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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Methodology of Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci for Binary Traits in a Half-sib Design Using Maximum Likelihood
Yin, Zongjun ; Zhang, Qin ; Zhang, Jigang ; Ding, Xiangdong ; Wang, Chunkao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1669~1674
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1669
Maximum likelihood methodology was applied to analyze the efficiency and statistical power of interval mapping by using a threshold model. The factors that affect QTL detection efficiency (e.g. QTL effect, heritability and incidence of categories) were simulated in our study. Daughter design with multiple families was applied, and the size of segregating population is 500. The results showed that the threshold model has a great advantage in parameters estimation and power of QTL mapping, and has nice efficiency and accuracy for discrete traits. In addition, the accuracy and power of QTL mapping depended on the effect of putative quantitative trait loci, the value of heritability and incidence directly. With the increase of QTL effect, heritability and incidence of categories, the accuracy and power of QTL mapping improved correspondingly.
Potential of the Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping Using Crossbred Population
Yang, Shulin ; Zhu, Zhengmao ; Li, Kui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1675~1683
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1675
In the process of crossbreeding, the linkage disequilibria between the quantitative trait loci (QTL) and their linked markers were reduced gradually with increasing generations. To study the potential of QTL mapping using the crossbred population, we presented a mixed effect model that treated the mean allelic value of the different founder populations as the fixed effect and the allelic deviation from the population mean as random effect. It was assumed that there were fifty QTLs having effect on the trait variation, the population mean and variance were divided to each QTL in founder generation in our model. Only the additive effect was considered in this model for simulation. Six schemes (S1-S6) of crossbreeding were studied. The selection index was used to evaluate the synthetic breeding value of two traits of the individual in the scheme of S2, S4 and S6, and the individuals with high selection index were chosen as the parents of the next generation. Random selection was used in the scheme of S1, S3 and S5. In this study, we premised a QTL explained 40% of the genetic variance was located in a region of 20 cM by the linkage analysis previously. The log likelihood ratio (log LR) was calculated to determine the presence of a QTL at the particular chromosomal position in each of the generations from the fourth to twentieth. The profiles of log LR and the number of the highest log LR located in the region of 5, 10 and 20 cM were compared between different generations and schemes. The profiles and the correct number reduced gradually with the generations increasing in the schemes of S2, S4 and S6, but both of them increased in the schemes of S1, S3 and S5. From the results, we concluded that the crossbreeding population undergoing random selection was suitable for improving the resolution of QTL mapping. Even experiencing index selection, there was still enough variation existing within the crossbred population before the fourteenth generation that could be used to refine the location of QTL in the chromosome region.
Cloning and Characterization of Liver cDNAs That Are Differentially Expressed between Chicken Hybrids and Their Parents
Sun, Dong-Xiao ; Wang, Dong ; Yu, Ying ; Zhang, Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1684~1690
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1684
Using mRNA differential display technique, we investigated differential gene expression in hybrids relative to their parents in a diallel cross involving four chicken breeds in order to provide an insight into the molecular basis of heterosis in chicken. The results indicated that there was extensive differential gene expression between chicken F1 hybrids and their parents which was classified into four kinds of patterns as following: (1) bands only detected in hybrid F1; (2) bands only absent in hybrid F1; (3) bands only detected in parent P1 or P2; (4) bands absent in parent P1 or P2. Forty-two differentially expressed cDNAs were cloned and sequenced, and their expression patterns were confirmed by Reverse-Northern dot blot. Sequence analysis and database searches revealed that genes showed differential expression between hybrid and parents were regulatory and functional genes involved in metabolism, mRNA splicing, transcriptional regulation, cell cycles and protein modification. These results indicated that hybridization between two parents can cause changes in expression of a variety of genes. In conclusion, that the altered pattern of gene expression in hybrids may be responsible for heterosis in chickens.
Identification of Bovine Lymphocyte Antigen DRB3.2 Alleles in Iranian Golpayegani Cattle by DNA Test
Mosafer, J. ; Nassiry, M.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1691~1695
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1691
The bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3 gene encodes cell surface glycoproteins that initiate immune responses by presenting processed antigenic peptides to CD4 T helper cells. DRB3 is the most polymorphic bovine MHC class II gene which encodes the peptide-binding groove. Since different alleles favour the binding of different peptides, DRB3 has been extensively evaluated as a candidate marker for associations with various bovine diseases and immunological traits. For that reason, the genetic diversity of the bovine class II DRB3 locus was investigated by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). This study describes genetic variability in the BoLA-DRB3 in Iranian Golpayegani Cattle. Iranian Golpayegani Cows (n = 50) were genotyped for bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3.2 allele by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Bovine DNA was isolated from aliquots of whole blood. A two-step polymerase chain reaction followed by digestion with restriction endonucleases RsaI, HaeIII and BstYI was conducted on the DNA from Iranian Golpayegani Cattle. In the Iranian Golpayegani herd studied, we identified 19 alleles.DRB3.2
16 had the highest allelic frequency (14%), followed by DRB3.2
7 (11%). Six alleles (DRB3.2
3) had frequencies = 2%. Although additional studies are required to confirm the present findings, our results indicate that exon 2 of the BoLA-DRB3 gene is highly polymorphic in Iranian Golpayegani Cattle.
Analysis of Microsatellite DNA Polymorphisms in Five China Native Cattle Breeds and Application to Population Genetics Studies
Jin, Hai-Guo ; Zhao, Yu-Min ; Zhou, Guo-li ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1696~1700
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1696
Five China native cattle breeds have been characterized by using 10 microsatellite DNA markers. The studied populations can be divided into five groups: Luxi cattle, Nanyang cattle, Jinnan cattle, Qinchuan cattle and Yanbian cattle. Allele frequencies were calculated and used for the characterization of the breeds and the study of their genetic relationships. Heterozygosity, polymorphism information content, the effective number of alleles was calculated. Nei' standard genetic distance (1978) was calculated and used for a neighbor-joining tree construction. NJ tree showed that Luxi cattle, Nanyang cattle, Jinnan cattle and Qinchuan cattle are closely related, whereas Yanbian cattle are clearly distinct from other four populations. The genetic relationship of five breeds corresponds to their history and geographic origins. This work analyzes the recent origin of these populations and contributes to the knowledge and genetic characterization of China native breeds.
Characterization of Phosphoinositide-3-kinase, Class 3 (PIK3C3) Gene and Association Tests with Quantitative Traits in Pigs
Kim, J.H. ; Choi, B.H. ; Lim, H.T. ; Park, E.W. ; Lee, S.H. ; Seo, B.Y. ; Cho, I.C. ; Lee, J.G. ; Oh, S.J. ; Jeon, J.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1701~1707
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1701
This study deals with the characterization of porcine PIK3C3 and association tests with quantitative traits. PIK3C3 belongs to the class 3 PI3Ks that participate in the regulation of hepatic glucose output, glycogen synthase, and antilipolysis in typical insulin target cells such as those in the such as liver, muscle system, and fat. On the analysis of full-length mRNA sequence, the length of the PIK3C3 CDS was recorded as 2,664 bps. As well, nucleotide and amino acid identities between human and pig subjects were 92% and 99%, respectively. Five SNPs were detected over 5 exons. We performed genotyping by using a SNP C2604T on exon24 for 145 F
animals (from a cross between Korean native boars and Landrace sows) by PCR-RFLP analysis with Hpy8I used to investigate the relationship between growth and fat depot traits. In the total association analysis, which doesn' consider transmission disequilibrium, the SNP showed a significant effect (p<0.05) on body weight and carcass fat at 30 weeks of age as well as a highly significant effect (p<0.01) on back fat. In an additional sib-pair analysis, C allele still showed positive and significant effects (p<0.05) on back fat thickness and carcass fat. Moreover, the effects of C allele on the means of within-family components for carcass fat and back fat were estimated as 2.76 kg and 5.07 mm, respectively. As a result, the SNP of porcine PIK3C3 discovered in this study could be utilized as a possible genetic marker for the selection of pigs that possess low levels of back fat and carcass fat at the slaughter weight.
Effects of Keratinocyte Growth Factor on the Uterine Endometrial Epithelial Cells in Pigs
Ka, Hak-Hyun ; Bazer, Fuller W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1708~1714
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1708
Keratinocyte growth factor (KGF) functions in epithelial growth and differentiation in many tissues and organs. KGF is expressed in the uterine endometrial epithelial cells during the estrous cycle and pregnancy in pigs, and receptors for KGF (KGFR) are expressed by conceptus trophectoderm and endometrial epithelia. KGF has been shown to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of conceptus trophectoderm. However, the role of KGF on the endometrial epithelial cells has not been determined. Therefore, this study determined the effect of KGF on proliferation and differentiation of endometrial epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo using an immortalized porcine luminal epithelial (pLE) cell line and KGF infusion into the uterine lumen of pigs between Days 9 and 12 of estrous cycle. Results showed that KGF did not stimulate proliferation of uterine endometrial epithelial cells in vitro and in vivo determined by the
H]thymidine incorporation assay and the proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining, respectively. Effects of KGF on expression of several markers for epithelial cell differentiation, including integrin receptor subunits
1, plasmin/trypsin inhibitor, uteroferrin and retinol-binding protein were determined by RT-PCR, Northern and slot blot analyses, and immunohistochemisty, and KGF did not affect epithelial cell differentiation in vitro and in vivo. These results show that KGF does not induce epithelial cell proliferation and differentiation, suggesting that KGF produced by endometrial epithelial cells acts on conceptus trophectoderm in a paracrine manner rather than on endometrial epithelial cells in an autocrine manner.
Nutritional Evaluation of Two Promising Varieties of Forage Sorghum in Sheep Fed as Silage
Mahanta, S.K. ; Pachauri, V.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1715~1720
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1715
Two promising varieties of forage sorghum viz. HD-15 and J. Sel-10 were identified for their higher forage yield (350-400 quintals per hectare) compared to traditional/existing variety, HC-136 at Indian Grassland and Fodder Research Institute, Jhansi. Silage of these three forage sorghum varieties viz., HD-15, J.Sel-10 and HC-136 were prepared in three concrete silos for their nutritional evaluation in sheep. Twelve adult Muzaffarnagari Ewes, divided into three equal groups of 4 each, were offered a particular variety of sorghum silage ad libitum over a period of 30 days followed by a 6 day metabolism trial and a collection of rumen liquor and blood samples. The HD-15 variety of forage sorghum silage contained higher crude protein (CP) than both the J.Sel-10 and HC-136. Average daily dry matter (DM) intake (% of live weight) differed significantly (p<0.05) in sheep that were fed the different varieties of silage, with the maximum amount in HD-15 (2.55) followed by J.Sel-10 (2.49) and HC-136 (1.84). The average apparent digestibility of all the nutrients was low in the sheep that were fed the HC-136 variety of sorghum silage when compared to both HD-15 and J.Sel-10. However, digestibility of organic matter (p<0.05) and crude protein (p<0.01) was significantly low in the HC-136 variety. The average daily nitrogen retention was-0.19, 2.15 and 0.42 g in HC-136, HD-15 and J.Sel-10, respectively which differed significantly (p<0.01). The average digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient (TDN) contents (%) of the silage varieties were higher in HD-15 (3.14 and 55.3) than HC-136 (0.25 and 58.6) and J.Sel-10 (1.58 and 55.3) varieties. On comparing to the maintenance requirements (ICAR, 1985) for dry matter, crude protein and total digestible nutrients, both the improved varieties (HD-15 and J.Sel-10) almost met the requirements except crude protein, which met only 73.3% of the requirement by J.Sel-10, while the HC-136 variety was unable to meet the requirements. The average rumen pH and total volatile fatty acids concentrations were comparable among the groups. However, concentrations of nitrogen metabolites were higher in the animals fed the HD-15 variety of silage. Varieties of sorghum silage also did not have any influence on the concentration of the blood metabolites. It was concluded that the HD-15 variety of sorghum silage was nutritionally superior to both J.Sel-10 and HC-136 silage.
Influence of Mentha×piperita L. (Peppermint) Supplementation on Nutrient Digestibility and Energy Metabolism in Lactating Dairy Cows
Hosoda, K. ; Nishida, T. ; Park, W.Y. ; Eruden, B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1721~1726
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1721
The characteristic smell of cow milk was suppressed when herbs were consumed by lactating dairy cows. But it is unclear whether or not peppermint ingestion affects the nutritional and milk production parameters in lactating dairy cows. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of peppermint feeding to lactating dairy cows on nutrient digestibility, energy metabolism, ruminal fermentation and milk production. Eight Holstein cows were given a diet supplemented with or without 5% of dried peppermint per diet on a dry matter basis. The digestion of nutrients from cows fed the diet with peppermint was significantly lower than that of the control group. Energy loss as methane and methane released from cows receiving the peppermint treatment was significantly lower than that in the control cows. Peppermint feeding to cows resulted in the promotion of thermogenesis. However, ruminal fermentation and milk production were not affected by peppermint feeding. In conclusion, peppermint ingestion by lactating dairy cows reduces the nutrient digestibility and methanogenesis, and changes energy metabolism.
Comparison of Fermentation Characteristics of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) during the Early Stage of Ensiling
Shao, Tao ; Zhang, Z.X. ; Shimojo, M. ; Wang, T. ; Masuda, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1727~1734
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1727
The fermentation characteristics and mono- and di-saccharides compositions during the early stage of ensiling were studied with a temperate grass, Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) and a tropical grass, guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.). The laboratory silos were kept in the room set at 25
, and then were opened on 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5 and 7 days (14 days in Italian ryegrass) after ensiling, respectively. The Italian ryegrass silage showed a fast and large pH decrease caused by a fast and large production of lactic acid during the first 5 days of ensiling and succeeded to achieve lactic acid type fermentation; high lactic acid/acetic acid and lactic acid content at the end of ensiling (14 days), low values of pH (3.74), acetic acid, ethanol and ammonia-N/total nitrogen, none or only small amounts of Butyric acid, valeric acid and propionic acid. The guineagrass silage showed a slow decrease in pH and a slow increase in lactic acid content during the full ensiling period, causing a high final pH value, low contents of lactic acid, acetic acid, total volatile fatty acids and total organic acids. In Italian ryegrass silage, mono- and di-saccharides compositions decreased largely within the initial 0.5 day (12 h) of ensiling. Sucrose disappeared rapidly within the initial 0.5 day of ensiling, but fructose and glucose contents showed an initial rise by the activity of enzymes in plant tissues, and then decreased gradually. On the other hand, the contents of monoand di-saccharides in guineagrass showed the largest decreases due mainly to plant respiration within the initial 0.5 day of ensiling, and no initial rises in fructose and glucose contents during the early stage of ensiling because of the absence of fructans which are hydrolyzed into fructose and glucose in temperate grasses. In both silages, the rate of reduction in mono- and di-saccharides compositions within the initial 5 days of ensiling was ranked in the order of glucose>fructose>sucrose, suggesting that glucose and fructose might be more favorably utilized than sucrose by microorganisms and glucose is the first fermentation substrate. It was concluded that the silage made from Italian ryegrass with high moisture content had a good fermentation quality owing to the dominance of lactic acid bacteria and active lactic acid fermentation during the initial stage of ensiling. These results can be explained by rapid plant sap liberation and the high activity of plant enzyme hydrolyzed fructans into fructose and glucose within the initial 2 days of ensiling, which stimulate the homofermentative lactic acid bacteria growth. In ensiling a temperate grass, the physical characteristics may ensure the rapid onset of fermentation phase, which results from the smaller losses of water-soluble carbohydrates during the initial stage of ensiling and providing sufficient water-soluble carbohydrates for lactic acid bacteria. The silage made from guineagrass with intermediate dry matter and high initial mono- and di-saccharides content was stable silage. This could be explained by the higher incorporation of air during the very early stage of ensiling and the restriction of cell breakdown and juice release due to the properties of a tropical grass with coarse porosity and stemmy structures. These physical characteristics delayed the onset of lactic acid bacteria fermentation phase by extending the phases of respiration and aerobic microorganisms activity, causing the higher loss of water-soluble carbohydrates and the shortage of lactic acid bacteria fermentation substrates.
Efficiency of Calf Production from Twin-bearing Beef Cows on an Intensive Pasture System in Subtropical Australia
Hennessy, D.W. ; Wilkins, J.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1735~1740
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1735
Forty-two single-bearing and 42 twin-bearing mature Angus
Hereford cows were allocated, seven per cell to 3 replications of 2 stocking rates (3.2 cows/ha; medium stocking rate [MSR], and 3.8 cows/ha; high stocking rate [HSR]) to graze summer-active and winter-active pastures from late pregnancy to the weaning of their calves. Cow liveweights and growth of calves were recorded as well as estimates of pasture quantity and forage intake. Pasture quantity did not differ in the paddocks grazed by single- and twin-bearing cows during pregnancy, nor effectively did forage intake. Subsequently, intake was higher during mid-lactation especially with twin-rearing cows (25% higher than single-rearing cows at the MSR; 9% at the HSR). However, quantity of pasture decreased for twin-rearing cows and was less than that available to single-rearing cows as lactation progressed. Liveweights of twinrearing cows decreased by 16% from late pregnancy to weaning at the MSR, and by 14% at the HSR, compared to decreases of 1% for single-rearing cows. Twin calves were lighter at birth, had slower growth rates, and were lighter at weaning than single calves. In spite of weaning smaller calves twinning increased the output (kg of calf weaned) per cow and per ha, and increased the efficiency (kg calf weaned per unit of forage eaten by the cow) over single calf production by 46% at the MSR and by 58% at the HSR. Twinning also increased the marginal returns from investment in high input pastures required by the enterprise.
Effect of Cellular Zinc on the Regulation of C2-ceramide Induced Apoptosis in Mammary Epithelial and Macrophage Cell Lines
Han, S.E. ; Lee, H.G. ; Yun, C.H. ; Hong, Z.S. ; Kim, S.H. ; Kang, S.K. ; Kim, S.H. ; Cho, J.S. ; Ha, S.H. ; Choi, YunJaie ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1741~1745
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1741
Zinc is a trace element that is associated with a stimulation of immune function and regulation of ion balance for livestock production. In this study, the effect of zinc as inhibitor to apoptosis-induced cells was examined in vitro using mammary epithelial cell line, HC11 and macrophage cell line, NCTC3749. Cell viability, measured by MTT assay, indicated that 10 g/ml of zinc had a negative impact on cellular activity and 50 ng/ml was chosen for further testing. Apoptosis was induced in cells treated with C2-ceramide in serum-free media. DNA fragmentation and gene expression of acidic sphingomyelinase (a gene responsible for the progress of apoptosis) were distinctively low in zinc treated cells compared with those in non-treated controls. In conclusion, zinc is involved in the regulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis in mammary epithelial cells and macrophages.
Sarsaponin Effects on Ruminal Fermentation and Microbes, Methane Production, Digestibility and Blood Metabolites in Steers
Lila, Zeenat Ara ; Mohammed, Nazimuddin ; Kanda, Shuhei ; Kurihara, Mitsunori ; Itabashi, Hisao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1746~1751
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1746
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sarsaponin on methane production, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion and blood metabolites using three Holstein steers in a 3
3 Latin Square design. The steers were fed Sudangrass hay plus concentrate mixture at a ratio 1.5:1 twice daily, and sarsaponin (0, 0.5 and 1% of DM), which was given at 09:00 and 17:00 h daily by mixing with concentrate. Rumen samples were collected 0, 2, and 5 h after morning dosing. Ruminal pH was numerically decreased and numbers of protozoa were decreased linearly (p<0.01) by treatment. Ruminal ammonia-N was reduced (linear; p<0.05) and total VFA was increased (quadratic; p<0.05) at 2 and 5 h after sarsaponin dosing. The molar proportion of acetate was decreased (quadratic; p<0.05) and propionate was increased (linear; p<0.01) at all sampling times. Blood plasma glucose was increased and urea-N was decreased (linear; p<0.05) at 2 and 5 h after dosing. Methane was decreased by approximately 12.7% (linear; p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of DM and NDF were decreased (quadratic; p<0.05) and that of CP remained unchanged due to the sarsaponin. The numbers of cellulolytic bacteria were decreased (quadratic; p<0.05), while numbers of total viable bacteria remained unchanged due to the sarsaponin. These results show that sarsaponin can partially inhibit rumen methanogenesis in vivo and improve ruminal fermentation, which supports our previous in vitro results.
Nutrition Practice to Alleviate the Adverse Effects of Stress on Laying Performance, Metabolic Profile and Egg Quality in Peak Producing Hens: II. The Probiotic Supplementation
Hayirli, Armagan ; Esenbuga, N. ; Macit, M. ; Yoruk, M.A. ; Yildiz, A. ; Karaca, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1752~1760
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1752
In this experiment, the effects of cage density (CD) and probiotic supplementation (PS) on laying performance, metabolic profile, and egg quality in peak-producing hens were evaluated. After blocking according to the cage location, Lohman layers (n = 180, 46 wks of age) were allocated randomly to two levels of CD (540 vs. 360
/hen) and three levels of PS (0, 0.15, and 0.30%). Probiotic contained Enterococcus faecium culture (10
cfu/g). Egg production (EP) and feed consumption (FC) were measured daily; egg weight (EW) was measured bi-weekly; BW was measured before and after the experiment; and blood samples were obtained at the end of the experiment. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Increasing CD decreased FC (125.0 vs. 120.8 g/d, p<0.0001) and FCR (1.93 vs. 1.87, p<0.0001) and did not alter EP, EW, and BW. Increasing level of PS linearly decreased FC (p<0.02) and FCR (p<0.006). Averages were 123.9, 123.2, and 121.6 g/d for FC and 1.91, 1.92, and 1.86 for FCR in hens supplemented with 0, 0.15, and 0.30% probiotic, respectively. Hens placed in high-density cages had greater serum corticosterone concentration than hens placed in normal-density cages (12.8 vs. 11.3
g/dL, p<0.04); CD did not affect concentrations of other metabolites. Increasing level of PS linearly increased serum glucose, albumin, and creatine concentrations and quadratically increased total protein, globulin, Ca, and P concentrations. Average concentrations (mg/dL) were 260, 297, and 305 for glucose; 6.28, 8.09, and 7.58 for total protein; 1.98, 2.48, and 2.38 for albumin; 4.30, 5.62, and 5.19 for globulin; 0.40, 0.52, and 0.54 for creatine; 16.0, 16.5, and 16.3 for Ca; and 6.27, 8.14, and 7.17 for P in hens supplemented with 0, 0.15, and 0.30% probiotic, respectively. There was no effect of CD on egg quality. Increasing level of PS linearly improved yolk color (YC) and quadratically increased albumen index (AI) and Haugh unit (HU). The mean values were 9.67, 9.75, and 10.58 for YC; 8.94, 6.93, and 8.72% for AI; and 85.6, 74.9, and 82.9 for HU for hens supplemented with 0, 0.15, and 0.30% probiotic, respectively. There was also CD by PS effect on FC, EP, and serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatine, Ca and P concentrations. In conclusion, increased CD partially depressed laying performance and caused stress. Probiotic supplementation improved laying performance and metabolic profile. It also partially alleviated the adverse effects of stress resulting from increased caging density.
Effects of Alpha-galactosidase Supplementation to Corn-soybean Meal Diets on Nutrient Utilization, Performance, Serum Indices and Organ Weight in Broilers
Wang, C.L. ; Lu, W.Q. ; Li, Defa ; Xing, J.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1761~1768
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1761
Effects of alpha-galactosidase (GAL) on broiler corn-soybean meal diet was investigated. In experiment 1, sixty cockerels were allocated to five groups, including three enzyme treatments (GAL added at 0, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg diet), a nitrogen-free diet group and a fast group. The true nitrogen-corrected ME (TME
) and true amino acid availability were determined. In experiment 2, 324 day-old chicks were used in a 2
3 factorial design consisting of two energy contents (high and low) and three GAL levels (0, 250, and 500 mg/kg). Three feeding phases, comprising 0-21 d, 22-35 d and 36-48 d, were involved. GAL addition improved TME
and the availability of methionine and cystine (p<0.05). The apparent ME (AME) or nitrogen-corrected AME (AME
) and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, calcium, and phosphorus were improved significantly on d 21, so was crude protein and an interaction of energy and GAL on AME
(p<0.05) was found on d 35. However, daily intake and daily gain were significantly improved with GAL addition (p<0.05) during 21 d. The small intestine relative weight decreased at 250 mg/kg GAL (p<0.05) on d 35, whereas presented an interaction between GAL and energy on d 21 (p<0.05). Likewise, this treatment increased breast muscle ratio (p<0.05). On d 21, triglycerides level of broilers showed interaction between energy and enzyme levels (p<0.05). Uric acid level in 500 mg/kg GAL declined linearly (p<0.05). On d 35, quadratic effects (p<0.05) were observed in total protein, albumin, globulin and cholesterol content for enzyme supplementation. And the interactive effects of energy and GAL on serum values showed more obviously. The study implies that GAL improved energy and nutrient availability of corn-soybean meal diet in broiler. The GAL supplementation to corn-soybean meal based diet can improve performance of broilers in early stages of growth.
Effects of Green Tea Powder on Laying Performance and Egg Quality in Laying Hens
Uuganbayar, D. ; Bae, I.H. ; Choi, K.S. ; Shin, I.S. ; Firman, J.D. ; Yang, C.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1769~1774
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1769
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of feeding green tea powder on laying performance and egg quality in hens. A total 180 'Tetran Brown' laying hens aged 40 weeks were assigned to 6 treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment consisted of five replicates accommodating six layers per replication. The experimental diets were a negative control containing no green tea, a positive control diet containing antibiotics (0.05% chlortetracycline) and diets containing 0.5%, 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% green tea powder. Egg production rate of layers fed the diets containing green tea powder did not differ significantly from that of the negative and positive controls (p>0.05). Egg weight was decreased significantly in the group fed the diet containing 0.5% green tea powder (p<0.05). Feed intake of layers was significantly higher for the diet containing 1.5% green tea powder compared to that of negative and positive control diets (p<0.05). The eggshell thickness reduced significantly in the layer group fed the diets containing green tea powder regardless of dietary levels (p<0.05). Green tea powder tended to reduce egg yolk cholesterol in this experiment. Particularly, dietary 2% level of green tea powder significantly suppressed the cholesterol contents of the egg yolk (p<0.05). Thiobarbituric acid value (TBA) of egg yolk was significantly reduced by green tea diets (p<0.05). The yellowness of egg yolk was increased in the layers fed the 2.0% green tea diet compared with that of control diet (p<0.005). The Linoleic and
-linolenic acids tended to increase in the group fed diets containing 1.5% green tea powder even though there were no significant differences among treatments (p>0.05). The oleic and docosahexaenoic acid contents of the egg yolk were similar among treatments (p>0.05). Based on the results of the experiment, it is concluded that green tea powder inclusion in the diet for layers at 2.0% level can reduce the cholesterol content and TBA value of the egg yolk, implying its potential effect on egg quality parameters.
Effects of Lead and Particulate Montmorillonite on Growth Performance, Hormone and Organ Weight in Pigs
Yu, DongYou ; Xu, Z.R. ; Yang, X.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1775~1779
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1775
Seventy-two crossbred gilts of approximately 33 kg initial weight were used in this study. The gilts were randomly assigned into three groups. The three dietary treatments were basal diet only (control group), basal diet+10 mg/kg lead, and basal diet+10 mg/kg lead+0.5% particulate montmorillonite (PM). The results showed that the addition of lead to the diet decreased significantly the body weight and feed efficiency, but PM could restore body weight and feed efficiency of gilts compared to the Pb exposure group. There were no significant differences in weights of ovaries and uteri with addition of either lead or PM to the diet. Supplementing the lead in the diet of gilts also significantly increased the concentration of lead in blood, decreased circulating lutenizing hormone (LH) and estradiol (E
) levels in serum, the addition of PM to the diet effectively adsorbed and lowered lead concentration in the blood. These data suggested that lead disrupts the signals between the hypothalamus and pituitary gland in gilts, and possibly suppressed the secretion of relative growth hormone and sex hormone. On the other hand, PM may ameliorate Pb toxicity in pigs.
Purification and Characterization of Very Low Density Lipoprotein in Commercial Broiler and Crossbred Village Chickens by Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography
Tan, B.K. ; Foo, H.L. ; Loh, Teck Chwen ; Norhani, A. ; Zulkifli, I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1780~1785
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1780
Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) of commercial broiler (CB) and crossbred village chicken (AK) was purified using Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). The fraction collected was then confirmed as VLDL using 4% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size of VLDL is 46.8
8.6 nm. The VLDL fraction was then subfractionated and the apolipoprotein (apo) profile was studied by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDSPAGE). The CB and AK have almost similar types of apo in both subfractions 1 and 2. The AK showed the presence of apoAI, AIV, D and E whereas the CB had apo AIV, D, E and H. The apo AIV and apo E were present in both subfractions of AK and CB.
Fatty Acid Profiles and Sensory Properties of Longissimus dorsi, Triceps brachii, and Semimembranosus Muscles from Korean Hanwoo and Australian Angus Beef
Cho, Soohyun ; Park, B.Y. ; Kim, J.H. ; Hwang, I.H. ; Kim, J.H. ; Lee, J.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1786~1793
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1786
The study compared the fatty acid profiles of 3 muscles (Longissimus dorsi, LD, Triceps brachii, TB and Semimembranosus, SM) obtained from Korean Hanwoo (18 steers, 24 months old) and Australian Angus beef (18 steers, 24 months old) and assessed their role in sensory perception. The samples of each carcass were prepared in the same manner, and cooked both as traditional grilled steaks and Korean BBQ style. A total of 720 Korean sensory panelists evaluated the beef samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking. Oleic acid (18:1) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in TB than that in LD and SM. The essential linoleic acid (C18:2) was significantly (p<0.05) higher in TB and SM than that in LD. For LD muscle, the proportion of saturated fatty acids was significantly (p<0.05) highest, while that of polyunsaturated fatty acids was lowest among the three muscles. Australian Angus beef had significantly (p<0.05) higher n-3 PUFA than that of the Korean Hanwoo for the three muscles, while the latter contained significantly (p<0.05) higher n-6 PUFA than that of the former. The clustering analysis showed that there a was significant difference in fatty acids such as C16:0, C16:1n7, C18:0, C18:2n6, C18:3n3, C20:3n6, C20:4n6, C22:4n6, and C22:5n3 for sensory perception (tenderness, juiciness, flavor and overall likeness) of the beef from two origins (p<0.05) among three clusters. Especially, C14:0 had a significant effect on sensory perception only for Korean Hanwoo beef; while C20:5n3 had a significant (p<0.05) effect only for Australian Angus beef based on clustering with the sensory variables.
Cholesterol Removal from Homogenized Milk with Crosslinked β-cyclodextrin by Adipic Acid
Han, Eun-Mi ; Kim, Song-Hee ; Ahn, Joungjwa ; Kwak, Hae-Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1794~1799
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1794
The present study was carried out to develop crosslinking of
-CD) using adipic acid, and to determine the optimum conditions of different factors (
-CD concentration, mixing temperature, mixing time and mixing speed) on cholesterol reduction from homogenized milk. Crosslinked
-CD was prepared with adipic acid. When the milk was treated with different conditions, the cholesterol removal rate was in the range of 92.1 to 93.1% with 1%
-CD addition, which were not significantly different among treatments. After cholesterol removal from milk, the used crosslinked
-CD was washed for cholesterol dissociation and reused. For recycling study, the cholesterol removal rate in the first trial was 92.5%, which was mostly same as that using new crosslinked
-CD. With repeated ten time trials using same sample, 81.4% of cholesterol was removed from milk. Therefore, the present study indicated that the optimum conditions for cholesterol removal using crosslinked
-CD were 1%
-CD addition and 10 min mixing with 400 rpm speed at 5
with over 90% cholesterol removal. In addition, crosslinked
-CD made by adipic acid resulted in the effective recycling efficiency.
Present Scenario and Future Prospects of Phytase in Aquafeed - Review -
Debnath, Dipesh ; Sahu, N.P. ; Pal, A.K. ; Baruah, Kartik ; Yengkokpam, Sona ; Mukherjee, S.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 12, 2005, Pages 1800~1812
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1800
Aquaculture pollution is a major concern among the entrepreneurs, farmers and researchers. Excess discharge of phosphorus and nitrogen into the water bodies is the principal pollutant responsible for this. Plant-based feed ingredients due to its high phytic acid content enhances both nitrogen and phosphorus discharge thereby increasing the pollution level. Dietary phytase treatment is probably the best answer to address this problem. This review explains the nature and properties of phytate, its interactions with other nutrients and the application of phytase in aquafeed to reduce the pollution. This review also covers the different biotechnological aspects for lowering the phytic acid level in the common aquafeed ingredients, as an alternate approach to controlling the pollution level. Some of future research needs have also been highlighted to attract the attention of more researchers to this area.