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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 18, Issue 12 - Dec 2005
Volume 18, Issue 11 - Nov 2005
Volume 18, Issue 10 - Oct 2005
Volume 18, Issue 9 - Sep 2005
Volume 18, Issue 8 - Aug 2005
Volume 18, Issue 7 - Jul 2005
Volume 18, Issue 6 - Jun 2005
Volume 18, Issue 5 - May 2005
Volume 18, Issue 4 - Apr 2005
Volume 18, Issue 3 - Mar 2005
Volume 18, Issue 2 - Feb 2005
Volume 18, Issue 1 - Jan 2005
Selecting the target year
Genetic Relationships between MUN, and Predicted DCPun in Hokkaido Holstein Cows
Nishimura, Kazuyuki ; Miura, Shinya ; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1209~1216
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1209
This study aimed to use field data collected by the Hokkaido Dairy Cattle Milk Recording and Testing programs to estimate genetic parameters for concentration of milk urea nitrogen (MUN) and predicted Digestive Crude Protein Percentage of requirement (DCPun). Edited data consisted of 5,797,500 test-day records of MUN and yields of milk, fat, and protein obtained from 783,271cows in Holstein herds in Hokkaido, Japan. Data were divided into four datasets; for the first, second, third and fourth lactations. Two analyses were performed on data from each lactation. First, ANOVA was used to estimate the significance of the effects of several environmental factors on MUN and DCPun, after absorbing the Herd-Test-Day (HTD) effects. The effects of DIM and age.season effects had significant impact on MUN and DCPun. The second used a multi-traits repeatability model (MTRM) to estimate heritabilities and genetic correlations of milk with MUN and DCPun. Heritability estimates for MUN and DCPun in the first, second, and third lactations were 0.21:0.16, 0.20:0.16, and 0.20:0.18, respectively. Genetic correlations for milk with MUN and DCPun in the first, second, and third lactations were 0.02 - 0.17, and -0.25 - -0.39, respectively. The results indicate that MUN and DCPun are possibly effective tools for improving the energy balance, but that the relationships between MUN and other economically important traits such as feed efficiency, metabolic disease and fertility are still necessary.
Assessment of Bandsharing Values in RAPD-PCR Analysis of Dwarf Cattle of Kerala
Suprabha, P. ; Anilkumar, K. ; Aravindakshan, T.V. ; Raghunandanan, K.V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1217~1220
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1217
Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD-PCR) analysis of 56 animals of four different genetic groups of dwarf cattle in Kerala was done as a single step analysis. Bandsharing (BS) values were calculated for animals of each group and between groups as an analytical tool to find out genetic variation among animals. The different factors affecting BS values were estimated using Harvey''s Least squares analysis. The effects of genetic group, Guanine-cytosine (GC) content of primer and gel on BS values were found significant. Bandsharing values of Kasargode-Highrange dwarf animals were significantly different from Vechur, Vatakara and their combinations. The Vechur, Vatakara and Vechur-Vatakara combinations were found to be more uniform (high BS value) compared with other combinations. The bandsharing value was lowest with primers of GC content 90% and highest with 80% GC content. The effect of gel on BS value points to the need of adjustments of gel factor for calculation of BS values.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms on Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Genes Associated with Fatness Traits in Chicken
Meng, H. ; Zhao, J.G. ; Li, Z.H. ; Li, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1221~1225
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1221
The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of a superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Lots of studies in rodents and humans have shown that PPARs were involved in lipid metabolism and adipocyte differentiation. The main objective of this work was to detect the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in whole coding regions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-
) and gamma (PPAR-
) genes with approach of single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) in the chicken population of Arber Acres broiler, Hyline layer and three Chinese native breeds (Shiqiza, Beijing You, Bai'r). Two SNPs of C1029T and C297T were found in chicken PPAR-
genes respectively and each SNP found three genotypes in the experimental populations. The results showed that the distribution frequency of 3 genotypes in Arber Acres broiler, Hyline layer and Chinese native breeds had significant differences on the PPAR-
gene respectively (p<0.01). Furthermore, in the PPAR-
gene, the results of least square estimation for genotypes and body composition traits showed the BB genotype birds had higher abdominal fat weight (AFW) and percentage of abdominal fat (AFP) than AA genotype birds (p<0.05). From these we conjecture the PPAR-
genes were suffered intensive selection during the long term commercial breeding and the PPAR-
gene may be a major gene or linked to the major genes that impact chicken fat metabolism and the SNPs could be used in molecular assistant selection (MAS) as a genetic marker for the chicken fatness traits.
Characterization of MHC DRB3.2 Alleles of Crossbred Cattle by Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism
Paswan, Chandan ; Bhushan, Bharat ; Patra, B.N. ; Kumar, Pushpendra ; Sharma, Arjava ; Dandapat, S. ; Tomar, A.K.S. ; Dutt, Triveni ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1226~1230
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1226
The present investigation was undertaken to study the genetic polymorphism of the DRB3 exon 2 in 75 crossbred cattle by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique. Five genotypes i.e. HaeIII-a, HaeIII-b, HaeIII-e, HaeIII-ab and HaeIII-ae were observed when the 284 bp PCR products were digested with HaeIII restriction enzyme. The corresponding frequencies of these patterns were 0.53, 0.04, 0.01, 0.38 and 0.04, respectively. Digestion with RsaI restriction enzyme resolved 24 different restriction patterns. The frequencies of these patterns ranged from 0.013 (RsaI-f, RsaI-k and RsaI-c/n) to 0.120 (RsaI-n). The results revealed that the crossbred cows belonged to the RsaI patterns namely b, k, l, a/l, d/s, l/n, l/o and m/n, whose corresponding frequencies were 0.027, 0.013, 0.040, 0.027, 0.040, 0.067, 0.027 and 0.067, respectively. Digestion of the 284 bp PCR product of DRB3.2 gene with PstI in the crossbred cattle did not reveal any restriction site. These results suggested the absence of the recognition site in some of the animals. These results also revealed that the crossbred cows studied were in homozygous as well as heterozygous condition. On the basis of the above results it can be concluded that the DRB3.2 gene was found to be highly polymorphic in the crossbred cattle population.
Genetic Parameters of Milk Yield and Milk Fat Percentage Test Day Records of Iranian Holstein Cows
Shadparvar, A.A. ; Yazdanshenas, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1231~1236
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1231
Genetic parameters for first lactation milk production based on test day (TD) records of 56319 Iranian Holstein cows from 655 herds that first calved between 1991 and 2001 were estimated with restricted maximum likelihood method under an Animal model. Traits analyzed were milk yield and milk fat percentage. Heritability for TD records were highest in second half of the lactation, ranging from 0.11 to 0.19 for milk yield and 0.038 to 0.094 for milk fat percentage respectively. Estimates for lactation records for these traits were 0.24 and 0.26 respectively. Genetic correlations between individual TD records were high for consecutive TD records (>0.9) and decreased as the interval between tests increased. Estimates of genetic correlations of TD yield with corresponding lactation yield were highest (0.78 to 0.86) for mid-lactation (TD3 to TD8). Phenotypic correlations were lower than corresponding genetic correlations, but both followed the same pattern. For milk fat percentage no clear pattern was found. Results of this study suggested that TD yields especially in mid-lactation may be used for genetic evaluation instead of 305-day yield.
Cloning and Initial Analysis of Porcine MPDU1 Gene
Yang, J. ; Yu, M. ; Liu, B. ; Fan, B. ; Zhu, M. ; Xiong, T. ; Li, Kui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1237~1241
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1237
Mannose-P-dolichol utilization defect 1 (MPDU1) gene is required for utilization of the mannose donor MPD in synthesis of both lipid-linked oligosaccharides (LLOs) and glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPI) which are important for functions such as protein folding and membrane anchoring. The full length cDNA of the porcine MPDU1 was determined by in silico cloning and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The deduced amino acid showed 91% identity to the corresponding human sequence with five predicted transmembrane regions. RT-PCR was performed to detect its expression pattern in five tissues and results showed that it is expressed ubiquitously among the tissues checked. A single nucleotide substitution resulting in the amino acid change (137 Tyr-137 His) was detected within exon 5. Allele frequencies in six pig breeds showed distinctive differences between those Chinese indigenous pigs breeds and European pigs. Using the pig/rodent somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP), we mapped the porcine MPDU1 gene to SSC12, which is consistent with the comparative mapping result as conservative syntenic groups presented between human chromosome 17 and pig chromosome 12.
Developmental Ability of Bovine Embryos Nuclear Transferred with Frozen-thawed or Cooled Donor Cells
Hong, S.B. ; Uhm, S.J. ; Lee, H.Y. ; Park, C.Y. ; Gupta, M.K. ; Chung, B.H. ; Chung, K.S. ; Lee, H.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1242~1248
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1242
This study was designed to investigate the in vitro developmental ability and apoptosis of bovine embryos nucleartransferred (NT) with frozen-thawed or cooled donor cells. Cultured adult bovine ear cells were used as donor cells after sub-culturing to confluence (CC), cooling to 4
for 48 h, or freezing-thawing (FT). Apoptotic cells in blastocysts were evaluated for apoptosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Fusion, cleavage and blastocyst rates were 69.0 (167/242), 68.8 (115/167), and 29.9 (50/167) with CC cells, 70.4 (88/125), 69.3 (61/88), and 29.6 (26/88) with cooled cells and 66.1 (117/177), 70.1 (82/117), and 13.7 (16/117) with FT cells, respectively. Blastocyst rates of NT embryos derived from FT cells were significantly lower than those from CC or cooled cells (p<0.05). In addition, NT blastocysts produced by using FT cells showed significantly higher apoptosis rates (6.4
4.0%) than those produced by CC (2.8
1.7%) or cooled (2.3
1.3%) cells. However, cooling of donor cells had no significant adverse effect on blastocyst rate as well as apoptosis rate. Therefore, our results suggest that cooled cells may be used as an alternative to freshly cultured confluent culture cells, as donor cells, for the production of Somatic nuclear cloned cattle.
Determination of Nutritive Value of Wild Mustard, Sinapsis arvensis Harvested at Different Maturity Stages Using In situ and In vitro Measurements
Kamalak, Adem ; Canbolat, Onder ; Gurbuz, Yavuz ; Ozkan, Cagri Ozgur ; Kizilsimsek, Mustafa ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1249~1254
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1249
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of maturity stage on the nutritive value of wild mustard straw in terms of chemical composition, in situ, in vitro dry matter degradability and calculated ME. The nutritive values of wild mustard, Sinapsis arvensis hays harvested at three stages were evaluated by chemical composition, in vitro gas production and in situ dry matter degradation methods. Gas production or dry matter (DM) degradation were determined at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and their kinetics were described using the equation p = a+b(1-e
). Maturity had a significant effect on both the chemical composition and degradability of wild mustard. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) (p<0.001) increased with increasing maturity whereas the crude protein (CP) (p<0.001) decreased. The gas produced after 96 h incubation ranged between 64.7 and 81.5 ml per 0.200 g of dry matter. The gas production (ml) at all incubation times and estimated parameters decreased with increasing maturity of wild mustard. The gas production at all incubation times and estimated parameters (a, b (a+b), metabolizable energy (ME) and organic matter digestibility (OMD)) were negatively correlated with NDF and ADF. The DM disappearance after 96 h incubation ranged between 50.8 and 76.1%. The in situ DM disappearance at all incubation times and estimated parameters decreased with increasing maturity of wild mustard. The in situ dry matter disappearance at all incubation times and some estimated parameters (c, a, b and effective dry matter degradability (EDMD)) were negatively correlated with NDF and ADF but positively correlated with CP. The nutritive value of wild mustard continually changed as it matured. Wild mustard, harvested at the proper stage of maturity offers considerable potential as a high quality forage for ruminants during the winter feeding period. The present study showed that if higher quality forage is an objective, wild mustard should be harvested at the early flowering stage.
Evaluation of Fishmeal Supplement with Net Nitrogen Flux by the Portal-drained Viscera and the Liver in Mature Sheep
Fukuma, T. ; Taniguchi, K. ; Obitsu, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1255~1261
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1255
The objective of this study was to evaluate the net flux response of nitrogen compounds (alpha-amino N, ammonia N, urea N, essential amino acids) across the portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver and total splanchnic tissues of mature wethers to increasing level of dietary fishmeal (FM) supplementation. Four wethers (average body weight, 64 kg) with chronic indwelling catheters into the portal, hepatic and mesenteric veins and the abdominal aorta were used in a 4
4 Latin square design. A basal diet consisting of 0.7 hay and 0.3 concentrate was fed twice daily with a fixed amount at 1.4 times maintenance energy (1.3 kg/day on a dry matter basis). The supplementation proportion of FM as treatment was 0, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.09 to the amount of the basal diet to contain 119, 137, 154 and 170 g crude protein per kg dietary dry matter, respectively. Blood flows through PDV and liver did not differ (p>0.05) among the treatments. Both net PDV release and hepatic uptake of alpha amino acid N increased linearly (p<0.05) in response to increased dietary FM, which resulted in similar total splanchnic release of alpha-amino N among the treatments. Similarly, increased dietary FM increased net PDV absorption and hepatic removal of ammonia N linearly (p<0.05). Hepatic synthesis and total splanchnic release of urea N increased linearly (p<0.01) with increased dietary FM, but PDV uptake of urea N did not respond to increased dietary FM. Linear regression equations between the increases in FM N intake and PDV net flux indicated that 0.34 and 0.30 of FM N was absorbed in the form of alpha-amino N and ammonia N, respectively. The results demonstrated that FM supplementation provides more alpha-amino N than ammonia N to the liver, but the alpha-amino acid N absorption is less than the expected metabolizable protein N from FM supplementation.
Effects of Feeding Condensed Tannin-containing Plants on Natural Coccidian Infection in Goats
Hur, Sam N. ; Molan, Abdul L. ; Cha, Jang O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1262~1266
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1262
Twelve Korean native goats, spontaneously infected with mixed species of Eimeria were used to study the possible direct anticoccidial effect of feeding condensed tannin-containing plants on the production of Eimeria oocysts. The effects of feeding pine (Pinus densifora) needles, oak (Quercus acutissima) leaves and lucerne chaff on coccidia oocyst output were studied for a period of 10 days post-feeding. The results indicate that feeding fresh pine needles (40 g condensed tannins (CT) dry matter (DM)/day/goat) and oak leaves (40 g CT DM/day/goat) in combination with lucerne chaff had rapid anticoccidial activities in goats as demonstrated by a sharp decrease in oocyst production. Two days after feeding, the numbers of oocysts per gram of faeces (OPG) from the goats fed pine needles with lucerne chaff, and from goats fed oak leaves reduced by 40% and 44% compared to pre-feeding, respectively. On the sixth day after commencing feeding pine needles and oak leaves, the reduction was 81% and 72%, respectively. Ten days after feeding pine needles and oak leaves, the OPG was reduced by 93% and 85%, respectively compared to pre-feeding. Statistical analysis showed that feeding pine needles and oak leaves to goats naturally infected with coccidia significantly (p<0.001) reduced the numbers of oocysts compared to the control group fed lucerne chaff only. Four clinically important species of coccidia, Eimeria parva, Eimeria ninakohlyakimovae, Eimeria christenseni and Eimeria arloingi were identified in Korean native goats.
Change in Nitrogen Fractions and Ruminal Nitrogen Degradability of Orchardgrass Ensiled at Various Moisture Contents and the Subsequent Effects on Nitrogen Utilization by Sheep
Nguyen, H.V. ; Kawai, M. ; Takahashi, J. ; Matsuoka, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1267~1272
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1267
The effect of various moisture contents of fresh forage on the change in nitrogen (N) fractions, in vitro ruminal N degradability, and the subsequent N utilization of silage in sheep were evaluated. Orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) with high (HM, 76%), medium (MM, 65%) and low (LM, 40%) moisture contents were ensiled into silos of 120 L capacity for 120 days. A nitrogen balance trial was conducted using a 4
4 Latin square design consisting of four dietary treatments (i.e. fresh forage, HM, MM and LM silages) and four wethers. With respect to N fractions, fraction 1 (buffer solution soluble N), fraction 2 (buffer solution insoluble N-neutral detergent insoluble N), fraction 3 (neutral detergent insoluble N-acid detergent insoluble N), and fraction 4 (acid detergent insoluble N) were determined. The proportion of fraction 1 in silages tended to decrease, while the in vitro ruminal degradability of insoluble N increased (p<0.05) with lower moisture contents at ensiling. Consequently, nitrogen utilization in sheep tended to improve as the moisture content of ensiled grass was decreased, with a negative correlation (p<0.01) between urinary N and the in vitro ruminal degradability of insoluble N. The averaged N retentions for HM, MM, and LM silage treatments were 59, 73 and 79% of that for fresh forage, respectively.
Effect of Ensiling Density on Fermentation Quality of Guineagrass (Panicum maximum Jacq.) Silage during the Early Stage of Ensiling
Shao, Tao ; Wang, T. ; Shimojo, M. ; Masuda, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1273~1278
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1273
This study is to evaluate the effect of different levels of ensiling density on the fermentation quality of guineagrass silages during the early stage of ensiling. Guineagrass at the milky ripe stage was chopped and ensiled into a small-scale laboratory silo at two ensiling density levels (high density at 95 g/silo and low density at 75 g/silo). Three silos per level were opened after six ensiling periods (0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3 and 7 days of ensiling) and the fermentation qualities were analyzed. Within the initial 1.5 days of ensiling there were not significant (p>0.05) differences in the fermentation qualities between two density levels silages, and an almost constant pH and no or only small amounts of lactic acid, acetic acid and total volatile fatty acids were detected. However, the high density silage significantly (p<0.05) increased the rate and extent of fermentation after 1.5 days of ensiling, which was well reflected in significantly (p<0.05) faster and larger pH decline and lactic acid production at each elapsed time as compared with the low density silage. This resulted in significantly (p<0.05) lower finial pH and significantly (p<0.05) higher lactic acid content at the end of the experiment. Moreover, there was higher AA content relative to LA in both the H-D and L-D silages during the full fermentation course, and resulted in the AA-type silage. There were generally somewhat or significantly (p<0.05) higher acetic acid, volatile fatty acids and ammonia-N/total nitrogen in the high density silage than in the low density silage during the initial 3 days of ensiling. However, there were higher (p>0.05) ammonia-N/total nitrogen and significantly (p<0.05) higher butyric acid content in the low density silage at day 7 of ensiling. The silages of two density levels showed an initial increase in glucose between 0.5 and 1 day for the high density silage and between 1 and 1.5 days for the low density silage, respectively, thereafter showed a large decrease until the end of the experiment. There were not large differences (p>0.05) in ethanol content between the low density and high density silages that showed small amounts within initial 3 days of ensiling. However, the low density silage had a significantly (p<0.05) higher ethanol content than the high density silage at the end of experiment. From the above results it was suggested that the increase in ensiling density was an effective method to improve the fermentation quality, especially for tropical grasses.
Bioconversion of Sugarcane Bagasse with Japanese Koji by Solid-state Fermentation and Its Effects on Nutritive Value and Preference in Goats
Ramli, M.N. ; Imura, Y. ; Takayama, K. ; Nakanishi, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1279~1284
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1279
The effects of 3 different strains of Japanese koji (Aspergillus oryzae, A. sojae and A. awamori) in the solid-state fermentation (SSF) of sugarcane bagasse mixed with wheat bran on chemical composition, energy, in vivo digestibility and preference of the fermented bagasse feeds (FBF) in goats were investigated. Diets consisted of lucerne hay cube (basal diet) and unfermented bagasse feed (control), FBF with A. oryzae (O), FBF with A. sojae (S) or FBF with A. awamori (A), which were mixed in a total ration of 7:3 (w/w DM). Three Nubian does were fed each of the diets, i.e. control, O, S and A in the 4 consecutive periods for digestion trials (21-day each). The goats were also used for preference trials (30-min each) of O, S and A. The O was significantly higher in CP content than others (p<0.05). The crude fiber (CF), ADF and cellulose contents of control were significantly lower than those of other diets (p<0.05). The S had significantly higher CF digestibility than control (p<0.05), and it revealed the largest value of all. Digestibilities of NDF, ADF and cellulose in S were significantly higher than those of control (about 10, 18 and 18%, respectively, p<0.05). The DE of S was significantly higher than that of others (p<0.05), though there were no significant differences in DCP and TDN between control and S. The results of preference trials demonstrated that the average intake rate was not significantly different among diets, but O and S are likely to be preferable to A (p<0.1). It was concluded that the SSF of bagasse feeds by Japanese koji can improve the fiber digestion, especially NDF, ADF or cellulose in goats, and there is a marked effect in the feed containing A. sojae, which may lead to the improvement of DE.
Comparative Efficacy of Plant and Animal Protein Sources on the Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Morphology and Caecal Microbiology of Early-weaned Pigs
Yun, J.H. ; Kwon, I.K. ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Choi, J.Y. ; Yong, J.S. ; Zheng, J. ; Cho, W.T. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1285~1293
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1285
The present study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of various animal and plant protein sources on piglet' performance, digestibility of amino acids and gut morphology in weaned pigs until 28 days after weaning. The plant protein sources used were soybean meal (SBM), fermented soy protein (FSP), rice protein concentrate (RPC); and animal protein sources tested were, whey protein concentrate (WPC) and fishmeal (FM). Iso-proteinous (21%) diets were formulated and lysine (1.55%) content was similar in all the diets. The level of each protein source added was 6% by replacing SBM to the same extent from the control diet containing 15% SBM. The ADG was higher (p<0.05) in the groups fed animal proteins as compared with plant proteins at all the levels of measurement, except during 15-28 days. The highest ADG was noted in WPC and FM fed diets and lowest in SBM fed diet. The feed intake was higher in animal protein fed groups than plant proteins at all phases, but the feed:gain ratio was not affected by protein sources except during overall (0 to 14 day) measurement which was improved (p<0.05) in animal protein fed diets compared to plant protein sources. The digestibilities of gross energy, dry matter and crude protein were higher in animal protein fed groups than for plant protein fed sources. The apparent ileal digestibilities of essential amino acids like Leu, Thr, and Met were significantly (p<0.05) higher in animal proteins fed animals as compared with plant protein fed animals. But the apparent fecal digestibilities of essential amino acids like Arg and Ile were significantly higher (p<0.05) in plant protein diets than animal protein sources. The villous structure studied by scanning electron microscope were prominent, straight finger-like, although shortened and densely located in FM fed group as compared with others. The lactic acid bacteria and C. perfringens counts were higher in caecal contents of pigs fed plant proteins than the animal proteins. Overall, it could be concluded that animal protein sources in the present study showed better effects on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and gut morphology than plant protein sources.
Effects on Growth Performance and Meat Quality Parameters by Restricted Diet during Finishing Days
Lee, S.D. ; Song, Y.M. ; Jin, S.K. ; Ha, K.H. ; Kim, I.S. ; Kim, C.H. ; Chowdappa, R. ; Sonoda, T. ; Song, R.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1294~1298
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1294
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects on growth performance, meat quality parameters and fatty acids of meat by restricted diet amount on finishing Berkshires. A total of 180 pigs (Berkshire, initially 52 kg BW) at 100 days of age were allotted in arrangement in a completely randomized design (10 pigs per pen), blocked arrangement of treatments with 3 replications. The variables were market ages (180, 200 and 220 days) and in which was also included sex (gilts and barrow). All the pigs were restrictively fed so that day could be marked at 103 kg. Pork quality was evaluated from 4 pigs of each treatment. Average daily gain (ADG) and average daily feed intake (ADFI) were decreased (p<0.05) with age increase. The ratio of feed to gain was increased (p<0.05) at 200 and 220 days compared to that of 180 days. Moisture and crude protein of longissimus dorsi muscle (LM) at 180 days were increased (p<0.05) compared to 200 and 220 days. Crude fat was increased (p<0.05) by age and crude ash was lower (p<0.05) at 180 days than at 220 days. Red to green meat color scale (CIE a
) increased (p<0.05) at 200 and 220 days more than at 180 days. Regarding fatty acid composition in meat, saturated fatty acids (SFA) was increased more (p<0.05) at 220 days than at 180 and 200 days. The results indicate that even with a restricted diet of low nutrient supplement, there was an improvement in Berkshire meat quality parameters.
Effect of Supplementing Microbial Phytase on Performance of Broiler Breeders Fed Low Non-phytate Phosphorus Diet
Bhanja, S.K. ; Reddy, V.R. ; Panda, A.K. ; Rao, S.V. Rama ; Sharma, R.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1299~1304
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1299
An experiment was conducted to study the production performance of broiler breeder females (25 to 40 weeks of age) fed either reference diet or low non-phytate phosphorus (NPP) diet with or without microbial phytase (500 FYT/kg) supplementation. A weighed (160 g/b/d) quantity of feed from each diet was offered daily to 40 replicates of one bird each housed in California type cage having individual feeders. Each cage was considered as a replicate. A continuous 16-h light per day was provided using incandescent bulbs. Body weight, egg production, egg weight, feed per egg mass, egg specific gravity, egg breaking strength, shell thickness, tibia ash and serum Ca and protein concentrations were not affected by reducing the NPP level from 0.30 to 0.18% in the broiler breeder diet. Supplementation of phytase (500 FYT/kg) enzyme to the diet containing 0.18% NPP had no added advantage on any of the above production parameters. The serum inorganic P was increased significantly (p<0.05) by either enhancing the NPP content from 0.18 to 0.30% or supplementing phytase @500 FYT/kg to the diet containing low P which were found comparable. Retention of Ca and P was positive on all the diets. P retention decreased significantly (p<0.05) with either increase in NPP content or phytase supplementation in the diet. Neither NPP nor phytase supplementation influenced bone mineralization in terms of tibia ash and strength. The hatchability was not influenced by either increasing the NPP content or supplementing the enzyme phytase. Similarly, the P concentration in the egg yolk and day old chick, day old and 14th day body weight and leg score was not altered by increasing the level of NPP or supplementing phytase enzyme. The mortality was within the normal limits in all the three dietary groups. Thus, it can be concluded that 0.18% NPP (288 mg NPP intake/b/d) in the broiler breeder' diet is adequate in sustaining the optimum performance from 25 to 40 wks of age. Enhancing the NPP content or supplementation of phytase (500 FYT/kg diet) to diet containing 0.18% NPP had no added advantage on performance.
Effects of Modified Montmorillonite Nanocomposite on Growing/Finishing Pigs during Aflatoxicosis
Shi, Y.H. ; Xu, Z.R. ; Feng, J.L. ; Xia, M.S. ; Hu, C.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1305~1309
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1305
Experiments were conducted to determine the efficacy of modified montmorillonite nanocomposite (MMN) to reduce the toxic effects of aflatoxin (AF) in growing/finishing pigs. 96 weaned pigs were assigned to four dietary treatment groups (0 g of MMN and 0 mg of AF/kg feed, 3 g of MMN/kg feed, 0.1 mg of AF/kg feed, and 3 g of MMN plus 0.1 mg of AF/kg feed). Body weight gain (BW gain), feed/gain ratio, serum biochemical values and enzyme activities were evaluated. Compared with the control, AF alone markedly reduced BW gain and resulted in a significantly higher feed/gain ratio. There were no differences in BW gain and feed/gain ratio between 0.3% MMN or 0.3% MMN plus AF and the control. These results suggested that the deleterious effects of AF were ameliorated by MMN addition. AF intake markedly increased relative organ weights of liver, kidney, spleen and pancreas, and resulted in significant alterations of serum parameters. However, these parameters for pigs fed diets containing MMN and AF returned to normal values, indicating that MMN had the ability to recover the AF-decreased performance, organ damage and to correct aberrations in serum parameters. These findings in our study suggested that MMN can effectively modulate the toxicity of AF in growing/finishing pigs and may offer a novel approach to the preventive management of aflatoxicosis in animals.
Nutrition Practice to Alleviate the Adverse Effects of Stress on Laying Performance, Metabolic Profile, and Egg Quality in Peak Producing Hens: I. The Humate Supplementation
Hayirli, Armagan ; Esenbuga, N. ; Macit, M. ; Lacin, E. ; Karaoglu, M. ; Karaca, H. ; Yildiz, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1310~1319
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1310
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cage density (CD) and humate supplementation (HS) on laying performance, metabolic profile, and egg quality during the peak production period in hens. Lohman layers (n = 180, 46 wks of age) were blocked according to the location of cages and then allocated randomly to two levels of CD (4 or 6 hens per cage or 540 vs. 360
/hen) and three levels of HS (0, 0.15, and 0.30%). Egg production (EP) and feed consumption (FC) were measured daily; egg weight was measured bi-weekly; and BW was measured before and after the experiment. Blood and additional egg samples were obtained at the end of the experiment for determination of metabolic profile and egg quality. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA as repeated measures. Except for FC, CD did not affect laying performance parameters. Hens placed in high-density cages had lower FC than hens placed in normal-density cages. Increasing HS level linearly increased FC, EP, and feed conversion ratio (FCR). There was a CD by HS interaction effect on FC and EP. Hens placed in high-density cages had greater serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, Ca, and P concentrations and tended to have greater serum corticosterone concentration than hens placed in normaldensity cages. Increasing HS level linearly increased serum glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, creatine, and Ca concentrations and linearly decreased serum triglyceride and very low-density lipoprotein concentrations. There was a CD by HS interaction effect on serum glucose and albumin concentrations. There were no alterations in egg quality parameters in response to increasing CD. Albumen index and Haugh unit decreased linearly and other egg quality parameters did not change as HS level increased. In conclusion, increased caging density adversely affected metabolic profile, despite insignificantly deteriorating laying performance. Moreover, benefits from humate supplementation seem to be more noteworthy for hens housed in stressing conditions than for hens housed in standard conditions.
Effects of Olaquindox and Cyadox on Immunity of Piglets Orally Inoculated with Escherichia coli
Ding, Mingxing ; Yuan, Zonghui ; Wang, Yulian ; Zhu, Huiling ; Fan, Shengxian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1320~1325
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1320
3 factorial arrangement of treatments was used to determine the effects of olaquindox and cyadox on immune response of Landrace
Large-White geld piglets that had been orally given 10
CFU of Escherichia coli (E. coli, O
). Factors included (1) E. coli inoculation or control, and (2) no antimicrobials, 100 mg/kg olaquindox and 100 mg/kg cyadox in the basal diet respectively. E. coli inoculums were orally administered 7 days after the diets were supplemented with olaquindox and cyadox. The effects of the two antimicrobials were assessed in terms of: (1) average daily gain (ADG), (2) systemic immune response (the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes, leukocyte bactericidal capacity, lymphocyte proliferation response to PHA, immunoglobulin concentrations, and total serous hemolytic complement activity), and (3) intestinal mucosal immunity including the number of intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) and immunoglobulin A secreting cells (ASCs) in the intestinal lamina propria. E. coli inoculation reduced ADG (p<0.05) during the period of d 0 to d 14 after the challenge while the antimicrobial supplementations improved ADG (p<0.01) during the experiment. ADG in cyadox-supplemented pigs was higher (p<0.05) than that in olaquindox-supplemented pigs. The antimicrobials decreased IEL and ASC counts in the jejunum and ileum (p<0.01) while E. coli inoculation caused them to increase (p<0.01). Jejunal ASCs in the cyadox-supplemented pigs were lower (p<0.05) than those in the olaquindox-supplemented. E. coli elicited increase (p<0.05) in white blood cell counts, leukocyte bactericidal capacity, lymphocyte proliferation rate, serous IgA concentrations, and serous hemolytic complement activity. The antimicrobials decreased the measured systemic immune parameters, but not significantly (p>0.05). The data suggest that olaquindox and cyadox suppress E. coli-induced immune activation, especially intestinal mucosal immune activation, which may be involved in the observed growth promotion.
The Effects of Dietary Lysine Deficiency on Muscle Protein Turnover in Postweanling Pigs
Chang, Yi-Ming ; Wei, Hen-Wei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1326~1335
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1326
The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of dietary lysine deficiency on protein turnover of porcine muscles. There were 18 LYD three-breed-crossing postweanling barrows from six litters cannulated with gastric tubes through the esophagus at approximate 10 kg of body weight and allocated into three treatment groups. When their body weights reached over 12 kg, one group was sacrificed for determining the initial protein masses of m. masseter, m. longissimus dorsi, m. adductor and m. biceps femoris from the right body side. The others received a diet containing 100% or 61.4% (calculated values) of the lysine requirement (NRC, 1998) multiplied by 1.103 for a period of 17 days. Daily feed provision was computed for each pig according to body weight at the same day. All pigs were infused a flooding dose of
-phenylalanine to determine the fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR) of the aforementioned muscles in the end. Their four muscles from the right body side were also dissected for measuring the fractional rates of protein accretion (FAR). As for protein degradation, fractional rates (FDR) were calculated by differences between synthesis and accretion. Results showed that the lysine deficiency resulted in, significantly (p<0.05), lighter body weights, smaller muscles and a slower growth rate. The protein mass, accreted by the muscles, of the deficient group was only 54% averaged of the pigs fed adequately (p<0.05). The FAR of these muscles in the deficient group was significantly lower (p<0.05) and only achieved 61.1% averaged of the control; there was no significant difference (p>0.05), nevertheless, in the amino-acid composition of muscles between two groups. The lysine deficiency reduced significantly (p<0.05) the FSR of m. longissimus dorsi but did not influence its FDR. The m. biceps femoris also presented an inhibited FSR while its FDR reduced only exhibited a very high tendency (p = 0.055) compared to the adequately-fed pigs. As for the m. masseter and m. adductor, both of the FSR and FDR were depressed significantly (p<0.05) by the lysine deficiency, and changes in the FSR were severer than those in the FDR, so that their FAR were significantly slower (p<0.05) in comparison with the control group. The lysine deficiency also inhibited the RNA translation activity of the muscles while the effects on RNA capacity were not significant (p>0.05). In conclusion, the FAR of muscle protein was changed by the current lysine deficiency through the alterations in the FSR and/or FDR.
Isolation, In vitro Antibacterial Activity, Bacterial Sensitivity and Plasmid Profile of Lactobacilli
Lonkar, P. ; Harne, S.D. ; Kalorey, D.R. ; Kurkure, N.V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1336~1342
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1336
The present research work was conducted to evaluate the beneficial effects as well as the safety aspects of lactobacilli as probiotic. Lactobacilli were isolated from poultry faecal samples, feed samples and from some known preparations procured from poultry feed manufacturers. L. acidophilus and L. sporogenes were tested for the antibacterial activity against four poultry pathogens viz. Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp., Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Cell free supernatant (CFS) of L. acidophilus exhibited significantly higher antibacterial activity against Salmonella spp. at original pH (4.50
0.02). At the adjusted pH (6.50
0.02) significantly higher antibacterial activity was recorded against indicator organism except for P. aeruginosa. Likewise, L. sporogenes exhibited similar antibacterial activity at original as well as adjusted pH except for E. coli. Antibacterial activity against E. coli was significantly higher at adjusted pH than at original pH of CFS. The competitive exclusion of E. coli by lactobacilli over the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) was checked. L. acidophilus strain I, which was of poultry origin, exhibited maximum attachment over IEC as compared to other three strains of non-poultry origin viz. L. acidophilus strain II, L. sporogenes strain I and II. Overall, L. acidophilus exhibited higher competitive exclusion as compared to L. sporogenes. All the lactobacilli of poultry origin were most sensitive to penicillin G, amoxycillin, ampicillin and chloramphenicol, least sensitive to sulphamethizole, ciprofloxacin, neomycin, norfloxacin and pefloxacin and resistant to metronidazole and nalidixic acid. The isolates from probiotic preparations were most sensitive to ampicillin, amoxycillin and tetracycline, least sensitive to sulphamethizole, norfloxacin, neomycin and ceftriazone and resistant to nalidixic acid and metronidazole. Eight of the multiple drug resistant lactobacilli isolates were studied for the presence of plasmids. Plasmids could be extracted from six isolates of lactobacilli. These plasmids could be responsible for bacteriocin production or for antibiotic resistance of the strains. The lactobacilli need further studies regarding their safety for use in the probiotic preparations.
Dietary Modification for Reducing Electrical Conductivity of Piggery Wastewater
Yu, I.T. ; Su, J.J. ; Wu, J.F. ; Lee, S.L. ; Ju, C.C. ; Yen, H.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1343~1347
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1343
A total of 108 pigs (including 36 starters, 36 growers, and 36 finishers) were randomly allocated to six treatments, which involved a 2 (Crude Protein (CP): 100 and 80% of control diet)
3 (Ca, P, Salt (CPS): 100, 80 and 60% of control diet) factorial design to evaluate the effectiveness of reducing CP and CPS in reducing wastewater EC in different stages. Another 72 starters were adopted to examine the effect of the six treatment diets (as mentioned above) on the growth performance of pigs. Activated carbon and Reverse Osmosis System (RO) were adopted to examine the reducing efficiency of wastewater EC, and ion analysis was also applied to compare with the wastewater EC in different stages of the metabolism trial. The results of wastewater EC of the six treatment diets in different stages of metabolism trial demonstrated that diminishing dietary CP or CPS decreased wastewater EC. The largest decrease of EC was approximately 30%, and was achieved with 20 and 40% reduced dietary CP and CPS, respectively. Pig growth performance deteriorated somewhat when dietary CP or CPS was diminished. Wastewater ion concentration was not always consistent with dietary CP or CPS content, except for
, which were positively correlated with dietary CP or CPS in different stages. Activated carbon is not effective for reducing wastewater EC, while, RO system is effective (90% elimination rate) in reducing wastewater EC, but the EC of concentrated (excreted) water is around 10% higher than that of intact wastewater, representing an additional problem besides the high cost of RO system treatment.
Comparison of Carcass Composition of Iranian Fat-tailed Sheep
Kiyanzad, M.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1348~1352
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1348
Most breeds of sheep in Iran are adapted to their agro ecological niches where it is likely that they were also artificially selected by their owners. In general, most of sheep breeds are multipurpose producing lambs, wool and milk. To compare the physical and chemical composition of the carcasses of ten Iranian native fat-tailed sheep breeds, 243 male lambs (6-7 months of age) of ten fattailed, Iranian breeds of sheep, Sanjabi (S), Ghezel (G), Afshari (A), Mehrabani (M), Lori (L), Lori Bakhtiari (LB), Kordi Khorasan (K), Sangesari (Sa), Baluchi (B) and Chal (C) were studied. Lamb breed group had a significant (p<0.05) effect on all the carcass traits measured. The LB and C lambs showed the same live weight which was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the other breeds. Carcass dressing- out percentage in S lambs was lowest (p<0.05), but not different from G lambs. K and Sa breeds showed the highest (p<0.05) carcass dressing-out percentage. The S lambs had the highest (p<0.05) lean meat percent. Lean meat percentage was not significantly (p>0.05) different in the G, A, M and C breeds. The Sa and K breeds showed the lowest lean meat percent. The S lambs showed the lowest (p<0.05) fat percent in their carcass, while K and Sa showed the highest (p<0.05). Subcutaneous fat in K, Sa and B was higher (p<0.05) than the other breeds. Lambs of S, G, A and M breeds had the lowest subcutaneous fat in their carcasses (p>0.05). Intramascular fat was significantly (p<0.05) lower in M, S and C despite the fact that this values were highest in B and K lambs. The K and Sa breeds had highest fat-tail percentage (p<0.05) in their carcass, whereas S and G showed lowest. Lambs of G, S and A breeds had higher bone percent than other breeds (p<0.05). Lowest bone percent (p<0.05) was seen in K and Sa lambs. The carcass moisture percent was not significantly (p>0.05) different in S, G, A, M, L and C breeds. M lambs showed the lowest crude protein percentage and S breed the highest (p<0.05). There were no significant (p>0.05) differences among other lamb breeds for this trait. Chemical fat percentage was the same in S, G, A, C and M breeds, but significantly (p<0.05) lower from LB, K, Sa and B. Ash percent in S, G and A had no significant (p>0.05) difference. According to higher lean meat and lower fat percentages in the carcass, the ranking of breeds would be S, G, A, M and C.
Microflora Management in the Gastrointestinal Tract of Piglets
Metzler, B. ; Bauer, E. ; Mosenthin, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 18, issue 9, 2005, Pages 1353~1362
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2005.1353
The stressful physiological and environmental conditions around weaning often promote the proliferation of pathogens in the digestive tract of piglets resulting in diarrhoea and reduced daily weight gain. Typical dietary practices to maintain growth performance and health have led to an increased use of antimicrobial growth promoters. Due to the advanced ban of antibiotics in pig production, new concepts have been developed to secure animal health and growth performance, feed efficiency, and product quality as well. Several naturally occurring compounds seem to beneficially affect the composition and activity of the microflora in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of pigs. These are, among others, organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, and enzymes. Organic acids are already widely used, especially in pigs, due to their positive effects on GIT health and growth performance. Probiotics have been shown to be effective against diarrhoea though effects may be dependent on diet composition and environmental conditions. Prebiotics may influence composition and activity of the intestinal microflora. Additionally, pre- and probiotics may exert positive influences on immune response, whereas enzymes may enhance feed digestibility by breaking down anti-nutritional factors. In the following, the focus will be directed to the role of organic acids, probiotics, prebiotics, and feeding enzymes as potential modulators of GIT health.