 wk and thereafter. Among sensory characteristics, texture value increased with higher amount of palm oil, however, flavor and overall preferences were opposite. Above results indicated that partial substitution of palm oil in manufacture of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream resulted in a stable foam development with little adverse effect on flavor and lipid oxidation during storage. The present study showed a possible application in manufacture of cholesterol-removed compound whipping cream, which may be effective in other foods.
Lectin Activity and Chemical Characteristics of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. from Gastrointestinal Mucosa of Growing Pigs
Gao, W. ; Meng, Q.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 863~868
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.863
Lectin activities and chemical characteristics of Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. originating from the porcine cecal mucosal layer were studied based on hemagglutination assay (HA) and hemagglutination inhibition assay (HIA). Although all the bacterial strains were able to agglutinate erythrocytes of porcine or rabbit origin, much higher HA titers were consistently observed for Lactobacillus spp. than for E. coli or for Bifidobacterium spp. A remarkable reduction in HA titers occurred by the treatment of E. coli and Lactobacillus spp. with protease or trypsin and of Bifidobacterium spp. with protease, trypsin or periodate. There were no significant effects on the HA titers of the three groups of bacteria after the treatment with lipase. Hemagglutination of E. coli was strongly inhibited by D (+)-mannose and D (+)-galactose; Lactobacillus spp. by
-L-rhamnose and methyl-
-galactopyranoside; Bifidobacterium spp. by D (+)-alactose,
-L-fucose, L (+)-arabinose, D (+)-mannose, D (-)-fructose at a relatively low concentration (1.43 to 3.75 mg/ml). These results, combined with the enhanced HA activities of the three bacterial strains by modification of rabbit erythrocytes with neuraminidase and abolished HA activity of E. coli after treatment with
-galactosidase, indicate that it might be the glycoproteinous substances surrounding the surface of the bacterial cells that are responsible for the adhesions of these microorganisms by recognizing the specific receptors on the red blood cell.
Probing Equivocal Effects of Heat Processing of Legume Seeds on Performance of Ruminants - A Review -
Yu, P. ; Tamminga, S. ; Egan, A.R. ; Christensen, D.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 869~876
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.869
Published studies show that effects of heat processing of legume seeds on animal performance are equivocal. In this article, we used a nutrition model - the DVE/OEB system to re-analyze nutrient supply (such as truly absorbed intestinal protein DVE value and protein degradation balance OEB value) to ruminants from published studies to probe reasons for such equivocal effects and provided some explanation why equivocal effects occurred. The analysis results showed that an unsuitable supply of nutrients in terms of DVE and OEB intakes (negative total OEB intake, oversupply of total DVE values) resulted in an inability to detect the effectiveness of heat processing in altering bypassing protein (BCP) and/or starch (BST) and their effects. The overall nutrient supply to animal in an experiment should be the context in which any animal performance study is developed. The information described in this article may give better understanding of animal performance in relation to nutritive changes occurring upon processing of legume seeds.
Recent Advances in Gut Microbiology and Their Possible Contribution to Animal Health and Production - A Review -
Kobayashi, Yasuo ; Koike, Satoshi ; Taguchi, Hidenori ; Itabashi, Hisao ; Kam, Dong K. ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 6, 2004, Pages 877~884
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.877
Although gut microbial functions have been analyzed through cultivation of isolated microbes, molecular analysis without cultivation is becoming a popular approach in recent years. Gene cloning studies have partially revealed the mechanisms involved in fiber digestion of individual microbe. The molecular approach finally made it possible to analyze full genomes of the representative rumen cellulolytic bacteria Fibrobacter and Ruminococcus. The coming database may contain useful information such as regulation of gene expression relating to fiber digestion. Meanwhile, unculturable bacteria are still poorly characterized, even though they are main constituents of gut microbial ecosystem. The molecular analysis is essential to initiating the studies on these unculturable bacteria. The studies dealing with rumen and large intestine are revealing considerable complexity of the microbial ecosystems with many undescribed bacteria. These bacteria are being highlighted as possibly functional members contributing to feed digestion. Manipulation of gut bacteria and gut ecology for improving animal production is still at challenging stage. Bacteria newly introduced in the rumen, whether they are genetically modified or not, suffer from poor survival. In one of these attempts, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens expressing a foreign dehalogenase was successfully established in sheep rumen to prevent fluoroacetate poisoning. This expands choice of forages in tropics, since many tropic plants are known to contain the toxic fluoroacetate. This example may promise the possible application of molecular breeding of gut bacteria to the host animals with significance in their health and nutrition. When inoculation strategies for such foreign bacteria are considered, it is obvious that we should have more detailed information of the gut microbial ecology.