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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
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Genetic Variability and Relationships of Native Japanese Chickens Assessed by Microsatellite DNA Profiling - Focusing on the Breeds Established in Kochi Prefecture, Japan -
Osman, S.A.-M. ; Sekino, M. ; Nishibori, M. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Tsudzuki, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 755~761
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.755
Blood samples were collected from eight native Japanese breeds of chickens (Miyadi-dori, Ohiki, Onaga-dori, Shoukoku, Tosa-Jidori, Tosa-Kukin, Toutenkou and Uzurao) and two foreign breeds of chickens (White Leghorn and Rhode Island Red) to examine the genetic variability and relationships among the breeds by using a microsatellite DNA technique. Except for the Shoukoku breed, the other Japanese chicken breeds all originate from Kochi Prefecture. Ohiki, Onaga-dori, Tosa-Jidori, Toutenkou and Uzurao are fancy fowl, and Miyadi-dori and Tosa-Kukin are utility fowl. Among the fancy fowl, Ohiki, Onaga-dori, and Toutenkou males have thick and long feathers in the saddle and tail. Genetic variabilities of the 20 microsatellites examined, varied depending on the breed: the mean number of alleles per locus ranged from 2.05 (Miyadi-dori) to 3.90 (Rhode Island Red); proportion of polymorphic loci ranged from 0.75 (Miyadi-dori) to 1.00 (Rhode Island Red, Shoukoku and Uzurao); and mean expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.330 (Miyadi-dori) to 0.607 (Rhode Island Red). Unique microsatellite alleles were detected in each breed. Using the neighbour-joining method, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on the genetic distances of D
. Among the breeds originating from Kochi Prefecture, fancy and utility breeds belonged to different clusters. Among the fancy breeds, those having thick and long feathers in the tail and saddle showed a close genetic relationship to the Shoukoku breed, which also has thick and long feathers in the tail and saddle.
Establishment of an Individual Identification System Based on Microsatellite Polymorphisms in Korean Cattle (Hanwoo)
Yoon, Du-Hak ; Kong, Hong-Sik ; Oh, Jae-Don ; Lee, Jun-Heon ; Cho, Byung-Wook ; Kim, Jong-Dae ; Jeon, Ki-Jun ; Jo, Chang-Yun ; Jeon, Gwang-Joo ; Lee, Hak-Kyo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 762~766
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.762
This study was conducted to establish an individual identification system comprising of 19 microsatellite markers located on different bovine autosomes. The markers were typed on 257 animals from five cattle breeds. In total, 112 alleles were detected from the genotyping of 19 microsatellite markers. The average heterozygosities ranged from 0.292 to 0.824 and the polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.274 to 0.817 in Hanwoo. We found that there were differences in allele frequencies in Hanwoo when compared with other cattle breeds. The calculated cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) was 99.999% when nine microsatellite loci were used for analysis in the individual identification system. Also the matching probability, the probability that two unrelated animals would show the same genotypes, was estimated to be
. Therefore, the nine markers used in this study will be used for individual identification in two million Hanwoo individuals.
Relationship between Differential Gene Expression in Ovary and Heterosis of Egg Number Traits in a Chicken Diallel Cross
Wang, Hui ; Sun, Dong-Xiao ; Yu, Ying ; Wang, Dong ; Zhang, Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 767~771
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.767
In order to understand the molecular basis of chicken heterosis in reproduction traits, mRNA differential display (DDRT-PCR) methods were used to analyze the differential gene expression of ovary tissue between hybrids and their parental lines in a 4
4 diallel cross, involving 4 chicken breeds, which were White Plymouth Rock (E), CAU Brown (D), Silkies (C) and White Leghorn (A). Total of 331 differential displayed cDNA bands from 1,161 were displayed in the 4
4 diallel cross combinations with 30 pairs of primers, which shows the differences of gene expression between hybrids and their parental lines were very obvious in quantity and quality. Seven types of differential expression patterns were found: Co-dominance expressed pattern (T1), under-expression of parental fragments in hybrids (T2), over-expression of parental fragments in hybrids (T3), hybrid-absence expressed pattern (T4), single parentspecific expressed pattern (T5), dominant expression fragments of single parent in hybrids (T6), hybrid-specific expressed pattern (T7). Correlation analysis indicated that there were significant correlations between the pattern of T3 and the heterosis percentage of egg number of 32-week and 42-week old chickens(p<0.01), while there were negative significant correlations between the pattern of T7 and the heterosis percentage of egg number of 32-week and 42 week-old birds (p<0.01).
Association of Marker Loci and QTL from Crosses of Inbred Parental Lines
Lee, Gi-Woong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 772~779
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.772
The objectives of this study were to examine problems with using F
data by simulation, association of marker loci and QTL from crosses of inbred parental lines and to enumerate the preliminary characterization of genetic superiority within inbred parental lines. In this study, the association between markers for QTL used as covariates and estimates of variance components due to effects of lines was investigated through computer simulation. The effects of size of population to develop inbred lines and initial frequencies and magnitudes of effects of QTL were also considered. Results show that estimates of variance components due to line effects are influenced by including marker information as covariates in the model for analysis. Estimates of line variance were increased by adding marker information into the analysis, because negative covariances between effects associated with the markers and the remaining effects associated with other loci existed. However, the fit of the model as indicated by the log likelihood improved by adding more markers as covariates into the analysis. Marker assisted selection will be beneficial when markers explain unexplained genetic difference during selection procedure. Markers can be used to identify QTLs affecting traits, and to select for favorable QTL alleles. To efficiently use genetic markers, location of markers at the genome must be identified. The estimates of variance due to effects of with and without marker information used as covariates in the analysis were investigated. The estimates of line variances were always increased when markers were included as covariates for the model because a negative covariance were existed.
Quantification of Pre-parturition Restlessness in Crated Sows Using Ultrasonic Measurement
Wang, J.S. ; Huang, Y.S. ; Wu, M.C. ; Lai, Y.Y. ; Chang, H.L. ; Young, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 780~786
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.780
This study presents a non-video, non-invasive, automatic, on-site monitoring system the system employs ultrasonic transducers to detect behavior in sows before, during and after parturition. An ultrasonic transmitting/receiving (T/R) circuit of 40 kHz was mounted above a conventional parturition bed. The T/R units use ultrasonic time-of-flight (TOF) ranging technology to measure the height of the confined sows at eight predetermined locations. From this data, three momentary postures of the sow are determined, characterized as standing-posture (SP), lateral-lying-posture (LLP) and sitting posture (STP). By examining the frequencies of position switch Stand-Up-Sequence (SUS) between standing-posture (SP), lateral-lying-posture (LLP) and sitting-posture (STP) rate can be determined for the duration of the sow' confinement. Three experimental pureblooded Landrace sows undergoing normal gestation were monitored for the duration of confinement. In agreement with common observation, the sows exhibited increased restlessness as parturition approached. Analysis of the data collected in our study showed a distinct peak in Stand-Up-Sequence (SUS, i.e. the transition from lying laterally to standing up ) and sitting-posture (STP) rate approximately 12 h prior to parturition, the observed peak being 5 to 10 times higher than observed on any other measurement day. It is concluded that the presented methodology is a robust, low-cost, lowlabor method for the continuous remote monitoring of sows and similar large animals for parturition and other behavior. It is suggested that the system could be applied to automatic prediction of sow parturition, with automatic notification of remote management personnel so human attendance at birth could reduce rates of sow and piglet mortality. The results of this study provide a good basis for enhancing automation and reducing costs in large-scale sow husbandry and have applications in the testing of various large mammals for the effects of medications, diets, genetic modifications and environmental factors.
Postpartum Reproductive Management Based on the Routine Farm Records of a Dairy Herd: Relationship between the Metabolic Parameters and Postpartum Ovarian Activity
Takagi, Mitsuhiro ; Hirai, Toshiya ; Moriyama, Naoki ; Ohtani, Masayuki ; Miyamoto, Akio ; Wijayagunawardane, Missaka P.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 787~794
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.787
The aim of this study was 1) to confirm the practical efficiency of a routine milk P4 monitoring system for postpartum reproductive management of a dairy herd, and 2) to evaluate the relationship between the blood metabolic profiles, milk quality and body weight of individual cows in the farm records, which may reflect the postpartum nutritional condition, and the time of postpartum resumption of ovarian activity of dairy cows. A total of 116 Holstein cows was used in the present study. First, during the period of Experiment 1, postpartum reproductive management based on weekly measured milk P4 concentration from individual cows was conducted. Compared with the reproductive records of the past two years without P4 monitoring, although the day from calving to first AI did not change, both the number of AI until pregnant (with P4; 1.9 times vs. without P4; 2.9 times) and the days open (with P4; 95.1 days vs. without P4; 135.8 days and 133.8 days) were significantly decreased. In Experiment 2, the measurement of blood constituents such as albumin, blood urea nitrogen, packed cell volume, ammonia, glucose, total cholesterol, non-esterified, AST and
-GTP was performed on the blood samples taken once approximately 14 days postpartum, to monitor both health and nutritional conditions. The milk constituent parameters, such as milk protein (MP), milk fat (MF), SNF and lactose, collected from the monthly progeny test of individual cows, were used to monitor the postpartum nutritional status. Furthermore, the data obtained from the routine measurements of body weight were used to calculate the rate of peripartum body weight loss. The resumption day of the postpartum estrous cycle was assumed from the milk P4 profiles of individual cows. There was no clear relationship between each parameter from blood examination and those from resumption time. However, the cows had low values of MP, and SNF, which significantly affected the resumption of the postpartum estrous cycle. Similarly, a higher rate of body weight loss indicated a significant delay (more than 1 month) in the resumption of the postpartum estrous cycle, compared with the groups that had a medium or lower rate of body weight loss. The results of the present study demonstrated that the implementation of routine milk P4 monitoring-based postpartum reproductive management, together with milk quality parameters and routine BW data available in field conditions may be utilized as a practical approach for increasing the postpartum reproductive efficiency of a high yielding dairy herd.
Urea Kinetics in Wethers Exposed to Different Ambient Temperatures at Three Dietary Levels of Crude Protein
Sun, Sang-Soo ; Christopherson, Robert J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 795~801
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.795
Eighteen Suffolk wether lambs (BW = 24 kg) were chronically exposed to temperatures of cold (2
) or warm (22
). The experimental design consisted of a 2
3 factorial with a single crossover of environment treatment. The sheep were closely shorn and were housed in individual metabolic crates in controlled environment rooms. Sheep consumed pelleted diets ad libitum, which consisted of mainly barley grain and brome grass, and diets contained 7, 11 or 14% crude protein (CP). Animals were catheterized via one jugular vein with a PVC catheter and received a single injection of 60-65 Ci of
C]urea. Plasma urea-N (PUN), urinary urea (UU), and carbon specific radioactivity were measured. Urea metabolism was not affected by environment. Percent urea recycling and urea space clearance were highest (p<0.05) on the low nitrogen diet. Urea pool was increased (p<0.10) for the 14% CP diet. Both UU and PUN concentration were positively related (p<0.01) with diet CP content. Therefore, dietary CP content significantly influenced urea metabolism, however, cold exposure did not alter those parameters.
Effects of Processing Methods and Variety of Rapeseed Meal on Ruminal and Post Ruminal Amino Acids Digestibility
Chen, Xibin ; Qin, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 802~806
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.802
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of processing method and rapeseed variety on ruminal and intestinal protein digestibility of rapeseed meal in steers. Intestinal amino acid digestibility was assessed with an in situ ruminal incubation and precision-fed rooster bioassay. In this experiment one traditional rapeseed meal sample (sample A, prepress extraction) and three double low rapeseed meal samples (sample B, prepress extraction, sample C, screw press and sample D, low temperature press) were placed in polyester bags(8 cm
12 cm) and suspended in the ventral rumen of steers for 16 h. The residues of in situ incubations were intubated to roosters. Total excreta were collected for 48 h after incubation and then desiccated and amino acid concentrations were determined. Results showed that in ruminal incubation the degradation rate of amino acid and crude protein was higher for traditional rapeseed meal sample A than for double low rapeseed meal sample B, but was much lower than for double low sample C and D. In the group of double low rapeseed meal samples, sample D processed by low temperature press had the highest degradation rate of amino acids in the rumen. For all amino acids, the digestibility of the residual protein as measured by the precision-fed rooster bioassay tended to be lower for sample B than for sample A, which had the same processing method with sample B, and in the group of double low rapeseed meals, sample B had similar digestibility of amino acid in residual protein to sample D and higher than that of sample C. However, although the total amino acid availability involving the digestibility of amino acids in the rumen and rooster bioassay of double low rapeseed meal sample D (low temperature press) was higher than those of the other three samples by 7 to 9 percent, there were no significant differences. Results indicated that processing method markedly affected ruminal and post ruminal amino acid digestibility of rapeseed meal when the temperature exceeded 110
. Rapeseed meal that had a high content of fiber was not suitable for dry heat treatment at higher temperatures or the amino acids digestibility in rumen and total availability of amino acids could be reduced. Results also suggested the variety of rapeseed meal had no significant effect on the digestibility and availability of amino acids.
Fermentative Quality of Guineagrass Silage by Using Fermented Juice of the Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria (FJLB) as a Silage Additive
Bureenok, S. ; Namihira, T. ; Tamaki, M. ; Mizumachi, S. ; Kawamoto, Y. ; Nakada, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 807~811
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.807
This experiment examined the characteristics of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) prepared by the addition of glucose, sucrose and molasses as a fermentation substrate. The effect of FJLB on the fermentative quality and changes in chemical composition during fermentation of guineagrass silage were also investigated. The pH value of the silages treated with FJLB rapidly decreased, and reached to the lowest value within 7 days of start of fermentation, as compared to the control. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the treated silages increased for the first 3 days, thereafter the number of LAB declined gradually up to the end of the experiment. Silages treated with FJLB had larger populations of LAB than the control. Ammonia-nitrogen production increased throughout the ensiling period, which in the control and no-sugar added FJLB silages were higher than the other treated silages. Lactic acid levels varied with the time of ensiling and among the silage treatments. For any sugar FJLB treated silages, the lactic acid increased initially, and then slightly reduced to less than 50 g/kg of dry matter until 49 days after ensiling, except the silage treated with glucose added FJLB. Nevertheless, lactic acid content of the control decreased constantly from the beginning of ensiling and was not found after 35 days. Moreover, acetic acid content increased throughout the ensiling period. All the FJLB treated silages had significantly (p<0.05) lower pH and ammonia-nitrogen content, while significantly (p<0.05) higher lactic acid content and V-score value compared with the control. This study confirmed that the applying of FJLB with any sugar substrate improved fermentative quality of silage.
Effect of Additives and Fermentation Periods on Chemical Composition and In situ Digestion Kinetics of Mott Grass (Pennisetum purpureum) Silage
Nisa, Mahr-un ; Touqir, N.A. ; Sarwar, M. ; Khan, M. Ajmal ; Akhtar, Mumtaz ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 812~815
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.812
This study was conducted to see the influence of additives and fermentation periods on Mott grass silage (MGS) characteristics, its chemical composition and to compare the digestion kinetics of Mott grass (MG) and MGS in Nili buffaloes. Mott grass chopped with a locally manufactured chopper was ensiled using two additives, cane molasses and crushed corn grains each at 2, 4 and 6% of forage DM for 30 and 40 days in laboratory silos. The pH, lactic acid concentration, dry matter (DM), crude protein and fiber fractions of MGS were not affected by the type or level of additive and fermentation periods. The non-significant pH lactic acid concentration, and chemical composition of MGS indicated that the both molasses and crushed corn were utilized at similar rate for the growth of lactic acid bacteria and production of organic acids. The MG ensiled with molasses at 2% of fodder DM for 30 days was screened out for in situ digestion kinetics in Nili buffaloes. Ruminal DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradabilities of MGS were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of MG. The DM and NDF rate of degradation, lag time and extent of degradation was nonsignificant between MGS and MG. The higher ruminal degradation of DM and NDF of MGS than MG was probably a reflection of fermentation of MG during ensilation that improved its degradability by improving the availability of easily degradable structural polysaccharides to ruminal microbial population. The results in the present study have indicated that MG ensiled with either 2% molasses or 2% crushed corn for 30 days has better nutritive value for buffalo.
Effects of Tween 80 and Fibrolytic Enzymes on Ruminal Fermentation and Digestibility of Feeds in Holstein Cows
Baah, J. ; Shelford, J.A. ; Hristov, A.N. ; McAllister, T.A. ; Cheng, K.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 816~824
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.816
The effects of the nonionic surfactant Tween 80 and a mixture of fibrolytic enzymes on total tract digestion, in situ disappearance (ISD) and ruminal fermentation characteristics of orchardgrass hay and barley grain were investigated in a 4
4 Latin square experiment with 4 non-lactating Holstein cows and 4 diets in 4 periods. Cows were offered a total mixed ration of 50% rolled barley grain and 50% orchardgrass hay treated with either 1) water (control), 2) 0.2% (vol/wt) Tween 80, 3) 0.2% (vol/wt) hydrolytic enzyme, or 4) 0.2% hydrolytic enzyme plus 0.2% Tween 80. Total tract digestibility coefficients of DM, nitrogen, NDF and ADF were not affected (p>0.05) by dietary treatment. Compared to the control, the rate of ISD of DM from orchardgrass hay was faster (p<0.05) in cows receiving diets treated with the enzyme alone or with enzyme plus Tween 80 (0.06/h vs. 0.076 and 0.069/h). The rate of digestion was lower (p<0.05) as compared to control when barley grain was treated with these additives. Ruminal fluid pH and concentrations of total VFA, acetate, isobutyrate and butyrate were not affected (p>0.05) by treatments. Cows that consumed diets treated with enzyme plus Tween 80 had higher (p<0.05) ruminal concentrations of propionate and isovalerate, and lower (p<0.05) acetate:propionate ratios. Compared to the control, microbial protein synthesis tended (p = 0.13) to increase with the addition of enzyme to the diet while nonammonia nitrogen flow to the duodenum increased (p<0.05) with both enzyme and Tween 80 treatments. The study indicated that fibrolytic enzymes alone or in combination with Tween 80 could enhance ISD of orchardgrass hay and ruminal concentrations of propionate, valerate and iso-valerate, but do not affect total tract digestibility.
Effect of Replacing Soybean Meal with Soya Waste and Fish Meal with Ensiled Shrimp Waste on the Performance of Growing Crossbred Ducks
Dong, Nguyen Thi Kim ; Elwinger, K. ; Lindberg, J.E. ; Ogle, R. Brian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 825~834
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.825
Two experiments were conducted with growing crossbred Super-Meat ducks at the experimental duck farm of Cantho University to evaluate the effects of reducing the proportion of soybean meal (SBM) in a broken rice (BR)-SBM mixture and providing soya waste (SW) ad libitum (Expt. 1), and reducing the proportion of fish meal (FM) in a BR-FM mixture and supplying ensiled shrimp waste (ESW) ad libitum (Expt.2). Both experiments included five treatments, with three replicates and ten growing ducks per replicate. In Expt.1, the five diets were based on BR and five levels of SBM, with SW offered ad libitum. The control diet (SBM25) consisted of 75% BR and 25% SBM, and the other four treatments included SBM levels of 20% (SBM20), 14% (SBM14), 8% (SBM8) and 0% (SBM0) mixed with BR to 100%, and with SW ad libitum. In Expt. 2, the control diet consisted of 86% BR and 14% FM, and the other dietary treatments had FM levels of 11% (FM11), 8% (FM8), 4% (FM4) and 0% (FM0) mixed with BR, and with ESW ad libitum. In Expt. 1, total intakes of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and metabolizable energy (ME) were higher for birds given SW (p<0.001). Total CP intake was highest on the SBM20 diet, and lowest on the SBM0 diet (p<0.001). Lower daily gain (DG) was found for the SBM0 diet (p<0.01). Carcass weights were higher on the control treatment, with the lowest values on the SBM0 diet (p<0.001). Gizzard weights were higher on diets with high intakes of SW (p<0.05). In Expt. 2, birds with high intakes of ESW (FM4 and FM0) had lower (p<0.01) daily intakes of DM. The total CP intakes declined (p<0.001) with higher intakes of ESW. The highest DG were for the control and FM11 diets, while the lowest value was for diet FM0 (p<0.001). The poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR) was for the FM0 treatment (p<0.01). Lower weights of carcass and breast muscle were found on the FM0 diet (p<0.001). Feed costs per kg gain were only slightly different between diets. However, the lowest feed cost was for ducks on the SBM0 and FM11 diets in Expt.1 and Expt. 2, respectively.
Influence of Feeding β-Cyclodextrin to Laying Hens on the Egg Production and Cholesterol Content of Egg Yolk
Park, B.S. ; Kang, H.K. ; Jang, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 835~840
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.835
The main objective of the present study was to determine the effect of dietary
-CD) on egg laying performance and cholesterol content of egg yolk. Feed intake, egg production and egg weight varied slightly, but not significantly, between hens fed either a control diet or a diet containing one of an increasing series of
-CD concentrations (2%, 4% or 6%). However, feed intake, egg production and egg weight were all lower in the hens fed on 8%
-CD (p<0.05). No difference in haugh unit values, egg yolk color and egg shell thickness were found between the different treatments. The cholesterol content of egg yolks (mg/g yolk) was significantly decreased by 0.71, 2.98, 4.00 and 4.24 mg in eggs from hens maintained on 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%
-CD, respectively (p<0.05). These observations indicate that appropriate supplementation of diets with
-CD can reduce the cholesterol content of eggyolks, thus raising the prospect of the production of a healthier functional food.
The Development of Gastrointestinal Tract and Pancreatic Enzymes in White Roman Geese
Shih, B.L. ; Yu, B. ; Hsu, J.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 841~847
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.841
The objective of this experiment was to investigate the development of gastrointestinal tract and activities of pancreatic enzymes in White Roman geese. Thirty developing embryos at the 22th, 24th and 26th day of incubation and at hatching, and sixteen or eight goslings, half males and half females, at the 1, 3, 7 or 11, 14, 21 and 28 days of age were sampled, respectively. The weights of the yolk, gastrointestinal tract and intestinal length, and the activities of pancreatic enzymes were measured. Residual yolk weight decreased rapidly during late incubation and was nearly depleted at 3 days of age. The protein and energy contents in the residual yolk of goslings at 3 days of age were significantly (p<0.05) less than those at the late incubation. From 6 days before hatching to 28 days of age, the absolute weights of gizzard, proventriculus, liver, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine in goslings increased by 48, 457, 94, 2334, 89 and 76 times, respectively. The relative weights of proventriculus, gizzard, liver, pancreas, small intestine and large intestine reached peaks at 3, 3, 14, 14, 11 and 11 days of age, respectively, and then decreased gradually. However, the relative lengths of small intestine and large intestine reached peaks at 3 days of age and at hatching, respectively. The activities of pancreatic trypsin and chymotrypsin increased sharply from hatching to 14 day of age, and then decreased gradually until 21 days of age. The activity and specific activity of pancreatic amylase were increased following by age and peaked at 7 to 11 and 21 days of age, respectively. The activity and specific activity of pancreatic lipase reached a plateau from 11 to 28 days of age. These results indicate that the gastrointestinal tract and activities of pancreatic enzymes developed more rapidly than body weight through the early growing period of goslings.
Effect of Dietary Addition of Turkish Propolis on the Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Serum Variables of Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Denli, Muzaffer ; Cankaya, S. ; Silici, S. ; Okan, F. ; Uluocak, A.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 848~854
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.848
We examined the effect of dietary Turkish propolis and flavomycin on growth performance, carcass characteristics, internal organ weights and some serum variables in quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) birds. One hundred and fifty day-old quails were randomly divided into five groups, with ten replicate pens per treatment and three birds per pen. One group received the basal diet (antibiotic-free), the control. The flavomycin at 10 mg/kg diet and propolis at 0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg diet were added to the basal diet. Body weight gain, feed consumption and feed efficiency were determinated weekly. Carcass characteristics, internal organ weights and serum variables were determinated at the end of the study (35 day). The results showed that body weight gain, feed efficiency and carcass weight were improved significantly (p<0.01) when compared to control group for birds fed diets containing propolis and flavomycin between 14 to 35 days. The addition of 1 g/kg propolis to the diet resulted in significantly (p<0.01) better-feed efficiency as compared to control and other treatment groups. There were no significant differences in carcass yield, abdominal fat, liver gizzard, proventriculus and intestinal weight and intestinal pH among the groups. In addition, serum ALP, total protein, uric acid, cholesterol and triglyceride were not influenced by the any supplementation. However, birds fed with propolis tended to have higher serum HDL and lower level than birds fed the control diet. In conclusion, supplementation of propolis and flavomycin during the growth period showed similar effects on growth performance in quail. Therefore, it can serve as a natiral substitute for antibiotics in poultry diets.
Effects of Acute Changes in the Energy and Protein Intake Levels over the Short-term on the Maternal Milk Amino Acid Concentrations in Lactating Mares
Matsui, A. ; Inoue, Y. ; Asai, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 855~860
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.855
This study was designed to test the effects of changes in energy and protein intake levels on the maternal milk amino acid concentrations over the short-term in lactating mares. Three lactating mares were enrolled for the study 7 weeks after parturition. A low-energy and low-protein diet (LEP) was administered during the first week of the study, followed by administration of a high-energy and high-protein diet (HEP), again for a week (day 1 to day 7), and milk was sampled thrice daily at intervals of 8 h during the study period. The mean amino acid concentrations in the maternal milk, except for those of proline, serine and valine, were significantly higher in the HEP feeding period than during the LEP feeding period (p<0.05). The sum of the concentrations of all the amino acids (TAA) in the maternal milk samples during the HEP and LEP feeding periods was 1,644.9
26.9 and 1,542.3
36.0 mg/100 g, respectively, the difference between the two was not significant. When the ratio of each amino acid concentration to the TAA in the maternal milk was analyzed, there were significant differences between the HEP and LEP feeding periods for all amino acids, except glycine, serine, alanine and histidine. It was found that the concentrations of glutamic acid+glutamine, serine, threonine, arginine and valine were significantly higher (p<0.05) on day 1 than on day 7 during the LEP feeding period, and there were no such differences during the HEP feeding period. In regard to the effects of changes in the energy and protein intake levels in lactating mares, no changes in milk amino acid concentrations were found following administration of HEP for a week, whereas 7 days of administration of LEP was associated with a decrease in the amino acid concentrations.
Comparative Feeding Values of Soybean Hulls and Wheat Bran for Growing and Finishing Swine
Chee, Kew M. ; Chun, Kwang S. ; Huh, Bong D. ; Choi, Jin H. ; Chung, Mahn K. ; Lee, Hyung S. ; Shin, In S. ; Whang, Kwang Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 861~867
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.861
Feeding values of soybean hulls (SH) were compared to those of wheat bran (WB) for swine diets by chemical compositions, a digestion trial, a preference test by self-selection, and two feeding trials. The SH and the WB appeared to have, on airdry basis, 11.1 vs. 15.4% CP, 32.5 vs. 8.7% crude fiber (CF), 36.8 vs. 10.7% ADF, 0.6 vs. 0.1% Ca, and 492 vs. 92 ppm Fe, respectively. Lysine and total sulfur-containing amino acids in the SH were 0.66 vs. 0.37%, respectively. Apparent digestibility values of the SH were 71% for dry matter, 50% for CP, and 74% for CF. Apparent digestible energy and MEn values of the SH were 2,420 and 2,370 kcal kg
, respectively, which were comparable to those of the WB, 2,420 and 2,275 kcal kg
(NRC, 1998), respectively. The first feeding trial was conducted with 72 crossbred growing pigs with an average weight of 29.6 kg. The pigs when fed the diets containing 0, 6 and 10% SH by replacing the WB on a weight basis for 42 days did not show significant differences in body weight gain and feed/gain ratio among the treatments. The same trends were observed in the second trial with 60 crossbred finishing pigs with an average weight of 64.5 kg when fed the diets containing 12% SH or WB for 41 days. Back-fat thickness and adjusted loin eye muscle area of the finisher pigs were also not significantly different between the two groups. When allowed to self-select from two different feed troughs containing 10% SH or WB for two weeks, two groups of 80 pigs with 10 pigs per pen consumed the two diets exactly in equal proportion. In conclusion, the soybean hulls can be included up to 10 and 12% for growing or finishing pig diets, respectively, replacing the wheat bran on a weight basis without any adverse effects on palatability of diets and animal performances.
The Identification of Japanese Black Cattle by Their Faces
Kim, Hyeon T. ; Ikeda, Y. ; Choi, Hong L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 868~872
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.868
Individual management of the animal is the first step towards reaching the goal of precision livestock farming that aids animal welfare. Accurate recognition of each individual animal is important for precise management. Electronic identification of cattle, usually referred to as RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), has many advantages for farm management. In practice, however, RFID implementations can cause several problems. Reading speed and distance must be optimized for specific applications. Image processing is more effective than RFID for the development of precision farming system in livestock. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to attempt the identification of cattle by using image processing. The majority of the research on the identification of cattle by using image processing has been for the black-and-white patterns of the Holstein. But, native Japanese and Korean cattle do not have a consistent pattern on the body, so that identification by pattern is impossible. This research aims to identify to Japanese black cattle, which does not have a black-white pattern on the body, by using image processing and a neural network algorithm. 12 Japanese black cattle were tested. Values of input parameter were calculated by using the face image values of 12 cows. The face was identified by the associate neural memory algorithm, and the algorithm was verified by the transformed face image, for example, of brightness, distortion, noise and angle. As a result, there was difference due to a transformation ratio of the brightness, distortion, noise, and angle. The algorithm could identify 100% in the range from -30 to +30 degrees of brightness, -20 to +40 degrees of distortion, 0 to 60% of noise and -20 to +30 degree of angle transformed images.
Assessment of Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Poultry Enteric Fermentation
Wang, Shu-Yin ; Huang, Da-Ji ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 873~878
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.873
Emissions of nitrous oxide (N
O) and methane (CH
) from poultry enteric fermentation were investigated using a respiration chamber. Birds were placed in a respiration chamber for certain intervals during their growing period or for the whole life cycle. The accumulated gas inside the chamber was sampled and analyzed for N
O and CH
production. A curve for gas production during a life cycle was fitted. The calculated area under the curve estimated the emission factor of poultry enteric fermentation on a life cycle basis (mg bird
). This method can be used to estimate CH
O emissions from different types of avian species taking into account factors such as diet, season or thermal effects. The CH
O emission factors estimated for commercial broiler chickens, Taiwan country chickens and White Roman Geese were 15.87/0.03, 84.8/16.4 and 1,500/49 (mg bird
), respectively, while the calculated CH
O emission from enteric fermentations were 3.03/0.006, 14.73/2.84 and 9.5/0.31 (Mg year
), respectively in Taiwan in the year of 2000. The described method is applicable to most poultry species and the reported emission factors were applicable to meat type poultry only.
Prevalence of Lymphocyte Nuclear Pockets in Holstein-Friesian Dairy Cattle Infected with Bovine Leukemia Virus in Korea
Yoon, Soon-Seek ; Park, J.W. ; Jean, Y.H. ; Kim, H.J. ; Han, B. ; Han, H.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 879~883
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.879
The integral relationship between the occurrence of lymphocyte nuclear pockets (LNPs) and BLV-infection was examined in Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle in Korea. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) was used to detect LNP in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Morphologically, the membranes of LNP were composed of two layers of double nuclear membrane. The full thickness of LNP membranes including inner and outer nuclear membrane was 60 to 70 nm. LNP prevalence was different according to the bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection status; in BLV-seropositive cattle, LNP prevalence was 48.4% and in BLV-seronegative cattle prevalence was 5.9%. Moreover, even in seropositive animals, leukemic group was the highest at 70% positive among the groups, followed by suspect group (42.4%) and aleukemic group (23.1%). Consequently, the numbers of LNP were increased in proportion to increase of the numbers of leukocytes among BLV-seropositive cattle. The numbers of LNP per lymphocyte were increased in BLVseropositive cattle compared with seronegative cattle. The mean numbers of LNP per 100-lymphocytes were 0.35, 0.77, 1.64 and 4.7 in BLV-seronegative, BLV-seropositive aleukemic, suspect and leukemic groups, respectively. Thus, it is reasonable that LNP test can be used as the one of the diagnostic criteria of BLV infection.
Purification and Properties of Bovine Skeletal Muscle Proteasome
Yamamoto, S. ; Gerelt, B. ; Nishiumi, T. ; Suzuki, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 884~891
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.884
This paper describes the purification and properties of a multicatalytic proteinase complex, proteasome, from bovine skeletal muscle, in comparision with proteasome prepared from other species or organs. The purified bovine skeletal muscle proteasome exhibited a single band on polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis under nondenaturing conditions. Bovine skeletal muscle proteasome degraded synthetic peptides maximally at pH 8.0. Relative to pH 8.0, activities were gradually decreased with the lowering pH, but the extent of decrease was substrate-dependent, and the activity at pH 5.5 still retained 78-10% of the activity at pH 8.0, indicating the possibility that the proteasome is active in muscle during aging. When the proteasome was heated at 60
for 15 or 30 min and treated in the presence of 0.0125% SDS, the activity increased over 1.8 and 3.1 times (LLVY (Suc-Leu-Leu-Val-Tyr-NH-Mec) as a substrate), respectively. These results (activation with heat or SDS) indicate that the hydrolytic activity of proteasome was stimulated under mild denaturing conditions. The characteristics of the bovine skeletal muscle proteasome obtained in our experiment were almost the same as those of the proteasome prepared from other species or organs.
Cloning of Bovine Macrophage Colony-stimulating Factor
Kim, Tae-Yung ; Kim, Cheol-Ho ; Lee, Sang-Gil ; Kang, Chung-Boo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 892~897
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.892
Macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a growth factor required for growth and differentiation of mononuclear phagocyte lineage. Total and 16 poly (A) mRNA of bovine M-CSF were isolated from healthy bovine peripheral mononuclear cells stimulated by phobol 12-myristste 13-acetate (TPA). The more compatible cultured mononuclear cells were 5
10/ml for RNA isolation. TPA-activated mononuclear cells increased the level of M-CSF-mRNA more than concanavalin A (Con A) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The optimal analysis of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for14 Macrophage colonystimulating factor (M-CSF) as a growth factor required for bovine M-CSF was denaturation at 94
for 1 minute, annealing at 57
for 1 minute, extension at 72
for 1 minute for 30 cycles. The size of cDNA of bovine M-CSF by RT-PCR was 774 base pairs. A 774 base pairs cDNA encoding bovine M-CSF was synthesized by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ligated cDNA was transformed to competent cells and then plasmid isolation and digestion was performed. Molecular cloning and sequencing were performed for cDNA of bovine M-CSF. The size of cloned cDNA of bovine M-CSF was 774base pairs. The homology of base sequence and amino acid sequence was 88% and 86% compared with known human M-CSF, respectively. From a high degree of sequence similarity, the obtained cDNA of bovine M-CSF is thought be a specific gene of bovine M-CSF.
Dietary Chromium-methionine Chelate Supplementation and Animal Performance
Ohh, Sang Jip ; Lee, Joon Yeop ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 6, 2005, Pages 898~907
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.898
Chromium has emerged as an essential trace mineral in nutrition. However, it readily causes toxicity because of slightly excessive dose and/or form of chromium supplement. Therefore, developing a noble form of chromium supplement which is capable of not only an increased availability but also a reduced toxicity has been a critical issue in chromium nutrition. Chromium-methionine chelate has been, so far, one of the latest developments in its kind. Although not much information is available for the chromium-methionine chelate, especially in view of animal performances upon dietary supplementation, several studies indicated chromium methionine chelate could be effective to improve meat quality by increasing muscle mass but decreasing body fat. Highly-graded beef was produced by dietary chromium methionine supplementation during fattening stage of Korean native steers. Body muscle was increased in replace of decreasing body fat in both pig and rat that were dietary supplemented with chromium methionine chelate. However, a pig farm study did not show any significant improvement of body gain upon supplementation of chromium methionine. Immune responses of pig and rat were not always dependent upon chromium form but were varied by species. These results suggest there could be a different mode of responses due to species as well as onset time of dietary supplementation of chromium methionine. It is still early to conclude the bio-efficacy of chromium methionine chelate presumably due to its recent appearance into the field. But the chelate is certainly worth more application to animal since it certainly reduced the application level of dietary chromium.