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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Estimates of Parameters for Genetic Relationship between Reproductive Performances and Body Condition Score of Hanwoo Cows
Choi, S.B. ; Lee, J.W. ; Choy, Y.H. ; Na, K.J. ; Kim, N.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 909~914
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.909
This study was conducted to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters of body condition score (BCS) and reproductive traits in Hanwoo cows. DFREML procedures were applied to obtain variance-covariance components and heritability estimates with single or two-trait models. Estimates of phenotypic correlations of BCS at service with BCS at calving was 0.16 and 0.26 with calving interval, 0.08 with gestation length, and 0.06 with number of services per conception, respectively. Estimates of phenotypic correlation of BCS at calving was 0.10 with calving interval, 0.13 with gestation length, and 0.10 with number of services per conception, respectively. Estimates of phenotypic correlation were low and negative, -0.11 between calving interval and gestation length and -0.13 between gestation length and number of services per conception. Estimates of direct genetic correlation were -0.06, between BCS at service and BCS at calving, 0.37 between BCS at service and BCS at weaning, and -0.18 between BCS at calving and BCS at weaning. Estimates of direct genetic correlation of days from calving to the 1st service were 0.17 with number of services per conception and -0.21 with BCS at service. Estimates of direct genetic correlation for BCS at calving were -0.02 with number of services per conception and -0.08 with BCS at service. Estimates of direct genetic correlation for BCS at weaning were 0.02 with number of services per conception and -0.07 with BCS at service. Estimates of direct heritability from single trait analyses were 0.13 for BCS at service, 0.20 for BCS at calving, 0.02 for BCS at weaning, and 0.20 for number of service per conception, respectively. Estimates of direct heritability were 0.20 for birth weight and 0.10 for weaning weight.
Population Structure and Genetic Bottleneck Analysis of Ankleshwar Poultry Breed by Microsatellite Markers
Pandey, A.K. ; Kumar, Dinesh ; Sharma, Rekha ; Sharma, Uma ; Vijh, R.K. ; Ahlawat, S.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 915~921
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.915
Genetic variation at 25 microsatellite loci, population structure, and genetic bottleneck hypothesis were examined for Ankleshwar poultry population found in Gujrat, India. The estimates of genetic variability such as effective number of alleles and gene diversities revealed substantial genetic variation frequently displayed by microsatellite markers. The average polymorphism across the studied loci and the expected gene diversity in the population were 6.44 and 0.670
0.144, respectively. The population was observed to be significantly differentiated into different groups, and showed fairly high level of inbreeding (f = 0.240
0.052) and global heterozygote deficit. The bottleneck analysis indicated the absence of genetic bottleneck in the past. The study revealed that the Ankleshwar poultry breed needs appropriate genetic management for its conservation and improvement. The information generated in this study may further be utilized for studying differentiation and relationships among different Indian poultry breeds.
Muscle Proteome Analysis for the Effect of Panax Ginseng Extracts in Chicken: Identification of Proteins Using Peptide Mass Fingerprinting
Jung, K.C. ; Yu, S.L. ; Lee, Y.J. ; Choi, K.D. ; Choi, J.S. ; Kim, Y.H. ; Jang, B.G. ; Kim, S.H. ; Hahm, D.H. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 922~926
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.922
The present study was aimed to investigate proteome affected by Panax ginseng extracts in chicken muscles. The whole muscle proteins from chicken fed boiled extracts of 0% (control), 1%, 3%, and 5% Panax ginseng in water were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) gels using immobilized non-linear gradient (pH 3-10) strips. More than 300 protein spots were detected on silver staining gels. Among them, four protein spots were distinctively up-regulated by Panax ginseng treatments and further investigated by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The obtained MS data were searched against SwissProt database using the Mascot search engine. The up-regulated proteins were finally identified as
-tropomyosin (2 spots), triosephosphate isomerase, and one unknown protein. Based on the known functions of the identified proteins, they are highly related to muscle development and enhanced immunity in chickens. These proteins can give valuable information of biochemical roles for Panax ginseng in chicken meats.
Investigation of Gene and Microsatellite Heterozygosities Correlated to Growth Rate in the Chinese Meishan Pig
Jiang, X.P. ; Liu, G.Q. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 927~932
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.927
A total of 130 Chinese Meishan piglets were scored for their genotypes at five gene loci and five microsatellite loci. The average gene heterozygosity was 0.3338 and the average microsatellite heterozygosity was 0.2954, and the heterozygosity of the overall ten loci was 0.3146. The data of birth weight (BW) and body weight on day 35 (W35) were collected, average daily gain (ADG) for each individual was computed as the slope from the regression of weight on age. There was no significant correlation between individual heterozygosity and birth weight (p>0.05). Significant regressions were observed between ADG and the heterozygosity of loci (p<0.01). Similar results were observed in W35 and loci heterozygosity (p<0.01). Heterozygosity at these ten loci explained 43.62% of the total variation in ADG and 45.48% in W35. Significant correlations existed not only in the function of gene loci but also in neutral microsatellite loci, so it indicated that associative overdominance affected piglet growth significantly.
Screening of Specific Genes Expressed in the Swine Tissues and Development of a Functional cDNA Chip
Kim, Chul Wook ; Chang, Kyu Tae ; Hong, Yeon Hee ; Kwon, Eun Jung ; Jung, Won Yong ; Cho, Kwang Keun ; Chung, Ki Hwa ; Kim, Byeong Woo ; Lee, Jung Gyu ; Yeo, Jung-Sou ; Kang, Yang Su ; Joo, Young Kuk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 933~941
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.933
To develop a functional cDNA chip, specific genes expressed in the tissues of swine Kagoshima Berkshire were screened. A total of 4,434 ESTs were obtained by constructing a cDNA library from total RNA isolated from the muscle and fat tissues, affirming their functions by investigating similarity of nucleotide sequences with the database at the NCBI. Among them, 1,230 ESTs were confirmed as novel genes, which, to date, have not been identified. Attaching the genes to a cDNA microarray slide revealed expression patterns of genes in muscle and fat according to the growth stages of swine. As specific genes expressed in the muscle tissues of swine with body weight of 30 kg, 60 genes including actin, myosin, tropomysin, transfer RNA-trp synthetase, Kel-like protein 23, KIAA0182 and COI, Foocen-m, etc were obtained. In addition, 18 novel genes were obtained. As specific genes expressed in fat tissues of swine with body weight of 30 kg, 47 genes including annexin II, Collagen, Fibronectin, Pleckstrin homology domain, serine protease, etc were obtained. 21 novel genes were also obtained. The genes specifically expressed in the muscle and fat tissues of swine affect contraction and relaxation of the muscle and the fat. However, studies on the expression mechanisms of the genes are insufficient. To reveal species of structural genes in swine muscle and fat tissue, interrelation studies in expression and function of genes by using the cDNA chip should be conducted.
Investigation of PCR-RFLPs within Major Histocompatibility Complex B-G Genes Using Two Restriction Enzymes in Eight Breeds of Chinese Indigenous Chickens
Xu, R.F. ; Li, K. ; Chen, G.H. ; Qiang, B.Y.Z. ; Mo, D.L. ; Fan, B. ; Li, C.C. ; Yu, M. ; Zhu, M.J. ; Xiong, T.A. ; Liu, Bang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 942~948
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.942
New polymorphism of major histocompatibility complex B-G genes was investigated by amplification and digestion of a 401bp fragment including intron 1 and exon 2 using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique with two restriction enzymes of Msp I and Tas I in eight breeds of Chinese indigenous chickens and one exotic breed. In the fragment region of the gene, three novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were detected at the two restriction sites. We found the transition of two nucleotides of A294G and T295C occurred at Tas I restriction site, and consequently led to a non-synonymous substitution of asparagine into serine at position 54 within the deduced amino acid sequence of immunoglobulin variable-region-like domain encoded by the exon 2 of B-G gene. It was observed at rare frequency that a single mutation of A294G occurring at the site, also caused an identical substitution of amino acid, asparagine 54-to-serine, to that we described previously. And the transversion of G319C at Msp I site led to a non-synonymous substitution, glutamine 62-to-histidine. The new alleles and allele frequencies identified by the PCR-RFLP method with the two enzymes were characterized, of which the allele A and B frequencies at Msp I and Tas I loci were given disequilibrium distribution either in the eight Chinese local breeds or in the exotic breed. By comparison, allele A at Msp I locus tended to be dominant, while, the allele B at Tas I locus tended to be dominant in all of the breeds analyzed. In Tibetan chickens, the preliminary association analysis revealed that no significant difference was observed between the different genotypes identified at the Msp I and Tas I loci and the laying performance traits, respectively.
Reproductive Management with Ultrasound Scanner-monitoring System for a High-yielding Commercial Dairy Herd Reared under Stanchion Management Style
Takagi, M. ; Yamagishi, N. ; Lee, I.H. ; Oboshi, K. ; Tsuno, M. ; Wijayagunawardane, M.P.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 949~956
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.949
The weekly ultrasound scanner (US) observations of reproductive organs in a commercial dairy herd with the popular stanchion style management were conducted for over 26 months. Based on reproductive records, the following were evaluated: 1) the effect of postpartum period commencement of US monitoring on herd reproductive efficacy, and 2) the effectiveness of a US monitoring-based diagnosis and subsequent treatments of reproductive disorders on postpartum reproductive efficiency. The reproductive parameters of cows, which were subjected to US monitoring between Days 30-40 (Day 0 = day of parturition), Days 41-50, Days 51-60, and above Day 61, were compared. The reproductive parameters of cows diagnosed as having reproductive disorders (RD) with US monitoring before or after the first artificial insemination (AI) were also compared. It was found that the day of commencement of US monitoring in cows diagnosed with and without RD significantly affected the period towards the first AI and the open period. In particular, cystic follicles and anoestrus detected either before or after the first AI significantly affected herd reproductive efficiency. The implementation of US monitoring improved reproductive efficiency by reducing the open period and increasing the number of milking cows in the herd. The results of this field trial indicate that the postpartum reproductive management of dairy cows with the use of the US monitoring system is one strategy to improve reproductive efficiency, especially in a high-yielding dairy herd reared stanchion management style.
Influence of Urea Treatment and Soybean Meal (Urease) Addition on the Utilization of Wheat Straw by Sheep
Kraidees, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 957~965
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.957
The effect of ammoniation with urea and with soybean meal (SBM) as a source of urease on the nutritive value of wheat straw was evaluated in sheep. Twenty-four male Najdi lambs were used in a 3
2 factorial design, in which the animals were allocated to three straw treatments: 0% urea-treated (NT), 6% urea-treated (UT) and 2.2% urea-supplemented (US) straws. Each straw treatment was either supplemented or non-supplemented with 70 g SBM
straw during the treatment time with urea, giving a total of six straw treatments. Each of these treatments was individually fed ad libitum to 4 lambs, together with 300 g of barley grain/head/day. Total N content of UT and US straws increased significantly (p<0.001) as compared to NT straw. The degree of urea hydrolysis, either with or without SBM addition, was nearly similar. Lambs fed either UT or US straw based diets had significantly (p<0.01) and numerically (p>0.05) higher straw DM intake (g
), compared to those fed NT straw based diet. Apparent DM or OM digestibilities increased significantly (p = 0.014) in lambs fed UT diet, and numerically (p>0.05) in lambs fed US diet as compared to those fed NT diet. Fiber (CF, NDF, ADF, cellulose and hemicellulose) digestibility increased to a similar magnitude, averaging 20.2 (p<0.001) and 7.8% (p<0.07); this corresponds to 35 (p<0.001) and 51% (p<0.001) in N digestibility and approximately 78 (p<0.017) and 105% (p<0.002) in N retention, for UT and US diets, respectively, as compared to NT diet. However, the UT diet had higher (p<0.01) fiber digestibility over the US diet. Addition of SBM tended to improve (p = 0.09) straw DM and digestible OM intakes, while significantly increasing (p<0.001) total and digestible CP intakes across all diets. Lambs fed on US diet had higher ruminal ammonia N than those fed on UT (p<0.05) or NT (p<0.001) diets. However, ruminal pH and molar proportion of the volatile fatty acids did not differ (p>0.05) among the treatment diets. This study suggests that US and UT treatments, particularly the latter, improved straw intake, digestibility and N utilization by lambs compared to NT treatment. On the other hand, addition of SBM as a source of urease had a negligible effect on urea hydrolysis.
Comparison of Indigenous Browses and Sunflower Seed Cake Supplementation on Intake and Growth Performance of Dual-purpose Goats Fed Buffel Grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) Hay
Komwihangilo, D.M. ; Chenyambuga, S.W. ; Lekule, F.P. ; Mtenga, L.A. ; Muhikambele, V.R.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 966~972
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.966
A study to compare the effects of supplementing Delonix elata, Grewia similis, Tamarindus indica and sunflower seed cake on intake and growth rate of dual-purpose goats fed low quality Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) hay was carried out. Twenty-eight male goats aged five to seven months (mean weight 12.93
3.94 kg) were randomly allocated to four dietary groups in a completely randomised design. The diets were hay plus Grewia similis, hay plus Delonix elata, hay plus Tamarindus indica and hay plus sunflower seed cake. All diets were supplemented with maize bran. The experimental period was 90 days. Voluntary dry matter intake of the supplements was higher for Tamarindus indica (275.5 g/day) and Grewia similis (201.8 g/day) and lowest for sunflower seed cake (81g/day). Goats supplemented with Grewia similis had the highest hay intake (183.8 g/day) while those supplemented with sunflower seed cake had the lowest hay intake (98.9 g/day). Animals fed browse supplements gained significantly more weight (p<0.001) than those with sunflower seed cake. There were no significant differences in live weight change between goats fed the different browses. However, those fed Tamarindus indica gained an average of 20.79 g/d which was slightly higher than the gains for those on Grewia similis and Delonix elata while those fed sunflower seed cake lost weight. Correspondingly, goats supplemented with browse leaf meals had higher feed conversion ratios than those supplemented with sunflower seed cake and required 23.91 to 35.06 g DM of feed to produce one g of weight gain per day. In a separate study, the DM disappearance pattern indicated that Grewia similis and Delonix elata were highly degradable compared to Tamarindus indica. At 24 h of incubation, DM degradability was 627, 588 and 345 g/kg DM for Grewia similis, Delonix elata and Tamarindus indica, respectively. In another study in vivo DM digestibility ranged from 46.1% (for hay alone) to 56.2% (for hay plus Grewia similis). It was concluded that the addition of Tamarindus indica, Grewia similis and Delonix elata leaf meals to Cenchrus ciliaris hay resulted in increased total DM intake, in vivo digestibility and growth rate. Therefore, leaf meals of indigenous browses particularly Tamarindus indica and Grewia similis could be used as supplementary feeds for small ruminants grazing on poor quality roughages during the dry season rather than use of expensive, less effective and intermittently available sunflower seed cake.
Effect of Dietary Feeding Regimens on Urea and Protein Concentration of Milk in Murrah Buffaloes
Roy, B. ; Mehla, R.K. ; Sirohi, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 973~979
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.973
The present study was planned to examine the effect of different feeding regimens on milk urea concentration and milk protein concentration. The objectives are to describe the diurnal variations of milk urea (MU) concentration and to predict plasma urea (PU) concentration from MU concentration. Six lactating Murrah buffaloes were distributed in two groups and were fed two different diets in a crossover design. The diets consisted of leguminous crops as diet 1 (berseem (Trifolium alexandrinum)+concentrate mixture 1+wheat straw)) and non-leguminous crops as diet 2 (oats (Avana sativa)+concentrate mixture 2+wheat straw). All the diets were isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Each diet was fed to the animals for a period of 28 days, followed by a 10 day gap to obviate the carry over effect of the previous diet and then a switch over to the other diet. Digestibility trials were conducted on the last 7 days of each feeding period. Milk samples were collected on day 3, 7, 10, 14, 17, 21, 24 and 28 of the feeding period and blood samples were collected on the same day at morning within 30 minutes after morning milking. The average milk urea (MU) values (mg/dl) differed significantly (p<0.01) and were 44.83
0.62 and 42.53
0.73, respectively, for diets 1 and 2. Milk urea concentrations (mg/dl) also varied (p 0.01) among the days of feeding period, but were stabilized after 10th day of feeding period. In contrast, diets and days of feeding period had no significant effect on percent milk protein. Plasma urea concentration showed a significant (p<0.01) positive correlation (r = 0.93) with MU concentration. To predict the PU from MU the following equation was developed 'PU = 10.67
MU (mg/dl) with
= 0.87'. A clear diurnal variation of MU was found with lowered morning value (42.04
0.68 mg/dl) than the evening value (45.32
0.66 mg/dl). Present findings suggested that MU or PU concentration could be used as an indicator to monitor the feeding strategy. Plasma urea can be predicted from MU, whenever interpretation of milk urea data required consideration of diurnal variation.
Treated Extruded Soybean Meal as a Source of Fat and Protein for Dairy Cows
Ure, A.L. ; Dhiman, T.R. ; Stern, M.D. ; Olson, K.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 980~989
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.980
The influence of treated, extruded, partially expelled soybean meals as undegradable protein and bypass fat sources on lactation performance and ruminal fermentation of dairy cows was studied. Experiment 1: nine cows were used in a replicated 3
3 Latin square design with each period being 3 wk in duration. Cows were fed 440 g/kg forage and 560 g/kg grain diet with one of three extruded soybean meals fed at 110 g/kg of the diet. The 3 soybean meals were 1) twice-extruded soybean meal (ESM; as a control); 2) lignosulfonate-treated, twice-extruded soybean meal (LSM); and 3) calcium oxide plus lignosulfonate-treated, twice extruded soybean meal (CLSM). Experiment 2: 3 ruminally cannulated cows were used in a 3
3 Latin square to study the treatment influence on ruminal fermentation characteristics. Feeding treated soybean meal to cows in LSM and CLSM treatments did not improve feed intake, milk yield, or milk composition except that cows fed the LSM and CLSM treatments produced less milk protein compared with the ESM treatment. The proportion of
was greater in milk fat of cows fed CLSM compared with that of cows fed the ESM or LSM treatments. Ruminal pH, ammonia, and total volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. An increased proportion of
in milk fat suggests that there is a potential use of calcium salts of fatty acids in protecting the lipid portion of extruded soybean meal and further research is needed to explore this potential with full-fat extruded soybeans not with extruded and partially oil expelled soybeans.
Influence of Diet Induced Changes in Rumen Microbial Characteristics on Gas Production Kinetics of Straw Substrates In vitro
Srinivas, Bandla ; Krishnamoorthy, U. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 990~996
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.990
The effect of diets varying in level and source of nitrogen (N) and fermentable organic matter on dynamic characteristics of microbial populations in rumen liquor and their impact on substrate fermentation in vitro was studied. The diets tested were straw alone, straw+concentrate mixture and straw+urea molasses mineral block (UMMB) lick. The same diets were taken as substrates and tested on each inoculum collected from the diets. Diet had no effect on the amino acid (AA) composition of either bacteria or protozoa. Differences among the diets in intake, source of N and OM affected bacterial and protozoal characteristics in the rumen. Upper asymptote of gas production (Y
) had a higher correlation with bacterial pool size and production rate than with protozoal pool size and production rate. Among the parameters of the gas production model, Y
and lag time in total gas has showed significant (p<0.01) correlation with bacterial characteristics. Though the rate constant of gas production significantly differed (p<0.01) between diet and type of straw, it was least influenced by the microbial characteristics. The regression coefficient of diet and type of straw for Y
indicated that the effect of diet on Y
was threefold higher than that of the straw. As microbial characteristics showed higher correlation with Y
, and diet had more influence on the microbial characteristics, gas production on a straw diet could be used effectively to understand the microbial characteristics.
Effect of Location, Year and Variety on Forage Yield and Quality of Winter Rye
Kim, J.D. ; Kwon, C.H. ; Shin, C.N. ; Kim, C.H. ; Kim, D.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 997~1002
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.997
The objective of this experiment was to determine agronomic characteristics, and forge yield and quality responses of rye variety to location and year for a double-cropping system in South Korea. Five forage rye varieties ('Koolgrazer', 'Jlee select', '9909', 'Homill22', 'Danko') were evaluated for forage quality and yields during the two growing years (the First year; 2001-2002, and the Second year; 2002-2003) at two locations (the central and southern zone). The heading date of rye in the central zone (Cheonan) was 15 April, and that of the southern zone (Daegu) was 10 April. The heading dates of 'Koolgrazer', 'Jlee select' and '9909' were earlier than those of the others. Although the five varieties had resistance to foliar diseases and insects, these had less lodging resistance. Dry matter (DM) content, DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields had significant differences among rye varieties. DM and TDN yields of the rye varieties at the second year were higher than the first year in the central zone. In the southern zone, DM and TDN yields at the first year were lower than the second year. 'Jlee select' and '9909' had higher DM and TDN yields than the other varieties in both location and year except the first year of the central zone (p<0.001). The crude protein (CP) contents of rye grown in Cheonan were higher than Daegu. The CP content of 'Danko' variety was highest among tested varieties. The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were greater for the varieties grown in Cheonan and in the second year. The ADF and NDF contents of 'Danko' were lowest, while 'Danko' in TDN and relative feed value (RFV) was highest among rye varieties. Our study showed that there are differences in forage production and quality from location to location, year to year and variety to variety. Therefore, forage quality and forage production are an important factor for screening forage rye varieties. Early maturing varieties should be recommended as high-yielding forage in a double-cropping system because their production of forage was greatest early in the season.
Comparative Studies on the Relative Efficacy of DL-methionine and Liquid Methionine Hydroxy Analogue in Growing Pigs
Zimmermann, B. ; Mosenthin, R. ; Rademacher, M. ; Lynch, P.B. ; Esteve-Garcia, E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1003~1010
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1003
A study consisting of 3 trials was designed to assess the relative biological efficacy of DL-methionine (DL-Met) in comparison to liquid methionine hydroxy analogue (MHA-FA) in growing pigs. In trial I a basal diet was supplemented with three graded levels of DL-methionine (0.25, 0.50 and 0.75 g/kg) or liquid MHA-FA (0.0285, 0.0570 and 0.0855 g/kg) on equimolar basis. The basal diet contained 18.3% CP, 0.22% Met and 0.51% Met+Cys, which is below the methionine requirement for weaned pigs between 10 and 20 kg BW according to NRC (1998) but adequate in all other essential nutrients and energy. Using an exponential model, the efficacy of the two methionine sources was estimated from nitrogen retention data obtained in 42 piglets with an initial BW between 11.0 kg (Exp. 1) and 11.7 kg (Exp. 2). In trials II and III, with a total of 192 and 96 pigs, and with an initial BW of 10.6 and 21 kg, respectively, growth response criteria were assessed to determine if in agreement with previous studies in pigs and poultry a biological effectiveness of about 65% on average could be confirmed for liquid MHA-FA in comparison to DL-met. Based on N-retention (trial I) the biological efficacy of liquid MHA-FA on a weight-to-weight basis was calculated to be 62% relative to DL-met. Basically, these results were confirmed using growth response criteria as measures; the results of trial II and III revealed no significant differences in growth performance and feed conversion between treatments indicating that 100 parts of liquid MHA-FA can be replaced by 65 parts of DL-met.
Study of the Application of Fructooligosaccharides in Piglets
Xu, Chuanlai ; Chen, Xudong ; Ji, Cheng ; Ma, Qiugang ; Hao, Kai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1011~1016
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1011
In this study, 90 crossbred weaned pigs（Duroc
Large White）weighing - 7.86
0.06 kg each were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments. Control pigs were a fed corn-soybean meal diet with no additives. The two treatment groups were fed the basal diet supplemented either with 75 mg/kg Aureomycin or 0.4% fructooligosaccharides (FOS) in order to study the effects on performance, serological indices, and enteric morphology in addition to examining the content of volatile fatty acids in intestinal digesta. The results indicate that the diets containing FOS and antibiotics had a significant effect on feed conversion ratios (FCR) and diarrhea incidence, as well as increasing the concentrations of isobutyric and butyric acid and total VFAs in the caecum, and acetic acid, isovaleric acid, and total VFAs in feces. Supplementation with FOS also resulted in significantly longer mucosal villi height and a higher percentage of goblet cells compared with the control. No difference was found in crypt depth among the three treatments. While serum glucose levels were significantly higher following FOS supplement, differences in serum total protein, albumin, globulin, and urea nitrogen levels were not significant.
Effect of Maternal Passive Autoimmunization against Myostatin on Growth Performance in Chickens
Moon, Y.S. ; Lee, H.G. ; Yin, Y.H. ; Jin, X. ; Hong, Z.S. ; Cho, J.S. ; Kim, S.C. ; You, S.K. ; Jin, D.I. ; Han, J.Y. ; Choi, Y.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1017~1021
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1017
Myostatin is a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth and a loss of functional myostatin protein increases muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia in cattle. The present study was conducted to investigate whether maternal passive immunization against myostatin would improve growth performance in chickens. A complete broiler myostatin cDNA was cloned and it was expressed into two transcripts as 1,128 bp and 985 bp by alternative splicing. A conjugated mature myostatin (350 bp) was used to induce autoimmunization and maternal passively immunized chickens was used for the experiment. It was confirmed that there was a maternal passive immunization against myostatin at zero weeks of age, but its effect was reduced by 6 weeks of age. The auto-immunized groups showed smaller body weights than those of control group during the growing period and the difference was getting bigger with time until 6 weeks of age. These results suggest that passive autoimmunization against myostatin used in this study is not potent enough to stimulate growth performance in chickens.
Environmental Impacts on Concentrate Feed Supply Systems for Japanese Domestic Livestock Industry as Evaluated by a Life-cycle Assessment Method
Kaku, K. ; Ogino, A. ; Ikeguchi, A. ; Osada, T. ; Shimada, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1022~1028
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1022
The objectives of this study were to evaluate and compare the environmental load of two different concentrate feed supply systems to the Japanese domestic livestock industry using the Life-cycle Assessment (LCA) method. The current system was defined as that requiring 11.469 million tons of corn imported from the US by sea transport and supplied as concentrate feed to the Japanese domestic livestock industry. The new system proposed by Kaku et al. in 2004 was defined as where 802,830 tons of US imported corn would not be planted in US and would be replaced by barley planted in 278 thousand ha of Japanese domestic land left fallow for the past year. In this case, 909,000 tons of domestic harvest barley would have been supplied as concentrate feed to the Japanese domestic livestock industry in 2000. The activities taken into account within the two system boundaries were three stages: concentrate feed production, feed transportation and gas emission from the soil by chemical fertilizer. Finished compost was regarded as organic fertilizer and was put instead of chemical fertilizers within the system boundary. Adoption of this new concentrate feed supply system by the Japanese domestic livestock industry could reduce 78,462 tons
-equivalents of global warming potential, 347 tons
-equivalents of acidification potential, 54 tons
-equivalents of eutrophication potential and 0.842 million GJ as energy consumption below 2,000 levels. This LCA study comparing two Japanese domestic livestock concentrate feed supply systems showed that the stage of feed transport contributed most to global warming and the stage of emission from the soil contributed most to acidification and eutrophication. The Japanese domestic livestock industry could participate in emissions trading with
-equivalents reduced by shifting from some imported US corn as a concentrate feed to domestic barley planted in land left fallow. In that case the Japanese government could launch emissions trading in accordance with Kyoto Protocol in the future.
Yield and Chemical Composition of Cassava Foliage and Tuber Yield as Influenced by Harvesting Height and Cutting Interval
Khang, Duong Nguyen ; Wiktorsson, Hans ; Preston, Thomas R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1029~1035
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1029
4 factorial field experiment with a complete randomised split-plot design with four replicates was conducted from June 2002 to March 2003 at the experimental farm of the Nong Lam University, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, to determine effects of different harvesting heights (10, 30 and 50 cm above the ground) and cutting intervals (45, 60, 90 and 285 days) on yield of foliage and tubers, and chemical composition of the foliage. Cassava of the variety KM 94 grown in plots of 5 m
10 m at a planting distance of 30 cm
50 cm was hand-harvested according to respective treatments, starting 105 days after planting. Foliage from the control treatment (285 days) and all tubers were only harvested at the final harvest 285 days after planting. Dry matter and crude protein foliage yields increased in all treatments compared to the control. Mean foliage dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) yields were 4.57, 3.53, 2.49, and 0.64 tonnes DM
and 939, 684, 495 and 123 kg CP
with 45, 60, 90 and 285 day cutting intervals, respectively. At harvesting heights of 10, 30 and 50 cm the DM yields were 4.27, 3.67 and 2.65 tonnes
and the CP yields were 810, 745 and 564 kg
, respectively. The leaf DM proportion was high, ranging from 47 to 65%. The proportion of leaf and petiole increased and the stem decreased with increasing harvesting heights and decreasing cutting intervals. Crude protein content in cassava foliage ranged from 17.7 to 22.6% and was affected by harvesting height and cutting interval. The ADF and NDF contents of foliage varied between 22.6 and 30.2%, and 34.2 and 41.2% of DM, respectively. The fresh tuber yield in the control treatment was 34.5 tonnes
. Cutting interval and harvesting height had significant negative effects on tuber yield. The most extreme effect was for the frequent foliage harvesting at 10 cm harvesting height, which reduced the tuber yield by 72%, while the 90 day cutting intervals and 50 cm harvesting height only reduced the yield by 7%. The mean fresh tuber yield decreased by 56, 45 and 27% in total when the foliage was harvested at 45, 60 and 90 day cutting intervals, respectively. It is concluded that the clear effects on quantity and quality of foliage and the effect on tuber yield allow alternative foliage harvesting principles depending on the need of fodder for animals, value of tubers and harvesting cost. An initial foliage harvest 105 days after planting and later harvests with 90 days intervals at 50 cm harvesting height increased the foliage DM and CP yield threefold, but showed only marginal negative effect on tuber yield.
Prediction of Crude Protein, Extractable Fat, Calcium and Phosphorus Contents of Broiler Chicken Carcasses Using Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy
Kadim, I.T. ; Mahgoub, O. ; Al-Marzooqi, W. ; Annamalai, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1036~1040
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1036
Near-infrared reflectance spectroscopic (NIRS) calibrations were developed for accurate and fast prediction of whole broiler chicken carcass composition. The Feed and Forage Foss systems Model 5000 Reflectance Transport Model 5000 with near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS)-WinISI II windows software was used for this purpose. One equation was developed for the prediction of each carcass component. One hundred and fifty freeze dried broiler whole carcass samples were ground in a Cyclotech 1,093 sample mill and analyzed for dry matter, protein, fat, calcium and phosphate. Samples were divided into two sets: a calibration set from which equations were derived and a prediction set used to validate these equations. The chemical analysis values (mean
SD) were calculated based on dry matter basis as follows: dry matter: 33.41
2.78 (range: 26.41-43.47), protein: 54.04
6.63 (range: 36.20-76.09), fat 35.44
8.34 (range: 7.50-55.03), calcium 2.55
0.65 (range: 0.99-4.41), phosphorus 1.38
0.26 (range: 0.60-2.28). One hundred and three samples were used to calibrate the equations and prediction values. The software used was modified to obtain partial least square regression statistics, as it is the most suitable for natural products analysis. The coefficients of determination (
) and the standard errors of prediction were 0.82 and 1.83 for the dry matter, 0.96 and 1.98 for protein, 0.99 and 1.07 for fat, 0.90 and 0.30 for calcium and 0.91 and 0.11 for phosphorus, respectively. The present study indicated that NIRS can be calibrated to predict the whole broiler carcass chemical composition, including minerals in a rapid, accurate, and cost effective manner. It neither requires skilled operators nor generates hazardous waste. These findings may have practical importance to improve instrumental procedures for quick evaluation of broiler carcass composition.
Properties and Cholesterol Lowering Effect of Cholesterol-reduced Milk Supplemented with Evening Primrose Oil
Hwang, Ji Hyun ; Lee, Su Jeong ; Kwak, Hae Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1041~1047
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1041
This study was carried out to investigate the changes of chemical and sensory properties and cholesterol lowering effect of milk treated with
-cyclodextrin to reduce cholesterol and supplemented with evening primrose oil (EPO). The average cholesterol removal rate was 93.5%. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) absorbance increased proportionally to storage period and amount of EPO addition. TBA absorbance was significantly different in the EPO-added groups from that in unadded groups in all periods. The production of short-chain free fatty acids (FFA) increased with longer period of storage. From 6 days of storage, the amounts of short-chain FFA in 6 and 10% EPO-added groups were significantly different from other groups. The scores for all sensory characteristics indicated that sensory quality decreased with both storage time and increasing amount of EPO. Oxidative off-flavor and off-taste were more intense with higher amounts of EPO addition and longer storage period. Also, the higher the amount of EPO addition, the lower overall scores throughout the 15 day storage. Feeding 10% EPO-supplemented cholesterol-reduced milk increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) in male Sprague-Dawley rats by 76%, which is significantly different from the control (27%).
Acidifier as an Alternative Material to Antibiotics in Animal Feed
Kim, Y.Y. ; Kil, D.Y. ; Oh, H.K. ; Han, In K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 7, 2005, Pages 1048~1060
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1048
Dietary acidifiers appear to be a possible alternative to feed antibiotics in order to improve performance of weaning pigs. It is generally known that dietary acidifiers lower gastric pH, resulting in increased activity of proteolytic enzymes, improved protein digestibility and inhibiting the proliferation of pathogenic bacteria in GI tract. It is also hypothesized that acidifiers could be related to reduction of gastric emptying rate, energy source in intestine, chelation of minerals, stimulation of digestive enzymes and intermediate metabolism. However, the exact mode of action still remains questionable. Organic acidifiers have been widely used for weaning pigs' diets for decades and most common organic acidifiers contain fumaric, citric, formic and/or lactic acid. Many researchers have observed that dietary acidifier supplementation improved growth performance and health status in weaning pigs. Recently inorganic acidifiers as well as organic acidifiers have drawn much attention due to improving performance of weaning pigs with a low cost. Several researchers introduced the use of salt form of acidifiers because of convenient application and better effects than pure state acids. However, considerable variations in results of acidifier supplementation have been reported in response of weaning pigs. The inconsistent responses to dietary acidifiers could be explained by feed palatability, sources and composition of diet, supplementation level of acidifier and age of animals.