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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Identification of Novel SNPs in Bovine Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein-3 (IGFBP3) Gene
Kim, J.Y. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Park, B.L. ; Kim, L.H. ; Na, K.J. ; Choi, J.G. ; Cho, C.Y. ; Lee, H.K. ; Chung, E.R. ; Sang, B.C. ; Cheong, I.J. ; Oh, S.J. ; Shin, Hyoung Doo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 3~7
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.3
The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs), their receptors, and their binding proteins play key roles in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. Insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3, OMIM #146732) is one of the proteins that bind to the IGFs. IGFBP3 is a modulator of IGF bioactivity, and direct growth inhibitor in the extravascular tissue compartment. We identified twenty-two novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IGFBP3 gene in Korean cattle (Hanwoo, Bos taurus coreanae) by direct sequencing of full gene including -1,500 bp promoter region. Among the identified SNPs, five common SNPs were screened in 650 Korean cattle; one SNP in promoter (IGFBP3 G-854C), one in 5'UTR region (IGFBP3 G-100A), two in intron 1 (IGFBP3 G+421T, IGFBP3 T+1636A), and one in intron 2 (IGFBP3 C+3863A). The frequencies of each SNP were 0.357 (IGFBP3 G-854C), 0.472 (IGFBP3 G-100A), 0.418 (IGFBP3 G+421T), 0.363 (IGFBP3 T+1636A) and 0.226 (IGFBP3 C+3863A), respectively. Haplotypes and their frequencies were estimated by EM algorithm. Six haplotypes were constructed with five SNPs and linkage disequilibrium coefficients (|D'|) between SNP pairs were also calculated. The information on SNPs and haplotypes in IGFBP3 gene could be useful for genetic studies of this gene.
Effect of Family Size and Genetic Correlation between Purebred and Crossbred Halfsisters on Response in Crossbred and Purebred Chickens under Modified Reciprocal Recurrent Selection
Singh, Neelam ; Singh, Raj Pal ; Sangwan, Sandeep ; Malik, Baljeet Singh ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 8~12
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.8
Response in a modified reciprocal recurrent selection scheme for egg production was evaluated considering variable family sizes and genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred half sisters. The criteria of selection of purebred breeders included pullet's own performance, purebred full and half sisters and crossbred half sister's performance. Heritability of egg production of crossbreds (aggregate genotype) and purebred's was assumed to be 0.2 and genetic correlation between purebred and crossbred half sisters (
) as 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 1.0, -0.1, -0.2, -0.3, -0.4, -0.5 and -1.0. Number of dams per sire to produce purebred and crossbred progenies assumed to be 5, 6, 7, 8, while number of purebred female progeny (
) and crossbred progeny (
) per dam were considered to be 3, 4, 5 and 6 in each case. Considering phenotypic variance as unity, selection indices were constructed for different combinations of dams and progeny for each value of
. Following selection index theory, response in crossbred and purebred for egg production was computed. Results indicated that response in crossbreds depended mainly on crossbred family size and also on magnitude of
irrespective of its direction, and response was greater with large crossbred family size than the purebred families. Correlated response in purebreds depends both on magnitude and direction of
and was expected to be greater with large purebred family size only. Inclusion of purebred information increased the accuracy of selection for crossbred response for higher magnitude of
irrespective of its direction. Present results indicate that desirable response in both crossbred and purebred performance is a function of
and family sizes. The ratio of crossbred and purebred family sizes can be optimized depending on the objective of improving the performance of crossbreds and/or of purebreds.
Genetic Variation of H-FABP Gene and Association with Intramuscular Fat Content in Laiwu Black and Four Western Pig Breeds
Zeng, Y.Q. ; Wang, G.L. ; Wang, C.F. ; Wei, S.D. ; Wu, Y. ; Wang, L.Y. ; Wang, H. ; Yang, H.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 13~16
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.13
This study was performed to detect genetic variation of the heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene by PCRRFLPs approach and its association with intramuscular fat (IMF) content. Data from 223 individuals, including one Chinese native pig breed and four western pig breeds, were analyzed. The results showed that for the H-FABP gene, there was one polymorphic HinfI site in the 5'-upstream region, whereas there were one HaeIII and one HinfI (marked as
) polymorphic site in the second intron, respectively. The three PCR-RFLPs were present in all breeds tested. The allele frequencies, however, revealed significant differences between them (p<0.05). Furthermore, the allele frequency distribution of HinfI in the Laiwu Black and that of
in the Hampshire breed were at disequilibrium, which might be the result of selective breeding. Results also indicated that for HinfI, HaeIII and
HFABP RFLP, significant (p<0.05) contrasts of 0.78%, -0.69% and 0.72% were detected in the least square means of IMF content between the homozygous genotype HH and hh, DD and dd, BB and bb classes, respectively. It implied that the HHddBB genotype had the highest IMF content in this experimental population and these H-FABP RFLPs could serve, to some extent, as genetic markers for use in improvement of IMF content.
Effects of Melatonin on Gene Expression of IVM/IVF Porcine Embryos
Jang, H.Y. ; Kong, H.S. ; Choi, K.D. ; Jeon, G.J. ; Yang, B.K. ; Lee, C.K. ; Lee, H.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 17~21
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.17
The effect of melatonin on in vitro embryo development and the expression of antioxidant enzyme gene in preimplantation porcine embryos was determined by modified semi-quantitative single cell RT-PCR. Porcine embryos derived from in vitro maturation /in vitro fertilization were cultured in 5%
in NCSU23 medium. Melatonin was added to medium at concentration of 1nM, 5 nM, and 10 nM. When treated with 1nM (39.0%) of melatonin, the developmental rate of embryos beyond the morula stage were higher than that of control group (31.0%) (p<0.05). Number of inner cell mass and tropectoderm cell in control (23.0
0.5 and 17.3
0.8), 1 nM (23.6
0.6 and 19.0
0.5), and 5 nM (23.3
1.1 and 16.3
0.8) treated with melatonin were higher than in 10 nM (20.0
0.5 and 13.3
0.8) treated with melatonin (p<0.05). To develop an mRNA phenotypic map for the expression of catalase, bax and caspase-3, single cell RT-PCR analysis were carried out in porcine IVM/IVF embryo. Catalase was detected in 0, 1 and 5 nM supplemented with melatonin, but bax and caspase-3 were detected in 10 nM treated with melatonin.
Effects of Pelleted Sugarcane Tops on Voluntary Feed Intake, Digestibility and Rumen Fermentation in Beef Cattle
Yuangklang, Chalermpon ; Wanapat, M. ; Wachirapakorn, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 22~26
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.22
Four male crossbred beef steers about 2 years old were used in a 4
4 Latin square design to investigate the effect of pelleted sugarcane tops on voluntary feed intake, rumen fermentation and digestibility of nutrients. Experimental treatments were; Control (dried-chopped sugarcane tops (DCST)); PS1 (Pelleted sugarcane tops at 1 cm of diameter); PS2 (Pelleted sugarcane tops at 2 cm of diameter) and PS3 (Pelleted sugarcane tops at 3 cm of diameter). Roughage intake and total dry matter intake were 1.59, 1.62, 1.61, 1.63% BW and 2.09, 2.12, 2.11 and 2.13% BW in control, PS1, PS2 and PS3 treatments, respectively (p<0.05). Digestibility of DM, OM and CP were similar in control and PS3 treatment but there was significant difference (p<0.05) between control and PS1, PS2 treatments. Digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF) were 52.89, 50.01, 50.05 and 50.56% and 41.91, 39.96, 39.91 and 39.69% in control, PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively (p<0.05). Total volatile fatty acids concentrations in rumen contents was 67.68, 65.93, 66.15 and 66.67 mM in control, PS1, PS2 and PS3, respectively (p<0.05). Even though, concentrations of acetate and butyrate (%) were significant different (p<0.05) but concentration of propionate (%) was not affected by treatments (p>0.05). Rumen pH, ammonia nitrogen and plasma urea nitrogen were significantly different (p<0.05) among treatments. From this experiment, it was found that dried-chopped sugarcane tops increased digestibility of nutrients whereas pelleted sugarcane tops increased feed intake in beef cattle. However, pelleted sugarcane tops at 3 cm of diameter did similar result in digestibility and rumen parameters with DCST. Therefore, it could be concluded that pelleting sugarcane top is an alternative way to improve the quality of sugarcane tops for use as ruminant roughage source.
Effect of Salt Level in Water on Feed Intake and Growth Rate of Red and Fallow Weaner Deer
Ru, Y.J. ; Glatz, P.C. ; Bao, Y.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 32~37
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.32
Under a typical Mediterranean environment in southern Australia, the evaporation rate increases significantly in hot summers, resulting in highly saline drinking water for grazing animals. Also in the cropping areas, dryland salinity is a problem. Grazing animals under these environments can ingest excessive amount of salt from feed, drinking water and soil, which can lead to a reduction in growth rate. To understand the impact of high salt intake on grazing deer, two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of salt levels in drinking water on feed intake and growth rate of red and fallow weaner deer. The results revealed that fallow deer did not show any abnormal behaviour or sickness when salt level in drinking water was increased from 0% to 2.5%. Feed intake was not affected until the salt content in water exceeded 1.5%. Body weight gain was not affected by 1.2% salt in drinking water, but was reduced as salt content in water increased. Compared with deer on fresh water, the feed intake of red deer on saline water was 11-13% lower when salt level in drinking water was 0.4-0.8%. An increase in salt level in water up to 1% resulted in about a 30% reduction in feed intake (p<0.01). Body weight gain was significantly (p=0.004) reduced when salt level reached 1.2%. The deer on 1% salt tended to have a higher (p=0.052) osmotic pressure in serum. The concentration of P, K, Mg and S in serum was affected when salt level in water was over 1.0%. The results suggested that the salt level in drinking water should be lower than 1.2% for fallow weaner deer and 0.8% for red weaner deer to avoid any reduction in feed intake. Deer farmers need to regularly test the salt levels in drinking water on their farms to ensure that the salt intake of grazing deer is not over the levels that deer can tolerate.
Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Rumen Metabolites in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Kumar, Ravindra ; Dass, R.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 38~41
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.38
An experiment was conducted on 3 male rumen fistulated adult buffaloes fed on wheaten straw and concentrate mixture in a Latin square design to study the impact of niacin supplementation on rumen metabolites. Three animals were fed wheaten straw+concentrate mixture (group I, control), wheaten straw+concentrate mixture+100 ppm niacin (group II), and wheaten straw +concentrate mixture+200 ppm niacin (group III). After 21 days feeding, rumen liquor was drawn for 3 consecutive days at different time intervals (0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h) to study the various rumen metabolites i.e., rumen pH, ammonia-N, total-N, trichloroacetic acid precipitable-N, non-protein nitrogen, total volatile fatty acids, their fractions and number of protozoa. Mean pH values in strained rumen liquor (SRL) of animals in 3 groups were 6.64, 6.71 and 6.67, indicating no statistically significant difference. Results revealed a significant (p<0.01) increase in TVFA concentration among the supplemented groups (group II and III) in comparison to control group. Mean TVFA concentration (meq/dl) was 9.75, 10.97 and 11.44 in 3 groups respectively. The highest concentration of TVFA was observed at 4 h and minimum at 0 h in all the 3 groups. The percentage of acetic, propionic, butyric and isobutyric acid was statistically similar among the three groups. The mean ammonia-N concentration (mg/dl SRL) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in group II (16.38) and group III (15.42) than group I (18.14). Ammonia-N concentration was higher (p<0.01) at 4 h as compared to all the time intervals. The mean total-N concentration (mg/dl SRL) was higher (p<0.01) in group II (74.16) and group III (75.47) as compared to group I (62.04). Total-N concentration was higher (p<0.01) at 4 h as compared to other time intervals and lowest value was recorded at 0 h.Concentration of TCA-ppt-N (mg/dl SRL) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in control group as compared to niacin supplemented groups. Mean value of NPN (mg/dl SRL) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in group III (23.21) as compared to group I (25.71), whereas groups I and II, and groups II and III were similar to each other. Total protozoa number (
/ml SRL) ranged from 18.06 to 27.41 in group I, 20.89 to 38.44 in group II and 27.61 to 39.45 in group III. The mean protozoa number was significantly (p<0.01) higher in SRL of group II (27.60) and III (30.59) as compared to group I (22.48). It can be concluded from the study that supplementation of niacin in the diet of buffaloes had improved the rumen fermentation by decreasing the concentration of ammonia-N and increasing protein synthesis.
Can Moringa oleifera Be Used as a Protein Supplement for Ruminants?
Kakengi, A.M.V. ; Shem, M.N. ; Sarwatt, S.V. ; Fujihara, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 42~47
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.42
The possibility of using Moringa oleifera as a ruminant protein supplement was investigated by comparison between nutritive and anti-nutritive value of its different morphological parts with that of conventionally used Leucaena leucocephala leaf meal (LL). Parameters determined were chemical composition, rumen degradable protein (RDP), acid detergent insoluble protein (ADIP), pepsin soluble protein (PESP), non-protein nitrogen (NPN) total soluble protein (TSP) and protein potentially digested in the intestine (PDI). Total phenols (TP) and total extractable tannins (TET) were also evaluated as anti-nutritive factors. In vitro gas production characteristics were measured and organic matter digestibility (OMD) was estimated basing on 24 h-gas production. Crude protein content ranged from 265-308 g/kg DM in M. oleifera leaves (MOL) and seed cake (MOC) respectively. Leucaena leucocephala and Moringa oleifera soft twigs and leaves (MOLSTL) had CP content of 236 and 195 g/kg DM while Moringa oleifera soft twigs alone (MOST) and Moringa oleifera bucks (MOB) had 160, 114 and 69.3 g/kg DM respectively. RDP was highest in (MOC) (181 g/kg DM) followed by (MOL) (177 g/kg DM) and was lowest in MOB (40 g/kg DM). The proportion of the protein that was not available to the animal (ADIP) was (p<0.05) higher in MOL and MOC (72 and 73 g/kg DM) respectively and lowest in LL (29 g/kg DM). The PDI was high in LL (74 g/kg DM) followed by MOC (55 g/kg DM) then MOL (16 g/kg DM). PESP was highest (p<0.05) in MOC followed by MOL then LL (273, 200 and 163 g/kg DM respectively). MOC exhibited highest NPN content (116 g/kg DM) and was lowest in MOB (18 g/kg DM) (p<0.05). Highly (p<0.05) TSP was observed in MOC and MOL (308 and 265 g/kg DM respectively) followed by LL (236 g/kg DM). MOL had negligible TET (20 g/kg DM) when compared with about 70 g/kg DM in LL. Highly (p<0.05) b and a+b values were observed for MOLSTL (602 and 691 g/kg DM respectively) followed by MOL (490 and 538 g/kg DM). Highest c value was observed in MOSTL followed by MOC and MOL (0.064, 0.056 and 0.053 rate/hour) respectively. OMD was highest (p<0.05) for MOSTL followed by MOC and then MOL (579, 579 and 562 g/kg DM respectively). LL exhibited lower (p<0.05) OMD (467 g/kg DM). It was concluded from this study that the high crude protein content in MOL and MOLST could be well utilized by ruminant animals and increase animal performance however, high proportion of unavailable protein to the lower gut of animals and high rumen degradable protein due to negligible tannin content render it a relatively poor protein supplement for ruminants. MOC can be a best alternative protein supplement to leaves and leaves and soft twigs for ruminants.
Macro- and Micro-nutrient Utilization and Milk Production in Crossbred Dairy Cows Fed Finger Millet (Eleucine coracana) and Rice (Oryza sativa) Straw as Dry Roughage Source
Gowda, N.K.S. ; Prasad, C.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 48~53
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.48
Finger millet straw and rice straw are the major source of dry roughage in southern India. They distinctly vary in their morphological and nutritional characters. Hence an effort was made to study the nutrient utilization, milk yield and composition in crossbred dairy cows fed either finger millet (group 1) or rice straw (group 2) as a source of dry roughage. The cows in both the groups were fed as per requirement with concentrate, green fodder and straw in the ratio of 30:45:25 parts (DM). At the end of 50 days of preliminary feeding a digestibility trial was conducted for 7 days and pooled samples of feed, fodder, feces, urine and milk were analysed for macro and micro nutrient content. Finger millet straw contained more CP, Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn and Co than rice straw and rice straw contained higher ADF, ash and silica. The intake of DM, CP, EE, NDF, ADF and most micronutrients (Ca, P, Mg, Cu, Zn, Fe, Mn and Co) was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw. The digestibility of DM, CP, NDF and ADF was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw and the gut absorption of Ca, Cu, Mn and Co was significantly higher in cows fed finger millet straw. The dietary requirement of all micronutrients in both the group of cows could be met irrespective of the type of roughage fed except that of Ca, which was low (0.61 and 0.40%) in rice straw fed cows. The average daily milk yield (L/cow) was also higher (7.0 L) in cows fed finger millet straw as compared to cows fed rice straw (6.3 L). The average milk composition also did not differ except that of milk fat which was significantly (4.7 and 4.5%) low in cows fed rice straw. The overall results of this study have indicated that finger millet straw is a better source of dry fodder than rice straw and while feeding rice straw as the sole roughage to dairy cows there is need to supplement additional calcium as this could be one of the limiting nutrients for milk production.
Chemical Composition, Degradation Characteristics and Effect of Tannin on Digestibility of Some Browse Species from Kenya Harvested during the Wet Season
Osuga, I.M. ; Abdulrazak, S.A. ; Ichinohe, T. ; Fujihara, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 54~60
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.54
A study was conducted with the objective of evaluating the nutritive value of some browse species from Kenya. The species evaluated included: Bauhinia alba, Bauhinia variegata, Bridelia micrantha, Calliandra calothyrsus, Carisa edulis, Cratylia argentea, Gliricidia sepium, Lantana camara, Maerua angolensis, Sesbania micrantha and S. sesban. The browses were evaluated by their chemical composition including phenolics, in vitro gas production and tannin activity (tannin bioassay). All the species had high crude protein content (149-268 g/kg DM) and low NDF content (239-549 g/kg DM). The feeds had varying contents of total extractable tannins (TET) ranging from low (3-22 mg/g DM), moderate (42-58 mg/g DM) and high (77-152 mg/g DM). Calliandra calothyrsus had the highest tannin content. Significant (p<0.05) variation in gas production was recorded among the species. Sesbania micrantha had the highest (p<0.05) potential gas production while Gliricidia sepium had the highest (p<0.05) rate of gas production. Use of polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000), to assess the adverse affect of tannins, indicated that tannins in browse species with high tannin content had inhibitory effects on rumen microbial fermentation as indicated by the gas production. Estimated organic matter digestibility and metabolizable energy also increased with PEG addition. The results of this study indicate that such Kenyan browse species have the potential to be used as feed supplements for ruminant animals.
Nutritional Requirements of Actinomyces Isolated from Rumen of Goat
Park, Ki Moon ; Shin, Hyung Tai ; Kang, Kook Hee ; Lee, Jae Heung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 61~65
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.61
The objective of this work was to investigate the nutritional requirements for the growth of Actinomyces sp. 9RCC5 isolated from the rumen of a native goat in Korea. The growth of strain 9RCC5 on the basal medium or the medium minus certain ingredients from the basal medium demonstrated that strain 9RCC5 showed absolute requirement of vitamin B complex mixture, while hemin and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were stimulatory to growth to some extent. The 9RCC5 strain grew well with casein hydrolysate as the sole added nitrogen source. However, neither a complex of 18 amino acids nor ammonium sulfate effectively replaced casein hydrolysate. Vitamins such as riboflavin and pantothenate were essential for growth, while thiamin and biotin were stimulatory. With regard to VFA, the growth was stimulated by acetic acid but inhibited by valeric acid. Relatively large quantities of
were absolutely required for growth. Supplementation of clarified rumen fluid to the basal medium in a range of 0-10% (vol/vol) resulted in an increased rate of growth as well as an increased extent of growth.
Properties of Aspergillar Xylanase and the Effects of Xylanase Supplementation in Wheat-based Diets on Growth Performance and the Blood Biochemical Values in Broilers
Wu, Yubo ; Lai, Changhua ; Qiao, Shiyan ; Gong, Limin ; Lu, Wenqing ; Li, Defa ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 66~74
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.66
Three experiments were conducted to study the property of xylanase and the effects of xylanase in wheat-based diets on growth performance of broilers, respectively. Experiment 1 was performed in vitro to evaluate the effect of different pH and temperature on xylanase activity, and to evaluate the enzymic stability under different conditions. The results indicated that the optimum temperature and pH for xylanase activity were
and 4.5, respectively. The activity of enzyme solution was reduced rapidly after the treatment of water bath above
for 10 min. The enzyme was relatively stable at pH 3.5 to 8.0 and deteriorated when incubated at pH below 3.5. In Experiment 2, a total of 378 d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly distributed to 7 different treatments with 6 replicates (9 birds) in each treatment. The treatments were as follows: (1) corn based diet (CS), (2) wheat based diet (WS), (3) WS+ 0.05% xylanase, (4) WS+0.15% xylanase, (5) WS+0.25% xylanase, (6) WS+0.35% xylanase, (7) WS+0.45% xylanase. The results showed that the body weight and feed/gain ratio of the broilers fed wheat-based diets have been significantly improved (p<0.05) compared to that fed corn-based diet in the first 3 wk. With regard to the wheat-based diets, the xylanase supplementation had a tendency to improve the growth performance in first 3 wk. After 3 wk, no significant difference (p>0.05) was found among all these different treatments. The supplementation of xylanase and the type of diets did not affect the feed intake but increased the concentration of triglyceride in serum. In Experiment 3, a total of 360 d-old male Arbor Acres broilers were assigned to 30 groups with 12 birds in each group randomly. These groups were then randomly distributed to 5 different treatments with 6 replicates within each treatment. The broilers of each treatment were fed one of the diets as follows: (1) Corn based diet, (2) White wheat based diet (WW) (3) White wheat based diet+0.25% xylanase, (4) Red wheat based diet, (5) Red wheat based diet+0.25% xylanase. The results showed that the body weight and feed/gain ratio had been significantly improved (p<0.05) by xylanase supplementation in the first 2 or 3 wk. The effect of xylanase in red wheat diet is a little higher than that used in white wheat diet. From the results of the present experiments, it can be concluded that the supplementation of Aspergillar xylanase can improve the performance of the broilers fed the wheat-based diet.
The Effect of Spray-dried Porcine Plasma and Tryptophan on Feed Intake and Performance of Weaning Piglets
Hsia, Liang Chou ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 75~79
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.75
There were three trials involved in this experiment. All piglets in Trial 1 were randomly distributed into the following 4 treatments. Treatment 1. Corn-soybean diet with 5% SDPP. The tryptophan level was 0.237%. Treatment 2. Corn-soybean diet with 10% meat and bone meal. The tryptophan level was 0.177%. Treatment 3. Treatment 1+0.0662% synthetic tryptophan. The total tryptophan level was 0.303. Treatment 4. Treatment 2+0.0662% synthetic tryptophan. The total tryptophan level was 0.236. Piglets in Trial 2 were distributed randomly into the following 4 treatments. Treatment 1: corn-soybean diet+10% meat and bone meal. The total tryptophan level was 0.176%. Treatment 2: corn-soybean diet+10% meat and bone meal+5% SDPP. The total tryptophan level was 0.180%. Treatment 3: Treatment 1 diet+0.004% synthetic tryptophan. The total tryptophan level was 0.180%. Treatment 4: Treatment 1 diet+0.631% synthetic tryptophan. The total tryptophan level was 0.237%. There were 4 treatments in Trial 3. Treatment 1: cornsoybean diet+10% meat and bone meal. The total tryptophan level was 0.176%. Treatment 2: Treatment 1 diet+0.061% synthetic tryptophan. The total tryptophan level was 0.237%. Treatment 3: Treatment 2 diet+0.061% synthetic tryptophan. The total tryptophan level was 0.298%. Treatment 4: corn-soybean diet+10% meat and bone meal+5% SDPP. The total tryptophan level was 0.180%. The results of Trial 1 showed that the piglets ate significantly more (p<0.05) when feed included SDPP in the diet during the first 2 weeks. The feed intake also increased when synthetic tryptophan was added in the 5% meat and bone meal diet; however, the difference did not reach a significant level (p>0.05) during the first 2 weeks. Three weeks onwards the feed intake of 5% meat and bone meal treatment was significantly lower (p<0.05) than for the other three treatments. The results of Trial 2 showed that the feed intake could be significantly improved only when the total tryptophan level reached 0.237%. Piglets in the 5% SDPP treatment had higher feed intake than piglets in 10% meat and bone meal treatment with 0.180% of tryptophan, but did not reach a significant level (p<0.05). Body weight gain also had the same trend as feed intake. The pigs in Treatment 1, the lowest total level of tryptophan treatment (0.176%), had lowest feed intake and weight gain, but the difference did not reach a significant level (p>0.05). The pigs in Treatment 1 of Trial 3 had the lowest feed intake and weight gain (p>0.05). Treatment 2 (0.237%) had the highest average feed intake from Week 1 to Week 5; the second best result was recorded in Treatment 4. As for the weight gain of the piglets in Treatment 4 (5% SDPP), they had a higher average weight during the first 3 weeks. The feed efficiency was better for Treatment 4 (5% SDPP) during the first 2 weeks. The results of these trials showed that both SDPP and tryptophan had a trend to improve the feed intake and weight gain.
Utilization of Graded Levels of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) in Place of Yellow Maize in Commercial Broiler Chicken Diets
Rama Rao, S.V. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Reddy, M.R. ; Panda, A.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 80~84
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.80
An experiment was conducted to study the performance, carcass traits, serum lipid profile and immune competence in commercial broilers (2 to 42 d of age) fed graded levels (25, 50, 75 and 100%) of finger millet (FM) (Elusine coracana) in place (w/w) of yellow maize (YM). Each diet was fed to eight replicates (five female Vencobb broilers/replicate) housed in stainless steel battery brooders. The estimated metabolizable energy content of FM was about 540 kcal less than the YM. FM contained more protein (10.42 vs. 9.05%) and fibre (9.52 vs. 2.24%) compared to YM. Body weight gain, ready to cook yield, relative weights of giblet, liver, intestine and length of intestine at 42 d of age was not affected due to replacing YM with FM. But, the feed efficiency decreased in broilers fed diets containing 75 and 100% FM in place of YM at both 21 and 42 d of age. The amount of fat deposited in abdominal area decreased and the relative weight of gizzard increased with increase in level of FM in the diet. The serum HDL cholesterol at 21 and 42 d of age and serum triglycerides at 42 d of age decreased with increase in level of FM in diet. The relative weight of spleen and antibody titers against sheep red blood cells (SRBC) at 5 d post inoculation (PI) decreased in broilers fed FM at 100% of YM. However, the relative weight of bursa, SRBC titers at 10 d PI, antibody titers against ND virus and mortality were not affected due to incorporation of FM in place of YM in diet. The fat content in thigh muscle and liver decreased, while the protein content in these tissues increased with increase in the level of FM in broiler diet. Based on the results, it may be concluded that YM can be replaced with FM up to 25% on weight basis without affecting weight gain, carcass yields and immunity in commercial broiler diet (up to 42 d of age). Further, inclusion of finger millet reduced the fat deposition in thigh muscle, liver and in abdominal area compared to those fed maize as the principal source of energy.
Effects of Green Tea Polyphenols and Fructo-oligosaccharides in Semi-purified Diets on Broilers' Performance and Caecal Microflora and Their Metabolites
Cao, B.H. ; Karasawa, Y. ; Guo, Y.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 85~89
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.85
This study was conducted to examine the effects of green tea polyphenols (GTP) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) supplement on performance, counts of caecal microflora and its metabolites production. In female broiler chickens fed on semi-purified diets from 28 to 42 d of age, dietary green tea polyphenols (GTP) and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) significantly reduced mortality (p<0.05). Dietary GTP significantly decreased the total count of caecal microflora, each colonic population count and caecal flora metabolites contents when compared to other groups (p<0.05). Dietary FOS did not influence the total count of caecal flora but it selectively increased Bifidobacteri and Eubacteria counts (p<0.05) and decreased the count of other microflora and concentrations of caecal phenols and indole (p<0.0.5). These results suggest that GTP and FOS in semi-purified diets can decrease mortality and change the caecal colonic flora population, but GTP shows antibiotic-like effects of non-selectively decreasing all colonic flora and then metabolites, and FOS acts selectively by increasing profitable microflora and decreasing production of caecal microflora metabolites besides volatile fatty acids.
Identification and Characterization of Hydrogen Peroxide-generating Lactobacillus fermentum CS12-1
Kang, Dae-Kyung ; Oh, H.K. ; Ham, J.-S. ; Kim, J.G. ; Yoon, C.H. ; Ahn, Y.T. ; Kim, H.U. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 90~95
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.90
Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from silage, which produce high level of hydrogen peroxide in cell culture supernatant. The 16S rDNA sequences of the isolate matched perfectly with that of Lactobacillus fermentum (99.9%), examined by a 16S rDNA gene sequence analysis and similarity search using the GenBank database, thus named L. fermentum CS12-1. L. fermentum CS12-1 showed resistance to low pH and bile acid. The production of hydrogen peroxide by L. fermentum CS12-1 was confirmed by catalase treatment and high-performance liquid chromatography. L. fermentum CS12-1 accumulated hydrogen peroxide in culture broth as cells grew, and the highest concentration of hydrogen peroxide reached 3.5 mM at the late stationary growth phase. The cell-free supernatant of L. fermentum CS12-1 both before and after neutralization inhibited the growth of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli K88 that causes diarrhea in piglets.
The Effect of Wet Pad and Forced Ventilation House on the Reproductive Performance of Boar
Chiang, S.H. ; Hsia, L.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 96~101
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.96
There were two trials involved in the experiment. Trial 1: the trial was conducted on two Taiwan Sugar Corporation (TSC) pig farms. One was located in the north of Taiwan and the other was located in the south. Both farms had wet pad and forced ventilation (WPFV) and conventional open design (COD) boar and sow houses. There were 12 Duroc boars, age ranging from 12-24 months. Half of them (6 boars) were raised in a WPFV pig house, and the other half were kept in a COD house. Semen was collected at 5-day intervals from May
to the end of October. Sixteen sows (2-8 parity) were served by artificial insemination each week from the beginning of May to the end of Oct. These sows were checked for heat from 18 days to 25 days after insemination. Trial 2: there were four MPFV boar houses involved in the test. Two houses were located in the north of Taiwan, and the other two houses were located in the south. The test was conducted from January 2000 to December 2001. The total number of serviced sows by MPFV-housed boars was 35,105 head and for COD-housed boars 103,065 head. The results showed that the total semen volume, density of sperm, total sperm per ejaculate, sperm motility and morphological abnormality were significantly better (p<0.01) for boar raised in WPFV house than for COD houses. Average sperm motility in June and July was lower than for the other months. Morphological abnormality was higher during May, June and July. Although the results did not reach a significant level, the average value showed that the total volume of boar semen was higher in the north than for the south. The total semen volume production of boar raised in WPFV was higher than for boars raised in COD house, reaching a significant level only in summer. Boars kept in WPFV house had higher total sperm number than boars kept in COD house, reaching a significant level in spring (p<0.05), summer (p<0.01), and fall (p<0.05) but not in winter (p>0.05). Boars raised in WPFV house had significantly higher sperm motility than boars in COD house during spring (p<0.001), summer (p<0.001), fall (p<0.01) and winter (p<0.05). The average farrowing rate and piglets born alive were higher for boars in WPFV house than for boars in COD house, but neither reached a significant level (p>0.05). The present experiment shows that WPFV house can improve the reproduction performance of boars.
Fermentation for Liquid-type Yogurt with Lactobacillus casei 911LC
Ko, I.H. ; Wang, M.K. ; Jeon, B.J. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 102~106
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.102
This study was carried out to find the attributes for liquid-type yogurt with Lactobacillus casei 911LC during 72 h fermentation at
. The pH decreased up to 32 h and plauteaued thereafter, and the titratable acidity increased up to 40 h. The growth of lactic acid bacteria sharply increased with
cfu/ml up to 40 h of fermentation and slowly decreased thereafter. The free amino acids produced during fermentation reached the maximum value at 44 h and gradually decreased thereafter. Bitterness sensory scores were the highest at 44 h of fermentation. In the result of electrophoresis, the band mostly disappeared at 72 h fermentation. The present data showed that the range of optimum fermentation time for liquid-type yogurt using Lactobacillus casei 911LC was from 40 to 44 h.
Augmentation of Thermotolerance in Primary Skin Fibroblasts from a Transgenic Pig Overexpressing the Porcine HSP70.2
Chen, Ming-Yu ; Tu, Ching-Fu ; Huang, San-Yuan ; Lin, Jyh-Hung ; Tzang, Bor-Show ; Hseu, Tzong-Hsiung ; Lee, Wen-Chuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 107~112
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.107
A high environmental temperature affects the economic performance of pigs. Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) has been reported to participate importantly in thermotolerance. This study aims to produce transgenic pigs overexpressing porcine HSP70.2, the highly inducible one of HSP70 members, and to prove the cellular thermotolerance in the primary fibroblasts from the transgenics. A recombinant plasmid in which the sequence that encodes the porcine HSP70.2 gene is fused to green fluorescence protein (GFP) was constructed under the control of cytomegalovirus (CMV) enhancer and promoter. Two transgenic pigs were produced by microinjecting pCMV-HSP70-GFP DNA into the pronucleus of fertilized eggs. Immunoblot assay revealed the varied overexpression level (6.4% and 1.4%) of HSP70-GFP in transgenic pigs. After heating at
for 3 h, the survival rate (78.1%) of the primary fibroblast cells from the highly expressing transgenic pig exceeded that from the non-transgenic pig (62.9%). This result showed that primary fibroblasts overexpressing HSP70-GFP confer cell thermotolerance. We suggest that transgenic pigs overexpressing HSP70 might improve their thermotolerance in summer and therefore reduce the economic loss in animal production.
Free-range Poultry Production - A Review
Miao, Z.H. ; Glatz, P.C. ; Ru, Y.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 113~132
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.113
With the demand for free-range products increasing and the pressure on the intensive poultry industry to improve poultry welfare especially in western countries, the number of free-range poultry farms has increased significantly. The USA, Australia and European countries have developed Codes of Practice for free-range poultry farming which detail the minimum standards of husbandry and welfare for birds. However, the performance and liveability of free-range birds needs to be improved and more knowledge is required on bird husbandry, feed supply, disease control and heat wave management. This review examines the husbandry, welfare, nutrition and disease issues associated with free-range poultry systems and discusses the potential of incorporating free-range poultry into a crop-pasture rotation system.
Effect of Orally Administered Branched-chain Amino Acids on Protein Synthesis and Degradation in Rat Skeletal Muscle
Yoshizawa, Fumiaki ; Nagasawa, Takashi ; Sugahara, Kunio ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 1, 2005, Pages 133~140
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.133
Although amino acids are substrates for the synthesis of proteins and nitrogen-containing compounds, it has become more and more clear over the years that these nutrients are also extremely important as regulators of body protein turnover. The branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) together or simply leucine alone stimulate protein synthesis and inhibit protein breakdown in skeletal muscle. However, it was only recently that the mechanism(s) involved in the regulation of protein turnover by BCAAs has begun to be defined. The acceleration of protein synthesis by these amino acids seems to occur at the level of peptide chain initiation. Oral administration of leucine to food-deprived rats enhances muscle protein synthesis, in part, through activation of the mRNA binding step of translation initiation. Despite our knowledge of the induction of protein synthesis by BCAAs, there are few studies on the suppression of protein degradation. The recent findings that oral administration of leucine rapidly reduced
-methylhistidine (3-methylhistidine; MeHis) release from isolated muscle, an index of myofibrillar protein degradation, indicate that leucine suppresses myofiblilar protein degradation. The details of the molecular mechanism by which leucine inhibits proteolysis is just beginning to be elucidated. The purpose of this report was to review the current understanding of how BCAAs act as regulators of protein turnover.