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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Association of SNP Marker in IGF-I and MYF5 Candidate Genes with Growth Traits in Korean Cattle
Chung, E.R. ; Kim, W.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1061~1065
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1061
Growth rate is one of the economically important quantitative traits that affect carcass quantity in beef cattle. Two genes, bovine insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) and myogenic factor 5 (MYF5), were chosen as candidate genes for growth traits due to their important role in growth and development of mammals. The objectives of this study were to determine gene-specific single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers of the IGF-I and MYF5 positional candidate genes and to investigate their associations with growth traits in Korean cattle. Genotyping of the SNP markers in these candidate genes was carried out using the single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis. The frequencies of A and B alleles were 0.72 and 0.28 for IGF-I gene and 0.39 and 0.61 for MYF5 gene, respectively, in Korean cattle population examined. The gene-specific SNP marker association analysis indicated that the SNP genotype in IGF-I gene showed a significant association (p<0.05) with weight at 3 months (W3), and cows with AB genotype had higher W3 than BB genotype cows. The SNP genotype of MYF5 gene was found to have a significant effect (p<0.05) on the weight at 12 months (W12) and average daily gain (ADG), and cows with BB and AB genotypes had higher W12 and ADG compared with cows with AA genotype, respectively. However, no significant association between the SNP genotypes and any other growth traits was detected. The gene-specific SNP markers in the IGF-I and MYF5 candidate genes may be useful for selection on growth traits in Korean cattle.
Estimation of the Cumulative Power of Discrimination in Haimen Chicken Populations with Ten Microsatellite Markers
Olowofeso, O. ; Wang, J.Y. ; Shen, J.C. ; Chen, K.W. ; Sheng, H.W. ; Zhang, P. ; Wu, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1066~1070
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1066
To estimate the cumulative power of discrimination (CPD) existing within Haimen chicken populations in China, we isolated a total of 252 genomic DNAs from four chicken populations (Rugao, Jiangchun, Wan-Nan and Cshiqishi) through a saturated salt procedure. All the genomic DNAs were used in a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) with ten microsatellite markers. Amplified PCR-products with the selected markers were separated on a 12% polyacrylamide gel with pBR322DNA/MspI used as internal standard marker. Genetic diversity indices including mean allele number among loci, unbiased heterozygosity (
) within locus, effective number of alleles (
) and polymorphism information content (PIC) as well as the unbiased average heterozygosity (H) among loci in the populations were calculated using the generated allele frequencies by each marker. The mean allele number for all loci ranged between 4.00
0.33 (Rugao) to 4.90
0.48 (Cshiqishi) and across populations for all loci was 4.60
0.20, while (H) ranged from 0.65
0.03 (Rugao) to 0.69
0.03 (Jiangchun) among loci and across populations, (H) was 0.67
0.01. The generated unbiased average heterozygosity among loci in each population was integrated to the global formula of CPD and the result demonstrated that the CPD within the four Haimen chicken populations was 98.75%.
Microsatellite Polymorphism and Genetic Relationship in Dog Breeds in Korea
Cho, G.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1071~1074
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1071
Microsatellite polymorphism and their genetic relationships were estimated using genotype information of 183 dogs from 11 microsatellite loci. The breeds include the indigenous Korean breeds Jindo dog (30), Poongsan dog (20) and Miryang dog (44) together with Chihauhau dog (31) and German Shepherd dog (58). Jindo dogs showed the highest expected heterozygosity (0.796
0.030) and polymorphic information contents (0.755) in all populations. The phylogenetic analysis showed the existence of two distinct clusters supported by high bootstrap values: the Korean native dogs and other dogs. They clearly show that Poongsan dog and Miryang dog are closely related to each other when compared with Jindo dog. Microsatellite polymorphism data was shown to be useful for estimating the genetic relationship between Korean native dogs and other dog breeds, and also can be applied for parentage testing in those dog breeds.
Genetic Parameters and Responses in Growth and Body Composition Traits of Pigs Measured under Group Housing and Ad libitum Feeding from Lines Selected for Growth Rate on a Fixed Ration
Nguyen, Nguyen Hong ; McPhee, C.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1075~1079
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1075
The main objective of this study is to examine genetic changes in growth rate and carcass composition traits in group housed, ad libitum fed pigs, from lines of Large White divergently selected over four years for high and low post-weaning daily gain on a fixed but restricted ration. Genetic parameters for production and carcass traits were also estimated by using average information-restricted maximum likelihood applied to a multivariate individual animal model. All analyses were carried out on 1,728 records of group housed ad libitum fed pigs, and include a full pedigree of 5,324 animals. Estimates of heritability (standard errors in parentheses) were 0.11 (0.04) for lifetime daily liveweight gain (LDG), 0.13 (0.04) for daily carcass weight gain (CDG) and 0.28 (0.06) for carcass backfat (CFT). Genetic correlations between LDG and CDG were highly positive and between LDG and CFT negative, suggesting that selection for lifetime daily gain under commercial conditions of group housing with ad libitum feeding would result in favourable improvement in carcass traits. CFT showed negative genetic correlations with CDG. Correlated genetic responses evaluated as estimated breeding values (EBVs) were obtained from a multivariate animal model-best linear unbiased prediction analysis. After four years of divergent selection for 6 week post-weaning growth rate on restricted feeding, pigs performance tested on ad libitum feeding in groups exhibited changes in EBVs of 6.77 and -9.93 (g/d) for LDG, 4.25 and -7.08 (g/d) for CDG, and -1.42 and 1.55 (mm) for CFT, in the high and low lines, respectively. It is concluded that selection for growth rate on restricted feeding would significantly improve genetic performance and carcass composition of their descendants when group housed and ad libitum fed as is a common commercial practice.
cDNA Microarray Analysis of the Gene Expression Profile of Swine Muscle
Kim, Chul Wook ; Chang, Kyu Tae ; Hong, Yeon Hee ; Jung, Won Yong ; Kwon, Eun Jung ; Cho, Kwang Keun ; Chung, Ki Hwa ; Kim, Byeong Woo ; Lee, Jung Gyu ; Yeo, Jung Sou ; Kang, Yang Su ; Joo, Young Kuk ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1080~1087
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1080
By screening specific genes related to the muscle growth of swine using cDNA microarray technology, a total of 5 novel genes (GF (growth factor) I, II, III, IV and V) were identified. Results of southern blotting to investigate the number of copies of these genes in the genome of swine indicated that GF I, GF III, and GF V existed as one copy and GF II, and GF IV existed as more than two copies. It was suggested that there are many isoforms of these genes in the genome of swine. Also, results of northern blotting to investigate whether these genes were expressed in grown muscle, using GF I, III, and V indicated that all the genes were much more expressed in the muscle of swine with body weight of 90 kg. Expression patterns of these genes in other organs, namely muscle and propagation and fat tissues, were investigated by extracting RNA from the tissues. These genes were not expressed in the propagation and fat tissues, but were expressed in the muscle tissue. To determine the mechanism of muscle growth, further studies should be preceded using the 3 specific genes related to muscle growth, that is GF I, III, and V.
Complex Segregation Analysis of Categorical Traits in Farm Animals: Comparison of Linear and Threshold Models
Kadarmideen, Haja N. ; Ilahi, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1088~1097
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1088
Main objectives of this study were to investigate accuracy, bias and power of linear and threshold model segregation analysis methods for detection of major genes in categorical traits in farm animals. Maximum Likelihood Linear Model (MLLM), Bayesian Linear Model (BALM) and Bayesian Threshold Model (BATM) were applied to simulated data on normal, categorical and binary scales as well as to disease data in pigs. Simulated data on the underlying normally distributed liability (NDL) were used to create categorical and binary data. MLLM method was applied to data on all scales (Normal, categorical and binary) and BATM method was developed and applied only to binary data. The MLLM analyses underestimated parameters for binary as well as categorical traits compared to normal traits; with the bias being very severe for binary traits. The accuracy of major gene and polygene parameter estimates was also very low for binary data compared with those for categorical data; the later gave results similar to normal data. When disease incidence (on binary scale) is close to 50%, segregation analysis has more accuracy and lesser bias, compared to diseases with rare incidences. NDL data were always better than categorical data. Under the MLLM method, the test statistics for categorical and binary data were consistently unusually very high (while the opposite is expected due to loss of information in categorical data), indicating high false discovery rates of major genes if linear models are applied to categorical traits. With Bayesian segregation analysis, 95% highest probability density regions of major gene variances were checked if they included the value of zero (boundary parameter); by nature of this difference between likelihood and Bayesian approaches, the Bayesian methods are likely to be more reliable for categorical data. The BATM segregation analysis of binary data also showed a significant advantage over MLLM in terms of higher accuracy. Based on the results, threshold models are recommended when the trait distributions are discontinuous. Further, segregation analysis could be used in an initial scan of the data for evidence of major genes before embarking on molecular genome mapping.
Milk Yield and Immune Response of Periparturient and Early Lactation Friesian Cows Fed Diets Supplemented with a High Level of Amino-acid Chelated Chromium
Terramoccia, S. ; Bartocci, S. ; Lillini, E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1098~1104
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1098
The trial was carried out on twenty-one Friesian cows at the end of eight months gestation, nine multiparous and twelve primiparous; allocated into three groups (1 control, 2 and 3 experimental). The same diet was administred to all three groups before partum (12.8 kg DM/head/day) and after partum (18.8 kg DM/head/day). The cows in groups 2 and 3 received two different daily quantities of amino-acid chelated chromium (0.6 and 1.2 mg Cr/kg DM) from 4 weeks prior to presumed parturition to 6 weeks after. The milk yield control was carried out at 15, 30, 42 and 60 days. All animals were immunised two weeks prior to the presumed parturition and two weeks after with the following antigens: ovalbumin and brucellergene. Blood samples were collected weekly to monitor humoral and cell-mediated immune responses. When analysing the results of antibody immunity (ovalbumin) in the sixth blood collection both treated groups significantly increased compared to group 1 (0.5230 and 0.4536 vs. 0.1812 OD; p<0.05). The results of the cell-mediated immune response (brucellergene) had significant differences (p<0.10) in correspondence to the third (between group 2 and control) and the fifth (between groups 3 and 2) blood collection. Significant differences in fat corrected milk were observed at 42 days between group 3 and the other two groups (31.01 vs. 26.99 and 28.66 kg/d, p<0.05) and at 60 days between group 3 and control (30.88 vs. 26.69 kg/d, p<0.05). Before partum and at partum a positive immune response was obtained with a lower dose of chromium. After partum a positive immune response, anti-OVA indicator, was obtained with the higher dose of chromium while,
-IFN indicator, with the lower dose. A significant increase of the milk yield resulted at both 42 and 60 days with the highest level of chromium.
Dietary Fatty Acid Supplementation during Transitional Period Increases Milk Production in Dairy Cows
Nagao, K. ; Takahara, Y. ; Asai, H. ; Hayashi, N. ; Kitayama, T. ; Yoshimura, Y. ; Yokota, H. ; Kita, Kazumi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1105~1109
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1105
The effect of dietary fatty acid supplementation on milk production, milk composition and plasma constituents in dairy cows was examined. Dietary fatty acids including mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid were given to cows from 2 weeks before and 8 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production was increased gradually during early lactation period and reached a plateau at 4 weeks after parturition. Weekly gain of daily milk production in lactating cows received dietary fatty acids was significantly higher than that of cows given a control diet alone. Although milk lactose concentration was slightly decreased by dietary fatty acid supplementation, milk fat and protein were not significantly influenced by dietary fatty acid supplementation. Dietary fatty acids did not affect plasma concentrations of triglyceride, non-esterified fatty acids, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and glucose during postpartum. It is suggested that dietary fatty acid supplementation has the potency to enhance energy balance and improve milk yield without any adverse effects on milk composition.
Effect of Lactic Acid Producing Bacteria on the Performance of Male Crossbred Calves Fed Roughage Based Diet
Ramaswami, N. ; Chaudhary, L.C. ; Agarwal, N. ; Kamra, D.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1110~1115
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1110
To study the effect of feeding lactic acid producing bacteria on the performance of cattle calves, twenty four, day old male crossbred cattle calves (Bos indicus
Bos taurus), were distributed into two groups of 12 animals each. The animals were fed on calf starter containing wheat bran and green berseem ad libitum and milk as per requirement upto 8 weeks of age. The diet of calves of Group 2 was supplemented with 500 ml culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus-15. Total duration of the experiment was 31 weeks. There was no significant difference in intake and digestibility of dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and crude protein (CP) between the groups. The rumen pH, protozoa numbers, concentration of volatile fatty acids (VFA), ammonia nitrogen (
), trichloroacetic acid precipitable nitrogen (TCA-ppt N) and activity of microbial enzymes (carboxymethylcellulase, xylanase, amylase and protease) were not affected due to probiotic supplementation. Average live weight gain of the calves was improved (about 10%) and feed:gain ratio was reduced (about 5%) in the animals given Lactobacillus culture. The data indicated that crossbred calves could be reared on a diet devoid of cereal grain and addition of Lactobacillus culture in the diet resulted in an added advantage in growth performance of the animals.
Influence of Fiber Content and Concentrate Level on Chewing Activity, Ruminal Digestion, Digesta Passage Rate and Nutrient Digestibility in Dairy Cows in Late Lactation
Tafaj, M. ; Kolaneci, V. ; Junck, B. ; Maulbetsch, A. ; Steingass, H. ; Drochner, W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1116~1124
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1116
The influence of fiber content of hay (low-fiber 47% NDF and high-fiber 62% NDF of DM) and concentrate level (high 50% and low 20% of ration DM) on chewing activity, passage rate and nutrient digestibility were tested on four restrict-fed (11.1 to 13.7 kg DM/d) Holstein cows in late lactation. Aspects of ruminal fermentation and digesta particle size distribution were also investigated on two ruminally cannulated (100 mm i.d.) cows of the same group of animals. All digestion parameters studied were more affected by the fiber content of the hay and its ratio to non structural carbohydrates than by the concentrate level. Giving a diet of high-fiber (62% NDF) hay and low concentrate level (20%) increased chewing activity but decreased solid passage rate and total digestibility of nutrients due to a limited availability of fermentable OM in the late cut fiber rich hay. A supplementation of high-fiber hay with 50% concentrate in the diet seems to improve the ruminal digestion of cell contents, whilst a depression of the ruminal fiber digestibility was not completely avoided. Giving a diet of low-fiber (47% NDF) hay and high concentrate level (50%) reduced markedly the chewing and rumination activity, affected negatively the rumen conditions and, consequently, the ruminal digestion of fiber. A reduction of the concentrate level from 50 to 20% in the diet of low-fiber hay improved the rumen conditions as reflected by an increase of the ruminal solid passage rate and of fiber digestibility and in a decrease of the concentration of large particles and of the mean particle size of the rumen digesta and of the faeces. Generally, it can be summarised that, (i) concentrate supplementation is not a strategy to overcome limitations of low quality (fiber-rich) hay, and (ii) increase of the roughage quality is an effective strategy in ruminant nutrition, especially when concentrate availability for ruminants is limited.
Feeding of Sugar Cane Silage to Dairy Cattle during the Dry Season
Suksombat, Wisitiporn ; Junpanichcharoen, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1125~1129
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1125
A study was conducted to determine the effect of feeding sugar cane silage compared to chopped whole sugar cane or grass silage on performances of lactating dairy cows during the dry season. Twenty four Holstein Friesian crossbred (>87.5% Holstein Friesian) lactating dairy cows in mid lactation; averaging 15.4
3.2 kg of milk, 120
23 days in milk, 50.5
6.5 months old and 432
39 kg live weight, were stratified for milk yield, days in milk, age, stage of lactation and body weight, and then randomly allocated to three treatment groups (8 cows in each group). All cows were fed 7.5 kg/d commercial concentrate plus ad libitum roughage according to treatment groups, which were grass silage, sugar cane silage or chopped whole sugar cane respectively. All cows consumed similar DM and produced similar milk and milk composition yields. However, cows on grass silage lost more weight than the other cows. The present study indicated that, during the dry season, sugar cane silage can be fed to lactating dairy cows, while giving similar milk yield to grass silage or chopped whole sugar cane.
Effect of Chelation with Calcium Disodium EDTA on Haemato-biochemical and Trace Mineral Profile in Blood from Lead Exposed Calves
Patra, R.C. ; Swarup, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1130~1134
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1130
An experiment was performed using 20 calves of about one-month old to investigate the effect of chelation therapy with calcium disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetate (
EDTA) alone or along with antioxidant
-tocopherol in lead loaded calves on blood trace minerals, erythrocytic sulfahydryl groups and some haematobiochemical parameters. Fifteen calves were given lead orally at a daily dose of 7.5 mg of 99% pure lead acetate/kg body weight for 28 days. Then the lead was withdrawn on day 28 and the calves were randomly divided into three groups. Each group of five animals was either treated with
EDTA alone at the dose rate of 110 mg/kg body weight in two divided doses for 4 days or along with
-tocopherol at the dose rate of 100 mg/kg body weight orally daily for 7 days, keeping the remaining five calves as lead-exposed untreated controls. Blood samples were collected at the end of the lead exposure (day 0) and thereafter on day 2, 4, 7 and 10 from the start of the chelation treatment. The treatment with EDTA alone led to slow but non-significant improvement in blood copper level, but incorporation of antioxidant
-tocopherol in chelation therapy resulted in its significant decline, as recorded on day 7-post treatment. Withdrawal of lead or treatment with
EDTA alone or along with
-tocopherol enhanced the erythrocytic thiol contents and the levels of T-SH and P-SH became statistically (p<0.05) comparable to those of lead-exposed controls by day 7 and 4, respectively. There was no significant (p>0.05) change in serum urea, creatinine, total protein and albumin levels between the treatment groups. It is concluded from the present investigation that treatment with
EDTA at the present dose rate is safe to be used for chelation in lead loaded calves.
Studies on Cd, Pb, Hg and Cr Values in Dog Hairs from Urban Korea
Park, S.H. ; Lee, M.H. ; Kim, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1135~1140
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1135
Dogs are a very good indicator of the pollution load on the environment. They share people's environment and are exposed to the action of the same pollutants. This study was to estimate the heavy metal contents in dog hairs in domestic districts, and to assess effects of age, sex, feed habits, living area, breeding environment and smoking habit of owner. The mean concentrations of heavy metals in 204 samples were 0.09
/g and 0.48
/g (Cadmium (Cd), Mercury (Hg), Lead (Pb) and Chromium (Cr)) in dog hairs, respectively. Concentrations of Pb, Cd, Hg and Cr in dog hairs in Yeongnam including Ulsan and Seoul, were higher than in Chungchong and Honam, and concentrations of Pb were significantly different (p<0.01). Concentrations of Cd, Hg, Pb and Cr in dog hairs increased with age (p<0.05). Only dogs fed commercial pet foods had significantly higher Cd and Cr concentrations in hairs than dogs fed dog feed and human diet (p<0.01 in Cd and p<0.05 in Cr). Cr concentrations of dog hairsfrom dogs kept on cement floors were the highest of the other environments (p<0.01). Heavy metal concentrations of dogs owned by smokers, were higher than dogs of non-smokers, but there were no significant differences.
Effects of Xylanase Supplementation to Wheat-based Diet on the Performance and Nutrient Availability of Broiler Chickens
Chiang, Chia-Chun ; Yu, Bi ; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1141~1146
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1141
A trial was conducted to evaluate the level of wheat substituted for corn in a traditional corn-soy diet and the xylanase supplementation effect on the growth performance and nutrient digestion of broiler chickens. This experiment was a randomized design with a 4
2 factorial arrangement with four levels of wheat substitution and two levels of enzyme inclusion in the diet. Wheat replaced 0, 25, 50 or 100% corn with or without 1 g/kg xylanase supplementation in iso-nitrogenous and iso-calorific experimental diets. The results showed that in the growing period, broilers attained the highest (p<0.05) body weight gain, feed intake, and relative small intestine weight when wheat was substituted at 25% for corn. The relative caecum weight increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing levels of wheat substitution for corn. However, during the finishing period and entire experimental period from 0 to 6 weeks, no significant difference was shown in the growth performance among all treatments. Xylanase inclusion significantly improved the body weight gain, fat availability (p<0.01) and diet metabolisable energy (p<0.1) but decreased (p<0.05) the relative GI tract weight during the growing period. The digesta viscosity of 6-week old broilers was also decreased (p<0.05). It appears that wheat substituted for corn did not affect the growth performance, nutrient digestion, and the digesta viscosity of chickens. It is acceptable to completely substitute wheat for corn. Xylanase supplementation improved performance.
The Effects of Dietary Biotite V Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Finishing Pigs
Chen, Y.J. ; Kwon, O.S. ; Min, B.J. ; Shon, K.S. ; Cho, J.H. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1147~1152
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1147
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary Biotite V (BV) supplementation on growth performance, nutrients digestibility and fecal noxious gas content in finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, a total of eighty pigs (initial body weight 88.0
1.35 kg) were used in a 35-d growth trial. Pigs were blocked by weight and allotted to five dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were four pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included: 1) Control (CON; basal diet), 2) 200 mesh BV1.0 (basal diet+200 mesh Biotite V 1.0%), 3) 325 mesh BV1.0 (basal diet+325 mesh Biotite V 1.0%), 4) 200 mesh BV2.0 (basal diet+200 mesh Biotite V 2.0%) and 5) 325 mesh BV2.0 (basal diet+325 mesh Biotite V 2.0%). Through the entire experimental period, there were no significant differences in ADG, ADFI and gain/feed among the treatments (p>0.05). With the addition of Biotite V in diet, DM and N digestibilities were increased significantly (p<0.01). Also, Ca and P digestibilities tended to increase in pigs fed Biotite V supplemented diet (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed control diet. Supplementation of Biotite V in diet reduced the fecal
and volatile fatty acid (VFA) compared to CON treatment (p<0.01). In Exp. 2, a total of sixty four pigs (initial body weight 84.0
1.05 kg) were used in a 35-d growth trial. Pigs were blocked by weight and allotted to four dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. There were four pigs per pen and four pens per treatment. Dietary treatments included: 1) LP (low protein diet), 2) HP (high protein diet), 3) LP+BV (low protein diet+325 mesh Biotite V 1.0%) and 4) HP+BV (high protein diet+325 mesh Biotite V 1.0%). Through the entire experimental period, ADG and gain/feed tended to increase in HP and HP+BV treatments, however, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the treatments. With the addition of Biotite V in diets, digestibilities of nutrients (DM, N, Ca and P) were increased significantly (p<0.01). The addition of Biotite V in diets reduced the ammonia emissions in feces (p<0.01). Supplementation of Biotite V in diets also reduced the fecal propionic acid, butyric acid and acetic acid (p<0.01) compared to pigs fed diets without Biotite V. In conclusion, supplementation of Biotite V can increase nutrients digestibility and reduce fecal
and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in finishing pigs.
Effect of Probiotic Inclusion in the Diet of Broiler Chickens on Performance, Feed Efficiency and Carcass Quality
Khaksefidi, A. ; Rahimi, Sh. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1153~1156
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1153
An experiment was conducted with three hundred and twenty broiler chickens to evaluate the influence of supplementation of probiotic on growth, microbiological status and carcass quality of chickens. The probiotic contained similar proportions of six strains of variable organisms namely Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Aspergillus oryzae, Streptococcus faecium and Torulopsis sps and was fed at 100 mg/kg diet. The body weight and feed conversion of probiotic fed groups were superior (p<0.05) compared to the control group in the 4th, 5th and 6th weeks. The chickens fed the diet with probiotic had lower (p<0.05) numbers of coliforms and Campylobacter than chickens fed the control diet. All chickens' carcasses on the control diet were positive for Salmonella while only 16 of the 40 carcasses were positive from chickens fed diets containing probiotic. The leg and breast meat of probiotic fed chickens were higher (p<0.05) in moisture, protein and ash, and lower in fat as compared to the leg and breast meat of control chickens.
Utilization of Low Glucosinalate and Conventional Mustard Oilseed Cakes in Commercial Broiler Chicken Diets
Rao, S.V.Rama ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Panda, A.K. ; Shashibindu, M. Sailaja ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1157~1163
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1157
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of replacing soyabean meal (SBM) at 50 and 100% with conventional (CMC) and low glucosinalate mustard cakes (LGMC) in iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets in broiler chickens. All these diets contained 0.1% choline chloride with a purity of 50% (w/w). Another diet was prepared by replacing SBM in toto with CMC with no supplemental choline to find out the possible role of supplemental choline in mustard cake (MC) based diets. Two hundred and seventy day-old broiler chicks were distributed randomly in 54 stainless steel battery brooder pens of five chicks in each pen. Each experimental diet was allotted at random to nine battery brooders and offered ad-libitum from day 2 through 42 days of age. Body weight gain was significantly depressed by total replacement of SBM with either LGMC or CMC at 21 days of age. Non-supplementation of choline significantly depressed the growth compared to those fed CMC 100% with supplemental choline. However, at 42 days of age, such an effect was seen only with CMC. Replacement of SBM with CMC 100% with or without choline supplementation depressed the body weight gain. The concentrations of cholestorol and tryglicerides in serum and the relative weights of ready to cook yield, giblet and gizzard decreased by incorporation of mustard cakes in broiler diets. The trend in fat and protein contents in breast and thigh muscles and liver was not clearly attributable to the treatment effect. Based on the results, it is concluded that SBM can be replaced in toto with LGMC (535.0 and 466.5 g/kg starter and finisher diets, respectively) or up to 50% (215.0 and 186.7 g/kg starter and finisher diets, respectively) with CMC in commercial broiler chicken diets. Choline supplementation at 0.1% level in broiler diets containing CMC was found to be beneficial during starter phase.
Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Nutrient Digestibility and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Broilers Fed Low-protein Diets Supplemented with Various Ratios of Threonine to Lysine
Gong, L.M. ; Lai, C.H. ; Qiao, Shiyan ; Li, Defa ; Ma, Y.X. ; Liu, Y.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1164~1170
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1164
This study was conducted to evaluate performance, breast (thigh) muscle yield, nutrient digestibility and serum biochemical parameters of broilers fed low-protein diets supplemented with various threonine to lysine ratios (Thr/Lys). Three hundred and twenty four day-old male Arbor Acres broilers were randomly allotted to six dietary treatments with six replicates per treatment and nine broilers per replicate. Six treatments included one control diet [formulated according to NRC (1994)], and five experimental diets (treatments 1-5). In treatments 1-5, the crude protein level was 2% lower than that of the NRC control diet. The Thr/Lys in treatments 1-5 was 0.65, 0.70, 0.75, 0.80 and 0.85 during the starter and grower phases and 0.70, 0.75, 0.80, 0.85 and 0.90 during the finisher phase with other nutrient levels kept consistent. The results showed that: (1) With increasing Thr/Lys, ADG of treatments 1, 3 and 4 were lower (p<0.05) than those of the NRC control diet during the starter phase; ADG of treatments 1-5 were lower (p<0.05) than those of the NRC control during the grower phase, and ADG of treatment 1 was lower (p<0.05) than that of the NRC control during the finisher phase. Average daily feed intake in treatments 1 and 4 were lower (p<0.05) than that of broilers on the NRC control diet during the grower phase. Feed/gain (F/G) of the NRC control diet was lowest (p<0.05) during the starter phase. F/G in treatments 2 and 5 were higher (p<0.05) than that of NRC during the grower phase. (2) Breast muscle proportion on d 21 increased linearly (p<0.05) in response to graded levels of Thr/Lys. (3) No differences were detected for dry matter, energy and crude protein digestibility among all seven treatments. (4) On d 21, serum triglyceride of broilers on dietary treatments 3 and 5 was higher (p<0.05) than that of broilers in control. The results indicate that the low-protein diets supplemented with an appropriate Thr/Lys could not support the same performance that was achieved by the broilers fed the NRC control diet.
Effects of Dietary Non-phytate Phosphorus Levels on Egg Production, Shell Quality and Nutrient Retention in White Leghorn Layers
Panda, A.K. ; Rao, S.V.Rama ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Bhanja, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1171~1175
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1171
An experiment was conducted (28 to 44 weeks) to study the laying performance, shell quality, and nutrient retention of White Leghorn layers fed different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Six levels of NPP (0.15, 0.18, 0.21, 0.24, 0.27 and 0.30%) at a constant calcium (Ca) level (3.5%) in maize-soya-deoiled rice bran based diets were formulated, and each experimental diet was offered ad libitum for 16 weeks to five replicates with five birds in each replicate. The body weight of WL layers fed diet containing 0.15% NPP was significantly (p<0.05) lower than those fed diet with 0.30% NPP, at 44 weeks of age. However, the hen day egg production, egg weight, daily feed intake and feed consumed per dozen eggs were not influenced by the variation in the NPP levels in the diet. The bone ash content was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the birds fed 0.30% NPP as compared with those fed diets up to 0.24% NPP. Bone ash content was intermediate in the birds fed diet containing 0.27% NPP. The tibia strength followed the same trend as that of bone ash. Dietary NPP content had no influence on serum Ca and protein concentration and activity of alkaline phosphatase. However, serum inorganic P concentration increased linearly with NPP content in the diet. The concentration of P was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the birds fed 0.27% NPP or higher as compared with those fed 0.15% NPP. Levels of dietary NPP had no influence on egg quality parameters like shell wt, shell thickness, shell strength and specific gravity. The retention of nutrients such as DM, N and Ca were comparable among the WL layers fed different levels of NPP. However, the retention of P decreased linearly with increase in the level of NPP in the diet. The retention of P in the birds fed diets up to 0.24% NPP in the diet was comparable, however further increasing the content of NPP (either 0.27% or 0.30%) reduced the retention of P. Based on the results of the present study, 0.15% NPP (180 mg/b/d) in the diets of WL layers is adequate for optimum production performance during 28 to 44 weeks of age, however, WL layers require 0.27% NPP (324 mg /b/d) in the diet for optimum production with better bone mineralization.
Effect of Restricted Suckling or Temporal Weaning on Some Physiological and Behavioural Stress Parameters in Zebu Cattle (Bos indicus)
Acevedo, N. ; Hernandez, C. ; Orihuela, A. ; Lidfors, L.M. ; Berg, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1176~1181
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1176
This study investigated the effects of restricted suckling (RS) on some physiological and behavioural stress parameters compared to temporal weaning (TW). Twenty Brahman (Bos indicus) cow-calf pairs were assigned to one of two groups: Calves in the RS group were limited to suckle their dams once daily for 30 min during days 30 to 33, while calves in the TW group were removed from their dams during days 59 to 62 postpartum. Heart and respiratory rates, serum cortisol concentration and body temperature were registered in cows and calves. In addition, the number of steps was also registered in calves. All parameters were recorded 24, 48 and 72 h after the beginning of the two treatments, respectively. In TW calves, higher (p<0.05) cortisol concentration and number of steps were recorded in the 1st samples and 1
observations, respectively. No difference was found in body temperature between treatments. However, respiration and heart rates differed in the 1
observations, respectively. In general, a significant decrease (p<0.05) in these three parameters was observed over time. In cows, no differences were found in cortisol concentration or body temperature between treatments or with time. Heart and respiratory rates were lower (p<0.05) in the TW treatment only 24 h after beginning of treatment. It was concluded that (a) RS resulted in less behavioural and physiological indices of distress compared to TW in calves, although in general, differences were found only in some variables, mainly during the 1
day following start of the treatment, and there in a chance of age effects. (b) Cows were less affected than their young, regardless of the treatment applied.
Effect of Low Ambient Temperature on the Concentration of Free Radicals Related to Ascites in Broiler Chickens
Han, Bo ; Yoon, Soon-Seek ; Han, Hong-Ryul ; Qu, Wei-jie ; Nigussie, Fikru ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1182~1187
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1182
A flock of Arbor Acres chickens were reared in cages and provided with high energy pelleted feed. At 14 d of age, a total of 350 birds were separated into 3 groups randomly as follows: 100 birds were exposed to ambient temperature of 20
as a control group, 150 birds were exposed to lower ambient temperature of 11
to induce ascites (group I), and another group of 100 birds were exposed to lower ambient temperature of 11
and fed diet containing 1% L-arginine for ascitic prophylactic treatment (group II). Blood and tissue samples (lung and liver) were collected from chickens at 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 wk of age subsequently, to analyze the concentration and activities of free radicals, mononaldehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), Nitric Oxide (NO) and Nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The results showed that the prevalence of ascites in the control, group I and group II was 3%, 9.33% and 3% respectively (p<0.01). The concentration of free radicals in the lungs of 3 wks old preascitic broilers in group I was significantly higher than in the corresponding control group (p<0.05). The concentrations of free radicals in lung and liver in the 7 wk period, and that of NO and SOD in the plasma were significantly lower in group I than in the control group (p<0.01). However, the accumulated MDA contents in group I were higher than in the control group and group II (p<0.05), respectively. In the same way, the activity of NOS in group II was higher than both group I and control group (p<0.01) during the 7 wk period. There was no significant difference between SOD activities of group II and the control group (p>0.05), and also insignificant difference between NOS in group I and the control group (p>0.05). The results of this study indicate that there was a significant decrease in the concentration of MDA in group II. On the other hand, the concentration of free radicals decreased and MDA concentration increased in group I during the 7 wk period. The reduction in concentration of MDA in group II, following arginine supplementation may be associated with the scavenging activity of NO.
Recognition of Individual Holstein Cattle by Imaging Body Patterns
Kim, Hyeon T. ; Choi, Hong L. ; Lee, Dae W. ; Yoon, Yong C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1194~1198
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1194
A computer vision system was designed and validated to recognize an individual Holstein cattle by processing images of their body patterns. This system involves image capture, image pre-processing, algorithm processing, and an artificial neural network recognition algorithm. Optimum management of individuals is one of the most important factors in keeping cattle healthy and productive. In this study, an image-processing system was used to recognize individual Holstein cattle by identifying the body-pattern images captured by a charge-coupled device (CCD). A recognition system was developed and applied to acquire images of 49 cattles. The pixel values of the body images were transformed into input data comprising binary signals for the neural network. Images of the 49 cattle were analyzed to learn input layer elements, and ten cattles were used to verify the output layer elements in the neural network by using an individual recognition program. The system proved to be reliable for the individual recognition of cattles in natural light.
Mitigation of Methane Emission and Energy Recycling in Animal Agricultural Systems
Takahashi, J. ; Mwenya, B. ; Santoso, B. ; Sar, C. ; Umetsu, K. ; Kishimoto, T. ; Nishizaki, K. ; Kimura, K. ; Hamamoto, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 8, 2005, Pages 1199~1208
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1199
Abatement of greenhouse gas emitted from ruminants and promotion of biogas energy from animal effluent were comprehensively examined in each anaerobic fermentation reactor and animal experiments. Moreover, the energy conversion efficiency of biomass energy to power generation were evaluated with a gas engine generator or proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). To mitigate safely rumen methanogenesis with nutritional manipulation the suppressing effects of some strains of lactic acid bacteria and yeast, bacteriocin,
1-4 galactooligosaccharide, plant extracts (Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponarea), L-cysteine and/or nitrate on rumen methane emission were compared with antibiotics. For in vitro trials, cumulative methane production was evaluated using the continuous fermented gas qualification system inoculated with the strained rumen fluid from rumen fistulated Holstein cows. For in vivo, four sequential ventilated head cages equipped with a fully automated gas analyzing system were used to examine the manipulating effects of
1-4 galactooligosaccharide, lactic acid bacteria (Leuconostoc mesenteroides subsp. mesenteroides), yeast (Trichosporon serticeum), nisin and Yucca schidigera and/or nitrate on rumen methanogenesis. Furthermore, biogas energy recycled from animal effluent was evaluated with anaerobic bioreactors. Utilization of recycled energy as fuel for a co-generator and fuel cell was tested in the thermophilic biogas plant system. From the results of in vitro and in vivo trials, nitrate was shown to be a strong methane suppressor, although nitrate per se is hazardous. L-cysteine could remove this risk.
1-4 galactooligosaccharide, Candida kefyr, nisin, Yucca schidigera and Quillaja saponarea are thought to possibly control methanogenesis in the rumen. It is possible to simulate the available energy recycled through animal effluent from feed energy resources by making total energy balance sheets of the process from feed energy to recycled energy.