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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 17, Issue 12 - Dec 2004
Volume 17, Issue 11 - Nov 2004
Volume 17, Issue 10 - Oct 2004
Volume 17, Issue 9 - Sep 2004
Volume 17, Issue 8 - Aug 2004
Volume 17, Issue 7 - Jul 2004
Volume 17, Issue 6 - Jun 2004
Volume 17, Issue 5 - May 2004
Volume 17, Issue 4 - Apr 2004
Volume 17, Issue 3 - Mar 2004
Volume 17, Issue 2 - Feb 2004
Volume 17, Issue 1 - Jan 2004
Selecting the target year
Bootstrap Analysis and Major DNA Markers of BM4311 Microsatellite Locus in Hanwoo Chromosome 6
Yeo, Jung-Sou ; Kim, Jae-Woo ; Shin, Hyo-Sub ; Lee, Jea-Young ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1033~1038
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1033
LOD scores related to marbling scores and permutation test have been applied for the purpose detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) and we selected a considerable major locus BM4311. K-means clustering, for the major DNA marker mining of BM4311 microsatellite loci in Hanwoo chromosome 6, has been tried and five traits are divided by three cluster groups. Then, the three cluster groups are classified according to six DNA markers. Finally, bootstrap test method to calculate confidence intervals, using resampling method, has been adapted in order to find major DNA markers. It could be concluded that the major markers of BM4311 locus in Hanwoo chromosome 6 were DNA marker 100 and 95 bp.
Indigenous Thai Beef Cattle Breeding Scheme Incorporating Indirect Measures of Adaptation: Sensitivity to Changes in Heritabilities of and Genetic Correlations between Adaptation Traits
Kahi, A.K. ; Graser, H.U. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1039~1046
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1039
A model Indigenous Thai beef cattle breeding structure consisting of nucleus, multiplier and commercial units was used to evaluate the effect of changes in heritabilities of and genetic correlations between adaptation traits on genetic gain and profitability. A breeding objective that incorporated adaptation was considered. Two scenarios for improving both the production and the adaptation of animals where also compared in terms of their genetic and economic efficiency. A base scenario was modelled where selection is for production traits and adaptation is assumed to be under the forces of natural selection. The second scenario (+Adaptation) included all the information available for base scenario with the addition of indirect measures of adaptation. These measures included tick count (TICK), faecal egg count (FEC) and rectal temperature (RECT). Therefore, the main difference between these scenarios was seen in the records available for use as selection criteria and hence the level of investments. Additional genetic gain and profitability was generated through incorporating indirect measures of adaptation as criteria measured in the breeding program. Unsurprisingly, the results were sensitive to the changes in heritabilities and genetic correlations between adaptation traits. However, there were more changes in the genetic gain and profitability of the breeding program when the genetic correlations of adaptation and its indirect measures were varied than when the correlations between these measures were. The changes in the magnitudes of the genetic gain and profit per cow stresses the importance of using reliable estimates of these traits in any breeding program.
Cluster Analysis of 12 Chinese Native Chicken Populations Using Microsatellite Markers
Chen, G.H. ; Wu, X.S. ; Wang, D.Q. ; Qin, J. ; Wu, S.L. ; Zhou, Q.L. ; Xie, F. ; Cheng, R. ; Xu, Q. ; Liu, B. ; Zhang, X.Y. ; Olowofeso, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1047~1052
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1047
The genomes of Chinese native chicken populations were screened using microsatellites as molecular markers. A total of, 528 individuals comprisede12 Chinese native chicken populations were typed for 7 microsatellite markers covering 5 linkage groups and genetic variations and genetic distances were also determined. In the 7 microsatellite loci, the number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 per locus and the mean number of alleles was 4.6 per locus. By using fuzzy cluster, 12 Chinese native chicken populations were divided into three clusters. The first cluster comprised Taihe Silkies, Henan Game Chicken, Langshan Chicken, Dagu Chicken, Xiaoshan Chicken, Beijing Fatty Chicken and Luyuan Chicken. The second cluster included Chahua Chicken, Tibetan Chicken, Xianju Chicken and Baier Chicken. Gushi Chicken formed a separate cluster and demonstrated a long distance when comparing with other chicken populations.
Genetic Differences within and between Populations of Korean Catfish (S. asotus) and Bullhead (P. fulvidraco) Analysed by RAPD-PCR
Yoon, Jong-Man ; Kim, Jong-Yeon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1053~1061
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1053
Of the 20 arbitrarily chosen primers, six oligonucleotides decamer primers were used on the basis of the number of the polymorphisms generated in catfish (Silurus asotus) from Yesan and bullhead (Pseudobagrus fulvidraco) from Dangjin in Korea. Six primers were used generating a total of 602 scorable bands in catfish and 195 in bullhead population, respectively, ranging in size of DNA fragments from less than approximately 100 to larger than 2,000 base pairs (bp). Six primers yielded 199 polymorphic fragments (33.1%) in catfish and 47 (24%) in bullhead, respectively. In the present study, a total of 328 common fragments (an average of 54.7 per primer) were observed in catfish population, whereas 84 (an average of 14.0 per primer) in bullhead. The total number of specific fragments in catfish and bullhead population were 76 and 64, respectively. In catfish population, random decamer, OPA-17 (GACCGCTTGT) generated the highest number of fragments (a total of 141) in comparison with other primers used, with an average of 11.8. The common bands in the molecular weight of 300 bp generated by random primer OPA-06 (GGTCCCTGAC) were present in every individuals in bullhead population. The major polymorphic bands in the molecular weight of 100 bp generated by OPA-17 were identified in lane 14, 15, 17, 18, 19 20 and 21, which were identifying species in bullhead population. The average bandsharing values (BS values) of all of the samples within catfish population ranged from 0.575 to 0.945, whereas 0.063-1.000 within bullhead population. The bandsharing value (index of similarity between individuals) between individual No. 5 and No. 9 showed the highest level within catfish population, whereas the bandsharing value between individual No. 1 and No. 2 showed the lowest level. The single linkage cluster analysis resulted from four primers, indicating four genetic groupings composed of group 1 (C1-C10, all of the catfish samples), group 2 (B11, B12, B13, B14, B16, B17, B18, B19), group 3 (B15) and group 4 (B20 and B21). The dendrogram reveals close relationships between individual identities within two species populations and individuals derived from the same ancestor, respectively. However, genetic distances between two species populations ranged from 0.124 to 0.333. The shortest genetic distance (0.042) displaying significant molecular differences was between individual No. 6 and No. 9 catfish population. The shortest genetic distance (0.033) displaying significant molecular differences also was between individual No. 18 and No. 19 in bullhead population. Reversely, the genetic distance of individual No. 20/21 among individuals in bullhead population was highest (0.333). This result showed that bullhead No. 20 and 21 were distinct from other individuals within bullhead population.
Production of Leptin in E. coli and Its Effect on Glucose and Acetate Transport and Expression of Uncoupling Protein-2 Gene in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)
Kim, K.S. ; Baik, M.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1062~1068
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1062
Leptin has a major role in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis. In addition, leptin participates in many physiological functions including regulation of lipid metabolism. Bovine recombinant leptin protein was produced in E. coli cells in order to understand function of leptin in the regulation of lipid metabolism. The leptin expression vector was constructed in pGEX-4T-3 vector and transformed into E. coli BL21 cells. Expression of the GST-leptin fusion protein was induced with IPTG. The fusion protein was purified using glutathione sepharose 4B batch method, and the recombinant leptin was eluted after thrombin protease digestion. The effect of leptin on glucose transport was examined in the differentiated adipocytes of 3T3-L1 cells. Leptin had no effect on basal and insulin-stimulated glucose transport in 3T3-L1 cells (p>0.05). Effect of recombinant leptin on glucose and acetate transport was examined in adipose tissues of Korean cattle (Hanwoo). Insulin stimulated glucose transport in both intramuscular and subcutaneous adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect glucose transport in both adipose tissues (p>0.05). Insulin stimulated acetate transport in bovine adipose tissues (p<0.05), but leptin did not affect acetate transport (p>0.05). Northern and RT-PCR analyses showed that mRNA levels of uncoupling protein-2 were increased by leptin treatment in 3T3-L1 cells without statistical difference (p>0.05). In conclusion, bovine recombinant leptin did not affect glucose and acetate transport in both 3T3-L1 adipocytes and bovine adipose tissues, while it stimulates UCP-2 mRNA expression in 3T3-L1 cells.
MAP Kinase is Activated dring the Maturation of Porcine Oocytes
Chung, Ki-Hwa ; Kim, Chul-Wook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1069~1075
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1069
In an attempt to evaluate the function of MAP kinase in porcine oocytes and to develop a method of the assessment of its activity, myelin basic protein (MBP) was used as a substrate to detect the MAP kinase activity of porcine oocytes which had undergone maturation in vitro. The existence of MAP kinase and MAP kinase kinase (MAPKK) was verified in immature porcine germinal vesicle (GV) oocytes at 0 h culture via Western blotting. Porcine oocytes exhibited a low level of MAP kinase activity during the first 20 h of culture, which increased at 25 h, during which time a breakdown in the nuclear membrane occurred. Significantly higher increases (p<0.05) of MAP kinase activity were detected at 30 h of culture. Using the gel phosphorylation method, MBP was phosphorylated at two positions corresponding to mammalian MAP kinase-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK 1) (44 kDa) and ERK 2 (42 kDa). The absolute levels of those proteins did not increase during 40 h of culture, suggesting that the detected increase in MAP kinase activity was the result of phosphorylation rather than changes in the total amount of protein. MAPKK and MAP kinase were dephosphorylated in first-stage (MI) meiotic oocytes by the addition of cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. These results of this study indicate that the MAP kinase cascade does exists in porcine oocytes and that its activation leads to oocyte maturation.
The Suppression of Maturational Competence by Streptomycin during In vitro Maturation of Goat Follicular Oocytes
Kang, Jae Ku ; Chang, Suk Min ; Naruse, Kenji ; Han, Jeung Whan ; Park, Chang Sik ; Jin, Dong Il ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1076~1079
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1076
Antibiotics are common additives in culture media during in vitro embryo development, but their effects on oocyte maturation in vitro have not been tested. The effects of penicillin, streptomycin and gentamicin on the maturational competence and subsequent development potential of goat follicular oocytes were examined after parthenogenetic activation in vitro. Maturation rates at 24 h after in vitro maturation, and parthenogenetic development at 48 h after activation, were evaluated by observing the protruding first polar body and the 4 cell stage cleavage, respectively. When streptomycin was present in the maturation medium, the percentages of matured oocytes 24 h after activation were significantly (p<0.01) lower than those from the other groups (42.5-45.7% vs. 69.1-73.8%). Penicillin and gentamicin treatment did not affect the maturation rates or the percentages reaching the 4 cell stage 48 h after activation. There was no significant difference in cleavage rates among the different antibiotic treatments 48 h after activation. Therefore, streptomycin suppresses the in vitro maturation of immature goat oocytes, but does not influence their subsequent development.
The Effect of Protein Source and Formaldehyde Treatment on Growth and Carcass Composition of Awassi Lambs
Abdullah, A.Y. ; Awawdeh, F.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1080~1087
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1080
A trial with twenty-four newly weaned Awassi lambs (initial body weight=21.5
0.8 kg) was conducted using a 3
2 factorial design to study the effect of feeding three sources of protein supplements (soybean meal (SBM), sunflower seed meal (SSM), and cottonseed meal (CSM)), either untreated or formaldehyde-treated on the growth performance and carcass traits of Awassi lambs. Lambs were randomly assigned to one of the six diets (4 lambs/treatment diet) and were individually fed for a period of 107 days. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous and isocaloric. Final live weight and average daily gain (ADG) were affected by both source of protein and formaldehyde treatment (undegradable protein). Lambs fed untreated diets had better (p<0.01) daily gain compared to those fed formaldehyde-treated diets. Similarly total feed intake per animal was significantly (p<0.05) affected by protein source and formaldehyde treatment. Formaldehyde treatment caused a significant decrease (p<0.01) in feed intake compared to lambs fed untreated diets. Feed requirement per unit of gain was not affected by formaldehyde treatment during all periods of the experiment except for the second period (the second 28 day period), whereby untreated SBM, SSM and CSM had better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the treated groups. Source of protein had a moderate effect (p<0.10) on FCR but had a significant effect (p<0.05) on hot and cold carcass weight, digestive tract empty weight and liver weight, with lambs fed SBM having higher values than lambs fed SSM and CSM diets. Supplementation with undegradable protein had a significant effect (p<0.05) on dressing-out percentage (p<0.05), final live weight, and hot and cold carcass weight (p<0.01). The lower values pertain to lambs fed treated diets compared to lambs fed untreated diets. In general, there were no significant differences among all carcass linear dimensions, carcass cut weights and dissected loin tissue weights for both treatments (protein source and formaldehyde treatment). Supplementation with undegradable protein but not the source of protein resulted in significantly higher dissected leg total bone weight (p<0.05), tibia and femur weight (p<0.05), and femur length (p<0.01) at the same carcass weight. Results suggest that the treatment of SBM, SSM and CSM with formaldehyde did not improve efficiency of feed utilization, lamb performance or carcass traits and that the SBM diet resulted in an increase in lamb performance compared to other experimental diets.
Effect of α-Tocopherol Supplementation on Plasma Levels of Antioxidant Vitamins in Anestrus Buffalo Heifers (Bubalus bubalis)
Kahlon, R.S. ; Singh, Rajvir ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1088~1092
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1088
The present investigation was undertaken to study the status of plasma antioxidant vitamins in normal cycling and
-tocopherol supplemented anestrus buffalo heifers. The pre-supplementation plasma levels (
mol/L) of vitamin E and
-carotene were significantly (p<0.05) lower and of vitamin C was significantly (p<0.05) higher in anestrus heifers (4.06
0.21) when compared to normal cycling ones (4.92
0.16). The oral supplementation of
-tocopherol at 3,000 mg per week per animal in anestrus heifers resulted in a significant (p<0.01) increase in vitamin E and
-carotene levels and a significant (p<0.01) decrease in vitamin C concentration. Results indicated that supplementation of
-tocopherol to anestrus buffalo heifers improved the antioxidant status by mitigating the harmful effects of free radical induced oxidative stress.
Feeding Value of Urea Treated Corncobs Ensiled with or without Enzose (Corn Dextrose) for Lactating Crossbred Cows
Khan, M. Ajmal ; Sarwa, M. ; Nisa, Mahr-Un ; Khan, M. Sajjad ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1093~1097
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1093
This study was aimed to establish the amount of enzose (corn dextrose) for optimum N fixation in urea treated corncobs (UTC) and their dietary effect on nutrient intake, digestibility and milk yield in crossbred cows. Corncobs were treated with 5% urea and ensiled in laboratory silos with 0, 2, 4 and 6% enzose for 15 days. Total nitrogen (N), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and neutral detergent insoluble N contents were increased in UTC with the level of enzose. Five early lactating crossbred cows (Sahiwal
Holstein Frisian) were used in a 5
5 Latin Square Design to see the influence of UTC ensiled with 6% enzose on nutrient intake, digestibility, milk yield and its composition. Five iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets were formulated. The UTC30 (control), UTC40, UTC50, UTC60 and UTC70 diets contained 30% UTC ensiled without enzose and 40, 50, 60, 70% UTC ensiled with 6% enzose, respectively. Dry matter, NDF and ADF intakes were increased with the increasing level of UTC ensiled with enzose in the diets of cows. Dry matter, NDF and ADF digestibilities were significantly higher with diets containing UTC ensiled with enzose. Milk yield was significantly higher in cows fed UTC70 compared to those fed on other diets. The milk crude protein percentage was significantly different across treatments. However, milk fat, total solids, solid not fat, true protein and non-protein nitrogen contents of milk remained similar across all diets. Ensilation of UTC with 6% enzose improved the nitrogen retention and thus enhanced the feeding value of UTC for lactating cows.
Consumption and Digestion of Forages by Male Rusa (Cervus timorensis russa) Deer-the Effects of Castration and Season
Sookhareea, R. ; Dryden, G. McL ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1098~1106
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1098
In a split-unit design, 12 Javan rusa (Cervus timorensis russa) stags (6 castrated and 6 entire) were used to investigate seasonal (winter, spring and summer) effects on intake, digestibility of food constituents, volatile fatty acid profile, and nitrogen retention, when given lucerne (Medicago sativa) or rhodes grass (Chloris guyana) hays. Entire stags ate 9% more dry matter (DM) than castrates (p<0.05). Both castrated and entire stags exhibited seasonal changes in DM intake, these being higher (p<0.05) in winter (62.3 g/kg
) than spring (56.9 g/kg
) or summer (55.3 g/kg
). Intakes of lucerne hay (211 g protein/kg DM) were significantly higher than of rhodes grass hay (49 g protein/kg DM) in all seasons (p<0.05). Digestibilities of DM (0.58), neutral detergent fibre (0.59) and acid detergent fibre (0.47) were similar between castrates and entires. DM digestibility was higher (p<0.0001) for lucerne (0.66) than rhodes grass (0.55), and was higher (p<0.05) in winter (0.60) than spring (0.58) or summer (0.57). The ruminal acetate concentrations were higher (p<0.001) in spring than summer (78 and 73 molar % respectively). Apparent digestibility of protein was significantly less (p<0.0001) for rhodes grass (0.37) than lucerne (0.75). N retention was positive for lucerne (15.2 g/d) but negative for rhodes grass (-2.8 g/d) (p<0.0001), and was higher (p<0.001) in summer (12.0 g/d) than spring (4.3 g/d) or winter (2.4 g/d). The tropical rusa deer exhibits seasonal variations in feed intake, food constituent digestibilities, VFA profile and N retention. Castration did not alter these traits. The results do not support the view that rusa deer can thrive on low-quality pastures. The productivity and commercial exploitation of rusa deer could be optimised if they are given high-protein feed during spring and summer.
Comparative Rumen Degradability of Some Legume Forages between Wet and Dry Season in West Sumatra, Indonesia
Evitayani, Evitayani ; Warly, L. ; Fariani, A. ; Ichinohe, T. ; Abdulrazak, S.A. ; Fujihara, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1107~1111
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1107
An experiment was conducted to evaluate the potential nutritive value of five legume forages (leaves and twigs) in West Sumatra during wet and dry seasons. The chemical composition, in vitro dry matter (IVDMD), organic matter (IVOMD) and crude protein digestibility (IVCPD), in vitro gas characteristics and estimated metabolizable energy (ME) showed variation among legume forages and between different seasons. Crude protein (CP) ranged from 14.2 to 27.8% DM in the wet season, with a significant (p<0.05) reduction in dry season. C. pubescens, G. maculata, L. leucocephala and P. phaseloides showed the least reduction in CP content. The NDF, ADF and lignin were about 39.0, 26.5 and 6.1% DM, respectively in the wet season, and significantly (p<0.05) increased in the dry season, except for NDF of C. mucunoides and C. pubescens. For IVDMD, IVOMD and IVCPD significantly increased in the wet season, but values remained as high as over 50.0% of DM. The in vitro gas characteristics and metabolizable energy were significantly (p<0.05) higher in wet season than the dry season. During both seasons, the rate of constant (c) for G. maculata and ME content for C. pubescens and P. phaseloides were not significantly (p<0.05). Results demonstrated that P. phaseloides and L. leucocephala have a good nutritive value during both wet and dry seasons. Further studies on feeding trials are needed to quantify the animal responses when offered these legume forages.
Effects of Feeding Methods (Water vs. Feed) of Vitamin Con Growth Performance and Carcass Characteristics in Broiler Chickens
Lohakare, J.D. ; Chae, B.J. ; Hahn, T.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1112~1117
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1112
This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of vitamin C supplemented in either feed or water on the performance and carcass characteristics of broilers during the hot season. For a 6 week feeding trial, a total of 330 broiler chicks (Ross, 4 d old, average 57 g BW) were alloted to five treatments. The treatments of vitamin C (VC) supplementation were 1) 0 ppm VC, 2) 10 ppm VC in feed, 3) 20 ppm VC in feed, 4) 5 ppm VC in water and 5) 10 ppm VC in water. During the starter phase (0-3 week), chicks on non-supplemented group grew slower (p<0.01) than the supplemented ones, and a similar trend was also noted during finisher stage and the overall stage. Feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) higher in supplemented groups and higher when fed in feed as compared with water during all stages. But feed conversion efficiency was significantly improved in non-supplemented groups compared to supplemented ones in finisher and overall stage. The digestibility of gross energy and ether extract was significantly (p<0.05) higher during starter phase in supplemented, given in feed, and at higher levels as compared with non-supplemented, given in water, and at lower levels, respectively. The bone resistance was significantly (p<0.05) higher in supplemented, supplied in feed groups as compared with their counterparts. Except breast meat, the dressing percentage and abdominal fat were also higher in supplemented group and the dressing percentage was significantly (p<0.05) higher in VC supplemented in feed as to water, but no effect of supplementation was noticed on meat color when compared between the methods of feeding (feed vs. water). The levels of VC in plasma and liver increased linearly, as the level of supplementation both in feed and water increased and it was significantly (p<0.05) higher in feed group as compared with water group. It can be concluded that, retention and availability of vitamin C in feed was higher than those in water, and supplementation of VC during summer was beneficial for poultry.
Effect of Chromium Nanoparticle on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Pork Quality and Tissue Chromium in Finishing Pigs
Wang, M.Q. ; Xu, Z.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1118~1122
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1118
The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of chromium nanoparticle (CrNano) on growth, carcass characteristics, pork quality, and tissue chromium in finishing pigs. A total of 100 Duroc
Yorkshire barrows (average initial BW of 64.78
0.83 kg) were divided into 10 pens, 10 pigs per pen. 5 pens of pigs were fed with control diet (corn-soybean meal, 1.05% Lys) and others were fed with control diet addition with 200
g/kg Chrome (Cr) from CrNano. During the trial, all pigs were given free access to feed and water. After 35 days trial, 10 pigs from each each treatment (weight similar to average group weight, 91.34
1.31 kg for control group, and 92.26
0.56 kg for CrNano treated group) were sacrificed to measure carcass characteristics, pork quality, and to collect the samples of longissimus muscle, liver, kidney and heart. The results indicated that the addition of 200
g/kg CrNano decreased feed: gain ratio by 3.56% (p<0.05) compared to the control group. Pigs fed CrNano had 14.06% higher (p<0.05) carcass lean percentage, 19.96% (p<0.05) larger longissimus muscle area and 25.53% lower (p<0.05) carcass fat percentage, 18.22% lower (p<0.05) backfat thickness. Drip loss in chops from pigs fed CrNano was decreased by 21.48% (p<0.05) and weights of longissimus muscle and semimembranosus were increased by 16.33% (p<0.05) and 14.87% (p<0.05) respectively. In addition, supplemental CrNano resulted in 184.11% (p<0.05), 144.99% (p<0.05), 88.13% (p<0.05) and 52.60% (p<0.05) increment of Cr concentration in longissimus muscle, liver, kidney and heart, respectively. These results suggest that supplemental CrNano has beneficial effects on carcass characteristics, pork quality and individual skeletal muscle weight, increase tissue chromium concentration in selected muscle and organs.
Effects of Feeding Xylose on the Growth of Broilers and Nutrient Digestibility as well as Absorption of Xylose in the Portal-drained Viscera
Peng, Y.L. ; Guo, Y.M. ; Yuan, J.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1123~1130
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1123
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effects of dietary inclusion of xylose on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and xylose absorption in the portal-drained viscera of broiler chicks. In Exp. 1, ninety male 14 day-old broilers were used to study the effects of different inclusion levels (0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%) of D-xylose in the semi-purified diets on the growth and nutrient digestibility of broilers. In Exp. 2, One hundred and eight male broilers, fed by precision feeding at 22 day-old, were used to investigate the absorption and transportation of dietary xylose in the portal-drained viscera of broiler. The results of Exp. 1 indicated that the growth of broilers was gradually decreased as the xylose level increased (p<0.01). With the xylose supplementation increased, the moisture in broiler excreta was gradually elevated (p<0.01), AME and the digestibilities of crude protein and ether extract were significantly reduced and the digestibilities of xylose and arabinose were also decreased (p<0.01). The results of Exp. 2 showed that the concentrations of ribose, xylose and galactose in serum were significantly influenced by different dietary levels of xylose (p<0.01), but there's no apparent difference among rhamnose, glucose and arabinose (p>0.05). The xylose concentration in serum was highest in Vena Cava, middle in Portal Vein and lowest in Ulnar Vein within 6 h after precision feeding. And then the xylose concentration in Portal Vein and Ulnar Vein were higher than that of Vena Cava. The concentration of ribose, xylose and galactose in serum were also significantly changed with time prolongation (p<0.01). The concentration of xylose in serum was highest in the 40% xylose treatment, middle in the 20% xylose group and lowest in the control group. The glycogen contents in liver and muscle were linearly decreased as the level of xylose increased (p<0.01). The higher the dietary level of xylose was, the lower digestibility of dietary xylose was (p<0.10). 40% xylose markedly decreased the digestibility of dietary glucose (p<0.01). In conclusion, high levels of xylose in the diets inhibited the growth and nutrient digestibility of broiler. The outputs of xylose from the hydrolyzation of wheat-based diet by xylanase should have no adverse effects on broiler performance.
Effects of Different Dietary Acidifier Sources of Calcium and Phosphorus on Ammonia, Methane and Odorant Emission from Growing-finishing Pigs
Kim, I.B. ; Ferke, P.R. ; Powers, W.J. ; Stein, H.H. ; Van Kempe, T.A.T.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1131~1138
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1131
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different sources of Ca and P on urine and ileal digesta pH, and ammonia (
), methane (
), and odor emission. In experiment 1, eight pigs (commercial three-way cross; initial BW 67
3 kg) were arranged in a repeated 4
4 Latin Square design. All pigs were equipped with a T-cannula in the distal ileum. Four corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated. Diet 1 was the control in which dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and limestone (
) were used as the sources of inorganic P and Ca. In Diets 2 and 3,
, monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and
replaced DCP and
as the inorganic sources of P and Ca. Diet 4 was similar to Diet 1 except that it was fortified with HCl to provide an acid load similar to that of diet 2. Urine and ileal digesta pH were determined in pigs fed each of these diets. In Exp. 1, urine pH decreased (p<0.05) in animals consuming diets containing
0.38) and MCP-
0.30) compared with the DCP-
0.24). In the pigs consuming
, ileal digesta pH decreased compared with the control (5.52
0.28 vs. 6.66
0.17; p<0.05). Based on the results of Exp. 1, a total of four trials were performed in environmental chambers for determining how
, and odor were affected by the different dietary Ca and P sources (Exp. 2). In Exp. 2, pigs fed the
diet had decreased (30%)
emissions compared with the control (p<0.05). Also, a combination of MCP-
emission by 15% (p<0.05). Emission of
was decreased only with the
diet with 14% (p<0.05). Odorant emission of phenolics and volatile fatty acids increased roughly three-fold with the DCP-
diet but was not affected by other test diets. In conclusion, acidogenic Ca and P sources in swine diets can decrease the urinary pH and reduce
emission from swine facilities.
Evaluation Effects of Spray-dried Egg Protein Containing Specific Egg Yolk Antibodies as a Substitute for Spray-dried Plasma Protein or Antibiotics in Weaned Pigs
Hong, J.W. ; Kwon, O.S. ; Min, B.J. ; Lee, W.B. ; Shon, K.S. ; Kim, I.H. ; Kim, J.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1139~1144
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1139
In Exp. 1, a total of 36 pigs (6.55
0.10 kg average initial body weight and 21 d average age) were used in a 14 d growth study to determine the effects of replacing spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP) with spray-dried egg protein containing specific egg yolk antibody (SDEP) on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in weaned pigs. The pigs were blocked by weight and assigned to treatments based on sex. There were three pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments were 0, 3, or 6% SDEP and contained 6, 3, or 0% SDPP, respectively. Through the entire experimental period, average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI), and gain/feed tended to decrease as the concentration of SDEP increased in the diets. However, there were no significant differences among the treatments (p>0.05). As the addition of SDEP in the diets increased, apparent digestibilities of dry matter (DM) and nitrogen (N) were decreased without significant (p>0.05). For Exp. 2, 36 pigs (2.63
0.04 kg average initial body weight and 10 d average age) were used in a 14 d growth study to determine the effects of antibiotic replacement with SDEP on growth performance and nutrient digestibility in early-weaned pigs. The pigs were blocked by weight and assigned to treatments based on sex. There were three pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included 1) ANTIBIOTIC (corn-dried whey-soybean meal based diet+0.08% antibiotics, 4 mg of tiamuline hydrogen fumarate; 10 mg of sulfadimidine per kg of complete diet), 2) SDEP0.1 (corndried whey-SBM based diet+0.1% SDEP), and 3) SDEP0.2 (corn-dried whey-SBM based diet+0.2% SDEP). ADG and gain/feed of pigs fed the SDEP0.2 diet were higher than for pigs fed the ANTIBIOTIC diet without significant (p>0.05). Pigs fed the diet with SDEP0.2 tended to have increased apparent digestibilities of DM and N compared to pigs fed the ANTIBIOTIC diet without significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, the dietary SDEP seemed to be partial replacing the SDPP portion of high nutrient dense diet for weaned pigs. Also, dietary SDEP seemed to be approximately 0.2% or more when the pigs fed the antibiotic-free diet for early-weaned pigs.
Effects of β-Glucan Supplementation on Lymphocyte Proliferation, Macrophage Chemotaxis and Specific Immune Responses in Broilers
Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang ; Lee, Der-Nan ; Wen, Chiu-Ming ; Weng, Ching-Feng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1145~1149
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1145
Immunomodulatory feed additives might offer alternatives to antimicrobial growth promoters in poultry production. This experiment was carried out to test the effect of
-glucan supplementation on the growth performance and immune response in broilers. Total of 160 day-old broilers were randomly assigned to 4 treatment groups fed corn-soybean diets containing 0, 0.012, 0.025 or 0.05% of
-glucan supplement in a 6 week feeding experiment. Growth performance, antibody titer against New Castle vaccine, lymphocyte blastogensis, and peritoneal macrophage chemotaxis activity of broilers were evaluated. Results showed that there were no significant differences in weight gain and feed efficiency among the treatments, and no differences in antibody titer was observed. Supplementation of
-glucan did not elevate the lymphocyte blastogensis among treatments, following stimulation with different mitogens. However, supplementation with 0.025 and 0.05%
-glucan enhanced the macrophage chemotaxis activity of broilers. These results suggest that
-glucan may enhance some cell-mediated immune responses of chickens by modulate macrophages ability.
Effects of Phase Feeding and Sugar Beet Pulp on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Urea Nitrogen, Nutrient Excretion and Carcass Characteristics in Finishing Pigs
Ko, T.G. ; Lee, J.H. ; Kim, B.G. ; Min, T.S. ; Cho, S.B. ; Han, In K. ; Kim, Y.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1150~1157
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1150
This experiment was conducted to investigate effects of phase feeding and sugar beet pulp (SBP) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, nitrogen excretion, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) concentration and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 128 pigs were allotted at 53.9 kg BW to 8 replicates in a 2
2 factorial arrangement in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. The first factor was phase feeding (2 or 3 phase feeding) and SBP (SBP: 0% or 10%) was the second factor. Ten percent SBP supplement groups showed lower average daily feed intake (ADFI) than 0% SBP supplement groups (p<0.05). However, there were no significant difference in average daily gain (ADG) and feed:gain ratio among treatments during overall experimental period. Nutrient digestibility was not affected by phase feeding or SBP supplementation. Urinary nitrogen excretion in 10% SBP supplement group was lower than that in 0% SBP supplement group (p<0.05) and total nitrogen excretion was lower in SBP supplement group than in the group without SBP. Urinary and total nitrogen were numerically decreased in three phase feeding compared to two phase feeding. The BUN concentration in three phase feeding groups was lower than two phase feeding groups at 47 and 63 day (p<0.05). Consequently, results of this experiment demonstrated that three phase feeding was more acceptable than two phase feeding for finishing pigs. And sugar beet pulp could be supplemented in finishing pig diet for decreasing urinary nitrogen excretion without retardation in growth performance of pigs.
Effect of Birth Weight and Litter Size on Productive Performance of Rabbits
Di Meo, C. ; Gazaneo, M.P. ; Racca, C. ; Bovera, F. ; Piccolo, G. ; Nizza, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1158~1161
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1158
This study chiefly aims to ascertain the effect of birth weight and litter size on productive performance in rabbits. After delivery kits were removed from their mothers for individual weighing and randomly assigned to one of the following three experimental treatments: Group (KT 6) with six tiny kits (about 45 g) per litter (21 litters); Group (KT 8) with eight tiny kits (about 45 g) per litter (17 litters); Group (KN8) with eight normal kits (about 70 g) per litter (20 litters). The litters, separated from their mothers by putting them in a closed cage, suckled one time a day for 15 minutes. Daily milk production was measured by weighing the does immediately before and after suckling; body weight of kits was measured on a weekly basis. At weaning 60 rabbits per group were raised for six weeks to ascertain post-weaning performance and health. Compared with the two other groups, the kits of group KT8 ingested smaller quantities of milk both during the first 3 weeks (497.7 vs. 520.0 vs. 544.3 g, respectively for groups KT8, KN8, KT6) and the following period (261.3 vs. 285.0 vs. 302.7 g, respectively for KT8, KN8, KT6). The differences between groups KT8 and KT6 were statistically significant (p<0.01) in the first period while in the second period also KN8 group showed milk intake different in respect of KT8 (p<0.01) and KT6 (p<0.05) groups. Solid feed intake was significantly (p<0.05) lower in group KT6 (23.1 vs. 26.2 vs. 26.8 g/d, respectively for groups KT6, KN8, KT8). At weaning the kits of group KN8 always weighed more (966 vs. 894 vs. 888 g; p<0.01, respectively for groups KN8, KT6, KT8). After weaning, no parameter considered (daily weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, mortality and risk sanitary index) was affected by birth weight and litter size.
Effect of Conjugated Linoleic Acid on Intestinal and Hepatic Antioxidant Enzyme Activity and Lipid Peroxidation in Broiler Chickens
Ko, Y.H. ; Yang, H.Y. ; Jang, I.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1162~1167
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1162
The present study was designed to define whether dietary conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) could affect antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), and glutathione S transferase (GST), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, in the small intestine and liver from broiler chickens. A total of twenty-four 3 wk-old male broiler chickens were assigned to three dietary treatments (1.5% corn oil, 0.75% corn oil plus 0.75% CLA, and 1.5% CLA, isocalorically), and fed a grower-finisher diet from 22 to 35 days. In the small intestinal mucosae, the specific activities of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT, and GST, and the level of MDA were not substantially influenced by dietary CLA. In the liver, the specific activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and GST, and the level of MDA were also unaffected by dietary CLA at the level of either 0.75% or 1.5% compared with corn oil at the level of 1.5%. However, the broiler chickens fed the diet containing 1.5% CLA resulted in a significant increase in peroxisomal CAT activity and a marked decrease in total lipid and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) from liver tissues compared with those fed the diet containing 1.5% corn oil. In conclusion, ability of CLA to increase hepatic CAT activity suggest that dietary CLA may affect, at least in part, antioxidant defense system as well as lipid metabolism in the liver of broiler chickens.
Use of Duckweed, Bentonite and Acid to Improve Water Quality of Effluent Discharge from Abattoirs
Goopy, J.P. ; Murray, P.J. ; Lisle, A.T. ; Al Jassim, R.A.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1168~1176
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1168
Intensive animal industries create large volumes of nutrient rich effluent, which, if untreated, has the potential for substantial environmental degradation. Aquatic plants in aerobic lagoon systems have the potential to achieve inexpensive and efficient remediation of effluent, and to recover valuable nutrients that would otherwise be lost. Members of the family Lemnaceae (duckweeds) are widely used in lagoon systems, but despite their widespread use in the cleansing of sewage, only limited research has been conducted into their growth in highly eutrophic media, and little has been done to systematically distinguish between different types of media. This study examined the growth characteristics of duckweed in abattoir effluent, and explored possible ways of ameliorating the inhibitory factors to growth on this medium. A series of pot trials was conducted to test the tolerance of duckweed to abattoir effluent partially remediated by a sojourn in anaerobic fermentation ponds, both in its unmodified form, and after the addition of acid to manipulate pH, and the addition of bentonite. Unmodified abattoir effluent was highly toxic to duckweed, although duckweed remained viable and grew sub optimally in media with total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) concentrations of up to 100 mg/l. Duckweed also grew vigorously in effluent diluted 1:4 v/v, containing 56 mg TAN/L and also modified by addition of acid to decrease pH to 7 and by adding bentonite (0.5%).
Effect of Sheep and Chicken Antibodies to Rat Adipocytes Plasma Membranes on Rat Carcass Fat
Wang, Jundong ; Zhang, Jianfeng ; Li, Junping ; Hao, Junhu ; Wang, Shaolin ; Zhang, Jianhai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 17, issue 8, 2004, Pages 1177~1182
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2004.1177
Polyclonal anti-sera were collected from sheep and chicken immunized with adipocytes plasma membranes. Thirty two male wistar rats, weighing 185-215 grams, were divided randomly into 4 groups (trial 1: control group and treat group, trial 2: control group and treat group), with 8 rats in each group. The experiment lasted for 7 weeks. Trial one: The control group received four consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of 1ml of sheep normal sera. The same 4 day daily dose of group sheep anti-rats sera adipocyte plasma membrane anti-sera was administered to the treat group. The results showed that the treatment for treat group increased body weight by 6.35% (p<0.05) and food intake by 6.85%, and improved food conversion efficiency (Food intake/gain) by 45.00% (p<0.05). Periernal, epididymal and omental adipose deposit weights were decreased by 23.92% (p<0.05), 34.45% (p<0.05) and 0.98% respectively, while total fat content decreased by 20.92%. Trial two: The control group received four consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of 1 ml of chicken normal sera, the results of injections of chicken anti-rats sera adipocyte plasma membrane antis-era administered to the treat group indicated that chicken anti-rats adipocyte plasma membranes immunization had an disadvantageous effect on the growth of the wistar rats by the end of 7th wk, compared with the control group. The immunized group decreased in total weight by 40 gram (p<0.05) an averagely and in food intake noticeably (p<0.01). The deposition of fat and the rates of TG and FFA in serum had no statistical significance.