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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Relationship between Genetic Variants of Mitochondrial DNA and Growth Traits in Hanwoo Cattle
Jeon, G.J. ; Chung, H.Y. ; Choi, J.G. ; Lee, M.S. ; Lee, C.W. ; Park, J.J. ; Ha, J.M. ; Lee, H.K. ; Sung, H.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 301~307
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.301
Genetic variants of Hanwoo mtDNA in the region of cytochrome oxidase subunit I, II and III complex were detected using restriction enzymes. PCR primers were designed based on the bovine mtDNA sequence, and 6 primer sets (Mt4, Mt5, Mt6, Mt7, Mt8 and Mt9) were used. A total of 20 restriction enzymes were used, and 6 restriction enzymes, which were Hinf I, Pvu II, Rsa I, Eco RI, Bgl II, and Msp I, showed genetic polymorphisms. Significant associations between genetic variants and weight traits were observed at WT15 (p<0.05) and WT18 (p<0.01) with Pvu II for Mt9, Bgl II for Mt6 and Rsa I for Mt8 segments in the region of cytochrome oxidase subunit complex. Significant associations were also observed at Mt9-Pvu II and Mt6-Bgl II segments for WT9 (p=0.01), WT12 (p=0.02), respectively. These results suggest that genetic variants of mtDNA in the region of cytochrome oxidase subunit complex may be candidate segments for improvement of animal growth as weight traits.
Odds Ratio and Probability of Conception of Holstein Friesian Dairy Cows in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Ali, A.K.A. ; ALEssa, A.A. ; Alshaikh, M.A. ; Aljumaah, R.S. ; Al-Haidary, A.A. ; Alkraidees, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 308~313
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.308
Logistic Regression Analysis was used to compute the odds ratio (OR) and probability of conception of Holstein dairy cows of AL-MARAIE company. Data consisted of 103,778 reproductive records collected from three farms in the central region in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Records were classified according to lactation number, season of calving and milk level. At first lactation, OR of first service was 0.63 of other services and probability of pregnancy from first services was 0.39. Odds ratio increased to 1.72 at fourth lactation or probability of conception reached 0.63. The probability of conception increased from 0.39 for cows inseminated at first services to 0.75 at fifth service insemination. Odds ratio of cows calving in winter were higher than those calving in summer. Odds ratio of conception of low producing cows is about twice as likely to occur from first service as from other services. However, OR of conception of high producing cows was higher than one (probability=0.56) from first service and increased to 1.63 (probability=0.65) from third service. Odds ratio was in favor of the right uterus horn where probability of conception from first service was slightly greater than 50% in first and second lactations and less than 50% in favor of left horn in later lactations.
Comparison of Two Different Schemes of Once-weekly Ovum Pick Up in Dairy Heifers
Yang, Xiao-Yu ; Li, Hua ; Huang, Wen-Ying ; Huang, Shu-Zhen ; Zeng, Yi-tao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 314~319
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.314
To compare two different schemes, continuous scheme (CS) and discontinuous scheme (DCS), of once-weekly ovum pick up (OPU) with ultrasound-guided follicular puncture technique, Holstein heifers were randomly divided into two groups of five. After characterization of their two normal estrous cycles, the heifers were subjected to consecutive 20 weeks of once-weekly OPU under two schemes: the CS (one week interval between continuous OPU, total 100 OPU sessions performed) and the DCS (OPU fixed to the day 3 and day 10 of each estrus). Then, the status of ovaries and artificial insemination results were observed. On oocyte yield, the total number of punctured follicles using DCS was lower than that using CS, but the mean numbers of punctured follicles and recovered oocytes per session were higher in DCS than CS group. So the total number of recovered oocytes was similar in both groups. There were also no differences in the quality of recovered oocytes, nor in the developmental ability of oocytes fertilized in vitro between groups. The heifers in the DCS group showed regular estrous cycles with stable estrous signs through the periods of before, during, and after OPU, while those in CS group showed longer estrous cycles and less estrous signs during and/or after OPU compared with before period. Furthermore, the mean number of inseminations required for obtaining pregnancy after completion of the experiments was lower in DCS than CS group. The research demonstrates that similar quantity and quality oocytes can be achieved, and the side effects on donors are lower in DCS that needs fewer OPUs than CS group, and DCS is superior to CS.
Effect of Different Level of Monensin Supplemented with Cold Process Urea Molasses Mineral Block on In vitro Rumen Fermentation at Different Days of Adaptation with Monensin
De, Debasis ; Singh, G.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 320~325
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.320
Effect of period of adaptation and levels of monensin were studied for microbial fermentation/ digestibility to find out the optimum period of adaptation of monensin in rumen and suitable level of monensin in wheat straw+concentrate and wheat straw+UMMB diet. The mean digestibility of dry matter was decreased upto T-3 treatment (49.17%), however, digestibility of DM was affected upto period (P-2). NDF digestibility was affected due to treatment under P1 and P2 (p<0.05). Average digestibility of ADF was increased to 53.33% at T-3 level of monensin and P4 days of adaptation. TVFA (mmole/100 ml) were decreased from 9.49 in T-1 to 7.70 in T-7. Periods were not effectives except P2 (14 days of adaptation). Similarly, total gas was decrease with the increase of monensin levels in diet. Although acetate percentage in TVFA was not affected either due to level of monensin or period of adaptation but propionate was increased due to increase in monensin at 21 days of adaptation (P-3). Butyrate (%) was decreased significantly in T-2 to T-6 as compared to T-1 group. Total gas was significantly (p<0.01) higher in group T-1 (control) and it reduced significantly in T-5, however, differences in gas production between group T-3, T-5 and T-7 at P-1 was not significant. Methane production was reduced on P-3 and P-4 level of adaptation due to treatment. The overall result indicated that 21 days of adaptation with monensin was sufficient to mask the inhibiting effect of monensin to cell wall digestibility and 35 ppm monensin is optimum to reduce methane production and increase propionate productions.
Effect of Protein Sources on Rumen Microbial Protein Synthesis Using Rumen Simulated Continuous Culture System
Joo, J.W. ; Bae, G.S. ; Min, W.K. ; Choi, H.S. ; Maeng, W.J. ; Chung, Y.H. ; Chang, M.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 326~331
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.326
A rumen simulated continuous culture (RSCC) system was used to study the influence of supplementation of the three different types of protein sources such as urea, casein and soy protein on rumen microbial synthesis in terms of rumen microbial synchronization. The urea treatment showed the highest pH value. Ammonia nitrogen concentration was rapidly increased after feeding and not significantly different in the urea treatment (13.53 mg/100 ml). Protozoa numbers were not significantly different for soy protein and casein treatment compared to urea treatments during incubation. The average concentration of total VFA (mMol) was not detected with significant difference among treatments, but iso-butyrate production showed the highest for soy protein treatment among treatments (p<0.001). The lowest concentration in total iso-acids (iso-butyrate and iso-valerate) production was observed in urea treatment. The soy protein treatment showed no significantly change in acetate/propionate. The amounts of dry matter (DM) out flow showed no significant difference among treatments. Organic matter (OM) flow was the highest for urea treatments and the lowest for casein treatment (p<0.03). The nitrogen flow for casein treatment was not significantly different from other treatments. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in terms of microbial nitrogen (MN) synthesis (g MN/kg ADOM) digested in the rumen was highest for casein treatment (58.53 g MN/kg ADOM) compared to soy protein and urea (p<0.05). This result suggests that rumen ammonia releasing rate may influence on microbial protein synthesis in the rumen.
Effect of Transinoculation of Goat Rumen Liquor on Degradation and Metabolism of Mimosine in Sheep Fed with Leucaena leucocephala Leaves
Vaithiyanathan, S. ; Sheikh, Q. ; Kumar, Ravindra ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 332~339
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.332
The effect of transinoculation of goat rumen liquor into sheep rumen on mimosine toxicity was studied. One adult Kutchi male goat having higher mimosine degradation capacity than sheep was gradually adapted to Leucaena leucocephala (Leucaena) leaves by feeding increasing level of eucaena leaves supplementation for 1 month. Six Bharat Merino rams (12-18 months of age) were divided into two equal groups with (group I) or without (group II) infusion of 200 ml of goat rumen liquor per animal. The mimosine degradation in groups I and II were 3.04 and 2.31; 3.90 and 3.73 mg per day per 10 ml rumen liquor respectively after 1 and 2 weeks of leucaena feeding leaves. Total rumen bacterial population in RGCA medium and in a selective medium containing iron showed an increasing trend in both groups, while the bacterial population growing in the presence of cellulose showed a decreasing trend. Animal performance data did not show any adverse effect. Results revealed that transinoculation of rumen liquor from leucaena leaves adapted goat to sheep rumen did not help to improve mimosine degradation in the sheep. The sheep transinoculated with goat rumen liquor displayed no in vivo improvements in nutrient utilization vis-a-vis mimosine metabolism.
Influence of Ripening Stages on the Quality of Whole Crop Silage and Grain Silage of Fodder Rice
Maruyama, S. ; Yokoyama, I. ; Asai, H. ; Sakaguchi, S. ; Ohtani, T. ; Yokota, H. ; Kita, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 340~344
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.340
In high-income Asian countries like Korea and Japan, per capita rice consumption has declined because of the change in consumer' favorite foods from rice to high-cost quality foods. This has forced farmers to reduce rice production. Although fodder rice could be another option to be cultured by farmers, available information concerning rice grain silage has been limited. In the present study, therefore, the difference in the quality of fodder rice silage prepared from either whole crop or grain at different ripening stages was compared. Various supplements were also added into whole crop and grain silages of fodder rice before ensiling, and thereafter, the palatability of prepared silages was determined by beef cattle. At ear emergence stage, the pH values for both grain and whole crop silages were approximately 4.5. In both grain and whole crop silages, the pH values were significantly increased by progressing ripening stages from milk-ripe stage to yellow-ripe stages, and the increase in pH value for grain silage was faster than that for whole crop silage. In the grain silage, the higher lactic acid (LA) content in grain silage seemed to be, the lower pH value was. Both in grain and whole crop silages, pH was significantly decreased by supplementation with LA bacteria. There were no significant differences in feed intake among any treatment groups.
Feeding of Whole Sugar Cane to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season
Suksombat, W. ; Mernkrathoke, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 345~349
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.345
A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding chopped whole sugar cane compared to corn silage on performances of dairy cows during the dry season. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 16.5
2.0 kg of milk, 121
22 days in milk, 54.5
4.5 months old and 440
31 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to two treatment groups (12 cows in each group). The first group was fed corn silage together with commercial concentrate while the second group was fed chopped whole sugar cane together with commercial concentrate. All cows consumed similar DM, however, cows on corn silage consumed more CP while cows on chopped whole sugar cane consumed more
. No significant differences in performances between the two groups were observed except for final live weight and body weight change. Cows on chopped whole sugar cane showed higher final live weight and gained more weight than cows on corn silage. The present study clearly indicates that chopped whole sugar cane can be fed to lactating dairy cows, while giving similar milk yield to corn silage.
Effect of Intraruminal Sucrose Infusion on Volatile Fatty Acid Production and Microbial Protein Synthesis in Sheep
Kim, K.H. ; Lee, S.S. ; Kim, K.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 350~353
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.350
Effects of sucrose supplement on the pattern of VFA production and microbial protein synthesis in the rumen were examined in sheep consuming basal diet of grass silage (2.5 kg fresh wt/d) that was provided in 24 equal meals each day by an automatic feeder. Four mature wethers were allocated to four experimental treatments in a 4
4 Latin square design with periods lasting 14 days. The treatments were (1) the basal diet, (2) supplemented with 150 g sucrose and 7.0 g urea, (3) 300 g sucrose and 13 g urea, and (4) 450 g sucrose and 20 g urea given as a continuous intraruminal infusion for 24 h. All infusions were given in 2 litres of aqueous solution per day using a peristaltic pump. The effect of sucrose level on rumen mean pH was significantly linear (p<0.01). There were not significant differences in the concentration of ammonia-N, total VFA and the molar proportions of acetate, propionate and butyrate with the level of sucrose infusion. The molar proportions of isobutyric acid (p<0.05) and isovaleric acid (p<0.001) were significantly reduced when the infused amount of sucrose was increased. The flow of microbial N was linearly (p<0.001) increased with sucrose and urea level. High levels of readily fermentable carbohydrate in a ration reduced the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. It was demonstrated that of the individual fatty acids, only the molar proportion of isovalerate showed a significant negative correlation (R2=
) with the amount of microbial N produced and a significant positive correlation (R2=
) with the efficiency of microbial growth.
Effects of Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Incubation Conditions on the In vitro Degradability of Yeast and Roughage
Ando, S. ; Nishiguchi, Y. ; Hayasaka, K. ; Yoshihara, Y. ; Takahashi, J. ; Iefuji, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 354~357
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.354
The in vitro degradability of yeast and the effect of yeast on the in vitro degradability of forage may differ in terms of the specific yeast strains or their incubation conditions. Thus in experiment 1, two strains of sake yeast (strainK7 and strainK9) and one strain of bakers' yeast (KY5649) were incubated in an aerobic condition. In experiment 2, aerobically or anaero bically incubated K7 was used for investigating the in vitro degradability of yeast, the effect of yeast on the in vitro degradability of forage, and the degradability of yeast by pepsin and pronase treatment. The in vitrodegradability of bakers' yeast was significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of sake yeasts. The in vitro degradability of anaerobically incubated yeast was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of aerobically incubated yeast. The degradability of bakers' yeast by pepsin treatment was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of the sake yeasts. The degradability of bakers' yeast by pronase treatment was slightly higher than that of the two sake yeasts, while the degradability of anaerobically incubated yeast by both enzymes, respectively, was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of aerobically incubated yeast. The degradability of forages was increased significantly (p<0.05) by the addition of yeasts. The degradability of roughage by sake yeast tended to be higher than that by the bakers' yeast. The degradability of roughage was significantly (p<0.05) higher by anaerobically incubated yeast than by aerobically incubated yeast. Given the above results, it seems that in vitro degradability of yeast and the magnitude of the increment of roughage degradation differ among the yeast strains and their incubation conditions.
Model to Predict Absorbed Amino Acid Supply at the Proximal Duodenum in Growing Beef Cattle
Yan, Xianghua ; Xu, Zirong ; Zhang, Wen-ju ; Wang, Jiaqi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 358~363
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.358
Five crossbred beef cattle (Simmental
yellow cattle, Shantung Province) fitted with permanent cannulae in the rumen and T-type cannulae at the proximal duodenum and terminal ileum, were fed five different diets containing corn, cotton meal or soybean meal and ammoniated straw to determine the dry matter, crude protein and amino acid flows in duodenal and ileum digesta, and to calculate the regression equations between theoretical and experimental concentration of AA in duodenal digesta. The results showed that there was a strong correlation between experimental (g/d, y) and theoretical CP flows (g/d, x) at the proximal duodenum, the
-value regression equation of crude protein is very high (0.9636). The
-value regression equation of the limiting amino acid (such as Met or Lys) is high (0.7573 or 0.9252 respectively). This results indicated that we can formulate better diets fed to beef cattle according to the theoretical amino acid concentration. A mathematical model has been successfully constructed for predicting the supply of absorbed amino acids at the proximal duodenum in growing beef cattle.
Effect of Sauropus Androgynus (Katuk) Extract on Egg Production and Lipid Metabolism in Layers
Santoso, U. ; Setianto, J. ; Suteky, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 364~369
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.364
The present study was conducted to evaluate effect of Sauropus androgynus extract (SAE) on egg production and lipid metabolism in layer chickens. Forty-eight layers aged 42 weeks (strain RIR) were distributed to 6 treatment groups as follows. One group was fed diet without SAE as the control (
), and other five groups were fed diet plus hot water-extracted SAE at level of 9 g/kg diet (
), diet plus ethanol extracted SAE at level of 0.9 g/kg diet (
), diet plus ethanol extracted SAE at level of 1.8 g/kg (
), diet plus methanol extracted SAE at level of 0.9 g/kg (
), and diet plus methanol extracted SAE at level of 1.8 g/kg (
). It was shown that SAE inclusion significantly increased egg production (p<0.05). Methanol-extracted SAE groups had lower egg production than ethanol-extracted SAE group (p<0.05). SAE supplemented groups had better feed conversion efficiency than the unsupplemented group (p<0.05). It was shown that ethanol extracted SAE resulted in the lowest feed conversion efficiency among the SAE supplemented groups (p<0.05). SAE supplementation significantly reduced abdominal fat, gizzard surrounded fat, liver fat (p<0.05), serum triglyceride, total cholesterol, VLDL+LDL-c (p<0.01), atherogenic index (p<0.05), egg cholesterol and triglyceride (p<0.05), but it had no effect on mesenteric fat, sartorial fat and fatty liver score. In conclusion, SAE supplementation could increase egg production but reduced egg cholesterol.
Effects of Lactobacillus reuteri-based Direct-fed Microbial Supplementation for Growing-Finishing Pigs
Shon, K.S. ; Hong, J.W. ; Kwon, O.S. ; Min, B.J. ; Lee, W.B. ; Kim, I.H. ; Park, Y.H. ; Lee, I.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 370~374
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.370
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of direct-fed microbial supplementation on the growth performance and nutrient digestibility in pigs. In experiment 1, forty eight pigs were used in a 42-d growth assay. There were four pigs per pen and three pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included 1) NC (without antibiotic basal diet), 2) PC (NC diet+0.1% antibiotic, 100 g/kg chlortetracycline), 3) DFM-1 (NC diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus salivarius complex) and 4) DFM-2 (NC diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus salivarius, Lactobacillus plantarum and Yeast complex). For the overall period, no treatment had significant effects in growth performance. In the nutrition digestibility, the pigs fed DFM diets were improved in DM and N digestibility compared with the pigs fed NC and PC diets but it was not significantly different. In experiment 2, sixty four crossbred pigs were used in a 98-d growth assay. There were four pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included 1) HND (high nutrient diet), 2) LND (low nutrient diet), 3) HND+DFM (HND diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus plantarum complex) and 4) LND+DFM (LND diet+0.2% Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus plantarum complex). For overall period of growing phase, the pigs fed LND diets had improved gain/feed (p=0.01) and for overall period in the finishing phase, the pigs fed LND with DFM diets had higher ADG, ADFI and gain/feed than the others but there were no significant differences (p>0.13). In total period of growing-finishing phase, the pigs fed LND diet had higher gain/feed than the pigs fed HND diets (p<0.05). In growing phase, there were not significant differences among the treatments means for DM and N digestibility. However, the pigs fed diets with DFM had improved N digestibility (p<0.02) compared to the pigs fed diets without DFM in finishing phase. In conclusion, DFM slightly improved the growth performance in growing-finishing pigs.
Effect of Polyherbal Feed Supplement "Growell" during Induced Aflatoxicosis, Ochratoxicosis and Combined Mycotoxicoses in Broilers
Kalorey, D.R. ; Kurkure, N.V. ; Ramgaonkar, J.S. ; Sakhare, P.S. ; Warke, Shubhangi ; Nigot, N.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 375~383
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.375
An experiment was conducted to study the protective role of polyherbal feed supplement (Growell) during induced mycotoxicosis in broilers. A total of 240 Vencobb broilers were divided at day old stage into eight equal groups. Group A served as control and was given plain feed, group B, D, F and H were given Growell at 0.35 g/kg of feed. Group C, D, G and H were given dietary aflatoxin
at 0.2 ppm and groups E, F, G and H were given ochratoxin A at 0.2 ppm in feed to study effect of Growell on individual aflatoxicosis, ochratoxicosis and combined mycotoxicosis of broilers. The chicks were given their respective feeds from 1st day to 6th week of age and were vaccinated at 7th and 28th day of age with Lasota strain of Newcastle disease virus. There was no statistically significant effect of mycotoxins individually or in combination on body weight of broilers. However, body weights were highest in group B and lowest in co-mycotoxicated group G. Feed conversion ratio was best in group B followed by A, D, F, E, H and G. Significant improvement in haemoglobin values was observed in broilers due to feeding of Growell in ochratoxin and co-mycotoxicated groups. There was no significant effect of mycotoxin treatment on PCV, TEC and TLC of broilers. Due to single and combined mycotoxicosis, there was reduction in serum total protein, albumin, cholesterol and triglyceride and rise in alkaline phosphatase, creatinine and uric acid levels. Supplementation of diets with Growell reduced the alterations induced due to mycotoxins. There was a significant rise in per cent organ weight of liver and reduction of that of spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus of broilers fed mycotoxins. Protection from alteration in per cent organ weight of these organ by supplementation of Growell was recorded. The observed impaired immune response and histopathological changes in liver, kidney, spleen, bursa of Fabricius and thymus of broilers given mycotoxins were protected by supplementation of Growell.
Effects of Feeding Rice Protein Concentrate on Growth Performance and Ileal Digestibility in Early-weaned Pigs
Yun, J.H. ; Yong, J.S. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 384~389
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.384
These experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding value of rice protein concentrate (RPC) in weaning pigs. In expt. I, a 5-week feeding trial was conducted with 126 pigs (L
D; 21 d-old; 5.32
0.34 kg). Treatments were spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP; control), soy protein concentrate (SPC) and RPC (phase 1), and dried porcine soluble (DPS; control), SPC and RPC (phase 2). An ileal digestibility trial was also conducted to compare digestibility of amino acids in the tested protein sources. In expt. II, 160 weaning pigs (L
D; 21 d-old; 5.65
0.35 kg) were used in a 5-week feeding trial to determine the optimal inclusion level of RPC in the diet. Treatments were control (9% SPC), and three levels of RPC instead of SPC in the diets (3, 6 and 9%). During phase 1, pigs fed SDPP showed better (p<0.05) ADG and FCR compared with those fed SPC or RPC, while there was no difference in ADFI among treatments. During phase 2, however, pigs fed DPS showed lower (p<0.05) ADG than those fed SPC or RPC. During the total period, there were no significant differences in ADG, ADFI and FCR among treatments. The apparent ileal digestibilities of his, lys, phe, thr and met were not different among the tested protein sources. The apparent ileal digestibilities of arg, ile, leu and val were lower (p<0.05) in RPC than SDPP. The true ileal digestibilities of arg and leu were lower (p<0.05) in RPC than SDPP and SPC. However, that of met was higher (p<0.05) in RPC than SDPP. In expt. II, there were no significant differences in ADG and FCR when SPC was substituted with RPC up to 9% during the total period. In conclusion, based on our experimental results, RPC would replace SPC in the complex prestarter diet, which is somewhat cheaper than SPC.
Using Varying Levels of Formic Acid to Limit Growth of Salmonella gallinarum in Contaminated Broiler Feed
Al-Natour, Mohammad Q. ; Alshawabkeh, Khalil M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 390~395
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.390
Reported here are the effects of added formic acid on inhibitory effect of Salmonella gallinarum in poultry feed. Two experiments were conducted to investigate the viability of S. gallinarum and pH of poultry feed using different dietary formic acid levels (0.0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%) on inhibitory effect of S. gallinarum in broiler feed. Experiment one was conducted to investigate the viability of S. gallinarum and pH of artificially contaminated diet at 0, 1, 3, 5 and 7 days after treatment in vitro. Formic acid showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in the viability for all treatments with time after treatment. Various formic acid levels in vitro showed a reduction in the pH of the diet depending upon the concentration of treated acid, and the diet remained acidic below the growth range of S. gallinarum. This meant that the bacterial cells were exposed to stressful conditions that made them unable to grow. Experiment two was conducted to find out the effect of dietary formic acid levels on S. gallinarum colonization and pH in the contents of crop, small intestine, large intestine and ceca and mortality rate of broiler chicks at 7, 14 and 21 days of age when fed artificially contaminated diet with S. gallinarum. The numbers of S. gallinarum re-isolated from all treated groups except in groups treated with 0.5% formic acid, decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared with the control group. The treatment significantly (p<0.05) lowered the pH of the crop, small intestine, large intestine and ceca contents in all groups except the groups treated with 0.5% formic acid compared with the control. All treated groups showed a significant (p<0.05) reduction in overall mortality rate during the experimental period (3 to 21 days) compared with the control. The results indicate that addition of formic acid in a total concentration of 1.5% to the diet of newly hatched broiler chicks significantly decreases the contamination of diet with S. gallinarum.
Post Prandial Plasma Free Arginine Concentrations Increase in Rainbow Trout Fed Arginine-deficient Diets
Park, Gunjun ; Bai, Sungchul C. ; Ok, Im-ho ; Han, Kyungmin ; Hung, Silas S.O. ; Rogers, Quinton R. ; Min, Taesun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 396~402
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.396
Three experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary arginine concentrations on plasma free amino acid (PAA) concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). The first experiment was conducted to determine appropriate post-prandial and food deprivation sampling times in dorsal aorta cannulated rainbow trout averaging 519
9.5 g (mean
. Blood samples were taken at 0, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 24 h after feeding (0 and 24 h blood samples were taken from the same group of fish). PAA concentrations increased by 2 h post-feeding and the concentration of all essential amino acids except histidine peaked at 5 h and returned to 0 time values by 24 h. In the second experiment dorsal aorta cannulated rainbow trout averaging 528
11.3 g (mean
SD) were divided into 6 groups of 4 fish to study the effect of dietary arginine levels on PAA. After 24 h food deprivation, each group of fish was fed one of six L-amino acid diets containing graded levels of arginine (0.48, 1.08, 1.38, 1.68, 1.98 or 2.58%) by intubation. Blood samples were taken at 0, 5 and 24 h after feeding. Post-prandial (5 h after feeding) plasma-free arginine concentrations (PParg) showed a breakpoint at 1.03% arginine in the diet and post-absorptive (24 h after feeding) plasma free-arginine concentrations (PAarg) showed a breakpoint at 1.38% arginine. PAarg increased linearly from fish fed diets containing arginine between 0.48% and 1.38%, and the concentrations remained constant from fish fed diets containing arginine at or above 1.38%, but were all below PParg at all time points. Results of the third experiment confirm the results that PParg concentrations from fish fed arginine deficient diets were higher than PAarg (0 or 24 h values). Thus, in contrast to mammals and birds, the PParg when arginine is present in the diet as the most limiting amino acid such that it severely limits growth, increases in plasma rather than decreases.
Effects of Chromium Propionate Supplementation on Growth Performance, Serum Traits and Immune Response in Weaned Pigs
Lien, T.-F. ; Yang, K.-H. ; Lin, K.-J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 403~408
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.403
This study investigated the effects of chromium propionate on growth performance, serum traits and immune response in weaned pigs. Twenty-four 4 wk-old crossbred weanling pigs (initial body weight about 9.52
0.48 kg) were randomly allotted into one of two groups, a control group (basal diet), chromium propionate group (diet supplemented with 200
(ppb) of chromium propionate). This experiment was conducted over nine weeks. Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) 100
BW was used as the stress-inducing agent in the middle (4 wks) and final (8 wks) periods. The experimental results indicated that chromium propionate had no effect on growth performance (p>0.05). Chromium propionate supplementation reduced the percentage of LDL+VLDL (low and very low-density lipoprotein) and increased HDL (high-density lipoprotein), but did not affect other serum traits. Pigs supplemented with chromium propionate had higher antibody titers specific for sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and serum total globulin relative to the control during the final period (p<0.05). A challenge with LPS increased white blood cells in the chromium propionate group in both experimental periods (p<0.05). The chromium propionate group exhibited higher IgG and
-globulin than the control during the middle experimental period (p<0.05). Moreover, the PHA (phytohemagglutinin) challenge result in the chromium propionate group was better than the control group (p=0.056). Greater neutrophil activity was displayed than in the control (p<0.05). This suggests that chromium propionate supplementation benefited the weaned pigs in lipoprotein and immune response.
Studies of the Microbial and Physical Properties of Oriental Style Dairy Product Kou Woan Lao with Probiotics
Su, Lieh-Chi ; Lin, Chin-Wen ; Chen, Ming-Ju ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 409~413
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.409
The objective of this research was to combine the physiological functionality of probiotics (Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium longum) and the milk-clotting activity of culture filtrate from lao-chao to develop a new dairy product which was different from the commercial yogurt. Rhizopus javanicus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were chosen as a mold and yeast starter for production of culture filtrate. The study results indicated that both probiotic counts increased with incubation time and maintained
CFU/ml after 6 h incubation with 10-30% culture filtrates. By contrast, samples with 40% culture filtrates inhibited the growth of L. acidophilus and B. longum. The more culture filtrates were added, the lower titratable acidities and higher pH values in Kou Woan Lao were detected after 36 h fermentation. No significant differences (p>0.05) were found for both L. acidophilus and B. longum, when grown in differing concentrations of skim milk powders. Storage results showed both L. acidophilus and B. longum exhibited excellent stability for 14 days at
in the Kou Woan Lao.
Effects of a Dietary Chitosan-Alginate-Fe(II) Complex on Meat Quality of Pig Longissimus Muscle during Ageing
Park, B.Y. ; Kim, J.H. ; Cho, S.H. ; Hwang, I.H. ; Jung, O.S. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Lee, J.M. ; Yun, S.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 414~419
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.414
The current study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary chitosan-alginate-Fe(II) complex (CAFC) supplementation on carcass and meat qualities of pig m. longissimus during chiller ageing. One hundred and twenty-two LYD (Landrace
Duroc) pigs were sampled from an industrial population. Seventy-four pigs (32 gilts and 42 barrows) were administered 3 ml of dietary supplementation of CAFC per day from 25 to 70 days of age, while the remaining 48 pigs (20 gilts and 28 barrows) were fed the same commercial feeding regime without the supplementation. For assessing the dietary effects on pH, objective meat color, cooking loss, water-holding capacity (WHC), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and fatty acid composition during ageing, 20 barrows (10 of each treatment) were randomly sampled, and aged for 3, 7, 12, 16, 20 and 25 days in a
chiller. The results showed that CAFC-fed pigs required approximately 10 fewer feeding days than the control group. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in greatly higher carcass grade whereby the grade A was increased by approximately 35% and 7% for gilts and barrows, respectively. The treatment had no significant effect (p>0.05) on pH, meat color and WHC during ageing. On the other hand, the CAFC-fed pigs showed significantly (p<0.05) lower TBARS values from 20 days of storage. In addition, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids for the treated group was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that for the control group after the storage time. This implied that CAFC supplementation could reduce the formation of free radicals in fatty acids (i.e., lipid oxidation). The treatment also significantly (p<0.05) retarded VBN formation during ageing, indicating a significant reduction in protein degradation. However, as there was no difference in pH between the two groups, the result raised a possibility that antibacterial activity of the CAFC alone could cause reduction in the formation of TBARS and VBN. In this regard, although the treatment effectively slowed down the formation of TBARS and TBA during chiller ageing, it was not resolved whether that was associated with the direct effect of the antioxidant function of chitosan and/or alginate, or a consequence of their antibacterial functions.
Effect of Pasture Finishing on Beef Quality of Japanese Shorthorn Steers
Muramoto, T. ; Higashiyama, M. ; Kondo, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 420~426
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.420
Effect of pasture finishing on
-carotene concentrations, drip loss, cooking loss, Warner-Bratzler shear force, fatty acid composition, meat color and metmyoglobin percentage of m. longissimus thoracis of Japanese Shorthorn steers was studied. Japanese Shorthorn steers (n=8), fattened indoors with a concentrate-based diet until they were 19 months of age were divided into two groups of four steers. Steers of the concentrate-fed group were fattened indoors with a concentrate-based diet until they were slaughtered. Steers of the pasture-fed group were fattened on pasture until they were slaughtered. The
-carotene concentrations in the muscle of the pasture-fed group were higher (p<0.05) than those of the concentrate-fed group. The drip loss of the muscle of the pasture-fed group was lower (p<0.05) than that of the concentrate-fed group. Compared with the concentrate-fed group, the concentration of peroxidisable lipids (fatty acids with three or more unsaturated bonds) in the muscle of the pasture-fed group was high (p<0.05). The metmyoglobin percentage during display of the muscle of the pasture-fed group was higher (p<0.05) than that of the concentrate-fed group. These results suggested that pasture finishing decreased drip loss of the beef but lowered meat color stability.
Relationship between Thermal Properties of Muscle Proteins and Pork Quality
Kuo, Hsiu-Lan ; Chen, Ming-Tsao ; Liu, Deng-Cheng ; Lin, Lieh-Chin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 427~432
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.427
The purpose of this study was performed as model study using four animals to investigate the correction between the changes in Differential Scanning Calorimetry thermogram of muscle proteins during storage and meat freshness. M. longissimus dorsi of pork was obtained immediately after slaughter and chilled/stored at either
for up to 96 h for analyses. DSC thermograms were determined and compared with pH values, ATP-related compounds, K-values, volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels, bacterial counts and electrophoretic behavior. Changes in pH, bacterial counts, VBN and K-values were associated with increased storage temperature and time. The levels of pH values, bacterial counts, VBN and K-values of pork samples stored at
were higher than those of the pork samples stored at
. ATP concentration decreased faster in samples stored at
. Only IMP increased in samples stored at
, whereas the concentration of hypoxanthine and inosine increased in samples stored at
. One exothermic peak and two endothermic peaks appeared on the thermograms of pork stored at either temperature. Lower transition temperature of myosin, sarcoplasmic protein and actin peaks were observed. The freshness parameters of K-value, VBN and hypoxanthine showed highly negative correlations (-0.742- -0.9980) to the changes in transition temperature. Therefore, the shift temperature on DSC thermogram can be used as an indicator of the freshness parameters of meat.
Production of Functional Whey Protein Concentrate by Monitoring the Process of Ultrafilteration
Jayaprakasha, H.M. ; Yoon, Y.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 433~438
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.433
This investigation was undertaken in order to elicit the relationship between the extent of ultrafiltration processing of whey and its effect on composition and yield of resultant whey protein concentrate (WPC). Cheddar cheese whey was fractionated through ultrafiltration to an extent of 70, 80, 90, 95, 97.5% and 97.5% volume reduction followed by I stage and II stage diafiltration. After each level of ultrafiltration, the composition of WPC was monitored. Similarly, the initial whey was adjusted to 3.0, 6.2 and 7.0 pH levels and ultrafiltration was carried out to elicit the effect of pH of ultrafiltration on the composition. Further, initial whey was adjusted to different levels of whey protein content ranging from 0.5 to 1.0 per cent and subjected to ultrafiltration to different levels. The various range of retentate obtained were further condensed and spray dried in order to assess the yield of WPC per unit volume of whey used and the quantity of whey required to produce unit weight of product. With the progress of ultrafiltration, there was a progressive increase in protein content and decrease in lactose and ash content. The regression study led to good relationships with
values of more than 0.95 between the extents of permeate removed and the resultant changes in composition of each of the constituents. Whey processed at pH 3.0 had significantly a very low ash content and high protein content as compared to processing at 6.2 and 7.0. The yield of WPC per unit volume of whey varied significantly with the initial protein content. Higher initial protein content led to higher yield of all ranges of WPC and the quantity of whey required per unit weight of spray dried WPC significantly reduced. Regression equations establishing the relationship between initial protein content of whey and the yield of various types of WPC have been derived with very high
values of 0.99. This study revealed that, the yield and composition of whey can be monitored strictly by controlling the processing parameters and WPC can be produced depending on the food formulation requirement.
Role of Dietary Zinc as a Nutritional Immunomodulator
Goswami, T.K. ; Bhar, R. ; Jadhav, S.E. ; Joardar, S.N. ; Ram, G.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 3, 2005, Pages 439~452
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.439
Zinc is ubiquitous in all living cells. Structural and catalytic properties of cellular enzymes are zinc dependent. Zinc deficiency leads to a variety of pathological abnormalities with immune impairment. It is an established fact that nutritional status contributes to overall immune response of individuals. Outcome of zinc deficiency on immune system is so drastic that it is difficult to conceive at the first instance. Zinc supplementation has been advocated to prevent diarrheal disease in children with poor nutritional status. The bioavailability of zinc depends upon its sources. Moreover it varies between monogastrics and ruminants. Controversy still prevails between inorganic and organic sources of zinc with respect to their superiority in bioavailability. Zinc exerts immunostimulatory effects in various laboratory and farm animals. Animals having congenital zinc deficiency diseases like A46 lethal trait usually die due to impairment of the immune system unless treated with zinc. The immune mechanism of zinc and its effect on animals and man are discussed. Zinc has been considered as extremely safe at higher therapeutic doses, but does not provide any beneficial effect but rather may cause immunosuppression. More recently, zinc has been prescribed for immunodeficient hosts, to modulate the immune system so that to a certain extent it can combat against opportunistic pathogens.