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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
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Genetic Analysis of Three River Populations of Catla catla (HAMILTON) Using Randomly Amplified Polymorphic DNA Markers
Islam, M.S. ; Ahmed, A.S.I. ; Azam, M.S. ; Alam, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 453~457
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.453
The genetic variations in three major river populations viz. the Halda, the Jamuna and the Padma of the Indian major carp, Catla catla were analyzed by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Four decamer primers were used for amplifying DNA of 10 individuals from each population. The proportion of polymorphic loci and the gene diversity estimates were 59.4 and 0.20 for the Halda, 37.5 and 0.14 for the Jamuna and 46.9 and 0.16 for the Padma populations respectively indicating the existence of a relatively high level of genetic variation in the Halda river population. The inter-population similarity indices, gene flow and genetic distance values indicated that the Jamuna-Padma population pair of catla was genetically closer than the Halda-Jamuna and the Halda-Padma population pairs in compliance with the geographical distances among them. The coefficient of gene differentiation (
=0.13) reflects some degree of genetic differentiation among three populations of catla studied. The data suggest that the RAPD technique could be used to discriminate different river populations of catla.
Association between PCR-RFLP Polymorphism of the Fifth Intron in Lipoprotein Lipase Gene and Productive Traits in Pig Resource Family
Zhang, B.Z. ; Lei, M.G. ; Deng, C.Y. ; Xiong, Y.H. ; Zuo, B. ; Li, F.E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 458~462
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.458
The study was aimed at detecting polymorphism of the fifth intron in lipoprotein lipase (LPL) gene and analyzing association between the polymorphism and productive traits. A pair of primers was designed for amplifying the fifth intron. Sequence analysis indicated that a G1171C substitution existed in Large White breed. The mutation was detected by PCR-AfaI-RFLP. Polymorphism analysis in a pig resource family showed that there existed significant effects on carcass and meat quality traits. Thoraxwaist fat thickness of BB genotype was significantly higher (14.2%, p<0.05) than that of AA on carcass traits, while BB genotype was significantly lower (3.6% p<0.01, 4.1% p<0.01; 2.3% p<0.01, 1.9% p<0.01; 1.8% p<0.01, 1.4% p<0.05) than AA and AB genotype in pH of m. Longissimus Dorsi (LD), m. Biceps Femoris (BF), m. Semipinali Capitis (SC). The allelic frequencies were also significantly different between indigenous Chinese breeds and exotic breeds. Data analyzed revealed that the mutation locus affected production traits mostly by additive effects. Based on these results, it is necessary to do more studies on LPL gene before making the LPL locus into the application of marker-assisted selection (MAS) programs.
Mating and Incidental Activities of Ram (Ovis aries) When Exposed to Ewe(s) and Competitor Ram in Pen Mating Condition
Patel, M. ; Das, N. ; Pandey, H.N. ; Yadav, M.C. ; Girish, P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 463~469
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.463
An attempt was made to analyze the factors affecting mating performance of rams in pen mating systems. Due to many types of social interactions, mating performance of rams may decrease or increase. Six intact Muzaffarnagari rams were used and divided into three dominant subordinate pairs by food and ewe competition test. For dominant rams subordinate ram became competitor and vice versa. In the first experiment, ram was exposed to ewe but the competitor ram was kept outside the pen with the facility of visibility only. In the second experiment each ram was exposed to ewe along with the competitor ram and in third experiment ram was exposed to ewes (two) along with competitor ram in observation pen. Recordings of different mating and agonistic behaviour were done in all the experiments. It was found that subordinate ram's mating behaviour was inhibited by mere presence of a dominant ram out side without physical contact. However, when ram exposed to oestrus ewe(s) along with competitor ram, both dominant and subordinate rams spent much of their time in guarding activities instead of mating. In addition dominant ram tried to curtail the subordinate ram mating by agonistic interaction like fight and butting. Different guarding activities were observed either as active or passive type depending on level of dominanace. It was concluded that in a limited space the interaction of two or more rams might affect the number of services adversely.
Estrous Response and Fertility in Postpartum Suckled Female Yaks (Bos grunniens) Treated with an Intravaginal Device Containing Progesterone(CIDR), Pregnant Mares' Serum Gonadotrophin and Prostaglandin Analogue
Zi, X.D. ; Chang, S. ; Lu, H. ; Wang, X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 470~474
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.470
The efficiency of a short-term treatment with an intravaginal device containing progesterone (CIDR) combined with pregnant mares' serum gonadotrophin (PMSG) and prostaglandin analogue (
) was evaluated for the induction of estrus, initiation of cyclic activity, and fertility in postpartum suckled yak cows. Seventy-five postpartum suckled yak cows were assigned to three treatments: (1) insertion of a CIDR intravaginal progesterone (1.9 g) (day 0), an administration of
(0.2 mg i.m.) on day 6 and PMSG (1,000 IU i.m.) at the time of CIDR withdrawal on day 7 (CPP group, n=28); (2) an administration of
(0.2 mg i.m.) on day 6 and PMSG (1,000 IU i.m.) on day 7 (PP group, n=21); (3) untreated animals served as the control (CG group, n=26). Seven yak bulls were placed in pastures with the cows for natural mating. Estrus rate in the CPP group (28/28) was higher (p<0.01) than in the PP group (6/21) and in the CG group (0/26) within 96 h after the end of treatment. The first service conception rate in the CPP group (21/28) was higher (p<0.01) compared with in the PP group (2/9) as judged by serum
2.35 ng/ml on day 21 after breeding. It is concluded that a short-term progesterone treatment combined with PMSG and prostaglandin increased the proportion of yak cows that exhibited behavioral estrus with more synchronized estrus response and satisfactory conception rate in postpartum suckled yak cows.
Influence of Berseem and Lucerne Silages on Feed Intake, Nutrient Digestibility and Milk Yield in Lactating Nili Buffaloes
Sarwar, M. ; Khan, M. Ajmal ; Nisa, Mahr-un ; Touqir, N.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 475~478
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.475
This study was conducted to evaluate feeding value of berseem and lucerne silage as a replacement for conventional fodder (berseem fodder) in lactating Nili buffaloes. Fifteen early lactating multi-parous Nili buffaloes, five buffaloes in each group were allotted three experimental diets. Berseem and lucerne fodders were ensiled at 30% DM (wheat straw was used to adjust the DM of fodders) with molasses (at the rate of 2% of fodder DM) in two bunker silos for 30 days. The diets contained 75% DM from berseem fodder (BF), 75% DM from berseem silage (BS) and 75% DM from lucerne silage (LS). Each diet contained 25% concentrate DM. Diets were mixed daily and fed twice a day at ad libitum intakes. Dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher (13.8 kg/d) in buffaloes fed BF diet than those fed LS (12.5 kg/d) and BS (11.9 kg/day) diets. The differences in digestible DMI and DMI as percent body weight were significant between fodder and silage based diets but non-significant when BS and LS were compared. Lower DMI with silage-based diets was probably because of low silage pH. Intake of NDF (NDFI) was higher (5.68 kg/d) in buffaloes fed BF diet followed by those fed LS (5.50 kg/d) and BS (5.00 kg/d) diets. The difference was significant (p<0.05) across fodder and silage based diets but NDFI was non-significant across both silage-based diets. The apparent DM digestibility was significantly different (p<0.05) between fodder and silage-based diets but was non-significant between LS and BS diets. Four percent fat corrected milk yield was significantly different (p<0.05) between fodder and silage-based diets but was non-significant between LS and BS diets. Higher milk yield with fodder based diet was because of more digestible nutrient intake (Table 3) compared with silage based diets. Milk CP, TP and NPN and SNF did not show any treatment effects. The present results indicated that the berseem and lucerne fodder ensiled at 30% DM level with 2% molasses could safely replace (75% DM) the conventional leguminous fodder in the diets of lactating Nili buffaloes.
Sequencing of cDNA Clones Expressed in Adipose Tissues of Korean Cattle
Bong, J.J. ; Tong, K. ; Cho, K.K. ; Baik, M.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 483~489
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.483
To understand the molecular mechanisms that regulate intramuscular fat deposition and its release, cDNA clones expressed in adipose tissues of Korean cattle were identified by differential screening from adipose tissue cDNA library. By partial nucleotide sequencing of 486 clones and a search for sequence similarity in NCBI nucleotide databases, 245 clones revealed unique clones. By a functional grouping of the clones, 14% of the clones were categorized to metabolism and enzyme-related group (stearoyl CoA desaturase, lactate dehydrogenase, fatty acid synthase, ATP citrate lyase, lipoprotein lipase, acetyl CoA synthetase, etc), and 6% to signal transduction/cell cycle-related group (C/EBP, cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein, calmodulin, cyclin G1, cyclin H, etc), and 4% to cytoskeleton and extracellular matrix components (vimentin, ankyrin 2, gelosin, syntenin, talin, prefoldin 5). The obtained 245 clones will be useful to study lipid metabolism and signal transduction pathway in adipose tissues and to study obesity in human. Some clones were subjected to full-sequencing containing open reading frame. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human prefoldin 5 gene had a total length of 959 nucleotides coding for 139 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine prefoldin 5 with those of human and mouse showed over 95% identity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human ubiquitin-like/S30 ribosomal fusion protein gene had a total length of 484 nucleotides coding for 133 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine ubiquitin-like/S30 ribosomal fusion protein gene with those of human, rat and mouse showed over 97% identity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human proteolipid protein 2 mRNA had a total length of 928 nucleotides coding for 152 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine proteolipid protein 2 with those of human and mouse showed 87.5% similarity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of rat thymosin beta 4 had a total length of 602 nucleotides coding for 44 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine thymosin beta 4 gene with those of human, mouse and rat showed 93.1% similarity. The cDNA clone of bovine homolog of human myotrophin mRNA had a total length of 790 nucleotides coding for 118 amino acids. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of bovine myotrophin gene with those of human, mouse and rat showed 83.9% similarity. The functional role of these clones in adipose tissues needs to be established.
Effect of Potato By-products Based Silage on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Fatty Acid Composition of Carcass Fats in Holstein Steers
Pen, B. ; Oyabu, T. ; Hidaka, S. ; Hidari, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 490~496
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.490
Ten 18.5-month old Holstein steers were allocated into two diet groups of five and fed either concentrates as control group or potato by-products based silage (PBS) as experimental group for six months to investigate the effect of PBS on growth performance, carcass characteristics and fatty acid composition of carcass fats. The PBS diet consisted, in a DM basis, of 74.5% PBS, 16% hay, and 9.5% soybean milk residue (SMR). The control diet consisted, in a DM basis, of 82.5% concentrates and 17.5% hay. There were no significant differences in the overall average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI), feed efficiency, yield score and meat quality score of dressed carcass between the two diet groups. There were no statistical differences in DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract (EE) of beef and melting point of all adipose tissues from steers fed both diets. The PBS-fed steers tended to have lower Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) values than in the concentrate-fed steers (13.0 vs. 17.7 lb, p<0.1). At both sampling times 3 and 6 months of feeding period, PBS-fed steers had higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), especially linoleic (C18:2) acids in subcutaneous fat than in control group (p<0.05). PBS-fed steers had significantly higher proportions of PUFA, especially C18:2 fatty acids than in concentrate-fed steers in carcass fats (p<0.05). In conclusion, feeding PBS to fattening steers has shown to have the same potential as concentrate feeding in terms of effect on the growth performance, feed efficiency, and carcass characteristics. Interestingly, PBS also seems preferable to concentrates because it increased the proportion of C18:2 fatty acid composition of carcass fats which is valuable for beef consumers.
Effect of Arsenic on Immunity, Oxidative Enzyme and Various Hematological Parameters in Cross Bred Calves
Mishra, C.S. ; Mani, Veena ; Kaur, Harjit ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 497~501
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.497
An experiment was conducted on crossbred male calves to study the effect of arsenic (As) on immunity status and certain hematological parameters. Ten crossbred male calves of 3-4 months of age were distributed into two equal groups. Group I was kept as control, whereas, group II was supplemented daily with 50 ppm As (as
) up to 90 days, in the diet. Calves of both groups were fed as per ICAR standards and their requirements were fulfilled by feeding concentrate mixture and green oats. All calves were kept under similar managemental conditions. Blood samples were collected at fortnightly intervals to estimate various haematological parameters and superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activity. Serum Ig and serum glutamic pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were also measured. Cell-mediated immune responses of the calves were monitored at 0, 45 and 90 of experimental feeding, through lymphocyte proliferation. No change in blood total leukocyte counts (TLC), differential leukocyte counts (DLC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb) and SGPT was observed with As supplementation. A decrease in SOD activity was noticed in group II calves. Stimulation index (SI) for lymphocyte proliferation decreased from 1.14 to 0.79 in group II calves during 90 days experimental feeding, whereas, there was no change in SI values in group I indicating significant decrease in immune response of As supplemented calves. Blood As concentration increased in group II calves with the decrease in immune response. Short term supplementation of As to growing calves suggested suppressive effects on cell-mediated immunity. However, long term experiments are required to demonstrate clearly the efects of this toxic metal in calves.
Effect of Level of Crude Protein and Use of Cottonseed Meal in Diets Containing Cassava Chips and Rice Straw for Lactating Dairy Cows
Promkot, C. ; Wanapat, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 502~511
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.502
The effects of different levels of crude protein (CP) and cottonseed meal replacing for soybean meal in cassava chips and rice straw-based diets for mid-lactating cows (100-150 day in milk [DIM]), were studied using 32 multiparous Holstein Fresian crossbred dairy cows. Diets containing 10.5, 12.5, 13.7, 14.4% CP of the rations and 0, 12.1, 14.9, 17.8% cottonseed meal were fed to cows for 60 days. Thirty two cows were randomly divided into four dietary treatments using a Randomized complete block design. Four dietary treatments were offered in the form of total mixed ration (TMR) with concentrate to roughage (chopped rice straw) at 60:40 and offered ad libitum. Dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes tended to linearly increase with increasing dietary CP levels. Intakes and digestibility of crude protein increased linearly with increasing dietary CP level (p<0.01). Crude protein digestibility of the 10.5% CP diet was lower (p<0.05) than that in diets with higher levels of CP, while there were no significant differences among the other three levels of CP (12.5, 13.7 and 14.4%). Daily milk yield tended to increase with increased CP from 10.5 to 14.4%. Income over feed in terms of US$/kg of milk increased with increased CP from 10.5 to 13.7% and decreased when the CP level was higher than 13.7% (quadratic effect p<0.09). Milk composition was not significantly affected by increasing level of CP, however there were relatively high contents of protein and fat among treatments. The proportion of milk-urea N (MUN), ammonia-N (
-N) and bloodurea N (BUN) were closely correlated and increased linearly with increasing CP levels (p<0.01). Balanced diet was found in diet containing 12.5 and 13.7% CP of the rations when BUN and MUN were used as indicators of the protein to energy ratio in the diet. Conclusions can be made that increasing dietary CP levels from 10.5 to 13.7% using cottonseed meal as the main source to completely replace soybean meal was beneficial to cows consuming rice straw and cassava chips based-diets. Increasing the CP level above 13.7% of total ration did not additionally improve milk yield and composition or net income.
Effect of C18-polyunsaturated Fatty Acids on Their Direct Incorporation into the Rumen Bacterial Lipids and CLA Production In vitro
Choi, S.H. ; Song, M.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 512~515
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.512
An in vitro study was conducted to determine the effect of C18-polyunsaturated fatty acid on direct incorporation into the rumen bacteria, bio-hydrogenation and production of CLA in vitro. Sixty milligrams of linoleic acid (
) or linolenic acid (
) were absorbed into the 0.5 g cellulose powder was added to the 150 ml culture solution consisting of 120 ml McDougall's buffer and 30 ml strained rumen fluid. Four uCi of 1-
(1 uCi/15 mg each fatty acid) were also added to the corresponding fatty acids to estimate the direct incorporation into the bacterial lipids. The culture solution was then incubated anaerobically in a culture jar with stirrer at 39
for 12 h. Ammonia concentration and pH of the culture solution were slightly influenced by the fatty acids. Amount of fatty acid incorporated into the bacteria was 1.20 mg and 0.43 mg/30 ml rumen fluid for
, respectively during 12 h incubation. Slightly increased CLA (sum of cis-9, trans-11 and cis-10, trans-12
) was obtained from the
addition compared to that from
after 12 h incubation in vitro.
Effects of Dietary Combinations of Vitamin A, E and Methionine on Growth Performance, Meat Quality and Immunity in Commercial Broilers
Lohakare, J.D. ; Choi, J.Y. ; Kim, J.K. ; Yong, J.S. ; Shim, Y.H. ; Hahn, T.-W. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 516~523
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.516
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of dietary combinations of vitamin A (VA), vitamin E (VE) and methionine (Met) on growth performance, meat quality and immunity in commercial broilers. Ross chicks (n=3,630) were allocated to five experimental treatments with three replicates per diet. The dietary treatments were: VA 8,000 IU, VE 10 IU (diet 1); VA 12,000 IU, VE 10 IU (diet 2); VA 8,000 IU, VE 100 IU (diet 3); VA 12,000 IU, VE 100 IU (diet 4) and; VA 12,000 IU, VE 100 IU/kg diet and 20% Met higher than other groups (diet 5). The Met content in diet 1 to diet 4 were as per the requirement suggested by NRC. Separate vitamin premixes were prepared for each treatment diet as per the requirement of study. The 35 d study revealed significantly (p<0.0001) higher weight gains in broilers fed diet 3 and diet 5, than in the rest of the groups during starter phase (0-3 weeks) only. The feed intake did not vary significantly at all phases of study, but feed efficiency was significantly (p<0.05) lower in diet 1 during starter and overall phase (4-5 weeks). The bone strength and bone composition, except bone calcium, remained unaffected due to experimental diets studied after 35 d of experimental feeding. The thio-barbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were significantly (p=0.0013) lower in the breast meat in group 5, followed by group 3, than in the rest of the groups. The immune studies conducted, antibody titers to sheep red blood cells, thickness index to phytohaemagglutinin-P, and heterophil: lymphocyte ratio, did not show any significant difference among treatments. It could be concluded that supplementation of VA, VE and Met at higher levels could be beneficial to broilers only during the starter phase.
Effect of In ovo Injection of Critical Amino Acids on Pre- and Post-hatch Growth, Immunocompetence and Development of Digestive Organs in Broiler Chickens
Bhanja, S.K. ; Mandal, A.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 524~531
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.524
Two experiments were conducted to standardize in ovo injection of amino acids (AA) and to evaluate the effect of in ovo injection of limiting AA(s) on pre and post hatch growth performance, immune response and development of digestive organs. Combinations of essential and non-essential amino acids (Lys+Arg, Lys+Met+Cys, Thr+Gly+Ser, Ile+Leu+Val and Gly+Pro) were injected into 50 eggs in each treatment group at 14 d of embryonic age. Standardization of injection site, needle length and embryonic age revealed that when AA were injected in to the broad end of the egg with a 11 mm needle and at the narrow end with a 24 mm needle both at the 7
d of incubation there was poor hatchability. However, better hatchability was recorded when the AA were injected in the narrow end of the egg with a 11 mm needle and in the broad end with a 24 mm needle on the 14
d of incubation. The chick to egg weight ratio was higher (p<0.018) when AA were injected on the 14
d of incubation. When a combination of amino acids were injected a 63.6 or 63.2 g difference in body weight of bird at 21 d was recorded between uninjected control and Ile+Leu+Val or Gly+Pro group, respectively. Higher feed intake (p<0.047) was recorded in the AA injected groups and feed conversion ratio (FCR) was numerically better in Gly+Pro, Lys+Met+Cys AA injected groups than in the uninjected control. Significantly higher immune response to cell mediated (p<0.033) and humoral (p<0.002) immunity was observed in in ovo amino acid injected birds, especially in Lys+Met+Cys, Thr+Gly+Ser or Ile+leu+Val groups. The digestive organ weights at 21 d did not differ between specific AA injected groups and the uninjected control. In ovo injected amino acids may act as immunomodulators and their role in gastrointestinal development needs further research.
Associations between Feed Efficiency, Body Growth and Serum Insulin-like Growth Factor-I Level for Korean Native Ogol Chickens
Kim, W.K. ; Kim, M.H. ; Seo, D.S. ; Lee, C.Y. ; Suk, Y.O. ; Ko, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 532~537
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.532
Increasing of body weight has been one of the important economic factors in the poultry industry. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I is a polypeptide that serves to regulate muscle development and body growth. Moreover, IGF-I is related to feed efficiency. However, there are few studies regarding the regulatory roles of chicken IGF-I/-II compared with that of mammals. Especially, the Korean Native Ogol Chicken (KNOC) has a lean body growth and its body weight is generally lighter than the broiler chicken. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate associations among serum IGF-I/-II concentration, feed efficiency, and body growth in KNOC. The body weight and feed intake of KNOC were recorded from 20 to 36 weeks at 2 weeks intervals, and blood was taken every 2 weeks. Serum IGF-I/-II were measured by RIA. Chickens were divided into two groups, high and low serum IGF-I concentration. Generally, feed efficiency and growth performance (body weight and weight gain) in the high serum IGF-I group were higher than those of the low group during the experimental period. In particular, the body weight of the IGF-I high group were significantly different from those of the IGF-I low group at 34 and 36 weeks, respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, body weight, weight gain, and feed efficiency had a significant correlation with serum IGF-I at several weeks (p<0.05 and p<0.01). These results show that IGF-I plays an important role in body growth and suggests a possibility that serum IGF-I could be used as a selection marker for body growth in KNOC.
Utilization of Reconstituted High-tannin Sorghum in the Diets of Broiler Chickens
Kumar, Vinod ; Elangovan, A.V. ; Mandal, A.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 538~544
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.538
The present experiment was conducted to assess the effect of reconstitution (R) on utilization of red sorghum (S) in diets of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (n=360) were randomly divided into 36 groups of 10 chicks each, and 9 dietary treatments were allotted to 4 groups (replicates) in a completely randomized design. Out of the 9 treatments, one was corn-soy based control (D1). The rest of the treatments were diets consisting of four levels (25, 50, 75 and 100% part of corn) of raw red sorghum (S25-S100) or four levels of reconstituted red sorghum (RS25-RS100). The tannin content reduced from 2.3% to 1.6% after reconstitution of red sorghum. Body weight gain reduced significantly (p<0.01) in diets containing unprocessed red sorghum beyond 33% in diet or reconstituted red sorghum at any level. However, during finishing growth phase the birds receiving either processed or unprocessed sorghum (barring S75) had statistically similar gains in body weight. During over all growth phase (0-6 wk), live weight gains in all the dietary treatments did not differ statistically. Feed intake during 0-6 wk was significantly higher (p<0.05) in diets containing sole red sorghum than corn-soy based control diets Feed conversion ratio during 0-3 wk period in control and unprocessed red-sorghum diets were similar but statistically poorer (p<0.01) FCR emanated from reconstituted groups, while during 3-6 wk of age FCR was poorer (p<0.05) in diets containing 75% red sorghum, either processed or unprocessed. FCR, in overall growth phases, in control diet was statistically similar to the groups fed diets containing up to 33% unprocessed or 16% reconstituted group. The carcass traits and yield of organs did not differ (p>0.05) due to the various levels of red-sorghum. It was concluded that though the tannin content was reduced by 30% by the reconstitution process, but this did not give any additional advantage in broiler performance. More over, red-sorghum can be used effectively up to 33% in diet replacing 50% of corn after proper adjustment of proteins, energy and amino acids.
Effects of Dietary Vitamins C and E on Egg Shell Quality of Broiler Breeder Hens Exposed to Heat Stress
Chung, M.K. ; Choi, J.H. ; Chung, Y.K. ; Chee, K.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 545~551
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.545
A feeding trial was conducted to determine whether dietary vitamin C (200 mg/kg) and vitamin E (250 mg/kg) prevent any drops in egg shell quality under heat stress in broiler breeder hens. One hundred and sixty molted Ross broiler breeders were housed randomly in an individual cage at 83 weeks of age. Four dietary treatments with forty hens and four replications per treatment were control (no additional vitamins), vitamin C-, or vitamin E-supplemented and combined supplementation of the two vitamins. After a tenday-adaptation period at 25
, the ambient temperature was kept at 32
for a three-week-testing period. Egg production dropped dramatically over week but it did not show a significant change among treatments (p<0.05). However, egg quality parameters such as egg weight, specific gravity, shell thickness, SWUSA, puncture force and shell breaking strength from the birds fed the diet with the combined vitamins C and E were significantly improved over those of the control group during the heat stress period (p<0.05). The hens fed the vitamin C diet improved tibia breaking strength (37.16 kg), statistically higher than the birds fed the control and the vitamin E diets (p<0.05). The hens fed the control diet showed higher serum corticosterone levels, a mean of 5.97 ng/ml, than those of the other treatments (p<0.05). The heat stress resulted in elevated heterophils and decreased lymphocytes in serum, increasing the H/L ratios for all the treatments. However, the increases in H/L ratios were alleviated by feeding the diets containing vitamin C alone or together with vitamin E, although there were no significant differences in the ratio between the two groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, vitamins C (200 mg/kg) and/or E (250 mg/kg) supplemented to the diets for broiler breeder hens could prevent drops in egg shell quality and tibia bone strength under highly stressful environmental temperatures.
Effects of Fluoride Levels on Lipid Peroxidation and Antioxidant Systems of Growing/Finishing Pigs
Tao, X. ; Xu, Z.R. ; Han, X.Y. ; Wang, Y.Z. ; Zhou, L.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 552~556
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.552
Malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) levels, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT), glutathione transferase (GST) and xanthine oxidase (XOD) activities were analyzed in serum, livers and kidneys of pigs treated with graded doses of fluoride (as NaF). Ninety-six Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire crossbred growing pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, respectively), with similar initial weight 24.14
1.12kg, were randomly assigned to four different treatments. These treatments containing the following added F: basal control; 50 mg/kg F; 100 mg/kg F and 150 mg/kg F were randomly assigned to four pens (three barrows and three gilts) each in a completely randomized design. The results showed pigs treated with 150 mg/kg F significantly decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.05) and increased feed/gain ratio (F/G) (p<0.05) compared to the controls. In the groups treated with fluoride, the contents of MDA increased, T-AOC levels and the activities of SOD, GSH-PX, CAT, GST and XOD decreased, and most of which altered significantly (p<0.05). The study therefore indicated the mechanism of excess fluoride on the impairment of soft tissues involved in lipid peroxidation and decreased the activities of some enzymes associated with free radical metabolism.
Effects of Weekly Administration of Implant-type Recombinant Porcine Somatotropin on the Performance and Carcass Characteristics of Finishing Pigs
Kim, Y.H. ; Jung, H.J. ; Park, J.C. ; Kwon, O.S. ; Chung, C.S. ; Ko, Y.D. ; Moon, H.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 557~561
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.557
The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of weekly administration of implant type recombinant porcine somatotropin (rpST) on the performance and carcass characteristics in finishing pigs. A total of 120 crossbred (Landrace
Duroc) pigs were employed for 11 weeks in a growth trial in experiment. A rpST designed to implant every 7 d was used. Forty pigs, each weighing 75 kg, were allocated into three rpST treatments; control (CONT), implant of rpST from 75 kg (TRT1) or 90 kg (TRT2) of body weight. The CONT pig and pigs in TRT2 from 75 kg to 90 kg were treated without rpST but with placebo. In rpST-treated pigs, each 100 mg and 125 mg of the equivalent rpST was implanted from live weight of 75 kg to 90 kg and from 90 kg to market weight, respectively. Half of the pigs from each treatment were marketed at live weight of 110 kg and the rest at 130 kg. All pigs were allowed ad libitum access to a commercial feed containing 0.94% and 0.88% of lysine from 75 to 110 kg, 110 to 130 kg of body weights, respectively. rpST had no effect on daily gain, while feed efficiency was improved by 7 to 13% (p<0.05) in the rpST-treated groups compared with the CONT. Compared with the CONT, backfat thickness was decreased by 12% (p<0.05) in TRT1 at 110 kg of market weight, and by 23 to 32% (p<0.05) in the rpST-treated groups at 130 kg of market weight, respectively. Lean muscle rate tended to be higher in TRT1 at both 110 kg and 130 kg of market weight, and carcass fat percentage in the rpST-treated groups was decreased by 33 to 46% (p<0.05) compared with the CONT.
Developmental Relationship of Unsaturated Fatty Acid Composition and Stearoyl-CoA Desaturase mRNA Level in Hanwoo Steers' Muscle
Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Yoon, Du-Hak ; Choi, Nag-Jin ; Hwang, Soo-Han ; Cheong, Eun-Young ; Oh, Sung-Jong ; Cheong, Il-Cheong ; Lee, Chang-Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 562~566
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.562
This study was conducted to investigate the developmental relationship between fatty acid composition in different lipid fractions and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in steer muscles during growth. Twenty Hanwoo steers were used at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 30 months of age. Fatty acid composition and SCD mRNA level were analyzed. In the total lipid fraction, developmental profiles of C18:1, as the product of SCD enzyme, and SCD mRNA level were significantly increased between 6 months and 12 months of age. During this period, the percentage of C18:1 increased from 31.9% to 49.5% in the total lipid. The increased C18:1 level was maintained until 30 months of age within the range of 44.8- 49.9%. In contrast, the C18:0 composition decreased with age and this decrease was compensated by the increase of the C18:1. However, the sum of C18:0 and C18:1 was changed before and after 12-month old by a 20% increase. Unlike the C18 fatty acids, the C16 fatty acids such as C16:0 and C16:1 did not show a consistent change with age in steers' muscle. On the other hand, C18:2 proportion as a major polyunsaturated fatty acid in muscle was significantly reduced from 21.1% at 6 months of age to 4.4% at 12-months old and then this reduced level was maintained until 30 months within the range of 7.4-11.4%. As in the C18:1 composition during early stages, a 2-fold significant increase was observed in the
-desaturase index of C18 fatty acid as a measure of SCD activity, but not in that of C16 fatty acid. Also, the steady-state level of SCD mRNA reached a peak at 12 months of age. Thus, the positive relationship between the C18:1 composition and the
-desaturase (SCD enzyme) index of C18 fatty acid or SCD mRNA level was demonstrated during growth, but the negative relationship between the C18:2 composition and the above three indices was demonstrated at the same time, indicating that the sharp induction of SCD mRNA may be closely related to the dramatic reduction of C18:2, which is known as a suppressor of SCD gene expression during growth.
Antioxidative Activities of Kefir
Liu, Je-Ruei ; Lin, Yuh-Yih ; Chen, Ming-Ju ; Chen, Li-Ju ; Lin, Chin-Wen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 567~573
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.567
This study aims to evaluate the antioxidative activities of cow-milk kefir and goat-milk kefir. Antioxidative mechanisms, including radical-scavenging effects, ferrous-ion chelating ability, reducing power and antioxidant activity, were investigated herein. Kefirs demonstrated significantly greater scavenging effects upon 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide radicals, an inhibition effect upon linoleic-acid peroxidation, and more substantial reducing power, but reduced glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity than was the case for milks. There was no significant difference between milks and kefirs as regards ferrous-ion chelating ability and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. These findings have demonstrated that kefirs possess antioxidant activity, thereby suggesting that kefirs are potential candidates for the role of useful natural antioxidant supplements for the human diet.
Correlation of Air Pollutants and Thermal Environment Factors in a Confined Pig House in Winter
Choi, Hong L. ; Kim, Ki Y. ; Kim, Hyunook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 574~579
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.574
Optimal management of indoor air quality in a confined pig house, especially in winter, is indispensable for preventing infectious respiratory disease to workers and animals. This study was performed to elucidate the correlation of aerial contaminants and climate factors in a confinement. It was observed that indoor air contaminants ion in the confinement was the highest at 2:00-5:00 pm in a day, followed by 8:00-11:00 pm and 8:00-11:00 am. This was attributed to the increase of pig activities in the afternoon. The concentration of total dust and total airborne bacteria was found to have a significant correlation with temperature and relative humidity (p<0.05). Correlation of total dust and total airborne bacteria, total dust and ammonia, and total dust and odor were shown statistically significant at 95% confidence level. In conclusion, temperature and total dust concentration correlated significantly with all the parameters except for hydrogen sulfide (
). This could be explained by the fact the dryness of pig feces by increase of interior temperature and resuspension of feed deposited on the floor by the pig activity, resulted in high generation of dust which adsorbed and carried the airborne bacteria and odor compounds in a confined pig house. It was proved that the adsorptive capacity of dust with ammonia (
) was higher than that with hydrogen sulfide (
Milk Fat Analysis by Fiber-optic Spectroscopy
Ohtani, S. ; Wang, T. ; Nishimura, K. ; Irie, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 580~583
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.580
We have evaluated the application of spectroscopy using an insertion-type fiber-optic probe and a sensor at wavelengths from 400 to 1,100 nm to the measurement of milk fat content on dairy farms. The internal reflectance ratios of 183 milk samples were determined with a fiber-optic spectrophotometer at 5
. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to develop calibration models for the milk fat. The best accuracy of determination was found for an equation that was obtained using smoothed internal reflectance data and three PLS factors at 20
. The correlation coefficients between predicted and reference milk fat at 5
were r=0.753, r=0.796 and r=0.783, respectively. The predictive explained variances (
) of the final model, moreover, were more than 0.550 at all temperatures, and the regression coefficients of determination (
) were more than 0.6 (60%). Our results indicate that milk has different internal reflectance measured in the range of visible and near infrared wavelengths (400 to 1,100 nm), depending on its fat content.
Effect of Crosslinked β-cyclodextrin on Quality of Cholesterol-reduced Cream Cheese
Kim, Song-Hee ; Han, Eun-Mi ; Ahn, Joungjwa ; Kwak, Hae-Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 584~589
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.584
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of different types of
-CD) treatments on chemical and sensory characteristics of cholesterol-reduced cream cheese. The cholesterol removal rates were 92.0% in cream cheese treated by powder
-CD, and 82.6% in cream cheese treated by crosslinked
-CD. Amounts of short-chain fatty acid and free amino acids were significantly lower in cream cheese made by crosslinked
-CD-treated milk, especially after 2 weeks storage, compared with those of no
-CD-treated control and cream cheese made by powder
-CD treated milk. Among rheological properties, cohesiveness was significantly higher, and gumminess in cream cheese made by crosslinked
-CD-treated milk was slightly lower than others. In sensory analysis, no difference was found in texture among treatments, while bitterness was lower in the early stage of storage, and overall quality was higher score, in cream cheese made by crosslinked
-CD-treated cream at 3 and 4 week storage, compared with those in control and powder
-CD-treated group. The present study indicated that crosslinked
-CD treatment resulted in an efficient cholesterol removal rate over 80% and a deceleration of ripening, which may provide a longer shelf life without significant adverse effects in chemical and sensory properties.
Increasing the Pig Market Weight: World Trends, Expected Consequences and Practical Considerations
Kim, Y.S. ; Kim, S.W. ; Weaver, M.A. ; Lee, C.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 4, 2005, Pages 590~600
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.590
The present report has been aimed at reviewing important factors which need to be closely analyzed or considered when increasing the market weight of finishing pigs. The pig market weight has increased worldwide during the past few decades, which is attributable primarily to an increased lean gain potential of finishing pigs. To increase the market weight, however, the acceptability of larger pigs by the packer as well as pork consumers should be met first. By increasing the market weight, total number of breeding stock, as well as the facility for them, necessary for producing a given weight of pork can be reduced, whereas more building space for finishing pigs and an additional nutrition program for the later finishing period are needed. Additionally, a more thorough disease prevention program especially against ileitis and mycoplasma pneumonia may also be needed, because outbreaks of these are known to increase with increasing body weight over 110 kg. Some larger finishing pigs may deposit excessive fat that may be reduced or prevented by using hormonal and/or nutritional agents. Backfat thickness increases linearly with increasing body weight between 110 and 130 kg, whereas intramuscular fat content does not change significantly. With increasing live weight within this range, the ratios of belly and loin to carcass weight also are known to increase. Some physicochemical characteristics related to fresh and cooked meat quality including color, firmness, juiciness, etc. are known to be unaffected or slightly changed following an increase of slaughter weight. In conclusion, ratios of primal cuts and pork quality characteristics are not significantly affected by increasing the market weight. Moreover, increasing the market weight of lean-type pigs approximately up to 130 kg is normally profitable to producers, as long as packers and consumers accept larger pigs.