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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Further Evidence of Linkage at the tva and tvc Loci in the Layer Lines and a Possibility of Polyallelism at the tvc Locus
Ghosh, A.K. ; Pani, P.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 601~605
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.601
Three lines of White Leghorn (WL) chickens (IWJ, IWG and IWC) maintained at Central Avian Research Institute, Izatnagar (UP), were used for chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) and liver tumour (LT) assay. Eleven-day-old embryos of each line were partitioned into three groups and inoculated with 0.2 ml of subgroup A, subgroup C and an equal mixture of subgroup A and C Rous sarcoma virus (RSV). Subgroup virus receptor on the cell surface membrane for subgroup A is coded for by tumour virus a (tva) locus and for subgroup C by tumour virus c (tvc) locus. The random association of the genes at the tva and tvc loci in IWJ and IWC line was assessed and the
-values for phenotypic classes were found to be significant, indicating the linkage between the tva and tvc loci. The linkage value was estimated to be 0.09 on pooled sex and pooled line basis. On the basis of four subclass tumour phenotypes a 4-allele model was proposed for tva locus having
alleles and the frequencies were calculated as 0.47, 0.13, 0.13 and 0.27 for IWJ line, 0.31, 0.33, 0.14 and 0.22 for IWG line and 0.44, 0.11, 0.21 and 0.24 for IWC line, respectively. Similarly, for tvc locus the frequencies of four alleles i.e.
were calculated as 0.42, 0.20, 0.21 and 0.17 for IWJ line, 0.42, 0.17, 0.27 and 0.14 for IWG line and 0.30, 0.21, 0.16 and 0.33 for IWC line, respectively. The
-values for all classes of observations were not significant (p>0.05), indicating a good fit to the 4-allele model for the occurrence of 4-subclass tumour phenotypes for tva and tvc loci. On the basis of the 2-allele model both tva and tvc locus carries three genotypes each. But, on the basis of the 4-allele model tva and tvc locus carries 10 genotypes each. The interaction between A-resistance and C-resistance (both CAM and LT death) was ascertained by taking the 10 genotypes of tva locus and 3 genotypes of tvc locus by pooling the lines and partitioning the observations into 3 classes. The
-values for the genotypic classes of CAM (-) LT (+) and CAM (-) LT (-) phenotypes to mixed virus (A+C) infection were found to be highly significant (p<0.01), indicating increased resistance, which indicates the joint segregation of
genes, suggesting the existence of close linkage between the tva and tvc loci. Therefore, an indirect selection approach using subgroup C viruses can be employed to generate stocks resistant to subgroup A LLV, obviating contamination with the most common agent causing LL in field condition.
Modeling the Productivity of a Breeding Sheep Flock for Different Production Systems
Kamalzadeh, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 606~612
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.606
Individual production traits, such as reproduction and mortality rates, are partial measures, but may be used to evaluate the performance of different systems by comparing the rate of flock growth and potential offtake. The productivity of two existing sheep production systems, one extensive, one intensive, was compared with an alternative semi-intensive system. The future flock sizes, offtakes and structures were predicted based on the age structure of the flock and age-specific reproduction, mortality and growth rates. The measurements were illustrated with reference to growth of a sheep flock of different age and sex categories. The flock was in a socalled dynamic situation. During the dry period, the digestible organic matter intake of the animals in the intensive system and both extensive and semi-extensive systems was 36 and 20.1 g kg
, respectively. During the cold period, the digestible organic matter intake of the animals in extensive, intensive and semi-extensive systems was 34, 34.5 and 41 g kg
, respectively. During the dry period, the animals in the both extensive and semi-intensive systems lost in body weight at a rate of 19 g per day, but the rate of gain in body weight of the animals in intensive system was 57 g per day. During the cold period, the animals in extensive, intensive and semiintensive systems gained in body weight at rates of 56, 67 and 97 g per day, respectively. The higher gain of animals during the cold period in the semi-intensive system was related to a sustained higher intake of low-quality roughage and more efficient use of the available feed. Compared to the intensive system, the annual concentrate input of the semi-intensive system was about 48% lower for each livestock unit. The productivity of the semi-intensive system was higher than that of the extensive system.
Genetic Contribution of Indigenous Yakutian Cattle to Two Hybrid Populations, Revealed by Microsatellite Variation
Li, M.H. ; Nogovitsina, E. ; Ivanova, Z. ; Erhardt, G. ; Vilkki, J. ; Popov, R. ; Ammosov, I. ; Kiselyova, T. ; Kantanen, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 613~619
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.613
Indigenous Yakutian cattle' adaptation to the hardest subarctic conditions makes them a valuable genetic resource for cattle breeding in the Siberian area. Since early last century, crossbreeding between native Yakutian cattle and imported Simmental and Kholmogory breeds has been widely adopted. In this study, variations at 22 polymorphic microsatellite loci in 5 populations of Yakutian, Kholmogory, Simmental, Yakutian-Kholmogory and Yakutian-Simmental cattle were analysed to estimate the genetic contribution of Yakutian cattle to the two hybrid populations. Three statistical approaches were used: the weighted least-squares (WLS) method which considers all allele frequencies; a recently developed implementation of a Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) method called likelihood-based estimation of admixture (LEA); and a model-based Bayesian admixture analysis method (STRUCTURE). At population-level admixture analyses, the estimate based on the LEA was consistent with that obtained by the WLS method. Both methods showed that the genetic contribution of the indigenous Yakutian cattle in Yakutian-Kholmogory was small (9.6% by the LEA and 14.2% by the WLS method). In the Yakutian-Simmental population, the genetic contribution of the indigenous Yakutian cattle was considerably higher (62.8% by the LEA and 56.9% by the WLS method). Individual-level admixture analyses using STRUCTURE proved to be more informative than the multidimensional scaling analysis (MDSA) based on individual-based genetic distances. Of the 9 Yakutian-Simmental animals studied, 8 showed admixed origin, whereas of the 14 studied Yakutian-Kholmogory animals only 2 showed Yakutian ancestry (>5%). The mean posterior distributions of individual admixture coefficient (q) varied greatly among the samples in both hybrid populations. This study revealed a minor existing contribution of the Yakutian cattle in the Yakutian-Kholmogory hybrid population, but in the Yakutian-Simmental hybrid population, a major genetic contribution of the Yakutian cattle was seen. The results reflect the different crossbreeding patterns used in the development of the two hybrid populations. Additionally, molecular evidence for differences among individual admixture proportions was seen in both hybrid populations, resulting from the stochastic process in crossing over generations.
Correlations of Genic Heterozygosity and Variances with Heterosis in a Pig Population Revealed by Microsatellite DNA Marker
Zhang, J.H. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ; Deng, C.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 620~625
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.620
Correlation of microsatellite heterozygosity with performance or heterosis was reported in wild animal populations and domestic animal populations, but the correlation with heterosis in a crossbreeding F
pig population remained uncertain. To explore this, we had random selected and mated Yorkshire
Meishan (F, n = 82) and their reciprocal (G, n = 47) to F
, and used the two straightbreds as control groups (Yorkshire = 34, Meishan = 55), and observed the heterosis of birth weight (BWT), average daily gain (ADG) and feed and meat ratio (FMR). Two Kinds of measurement-individual heterozygosity (IH) and individual mean d
(lg value, ID) were used as index of heterozygosity and variance from 39 microsatellite marker loci to perform univariate regression analysis against heterosis. We detected significant correlation of IH with BWT in all of F
(F+G) and in F. We observed significant correlation of ID with ADG in all of F
(F+G), and with FMR in all of F
(F+G) and in F. There was significant maternal effect on heterosis, which was indicated by significant difference of means and distribution of heterosis between F and G. This difference was consistent with distributions of IH and ID, and with difference of means in F and G. From this study, it would be suggested that the two kinds of genetic index could be used to explore the genetic basis of heterosis in crossbreeding populations but could not determine which is better.
Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression and Luteal Cell DNA Fragmentation of Porcine Cyclic Corpora Lutea
Tao, Yong ; Fu, Zhuo ; Xia, Guoliang ; Lei, Lei ; Chen, Xiufen ; Yang, Jie ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 626~631
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.626
Nitric oxide (NO) derived from inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is involved in cell apoptosis, which contributes to luteal regression and luteolysis in some species. In large domestic animals, no direct evidence for the relationship between NO and cell apoptosis in the process of corpus luteum regression is reported. The present study was conducted to investigate the localization of iNOS on porcine corpora lutea (CL) during the oestrus cycle and its relation to cell DNA fragmentation and CL regression. According to morphology, four luteal phases throughout the estrous cycle were defined as CL1, CL2, CL3 and CL4. By isoform-specific antibody against iNOS, the immunochemial staining was determined. Luteal cell DNA fragmentation was determined by flow cytometry. The results showed that no positive staining for iNOS was in CL1 and that iNOS was produced but limited to the periphery of CL2, while in the CL3, the spreading immunochemical staining was found inside the CL. No iNOS positive staining was detected in CL4. Meanwhile, DNA fragmentation increased dramatically when CL developed from CL2 to CL3 (p<0.05). In CL4, higher proportion of luteal cells still had fragmented DNA than that of luteal cells from CL1 or CL2 (p<0.05). These results indicate that iNOS expression is closely related to luteal cell apoptosis and then to luteal regression.
Effect of Removal of Follicles through Repeated Transvaginal Follicle Aspiration on Subsequent Follicular Populations in Murrah Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis
Akshey, Y.S. ; Palta, P. ; Manik, R.S. ; Vivekananad, Vivekananad ; Chauhan, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 632~636
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.632
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of removal of all ovarian follicles through repeated transvaginal follicle aspiration (TVFA) on the subsequent follicular populations in buffaloes. This information is crucial for determining the optimum time interval between successive aspirations for recovering oocytes from live buffaloes through Transvaginal Oocyte Retrieval (TVOR). The oestrus of cycling buffaloes (n=5) were synchronized by a single PGF injection schedule. All the ovarian follicles were removed once every 7 days for 6 weeks through TVFA, starting from Day 7 of the oestrous cycle (Day 0 = day of oestrus). The number and size of individual ovarian follicles was recorded at Day 3 and Day 5 (Day 0 = day of TVFA) through transrectal ultrasonography. The follicles were classified on the basis of their diameter as small (3-5 mm), medium (6-9 mm) and large (
10 mm). There was no difference in the number of small and medium follicles, and the number of total follicles between Day 3 and Day 5. However, the number of large follicles was significantly higher (p<0.05) at Day 5 than that at Day 3. There was a significant (p<0.05) decrease in the proportion of small follicles and an increase (p<0.05) in the proportion of large follicles from Day 3 to Day 5, with no change in the proportion of medium follicles. The number of total follicles at Day 3 or Day 5 did not differ during the 6 TVFA sessions. It can be concluded that an interval of 3 days is more suitable than that of 5 days between successive aspirations for recovering oocytes through TVOR in a twice weekly schedule and that repeated removal of follicles through TVFA does not adversely affect the number of total follicles 3 or 5 days after TVFA.
Influence of Varying Levels of Dietary Undegraded Intake Protein Intake on Nutrient Intake, Body Weight Change and Reproductive Parameters in Postpartum Awassi Ewes
Haddad, S.G. ; Kridli, R.T. ; Al-Wadi, D.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 637~642
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.637
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary undegradable protein (UP) level on body weight change, nutrient intake, milk production and postpartum reproductive performance of Awassi ewes. Twenty-seven multiparous Awassi ewes (initial body weight = 53.3
1.6 kg) were randomly assigned to three dietary treatments (9 ewes/treatment) for 62 days using a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were isonitrogenous (15.5% CP), isocaloric, and were formulated to contain 17.9 (LUP), 27.1 (MUP), and 34.0% (HUP) of the dietary CP as UP. On day 10
3 (day 0 = parturition) ewes were housed in individual pens for 5 weeks. Feed offered and refused was recorded daily. At the end of this period, animals were removed from their pens and combined into 3 separate groups (LUP, MUP and HUP). One fertile, harnessed ram was allowed with each group for 34 days. Rams were rotated every 2 days among the three groups. Each group was offered the corresponding experimental diet. Organic matter, CP, UP and metabolizable energy intakes were higher (p<0.05) for ewes fed the HUP diet compared with ewes fed the LUP and MUP diets. Ewes fed the HUP diet gained more (p<0.05) weight compared with ewes fed the MUP diet (7.3 vs. 2.1 kg), while ewes fed the LUP diet lost an average of 2.1 kg. Pregnancy rate of ewes fed the HUP diet was 100%, compared with 66 and 33% for ewes fed the MUP and LUP diets, respectively. Lambing rate was greater (p<0.05) for ewes fed HUP (8/9) diet compared with ewes fed the MUP (4/9) and LUP (3/9) diets. These results indicate that Awassi ewes receiving adequate dietary UP level consume more feed and are capable of returning to estrus shortly after parturition and are capable of producing two lamb crops per year.
Effect of Sample Preparation on Prediction of Fermentation Quality of Maize Silages by Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Park, H.S. ; Lee, J.K. ; Fike, J.H. ; Kim, D.A. ; Ko, M.S. ; Ha, Jong Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 643~648
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.643
Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become increasingly used as a rapid, accurate method of evaluating some chemical constituents in cereal grains and forages. If samples could be analyzed without drying and grinding, then sample preparation time and costs may be reduced. This study was conducted to develop robust NIRS equations to predict fermentation quality of corn (Zea mays) silage and to select acceptable sample preparation methods for prediction of fermentation products in corn silage by NIRS. Prior to analysis, samples (n = 112) were either oven-dried and ground (OD), frozen in liquid nitrogen and ground (LN) and intact fresh (IF). Samples were scanned from 400 to 2,500 nm with an NIRS 6,500 monochromator. The samples were divided into calibration and validation sets. The spectral data were regressed on a range of dry matter (DM), pH and short chain organic acids using modified multivariate partial least squares (MPLS) analysis that used first and second order derivatives. All chemical analyses were conducted with fresh samples. From these treatments, calibration equations were developed successfully for concentrations of all constituents except butyric acid. Prediction accuracy, represented by standard error of prediction (SEP) and
(variance accounted for in validation set), was slightly better with the LN treatment (
0.75-0.90) than for OD (
0.43-0.81) or IF (
0.62-0.79) treatments. Fermentation characteristics could be successfully predicted by NIRS analysis either with dry or fresh silage. Although statistical results for the OD and IF treatments were the lower than those of LN treatment, intact fresh (IF) treatment may be acceptable when processing is costly or when possible component alterations are expected.
Effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and Buffered Propionic Acid on Preservation and Nutritive Value of Alfalfa and Timothy High-moisture Hay
Baah, J. ; McAllister, T.A. ; Bos, L. ; Herk, F. Van ; Charley, R.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 649~660
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.649
The effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 and buffered propionic acid on preservation, intake and digestibility of alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and timothy (Phleum pratense) hay were investigated. During baling, forages were treated with L. buchneri 40788 (1.2
CFU/g) as a liquid (LLB) or as a granular preparation (GLB), with buffered propionic acid (10 mL/kg, BPA), or left untreated (control). Triplicate 500 kg round bales of each treatment were put up at two moisture levels for each forage: 17%
0.33% and 20%
0.30% for timothy and 17%
0.20% and 19%
0.27% for alfalfa (mean
SD). Bales were sampled for chemical and microbiological analyses after 0, 30 and 60 d of storage. Compared to controls, all preservatives reduced (p<0.05) heating of both forages at all moisture levels with the exception of alfalfa baled at 19% moisture. After 60 d of storage, GLB reduced (p<0.05) moulds in 17% timothy hay as compared to other treatments, but at 20% moisture, moulds were reduced in LLB- and BPA-treated timothy as compared to controls. In alfalfa at 17% moisture, total bacteria were lower (p<0.05) in GLB-treated bales than LLB or control bales, but yeast and total bacteria were only reduced in BPA-treated alfalfa at 19% moisture. In situ DM disappearance of timothy (both moisture levels) and alfalfa (19% moisture level) increased (p<0.05) with LLB treatment compared to control. Digestibility of both forages did not differ (p>0.05) among treatments, however, voluntary DM intake of LLB-treated timothy (1.32 kg/d) was 22.3% higher (p<0.05) than control, and 14.1% higher than BPA-treated timothy. Treating timothy and alfalfa hay with L. buchneri 40788 or buffered propionic acid may improve the nutritive value of the hay when baled at 17 to 20% moisture.
Effect of Pre-partum Feeding of Crossbred Cows on Growth Performance, Metabolic Profile and Immune Status of Calves
Panigrahi, B. ; Pandey, H.N. ; Pattanaik, A.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 661~666
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.661
The effects of pre-partum feeding management in terms of birth weight, growth, metabolic profile and immunity of calves were studied using 24 crossbred (Bos taurus
Bos indicus) cows, divided into three equal groups. The dietary treatments included feeding of either 3.0 kg concentrate/head/d throughout the 60 d pre-partum (T
), or 3.0 kg concentrate during 60-22 d pre-partum and thereafter at an increased allowance at 0.25 kg/d during the next 21 d till it reached 1% of live weight (T
). The third group of cows was fed similar to T
, except that the concentrate feeding during 60-22 d pre-partum was reduced to 2.0 kg (T
). All the groups had access to ad libitum green fodder throughout. The results revealed that the mean daily dry matter (DM) intake by the cows was similar (p>0.05) among the three groups during the 60 days of the pre-partum but T2 animals tended to gain more live weight (41.25 kg) than T
(38.12 kg) and T
(36.25 kg). The body condition score of the cows did not change appreciably over the experimental period. The mean birth weight of the calves was 24.00
1.17 and 23.25
1.19 kg for the three groups, respectively, with the corresponding average daily gain of 154.2, 155.0 and 169.7 g during the subsequent 60 days; both these parameters did not vary significantly ascribable to prepartum feeding regimens of their dams. The total immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration in the colostrum was 6.31
0.21 and 6.13
0.30 g/dl for the three groups, respectively, showing no influence of dietary treatments. The mean serum Ig levels (T
0.09 and T
0.12 g/dl) of calves at 5 d of age were similar among the dietary groups as was the case with various serum biochemical constituents. It is concluded that the variations in pre-partum dietary management elicited no significant influence on the calf performance including the immune status.
Evaluation on Nutritional Value of Field Crickets as a Poultry Feedstuff
Wang, Dun ; Zhai, Shao Wei ; Zhang, Chuan Xi ; Bai, Yao Yu ; An, Shi Heng ; Xu, Ying Nan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 667~670
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.667
The proximate analysis, amino acid content and true amino acid digestibility and TMEn for poultry of adult Field crickets Gryllus testaceus Walker, were investigated. The insect was also used as partial replacement of protein supplements in the broiler diet on an equal CP percentage and TMEn basis. The results indicated that the adult insect contained: crude protein 58.3%; fat 10.3%, chitin 8.7% and ash 2.96% on dry matter basis, respectively. The total amounts of methionine, cystine and lysine in the Field crickets were 1.93%, 1.01% and 4.79%, respectively, and their true digestibility coefficients, determined in cecectomized roosters, were 94.1%, 85% and 96%, respectively. The TMEn of this insect meal was 2,960 kcal/kg determined in cecectomized roosters. When cornsoybean meal diets were formulated on an equal CP percentage and TMEn basis, up to 15% Field cricket could replace control diet without any adverse affects on broiler weight gain, feed intake or gain:feed ratio from 8 to 20 d posthatching.
Evaluation of the Genetic Diversities and the Nutritional Values of the Tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) and the Basa (Pangasius bocourti) Catfish Cultivated in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam
Men, L.T. ; Thanh, V.C. ; Hirata, Y. ; Yamasaki, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 671~676
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.671
A total of 50 individual catfish, the Tra (Pangasius hypophthalmus) cultivated in either floating cages (Tra-c) or in ponds (Tra-p) and the Basa (Pangasius bocourti) raised in three floating cages, were collected in two of the Mekong Delta provinces. The caudal fin of each individual fish was used for protein electrophoresis employing the SDS-PAGE method. The one fillet sides were used as a representative sample to determine the dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), ether extract (EE) and amino acids (AAs). The catfish oil was extracted from the belly fats, and the fatty acid (FA) composition was analyzed. There were 21 bands of the Tra and the Basa. Protein bands of the two varieties were 28.6-33.3% polymorphic, while polymorphic individuals of the Tra ranged from 80.0 to 100.0%, and the Basa was 90.0% polymorphic. The phenotypic diversity (Ho) of the Tra ranged from 1.71 to 1.80, while the Basa ranged as high as 2.14%. Diversity values (H
) for genetic diversity markers were equal in the Tra and the Basa. The sum of the effective number of alleles (SENA) of both varieties ranged from 3.40 to 3.83 for the Basa and the Tra, respectively. The lower values of Ho and SENA, as compared with those of the fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium equidens) in the area, would suggest that the species with the low values will become extinct due to inbreeding; the gene pools of each observed population were below a suitable threshold. Many of the differences in the nutritional values of the Tra-c, the Tra-p and the Basa were measured; their nutrient values were comparable to fishmeal or fish oil. Most of the DM, CP, and EE were higher in the Tra, especially in the Tra-c. The essential AA content, especially that of lysine, was highest in the Tra-c, next highest in the Tra-p, and lowest in the Basa. Therefore, the amino acid patterns were closer to the ideal patterns in the same sequences. In contrast, the essential FAs were concentrated in the Basa fish oil. It was found that suitable selection of parents for seed production is required to avoid inbreeding. Catfish may be valuable sources of nutrition for both humans and animals, and the differences in their nutritional values by variety and/or management must be taken into account.
Growth Performance, Humoral Immune Response and Carcass Characteristics of Broiler Chickens Fed Alkali Processed Karanj Cake Incorporated Diet Supplemented with Methionine
Panda, K. ; Sastry, V.R.B. ; Mandal, A.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 677~681
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.677
A study was conducted to see the effect of dietary incorporation of alkali (1.5% NaOH, w/w) processed solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) supplemented with methionine on growth performance, humoral immune response and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens from 0 to 8 weeks of age. One hundred and twenty, day- old broiler chicks were wing banded, vaccinated against Marek' disease and distributed in a completely randomized design (CRD) into 3 groups of 40 chicks each, which was further replicated to 4 and fed on diet containing soybean meal and those of test groups were fed diets containing alkali (1.5% NaOH) treated SKC partially replacing soybean meal nitrogen of reference diet (12.5%) without or with supplementation of methionine (0.2%). Individual body weight of chicks and replicate-wise feed intakes were recorded at weekly intervals throughout the experimental period. Feed consumption from 1 to 14, 28, 42 and 56 d of age was recorded for each replicate and feed conversion efficiency (weight gain/feed intake) for the respective period was calculated. Mortality was monitored on daily basis. On 28
day of experimental feeding, two birds of each replicate in each dietary group (8 birds/diet) were inoculated with 0.1 ml of a 1.0% suspension of sheep red blood cells (SRBC) and the antibody titre (log 2) was measured after 5 days by the microtitre haemmagglutination procedure. After 42 days of experimental feeding, a retention study of 4 days (43-47 d) duration was conducted on all birds to determine the retention of various nutrients such as DM, N, Ca, P and GE. On 43
day of experimental feeding, one representative bird from each replicate of a dietary treatment (4/dietary group) was sacrificed, after fasting for two hours with free access to water, through cervical dislocation to observe the weight of dressed carcass, primal cuts (breast, thigh, drumstick, back, neck and wing), giblet (liver, heart and gizzard), abdominal fat and digestive organs. The body weight gain of chicks fed reference diet and those fed diet incorporated with NaOH treated SKC (12.5% replacement) with or without methionine supplementation was comparable during 0 to 4 weeks of age. However, dietary incorporation of alkali processed SKC replacing 12.5% nitrogen moiety of soybean meal resulted in growth retardation, subsequently as evidenced by significantly (p<0.05) lowered body weight gain during 0 to 6 weeks of age in birds fed diet incorporated with alkali processed SKC at 6.43% without methionine as compared to those supplemented with methionine or reference diet. Dietary incorporation of alkali (1.5% NaOH) processed SKC replacing 12.5% of soybean meal nitrogen in the diet of broiler chickens had no adverse effect on feed conversion ratio during all the weeks of experimental feeding. The humoral immune response (HIR) as measured by the antibody titre in response to SRBC inoculation was comparable among all the dietary groups. No significant difference in the intake and retention of DM, N, Ca, P or GE was noted among the chicks fed reference and alkali processed SKC incorporated diets with or without methionine supplementation. None of the carcass traits varied significantly due to dietary variations, except the percent weight of liver and giblet. The percent liver weight was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the birds fed diet incorporated with alkali processed SKC as compared to that in other two groups. Thus solvent extracted karanj cake could be incorporated after alkali (1.5% NaOH, w/w) processing at an enhanced level of 6.43%, replacing 12.5% of soybean meal nitrogen, in the broiler diets up to 4 weeks of age, beyond which the observed growth depression on this diet could be alleviated by 0.2% methionine supplementation.
Age-dependent Changes of Differential Gene Expression Profile in Backfat Tissue between Hybrids and Parents in Pigs
Ren, ZH.Q. ; Xiong, Yuanzhu ; Deng, CH.Y. ; Zuo, B. ; Liu, Y.G. ; Lei, M.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 682~685
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.682
Large White, an introduced European pig breed, and Meishan, a Chinese indigenous pig breed, were hybridized directly and reciprocally and a total of 260 pigs, including purebreds, Large White and Meishan, and their hybrids, White
Meishan (LM) and Meishan
Large White (ML) pigs, were bred in our laboratory. The mRNA differential display PCR (DD-PCR) was used to detect the age-dependent changes of differential gene expression in backfat tissue between hybrids and parents. Some measures were taken to reduce the false positives in our experiment. Among the total of 2,686 bands obtained, 1,952 bands (about 72.67%) were reproducible and eight patterns (fifteen kinds) of gene expression were observed. The percentage of differentially expressed genes between hybrids and parents is 56.86% at the age of four months and 57.71% at the age of six months. This indicated that the differences of gene expression between hybrids and their parents were very obvious. U-test was used to compare the patterns of gene expression between the age of four and six months, and results showed that bands occurring in only one hybrid and bands displayed in one hybrid and one parent were significantly different at p<0.05, and bands visualized in only two hybrids were significantly different at p<0.01. These indicated that differential gene expression between hybrids and parents changed at different ages.
Relationship between Intersequence Pauses, Laying Persistency and Concentration of Prolactin during the Productive Period in White Leghorn Hens
Reddy, I.J. ; David, C.G. ; Singh, Khub ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 686~691
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.686
Prolactin is considered to influence the taking of pauses in between ovulatory sequences in White Leghorn hens. Therefore modulating concentrations of prolactin using bromocriptine - a dopamine agonist during early life (17 to 36 weeks of age) could overcome the inhibitory effects of high concentration of prolactin on ovarian activity. The effect of modulation of prolactin concentration on egg production, sequence length and inter sequence pauses were studied by analyzing the oviposition records from 19 to 72 weeks were studied and compared with untreated controls. Bromocriptine administered subcutaneously (100
body weight or orally through feed (640
) resulted in a steady and sustained decrease in prolactin levels (p<0.01) during and after the withdrawal of treatment up to one reproductive cycle (72 weeks of age). The treated birds had comparatively longer sequences (p<0.01) and fewer pauses (p<0.01). Egg production increased (p<0.01) by fourteen per cent through subcutaneous administration and eleven per cent through oral feeding, over the control birds. It is concluded that the physiological pauses that occur during ovulatory sequences can be disrupted effectively using bromocriptine. Prolactin levels are modulated which may interfere with the follicular recruitment and subsequent oviposition thereby improve egg laying potential of the bird.
Dietary Manipulation of Lean Tissue Deposition in Broiler Chickens
Choct, M. ; Naylor, A.J. ; Oddy, V.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 692~698
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.692
Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of graded levels of dietary chromium and leucine, and different fat sources on performance and body composition of broiler chickens. The results showed that chromium picolinate at 0.5 ppm significantly (p<0.05) lowered the carcass fat level. Gut weight and carcass water content were increased as a result of chromium treatment. Body weight, plucked weight, carcass weight, abdominal fat pad weight, breast yield and feed efficiency were unaffected by chromium treatment. Leucine did not interact with chromium to effect lean growth. Dietary leucine above the recommended maintenance level (1.2% of diet) markedly (p<0.001) reduced the breast muscle yield. The addition of fish oil to broiler diets reduced (p<0.05) the abdominal fat pad weights compared to birds on linseed diets. Fish oil is believed to improve lean growth through the effects of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in lowering the very low-density lipoprotein levels and triglyceride in the blood, in the meantime increasing glucose uptake into the muscle tissue in blood and by minimizing the negative impact of the immune system on protein breakdown. The amount of fat in the diet (2% or 4%) did not affect body composition.
Effects of Graded Levels of Dietary Saccharomyces cerevisiae on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Broiler Chickens
Zhang, A.W. ; Lee, B.D. ; Lee, K.W. ; Song, K.B. ; An, G.H. ; Lee, C.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 699~703
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.699
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of various dietary levels of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (SC) on the growth performance and meat quality (i.e., tenderness and oxidative stability) of Ross broiler chickens. Two hundred and forty dayold broiler chicks were fed four experimental diets with graded levels of SC at 0.0, 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0%. Each treatment consisted of six cages with 10 chicks per cage. Feed and water were provided ad libitum throughout the experiment that lasted for 5 wk. Birds were switched from starter to finisher diets at 3 wk of age. The average BW gains of broiler chickens increased (linear p<0.05) during either 0-3 or 0-5 wk of age as dietary SC levels increased. A linear effect (p<0.05) of SC on feed intake during either 4-5 wk or 0-5 wk of ages was also monitored. The addition of SC to the control diet significantly lowered shear forces in raw breast, raw thigh, and boiled drumstick meats (linear p<0.05). Upon incubation, 2-thio-barbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) values increased gradually in breast and thigh meats while more dramatic increase was noted in skin samples. The TBARS values of either breast or thigh meats were not significantly affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatments up to 10 d of incubation. At 15 d of incubation, TBARS values of breast and thigh meats from all SC-treated groups were significantly lower (p<0.05) than those of the control. It appears that dietary SC could enhance growth performance of broiler chickens, and improve tenderness and oxidative stability of broiler meats.
Performance and Carcass Composition of Growing-finishing Pigs Fed Wheat or Corn-based Diets
Han, Yung-Keun ; Soita, H.W. ; Thacker, P.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 704~710
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.704
The objective of this experiment was to compare corn and wheat in finishing pig diets in order to determine whether performance, carcass quality, fatty acid composition or fat colour is altered by choice of cereal grain. A total of 126 crossbred pigs were used in this experiment. At the start of the experiment, a portion of the experimental animals were assigned to receive a wheat-based diet formulated using soybean meal as the sole source of supplementary protein. The remainder of the pigs were assigned to a corn-based diet formulated to supply a similar level of lysine (0.65%) and energy (3,300 kcal/kg DE). At two week intervals, a portion of the pigs on the corn-based diet were switched to the wheat-based diet so that a gradient was produced with pigs being fed the corn and wheatbased diets for different proportions of the finishing period ranging from 100% on wheat to 100% on corn. There were no significant differences in the growth rate of pigs fed the two diets (p = 0.834). Pigs fed wheat tended to consume slightly less feed (p = 0.116) and had a significantly improved feed conversion (p = 0.048) compared with pigs fed corn. Choice of cereal did not affect dressing percentage (p = 0.691), carcass value index (p = 0.146), lean yield (p = 0.134), loin fat (p = 0.127) or loin lean (p = 0.217). Fatty acid composition of backfat was unaffected by the cereal grain fed (p>0.05). Total saturated fatty acid content was 33.31% for both corn and wheat fed pigs (p = 0.997) while the polyunsaturated fatty acid content was 12.01% for corn fed pigs and 11.21% for wheat fed pigs (p = 0.257). The polyunsaturated/saturated ratio was 0.36 for pigs fed corn and 0.34 for pigs fed wheat (p = 0.751). Hunter Lab Colour Scores indicated no difference either in the whiteness or yellowness of the fat. In conclusion, wheat can substitute for corn in growingfinishing pig rations without detrimental effects on pig performance. There were no differences in either the fatty acid composition of backfat or in backfat colour indicating that the decision to use wheat vs. corn needs to be made on economic grounds rather than being based on their effects on fat quality.
Study of the Microbial and Chemical Properties of Goat Milk Kefir Produced by Inoculation with Taiwanese Kefir Grains
Chen, Ming-Ju ; Liu, Je-Ruei ; Lin, Chin-Wen ; Yeh, Yu-Tzu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 711~715
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.711
One of the prerequisites for the successful implementation of industrial-scale goat kefir production is to understand the effects of different kefir grains and culture conditions on the microbial and chemical properties of the goat kefir. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the characteristics of kefir grains in Taiwan on the microbial and chemical properties of goat milk kefir, as well as to understand the influence of culture conditions on production of medium chain-length triglycerides (MCT). Kefir grains were collected from households in northern Taiwan. Heat-treated goat milk was inoculated with 3-5% (V/W) kefir grains incubated at 15, 17.5, 20 or 22.5
for 20 h, and the microflora count, ethanol content, and caproic (C6), caprylic (C8), and capric acid (C10) levels measured at 4 h intervals. Our results indicate that incubation with kefir grains results in 10
CFU/ml microflora count and 1.18 g/L of ethanol content at 20 h of fermentation. Incubation with 5% kefir grain at 20-22.5
produces the highest MCT levels.
Expression of Serum and Muscle Endocrine Factors at Antemortem and Postmortem Periods and Their Relationship with Pig Carcass Grade
Kim, W.K. ; Kim, M.H. ; Ryu, Y.H. ; Ryu, Y.C. ; Rhee, M.S. ; Seo, D.S. ; Lee, C.Y. ; Kim, B.C. ; Ko, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 716~722
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.716
Carcass weight and backfat thickness are primary yield grading factors. Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/-II, transforming growth factor
1), and epidermal growth factor (EGF) regulate the proliferation and differentiation of cells including adipocytes. Also, interleukin (IL)-2/-6, cortisol, and dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEA-S) are known to be related to muscle growth and fat depth. However, the relationships between endocrine factors and carcass grade have not been studied. Therefore, this study aimed to measure the concentrations of endocrine factors in serum and muscle, and to investigate the relationship of endocrine factors with carcass grade. A total of 60 crossbred gilts (Duroc
Landrace) were used. Blood from the jugular vein was collected at antemortem (7 days before slaughter) and postmortem periods, and M. Longissimus was collected at 45 min and 24 h after slaughter. The concentrations of IGF-I/-II, EGF, TGF-
1, IL-2/-6, cortisol and DHEA-S were analyzed by radioimmunoassay (RIA) or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In general, IGF and EGF concentrations in serum and muscle of grade A carcasses were found to be higher than those of grade C carcasses at antemortem and postmortem periods, whereas the pattern of TGF-
1 concentration was reversed. In particular, the concentrations of muscle IGF-I (24 h postmortem) and serum TGF-
1 (antemortem) were significantly different between grades A and C (p<0.05). The present results indicate that serum and muscle growth factors affect carcass weight and backfat thickness, and indirectly suggest the possibility that carcass grade could be predicted by expression of serum and/or muscle growth factors.
Characteristics of Gene Structure of Bovine Ghrelin and Influence of Aging on Plasma Ghrelin
Kita, K. ; Harada, K. ; Nagao, K. ; Yokota, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 723~727
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.723
Ghrelin is a novel growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide, which has been purified and identified in rat stomach. In the present study, the full-length sequence of bovine ghrelin cDNA was cloned by RT-PCR. The bovine ghrelin cDNA sequence derived in the present study included a 348 bp open reading frame and a 137 bp 3'UTR. The putative amino acid sequence of bovine prepro-ghrelin consisted of 116 amino acids, which contained the 27-amino acid ghrelin. The sequence analysis of the bovine ghrelin gene revealed that an intron existed between Gln
of ghrelin. This exon-intron boundary matched the GT-AG rule of the splicing mechanism. Compared with rats, which have two tandem CAG sequences in the 3'end of intron, bovine ghrelin genome has only one CAG sequence. Therefore, although rats can produce 28 amino acid-ghrelin and 27 amino acid-des-Gln
-ghrelin by alternative splicing, ruminant species, including bovines, might be able to produce only one type of ghrelin peptide, des-Gln
-ghrelin. The influence of aging on plasma ghrelin concentration was also examined. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased after birth to approximately 600 days of age, and then remained constant.
Characteristics of Bovine Lymphoma Caused by Bovine Leukemia Virus Infection in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle in Korea
Yoon, S.S. ; Bae, Y.C. ; Lee, K.H. ; Han, B. ; Han, H.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 728~733
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.728
The frequency and distribution of lymphoma caused by bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection in various organs were investigated. Lymphoma samples were obtained from slaughtered cattle or from cattle submitted to the National Veterinary Research and Quarantine Service, Korea. Thirty female Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle aged over three years with the BLV-associated lymphoma were studied. None of the Korean native cattle (Hanwoo) had lymphoma in this study however. Lymphoma tissues were gray to pink in color, soft in consistency, and bulged from the cut surface. In advanced lymphoma tissues, there was great variety in the appearance of involved structures due to hemorrhage, necrosis, and/or calcification. Neoplastic tissues were observed in lymph nodes in all lymphoma cases. Intestine (96.4%), heart (88.9%), stomach (73.1%), and diaphragm (62.5%) were frequently involved with lymphoma. However, there was no lymphoma detected in liver. Large neoplastic masses, sometimes reaching the size of over 20 cm, were found in the abdominal cavities. It is suggested that metastasis of lymphomas occurs mainly via lymph based on gross observations; neoplasia may have been initiated in the serosal surface of the lung, heart, peritoneum, and numerous hollow organs in the abdominal cavity. Also many organs in the abdominal and thoracic cavity were affected by neoplastic tissues simultaneously. Characteristics observed in this study could be used as criteria to differentiate BLV-associated lymphoma from other nodular lesions in the slaughterhouse and as fundamental data to make clear the mechanism of metastasis or pathogenesis of EBL.
Polymorphism of the Promoter Region of Hsp70 Gene and Its Relationship with the Expression of HSP70mRNA, HSF1mRNA, Bcl-2mrna and Bax-AMrna in Lymphocytes in Peripheral Blood of Heat Shocked Dairy Cows
Cai, Yafei ; Liu, Qinghua ; Xing, Guangdong ; Zhou, Lei ; Yang, Yuanyuan ; Zhang, Lijun ; Li, Jing ; Wang, Genlin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 734~740
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.734
The blood samples were collected from dairy cows at the same milking stage. The single-strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) method was used to analyze for polymorphism at the 5'flanking region of the hsp70 gene. The mRNA expression levels of HSP70, HSF1, Bcl-2 and Bax-
at different daily-mean-temperature were analyzed by relative quantitative RTPCR. The DNA content, cell phase and the ratio of apoptosis of lymphocytes in peripheral blood of dairy cattle at different daily-meantemperature were determined by FCM. The PCR-SSCP products of primer pair 1 showed polymorphisms and could be divided into four genotypes: aa, ab, ac, cc, with the cis-acting element (CCAAT box) included. Mutations in the hsp70 5'flanking region (468-752 bp) had different effects on mRNA expression of HSP70, HSF1, Bcl-2 and Bax-
. The ac genotypic cows showed higher expressions of HSP70mRNA, HSF1mRNA and Bcl-2mRNA/Bax-
mRNA and lower ratio of apoptosis. These mutation sites can be used as molecular genetic markers to assist selection for anti-heat stress cows.
Separation and Purification of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitory Peptides Derived from Goat's Milk Casein Hydrolysates
Lee, K.J. ; Kim, S.B. ; Ryu, J.S. ; Shin, H.S. ; Lim, J.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 741~746
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.741
To investigate the basic information and the possibility of ACE-inhibitory peptides for antihypertension materials, goat's caisin (CN) was hydrolyzed by various proteolytic enzymes and ACE-inhibitory peptides were separated and purified. ACE-inhibition ratios of enzymatic hydrolysates of goat's CN and various characteristics of ACE-inhibitory peptides were determined. ACE-inhibition ratios of goat's CN hydrolysates were shown the highest with 87.84% by pepsin for 48 h. By Sephadex G-25 gel chromatograms, Fraction 3 from goat's CN hydrolysates by pepsin for 48 h was confirmed the highest ACE-inhibition activity. Fraction 3 g and Fraction 3 gh from peptic hydrolysates by RP-HPLC to first and second purification were the highest in ACE-inhibition activity, respectively. The most abundant amino acid was leucine (18.83%) in Fraction 3 gh of ACE-inhibitory peptides after second purification. Amino acid sequence analysis of Fraction 3 gh of ACE-inhibitory peptides was shown that the Ala-Tyr-Phe-Tyr, Pro-Tyr-Tyr and Tyr-Leu. IC
calibrated in peptic hydrolysates at 48 h, Fraction 3, Fraction 3 g and Fraction 3 gh from goat's CN hydrolysates by pepsin for 48 h were 29.89, 3.07, 1.85 and 0.87 g/ml, respectively. Based on the results of this experiment, goat's CN hydrolysates by pepsin were shown to have ACE-inhibitory activity.
Nutritional and Tissue Specificity of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 Gene Expression in Growing Chickens - A Review -
Kita, K. ; Nagao, K. ; Okumura, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 5, 2005, Pages 747~754
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.747
Nutritional regulation of gene expression associated with growth and feeding behavior in avian species can become an important technique to improve poultry production according to the supply of nutrients in the diet. Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) found in chickens has been characterized to be a 70 amino acid polypeptide and plays an important role in growth and metabolism. Although it is been well known that IGF-I is highly associated with embryonic development and post-hatching growth, changes in the distribution of IGF-I gene expression throughout early- to late-embryogenesis have not been studied so far. We revealed that the developmental pattern of IGF-I gene expression during embryogenesis differed among various tissues. No bands of IGF-I mRNA were detected in embryonic liver at 7 days of incubation, and thereafter the amount of hepatic IGF-I mRNA was increased from 14 to 20 days of incubation. In eyes, a peak in IGF-I mRNA levels occurred at mid-embryogenesis, but by contrast, IGF-I mRNA was barely detectable in the heart throughout all incubation periods. In the muscle, no significant difference in IGF-I gene expression was observed during different stages of embryogenesis. After hatching, hepatic IGF-I gene expression as well as plasma IGF-I concentration increases rapidly with age, reaches a peak before sexual maturity, and then declines. The IGF-I gene expression is very sensitive to changes in nutritional conditions. Food-restriction and fasting decreased hepatic IGF-I gene expression and refeeding restored IGF-I gene expression to the level of fed chickens. Dietary protein is also a very strong factor in changing hepatic IGF-I gene expression. Refeeding with dietary protein alone successfully restored hepatic IGF-I gene expression of fasted chickens to the level of fed controls. In most circumstances, IGF-I makes a complex with specific high-affinity IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). So far, four different IGFBPs have been identified in avian species and the major IGFBP in chicken plasma has been reported to be IGFBP-2. We studied the relationship between nutritional status and IGFBP-2 gene expression in various tissues of young chickens. In the liver of fed chickens, almost no IGFBP-2 mRNA was detected. However, fasting markedly increased hepatic IGFBP-2 gene expression, and the level was reduced after refeeding. In the gizzard of well-fed young chickens, IGFBP-2 gene expression was detected and fasting significantly elevated gizzard IGFBP-2 mRNA levels to about double that of fed controls. After refeeding, gizzard IGFBP-2 gene expression decreased similar to hepatic IGFBP-2 gene expression. In the brain, IGFBP-2 mRNA was observed in fed chickens and had significantly decreased by fasting. In the kidney, IGFBP-2 gene expression was observed but not influenced by fasting and refeeding. Recently, we have demonstrated in vivo that gizzard and hepatic IGFBP-2 gene expression in fasted chickens was rapidly reduced by intravenous administration of insulin, as indicated that in young chickens the reduction in gizzard and hepatic IGFBP-2 gene expression in vivo stimulated by malnutrition may be, in part, regulated by means of the increase in plasma insulin concentration via an insulin-response element. The influence of dietary protein source (isolated soybean protein vs. casein) and the supplementation of essential amino acids on gizzard IGFBP-2 gene expression was examined. In both soybean protein and casein diet groups, the deficiency of essential amino acids stimulated chickens to increase gizzard IGFBP-2 gene expression. Although amino acid supplementation of a soybean protein diet significantly decreased gizzard IGFBP-2 mRNA levels, a similar reduction was not observed in chickens fed a casein diet supplemented with amino acids. This overview of nutritional regulation of IGF-I and IGFBP-2 gene expression in young chickens would serve for the establishment of the supply of nutrients to diets to improve poultry production.