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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Cock Spermatozoa Serve as the Gene Vector for Generation of ransgenic Chicken (Gallus gallus)
Yang, C.C. ; Chang, H.S. ; Lin, C.J. ; Hsu, C.C. ; Cheung, J.I. ; Hwu, L. ; Cheng, W.T.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 885~891
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.885
To evaluate the feasibility of using sperm-mediated gene transfer (SMGT) for carrying foreign gene into chicken oocyte, a reporter gene, CX-EGFP, was used in this study. The reporter gene was first mixed with liposome or liposome-like compound and the mixtures were further combined with ejaculated cock spermatozoa. The spermatozoa treated with liposome and CX-EGFP mixture was subsequently coincubated with DNaseI to remove the extra DNA which insured the authenticity of positive signals. The treated sperms were then subjected to transgene (reporter gene) existence analysis and artificial insemination of laying hens. Obtained results indicated that the spermatozoa were able to take-in the foreign DNA; which was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction and Southern blot analysis. In the following experiment, fresh ejaculated sperms were mixed with CX-EGFP-liposome or CX-EGFP-liposome-like complex then used for artificial insemination of each of six laying hens. Eggs laid between day-3 and day-7 post insemination were collected. Newly hatched chicks, two out of 53 from CX-EGFP/liposome treated group and two out of 21 from CXEGFP/liposome-like treated group, were proven to be transgenic. This study suggests that SMGT is a powerful method for generating transgenic chickens.
A Comparison of Two Kinds of Markers Applied in Analysis of Genetic Diversity in Sheep and Goat Populations
Yang, Z.P. ; Chang, H. ; Sun, W. ; Gen, R.Q. ; Mao, Y.J. ; Tsunoda, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 892~896
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.892
A genetic examination using 14 structural loci and 7 microsatellite markers was carried out among random samples of Hu sheep (Hu), Tong sheep (Tong) and Yantse River Delta White goat (YRD); The mean heterozygosity (H), mean polymorphism information contents (PIC) and mean effective numbers of alleles (Ne) calculated based on the data from the above two types of genetic markers were compared. The standard genetic distances among the three populations based on two types of gene frequencies were calculated and compared. The results show that the mean heterozygosity (H), mean polymorphism information contents (PIC) and mean effective numbers of alleles (Ne) based on 7 microsatellite markers are greater than those based on the structural loci. The standard genetic distances based on structural loci among the three populations are: 0.0268-0.2487, the standard genetic distances based on microsatellite markers are: 0.2321-1.2313. The study indicates that structural and microsatellite markers reflect the genetic variation of the three populations consistently: Tong>Hu>YRD. The differentiation between related species or interpopulations can be expressed more effectively by microsatellite markers than structural markers. Oar FCB11, MAF33, Oar AE101, Oar FCB128 and OarFCB304 can be used as representative loci for research on genetic differentiation between sheep and goat.
Full Length cDNA, Genomic Organizations and Expression Profiles of the Porcine Proteasomal ATPases PSMC5 Gene
Wang, Y.F. ; Yu, M. ; Liu, B. ; Fan, B. ; Wang, H. ; Zhu, M.J. ; Li, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 897~902
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.897
PSMC5 subunit, which belongs to the 26S proteasomal subunit family, plays an important role in the antigen presentation mediated by MHC class I molecular. Full-length cDNA of porcine PSMC5 was isolated using the in silico cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). Amino acid was deduced and the primary structure was analyzed. Results revealed that the porcine PSMC5 gene shares the high degree of sequence similarity with its mammalian counterparts at both the nucleotide level and the amino acid level. The RT-PCR was performed to detect the porcine PSMC5 expression pattern in seven tissues and the result showed that high express level was observed in spleen, lung, marrow and liver while the low express level was in muscle. The full-length genomic DNA sequence of porcine PSMC5 gene was amplified by PCR and the genomic structure revealed that this gene was comprised by 12 exons and 11 introns. Best alignment of the cDNA and genomic exon DNA sequence presents 4 mismatches and this information potentially bears further study in gene polymorphisms.
Genetic Variability of mtDNA Sequences in Chinese Native Chicken Breeds
Liu, Z.G. ; Lei, C.Z. ; Luo, J. ; Ding, C. ; Chen, G.H. ; Chang, H. ; Wang, K.H. ; Liu, X.X. ; Zhang, X.Y. ; Xiao, X.J. ; Wu, S.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 903~909
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.903
The variability of mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS I) sequences was investigated in a total of 48 birds belonging to 12 Chinese native chicken breeds. Sixteen haplotypes were identified from 35 polymorphic nucleotide sites which accounted for 6.4% of a sequenced 544 bp fragment. Diversity analysis of the haplotypes showed that Tibetan, Langshan and Henan cockfight chicken had only one haplotype, while ancient haplotypes existed in Taihe silky and Chahua chicken. Phylogenetic analysis of the haplotypes suggested that Chinese native chicken breeds shared 5 maternal lineages and some breeds would share the same maternal lineage, regardless of their external features and ecological types. Both divergent and phylogenetic analysis of the haplotypes indicated the close genetic relationships between the Chinese native chicken breeds and G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus from different areas, which implied that G. g. gallus and G. g. spadiceus were the original ancestors of the Chinese native chicken breeds.
Nucleotide Sequencing and PCR-RFLP of Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 Gene in Riverine Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis)
Padma, B. ; Kumar, Pushpendra ; Choudhary, V. ; Dhara, S.K. ; Mishra, A. ; Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Bhushan, B. ; Sharma, Arjava ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 910~913
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.910
Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) gene is a structural gene associated with the growth and development of the animals. The present investigation was carried out to unravel nucleotide sequence and polymerase chain reactionrestriction fragment polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of IGFBP-3 gene in buffalo. Genomic DNA was isolated from a total of 157 animals belonging to Murrah, Surti, Jaffarabadi and Nagpuri breeds of Indian riverine buffalo. A 655 bp of IGFBP-3 gene was amplified in all the breeds and amplicons were digested with Hae III, Taq I and Msp I restriction enzymes. On digestion with Hae III yielded single restriction pattern of 8 fragments of sizes 201, 165, 154, 56, 36, 19, 16 and 8 bp in all the animals studied. Similarly Taq I and Msp I also revealed single restriction pattern yielding fragments of sizes 240 and 415 bp and 145 and 510 bp, respectively. This shows nonpolymorphic nature of restriction sites in buffalo. Nucleotide sequencing of 587 bp of IGFBP-3 gene in Murrah buffalo was done and submitted to the GenBank (Accession No. AY304829). Nucleotide sequencing revealed an addition of 4 bases in the intronic region as compared to cattle.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Body Weight in Chinese Simmental Cattle Using Random Regression Model
Yang, R.Q. ; Ren, H.Y. ; Xu, S.Z. ; Pan, Y.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 914~918
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.914
The random regression model methodology was applied into the estimation of genetic parameters for body weights in Chinese Simmental cattle to replace the traditional multiple trait models. The variance components were estimated using Gibbs sampling procedure on Bayesion theory. The data were extracted for Chinese Simmental cattle born during 1980 to 2000 from 6 national breeding farms, where records from 3 months to 36 months were only used in this study. A 3 orders Legendre polynomial was defined as the submodel to describe the general law of that body weight changing with months of age in population. The heritabilities of body weights from 3 months to 36 months varied between 0.31 and 0.48, where the heritabilities from 3 months to 12 months slightly decreased with months of age but ones from 13 months to 36 months increased with months of age. Specially, the heritabilities at eighteenth and twenty-fourth month of age were 0.33 and 0.36, respectively, which were slightly greater than 0.30 and 0.31 from multiple trait models. In addition, the genetic and phenotypic correlations between body weights at different month ages were also obtained using regression model.
Ultrasonographic Measurements in Comparison with the Rectal Palpation and Echotexture of Reproductive Organs of Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) during Different Stages of the Estrous Cycle
Honparkhe, M. ; Gandotra, V.K. ; Nanda, A.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 919~923
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.919
Ultrasonographic study was undertaken to establish the echogenecity and size of reproductive organs of 18 cycling buffaloes of different parities and compared with the sizes measured by palpation per rectum at estrus (day 0), met estrus (day 2), mid diestrus (day 10) and late diestrus (day 16). The overall mean size of cervix, uterine body, right horn, left horn, right ovary and left ovary measured by palpation per rectum were 2.70
0.41 and 2.72
0.37 cm, respectively. The corresponding ultrasonographic observations were 2.10
0.36 and 2.29
0.38 cm respectively. Variations in the size of genitalia due to stages of estrous cycle were non-significant. The size of genitalia measured by palpation per rectum was significantly higher (p<0.05) than by ultrasonography. However, there was linear positive correlation (r=+0.87) in the measurements by the two techniques. The ultrasonographic characteristics of tubular genitalia revealed different echogenic gray shades around the nonechogenic (black) central area of lumen depending upon the stage of cycle. The ovarian stroma appeared as hyperechoic (white) area with nonechogenic (black) follicle. The corpus luteum (CL) exhibited different echogenic texture viz. grayish black, grayish granular and grayish white at met estrus, mid diestrus and late diestrus, respectively. Therefore, ltrasonography can be effectively employed to record the exact size and echotexture of the buffalo genitalia during different stages of estrous cycle.
High Ejaculation Frequency Enhances Semen Production in Taiwan Country Chickens
Fan, Y.K. ; Ju, J.C. ; Lee, S.L. ; Chen, C.F. ; Peh, H.C. ; Hsu, J.C. ; Lee, Y.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 924~929
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.924
The objective of this study were to investigate the effect of ejaculation frequency on semen characteristics and to establish a method for quick assessment of sperm concentration in TCC using packed cell volume (PCV) as the parameter (Trial 1). Eighty senior roosters, averaging 61 wk-old, were used and the sperm concentrations were determined using a hemacytometer. The PCV value was measured in a capillary (0.75 mm in inner diameter) by centrifugation. A simple linear regression analysis suggested that the sperm concentrations were significantly correlated with PCV values (r=0.62, p<0.001). Trial 2 was conducted to determine the optimal ejaculation frequency of TCC roosters in a weekly semen collection program. The male birds were subjected to 1, 2, 3 or 6 ejaculations per week for four consecutive weeks and semen characteristics including ejaculation volume (EV, mL), sperm motility (%), PCV (%), sperm concentration (ESC,
/mL), weekly sperm production (WSP,
/wk) and average motile sperm numbers (AMSN,
/ejac) were determined. Average EV was greater in the group with 3 ejac/wk than with only 1 ejac/wk in weeks 1 and 3 of the collection period. WSP increased with ejaculation frequency during the first 3 weeks of collection (p<0.05). Sperm motility was better in the birds with 6 ejac/wk than in single ejaculation group for the first 2 wk and no significant differences were found for the last 2 wk of study. In contrast, the PCV value showed a trend of reduction for the first 2 wks in the 6 ejac/wk group. Surprisingly, no significant differences were detected in the AMSN among treatment groups. The weekly motile sperm production (WMSP) increased with ejaculation frequency. Based on our observation, PCV values could be used for a quick estimation of sperm concentration and an intensive semen collection program enhanced weekly sperm production in TCC roosters.
Effect of Certain Immunomodulators on Uterine Infections and Fertility in Post Partum Buffaloes
Kumar, Puneet ; Srivastava, S.K. ; Rawat, Mayank ; Yadav, M.C. ; Kumar, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 930~935
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.930
The present study was aimed to study the effect of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia and autologous plasma on uterine infections. Buffaloes in estrus, 40 days and above postpartum were checked for uterine infections. Animals having uterine infections were randomly divided into three groups of six animals each. Buffaloes in group I, II and III (control) were given intrauterine infusion of aqueous extract of Tinospora cordifolia (3,000 mg total dose), autologous plasma (150 ml) and phosphate buffer saline (150 ml) respectively, in three divided doses, once daily for three consecutive days, starting from the day of estrus. A fourth group (IV) comprising of six buffaloes having no uterine infection was also included in the present study. Buffaloes were inseminated artificially on next estrus following treatment and confirmed for pregnancy 60 days later. Bacterial population in CVM of buffaloes in group I, II and III was significantly (p<0.05) higher than group IV. After treatment there was a significant (p<0.01) reduction in bacterial population in group I (83.496
7.755%) and group II 80.233
5.799%) than group in III 7.557
33.551%) at next estrus. There was non-significant improvement in first service conception rate (CR, 33.33%) and overall conception rate (OCR, 27.27%) in group I, in comparison to group III (first service CR-16.67%; OCR-20.0%). No significant improvement was seen in OCR (22.22%) in-group II also in comparison to group III. The improvement in group I was however, nonsignificantly lower than normal animals of group IV (First service CR-16.67%; OCR-36.33%).
Effects of Ensiled Cassava Tops on Rumen Environment Parameters, Thyroid Gland Hormones and Liver Enzymes of Cows Fed Urea-treated Fresh Rice Straw
Khang, Duong Nguyen ; Wiktorsson, Hans ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 936~941
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.936
Four rumen-cannulated cows (330 kg average weight at 4 years) were used to evaluate the supplement of ensiled cassava tops (ECT) (variety KM 94, 39% DM) on rumen functions, thyroid hormones and liver enzymes. The treatments, arranged in a 4
4 Latin square design, were ECT at 0, 50, 100 and 150 g CP 100 kg
body weight (BW), and a basal diet of urea-treated fresh rice straw (UFRS) ad libitum and 1.1 kg dry matter (DM) cassava root meal (CRM) in each 30 day study period. The results showed a continuous decrease in dry matter intake (DMI) of UFRS with increasing level of ECT supplement (p<0.001). The highest total DMI was observed for treatment ECT
(2.68 kg DM 100 kg
) followed by treatments ECT
, with 2.47, 2.24 and 2.06 kg DM 100 kg
, respectively. Increasing levels of ECT supplement increased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids (p<0.05) and ammonia nitrogen (p<0.05) and resulted in a decrease in pH (p<0.05). Overall average plasma triiodothyronine and thyroxine concentrations were 0.80, 0.82, 0.85 and 0.69 ng ml
(p>0.05), and 50.9, 49.5, 50.7 and 42.4 ng ml-1 (p>0.05) for treatments ECT
, respectively. There were non-significant differences in alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase among treatments. It is concluded that ECT is a valuable protein-rich feed supplement to cattle, and the highest level of on average 2.48 kg DM ECT per cow and day (28% of total DMI) did not significantly affect thyroid gland hormones and liver enzymes in cows.
Evaluation of Fermentation Quality of a Tropical and Temperate Forage Crops Ensiled with Additives of Fermented Juice of Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria (FJLB)
Yahaya, M.S. ; Goto, M. ; Yimiti, W. ; Smerjai, B. ; Kawamoto, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 942~946
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.942
This study aimed to examine the fermentation quality of a tropical Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpuereum) and temperate Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) forages ensiled additive of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and to determine what factor affects the fermentation characteristics of the crops. In both species cell walls neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) contents in silages were consistently decreased (p<0.05) with the addition of FJLB at ensiling more then Control treatment. The FJLB additive increased number of LAB (cfu) and lactate concentration in the silages in both species. The Control treatment without additive underwent a clostridial type of fermentation with traces of propionic, iso-butyric, n-butyric acids contents with higher (p<0.01) levels of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN %TN) and had appreciable decreased of nutrient in silages. FJLB treatment improved silage nutritive value with little contents of VBN %TN, ethanol and very small amount of dry matter (DM) and hemicellulose losses (p<0.05) between 2 to 5% and 7 to 3% respectively, in Elephant grass and Italian ryegrass species. The results in this study indicates that while among the factors affecting silage fermentation butyric type of fermentation was more pronounced in tropical elephant grass compared to the temperate Italian ryegrass, FJLB additive revealed a better silage fermentation products in both species.
Effects of Feeding High and Low Energy Levels during Late Pregnancy on Performance of Crossbred Dairy Cows and Their Calves
Khan, M.A.A. ; Islam, M.N. ; Khan, M.A.S. ; Akbar, M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 947~953
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.947
The present research was designed to evaluate the effects of pre and post-partum energy level and feeding pattern on the performance of crossbred dairy cows and their calves under farm conditions. A total of 16 crossbred dairy cows were divided into two equal groups on the basis of their body weight and milk production. One group was given 30% less and the another was given 30% more energy than MAFF's (1984) recommendation. After calving all cows were given same ad.libitum diet to assess the effects of feeding during pregnancy on their performance. It was observed that just before calving cows on low energy group gained less (p<0.05) weight than that of the cows on high energy group (12.9
11.71 vs. 42.25
12.74 kg/cow. Birth weight of calves of low energy group was lower (p<0.05) than that of the calves of high energy group (17.87
1.78 vs. 20.73
2.24 kg/calf). Cows that were on low pre-calving dietary energy level produced less milk during lactation than the cows of high energy pre-calving group (3.45
0.75 vs. 4.27
0.79 lit./cow). No significant difference was noticed on calf growth rate and reproductive parameters of cow. Energy level that was 30 % less than MAFF's (1984) recommendation was found to be very low and not suitable for our crossbred cows during their last three months of pregnancy.
Plasma Leptin and Performance of Purebred and Backcrossed Hereford throughout Grazing and Feedlot Fattening
Vega, R.A. ; Hidari, H. ; Matsunaga, N. ; Kuwayama, H. ; Manalo, D.D. ; Lee, H.G. ; Hata, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 954~959
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.954
In a herd of 24 spring-born steers, plasma leptin and performance of selected purebred (n=5) and backcrossed Hereford (n=5) were compared in a year-round summer grazing and winter feedlot fattening. Bimonthly blood collection and body weight measurement were accomplished. The plasma samples were analyzed for leptin, insulin, total cholesterol, triglyceride, NEFA and glucose. The experimental design utilized one-way ANOVA with breed as the treatment. The purebred obtained higher plasma NEFA (p<0.001) compared to backcross, regardless of seasonal feeding systems (SFS). The backcross showed gradual increase and nonresponsiveness of plasma leptin to SFS. During summer grazing, attenuation of plasma leptin and sudden elevation when shifted to winter feedlot fattening were observed in purebred. Plasma leptin obtained linear relationship with body weight of purebred (r=0.53;p<0.001) and backcrossed Hereford (r=0.49; p<0.01). The purebred and backcrossed Hereford, when shifted to summer grazing, resulted to sustained and restricted daily gain, respectively. Therefore, cattle breeds of higher growth potential exhibit significant elevation of plasma leptin after 400 kg BW, when animal starts to deposit significant body fat.
Ensiled Green Tea Waste as Partial Replacement for Soybean Meal and Alfalfa Hay in Lactating Cows
Kondo, Makoto ; Nakano, Masashi ; Kaneko, Akemi ; Agata, Hirobumi ; Kita, Kazumi ; Yokota, Hiroomi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 960~966
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.960
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of protein supplementation of green tea waste (GTW) on the performance of lactating cows. Another aim was to increase resource utilization and to eliminate any environmental negative impact from the tea waste. GTW from a beverage company was ensiled at a low pH (<4.0) and high acetic acid and lactic acid concentration, and it contained high crude protein (CP, 34.8%), total extractable tannins (TET, 9.2%) and condensed tannin (CT, 1.7%). Two experiments were conducted to investigate the palatability and performance in lactating cows fed GTW. In the palatability trial, three lactating cows were allocated to three dietary treatments in a 3
3 Latin square design. The animals were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) including GTW at rates of 0, 2.5 and 5.0% on a dry matter (DM) basis. Total DM intake was not different among the treatments. In the performance trial, four lactating cows were used in a 2
2 Latin square design with a 3 week sampling period. GTW was incorporated into TMR at a rate of 5.0% on a DM and 10.0% on a CP basis. Thus GTW replaced alfalfa hay and soybean meal at a level of 25.0% on a DM. DM and CP intake were not affected by the inclusion of GTW, whereas TET and CT intake were significantly increased (p<0.001). Milk production, milk composition and the efficiency of milk production were not altered by the GTW inclusion. Although ruminal pH and VFA, and blood urea nitrogen were not changed, ruminal
and plasma total cholesterol were relatively low in the GTW group, but not significantly different. The excretion of urinary purine derivatives and estimated MN supply were also not significantly affected by GTW treatment. It is therefore concluded that GTW can be used as a protein source without any detrimental effects on the performance of lactating cows.
Effects of Replacing Nonfiber Carbohydrates with Nonforage Detergent Fiber from Cassava Residues on Performance of Dairy Cows in the Tropics
Kanjanapruthipong, J. ; Buatong, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 967~972
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.967
Indigenous cows with ruminal canulas were used in a 4
4 Latin square design with 28 d periods to determine the effect of replacing nonforage fiber source (NFFS) from cassava residues for non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) on ruminal fermentation characteristics and milk production. Dietary treatments contained 17% forage neutral detergent fiber (FNDF) from corn silage and 0, 3, 6 and 9% nonforage NDF from cassava residues and 11% nonforage NDF from other NFFS, so that levels of nonforage NDF were 11, 14, 17 and 20% dry matter (DM). Intakes of DM and net energy for lactation, average daily gain and milk fat percentage were not different (p>0.05). Ruminal pH, ammonia concentrations, acetate to propionate ratios, 24 h in sacco fiber digestibility significantly increased with increasing contents of nonforage NDF from cassava residues. Concentrations of VFA, urinary excretion of purine derivatives, milk protein percentage, production of milk and 4% FCM significantly decreased. These results suggest that NFC in diets is one of the limiting factors affecting productivity of dairy cows in the tropics and thus NFFS is better used as partial replacements for FNDF.
Effects of Uphill Exercise on Digestible Energy Intake and Energy Expenditure during Exercise in Yearling Horses
Matsui, A. ; Katsuki, R. ; Fujikawa, H. ; Kai, M. ; Kubo, K. ; Hiraga, A. ; Asai, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 973~979
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.973
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the digestible energy intake and energy expenditure in yearling horses on different training protocols (uphill- and level-track exercise training protocols). Twenty-four thoroughbred yearlings (12 males and 12 females, aged 27.0
0.9 months) were divided into two groups based on their training on two different tracks: the uphill (with a gradient of about 3%) training group (uphill training) and the level training group (level training). The digestible energy (DE) intake and energy expenditure (EE) during exercise were measured in both the groups. It was found that the DE intake in the uphill training and the level training groups was 5.1
3.1 and 36.9
4.8 Mcal/day, respectively. The EE during exercise in the two groups was 3.05
0.51 and 2.07
0.56 Mcal, respectively. Thus, there was a significant difference in the EE (p<0.05), but not in the DE intake between the animals of the two training groups. The EE for a given intensity of exercise was greater in the uphill training group than in the level training group, but the DE intake was not affected by the exercise intensity. The DE intake was not generally affected by the intensity of exercise in this study, but a daily negative gain of body weight was observed in the uphill training group, particularly in the females. Thus, the energy requirement may be higher in yearlings undergoing uphill training than in those undergoing level training.
Effects of Replacement of Soybean Meal by Cottonseed Meal on Laying Performance and Haemoglobin Levels in Practical Diets for Breeder Japanese Quail, Coturnix coturnix japonica
Erturk, M. Mustafa ; Ozen , Nihat ; Celik, Kemal ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 980~983
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.980
A 16 week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of replacement of soybean meal (SM) by extracted cottonseed meal (CSM) on laying performance and haemoglobin levels in practical diets for breeder Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica). One hundred ninety two quails (6 weeks old) were divided randomly into eight groups. The diets were isocaloric containing 2,900 kcal/kg of ME and isonitrogenous (% 20 crude protein) as fed basis. SM was replaced by 0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0 and 17.5% of CSM, respectively. Average egg production (quail day, %; quail house, %), egg weight (g), daily feed intake (g/bird), feed efficiency ratio (g feed/g egg) data indicated no significant differences among the treatments; while, blood haemoglobin levels (% g Hb) of 7th (15.0% CSM) and 8th (17.5% CSM) group were lower than the control (0% CSM) diet (p<0.05). This experiment indicated that 17.5% CSM could replace SM (providing 44% of SM protein) in practical diets of breeder Japanese quails without any significant impairment on laying performance.
Effects of Age and Lines on Blood Parameters in Laying Tsaiya Ducks
Lee, S.R. ; Shen, T.F. ; Jiang, Y.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 984~989
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.984
Three hundred and twelve female Tsaiya ducks from four lines (L1051, L1052, L1053 and L1054) were used in this study to investigate the changes in plasma calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels, blood pH, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO
), bicarbonate ion concentration (
), and base excess (BE) during laying periods. The results indicated that plasma calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentration at 40 and 50 wks of age were higher (p<0.05) than those at other ages. Significant positive correlation coefficients were found between plasma calcium and inorganic phosphorus levels at each age tested from 20 to 50 wks. Ducks from L1053 showed lower (p<0.05) blood pH, BE and
as compared with other lines. Ducks from L1054 had higher (p<0.05) blood pH, BE and
than those of other lines showing that there were some differences on blood parameters among lines. Eggshell strength decreased with age up to 65 wks and remained constant thereafter. Egg weight increased gradually from 30 to 60 wks and decreased slightly after 70 wks of age. Plasma inorganic phosphorus level in 40 and 50 wks old birds was positively correlated with eggshell strength, while blood
in 40 and 50 wks old birds was negatively correlated with eggshell strength.
Effects of Addition of a Mycotoxin Detoxifier in Poultry Feed Containing Different Levels of Aflatoxins on the Performance of Broilers
Afzal, M. ; Zahid, Saleem ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 990~994
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.990
Effects of addition of a mycotoxin detoxifier in poultry feed were studied in broilers. Aflatoxins were present in the poultry feed as 28 ppb (normal feed), 78 ppb (contaminated feed) and 170 ppb (highly contaminated feed). The mycotoxin detoxifier was used in 3 concentrations i.e. 1, 3 and 5 kg/ton of feed. Aflatoxins reduced the body weight in broiler chicken and treatment of contaminated feed with low level of detoxifier improved the body weight equivalent to that of normal feed. Higher level of detoxifier proved better than lower level addition in alleviating the effects of highly contaminated feed. Addition of detoxifier also resulted in improvement of FCR to the level of normal feed. Antibody levels against Newcastle disease virus on day 28 of age were significantly lower in chicken fed on contaminated feed. Addition of detoxifier in feed improved the antibody levels in chicken. Mortality was highest in groups given contaminated feed throughout the study period of 7 weeks. Significant mortality was also observed in groups given highly contaminated feed for 2 weeks. Mortality in chicken given detoxifier added contaminated feed was lowest and similar to the group given normal feed. The study shows that mycotoxin detoxifier containing oxyquinol, dichloro-thymol and micronized yeast can effectively neutralize the ill-effects of aflatoxins in poultry feed.
Nutritional Value of a Heterotrichous Ciliate, Fabrea salina with Emphasis on Its Fatty Acid Profile
Pandey, B.D. ; Yeragi, S.G. ; Pal, A.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 995~999
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.995
Fabrea salina is a hypersaline ciliate having importance as a live food source for juvenile stages of aquatic animals including smaller invertebrates. The analysis of this ciliate for proximate and biochemical composition was carried out. The moisture, protein, fat, carbohydrate and ash content of F. salina from natural sources were 86.66
0.073% and 4
0.182%, respectively. Gas chromatographic analysis (percent area below the curve) revealed that the presence of oleic acid was higher over other fatty acids in both natural and cultured F. salina. The absolute content of oleic acid was higher in natural (18.91% area) than in the cultured (10.74% area) F. salina. Linoleic and linolenic acids were also among major fatty acids with the percentage area of 16.29 and 14.58, respectively. The number of fatty acids in cultured Fabrea was less as compared to the natural ones and the oleic acid was followed by palmitic acid, palmitoleic acid, linoleic acid and stearic acid.
The Effect of Dietary Selenium Source and Vitamin E Levels on Performance of Male Broilers
Choct, M. ; Naylor, A.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1000~1006
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1000
Selenium and vitamin E are micronutrients essential for normal health and maintenance in poultry. They are necessary in preventing free radical damage to phospholipid membranes, enzymes and other important molecules. Two experiments were conducted in a semi-commercial environment to examine the effect of Se source and vitamin E level in diet on broiler performance and meat quality. Increasing vitamin E from 50 IU to 100 IU did not affect growth performance of broilers although the 24 h drip-loss was tended to be reduced (p=0.06). There was an interaction between vitamin E and the source of Se in glutathione peroxidase activity (GSH-Px) and Se concentration in excreta. Increasing vitamin E from 50 IU to 100 IU elevated GSH-Px and Se concentration in excreta by 42 IU/g Hb and 0.9 ppm for the organic Se group, respectively, but reduced GSH-Px and Se concentration in excreta by 16 IU/g Hb and 1.3 ppm for inorganic group, respectively. Vitamin E played no role in the feather coverage of the birds when scored on day 37. Organic Se is more effective in improving feather score and 24 h drip-loss, with a markedly higher deposition rate in breast muscle and a lower excretion rate in the excreta (p<0.05) compared to the inorganic Se source. Both vitamin E and the source of Se did not affect (p>0.05) the energy utilisation by birds.
Effect of Dietary Cadmium Levels on Nutrient Digestibility and Retention of Iron, Copper and Zinc in Tissues of Growing Pigs
Han, X.Y. ; Xu, Z.R. ; Wang, Y.Z. ; Tao , X. ; Li, W.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1007~1013
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1007
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of cadmium levels on weight gain, nutrient digestibility and the retention of iron, copper and zinc in tissues of growing pigs. A total of one hundred and ninety-two crossbred pigs (barrows, Duroc
1.33 kg of average initial body weight) were randomly allotted to four treatments. Each treatment had three replicates with 16 pigs per pen. The corn-soybean basal diets were supplemented with 0, 0.5, 5.0, 10.0 mg/kg cadmium respectively, and the feeding experiment lasted for eight-three days. Cadmium chloride was used as cadmium source. The results showed that pigs fed the diet containing 10.0 mg/kg cadmium had lower ADG and FCR than any other treatments (p<0.05). Apparent digestibility of protein in 10.0 mg/kg cadmium-treated group was lower than that of other groups (p<0.05). There was lower iron retention in some tissues of 5.0 mg/kg and 10.0 mg/kg cadmium treatments (p<0.05). However, pigs fed the diet 10.0 mg/kg cadmium had higher copper content in most tissues than that of any other groups (p<0.05). There was a significantly increase of zinc retention in kidney of 10.0 mg/kg cadmium additional group (p<0.05) and zinc concentrations in lymphaden, pancreas and heart of 10.0 mg/kg cadmium treatment were lower than those of the control (p<0.05). This study indicated that relatively high cadmium level (10.0 mg/kg) could decrease pig growth performance and change the retention of iron, copper and zinc in most tissues during extended cadmium exposure period.
Relationships between Muscle α-Tocopherol Concentrations and Metmyoglobin Percentages during Display of Six Muscles of Japanese Black Steers
Muramoto, T. ; Shibata, M. ; Nakanishi, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1014~1018
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1014
Relationships between muscle
-tocopherol oncentrations and metmyoglobin percentages during display of six muscles, m. serratus ventralis (SV), m. psoas major (PM), m. gluteus medius (GM), m. semimembranosus (SM), m. semitendinosus (ST) and m. longissimus lumborum (LL), of Japanese Black steers slaughtered at 28 months of age were studied. Steers were supplemented with 0, 2,000 and 4,000 mg
-tocopheryl acetate/head/day for 28 days prior to slaughter in the VE 0, the VE 2,000 and the VE 4,000 groups, respectively.
-Tocopherol concentrations in PM, GM, SM, ST and LL of the VE 2,000 and the VE 4,000 groups were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the VE 0 group. There were no significant (p>0.05) differences in
-tocopherol concentrations in all muscles between the VE 2,000 group and the VE 4,000 group. The muscle
-tocopherol concentrations (
/g meat) which can retard metmyoglobin formation in muscles were estimated to be 5.3 for SV, 4.5 for PM, 4.2 for GM, 4.0 for SM, 3.6 for ST and 3.5 for LL. The equation to predict color-shelf-life of each muscle from the
-tocopherol concentration in each muscle could be obtained.
Effect of Different Levels of Vegetable Oil for the Manufacture of Dahi from Skim Milk
Munzur, M.M. ; Islam, M.N. ; Akhter, S. ; Islam, M.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1019~1025
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1019
The experiment was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using vegetable oil and non-fat dry milk (powdered milk) with skim milk for the preparation of dahi. In this experiment, six different types of dahi were prepared from whole milk, skim milk and admixture of non-fat dry milk with different levels of vegetable oil. The prepared dahi samples were subjected to physical, chemical and microbiological analysis to evaluate their quality. It was observed that the addition of non-fat dry milk and vegetable oil with skim milk improve the physical qualities (smell and taste, body and consistency, color and texture) of prepared dahi samples. Addition of non-fat dry milk and vegetable oil also improve the total solids, fat and protein content of dahi samples. It is concluded that the addition of vegetable oil at a rate of 4 to 6% together with 5% non-fat dry milk gave the best result.
Achieving a Nitrogen Balance for Japanese Domestic Livestock Waste: Testing the Scenario of Planting Feed Grain in Land Left Fallow
Kaku, K. ; Ikeguchi, A. ; Ogino, A. ; Osada, T. ; Hojito, M. ; Shimada, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 7, 2004, Pages 1026~1032
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1026
In this study, we assess the recent changes in the amount of excretion by the livestock industry, and discuss the effects of increasing the ratio of cultivated land on the reduction of surplus nitrogen from a cost-performance perspective. Nitrogen has contributed to acidification of ecosystems and nitrate concentrations in groundwater, especially in Europe. Therefore, we assessed the level of nitrogen waste from the domestic Japanese livestock industry, including cattle, swine and poultry during the period 1987-2001. This assessment assumed that 40% of the nitrogen from the domestic livestock industry was emitted as gas into the air and that 60% of the nitrogen was contained in manure used on domestic cultivated land. Nitrogen excreted from livestock, excluding gas emission, decreased by 11% from 0.504 million tons to 0.447 million tons during 1993-2001. Thus, the peak period of nitrogen excretion from livestock is already past in Japan. However, the area of cultivated land under management also decreased during 1990-2000. In addition, the area of paddy and upland fields left unplanted for a year increased during 1990-2000. Therefore, if all manure from the domestic livestock industry had been utilized on the fields as organic fertilizer, but not on arable land left uncultivated for the past year, the nitrogen per net area of cultivated land would have increased by 5%, from 125 to 131 N kg/ha, during 1990-2000. To reduce the nitrogen ratio on cultivated land through the planting of feed grain to utilize the nitrogen, a comparison of the cost performance of feed grains indicated that barley would be more suitable than wheat, rice or soybean. Had barley been planted in 100% of the land left fallow for the past year in 2000, 4% (20,000 tons) of the nitrogen from livestock waste would have been used in the harvest, and the nitrogen per land unit would have not increased but decreased from 125 to 121 N kg/ha during the same decade. Furthermore, when converted into Total Digestible Nutrients, 7% of imported feed corn could have been replaced with the harvested barley in 2000. Planting barley on this fallow land had three benefits; reducing the risk of manure overload on the land, slowing down the decrease in cultivated land, and raising the feed self-sufficiency ratio. Thus, it would be beneficial to plant feed grain such as barley in land left fallow for the past year through utilization of manure.