Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Genetic Diversity of 14 Indigenous Grey Goose Breeds in China Based on Microsatellite Markers
Tu, Yunjie ; Chen, K.W. ; Zhang, S.J. ; Tang, Q.P. ; Gao, Y.S. ; Yang, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1
This experiment first cloned some microsatellite sequences for goose species by magnetic beads enriched method and studied the genetic structure research of 14 indigenous grey goose breeds using 19 developed and 12 searched microsatellite markers with middle polymorphism. According to the allele frequencies of 31 microsatellite sites, mean heterozygosity (H), polymorphism information content (PIC) and
genetic distances were calculated for 31-microsatellite sites. The results showed that 25 of 31microsatellite sites were middle polymorphic, so the 25 microsatellite markers were effective markers for analysis of genetic relationship among goose breeds. The mean heterozygosity was between 0.4985 and 0.6916. The highest was in the Xupu (0.6916), and in the Yan was the lowest (0.4985) which was consistent with that of PIC. The phylogenetic tree was completed through analysis of UPGMA. Fencheng Grey, Shoutou, Yangjiang and Magang were grouped firstly, then Xongguo Grey, Wugang Tong, Changle and Youjiang were the second group; Gang, Yan Xupu and Yili were the third group; Yongkang Grey and Wuzeng were the fourth group. The results could provide basic molecular data for the research on the characteristics of local breeds in the eastern China, and a scientific basis for the conservation and utilization of those breeds.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Reproductive Traits between First and Later Parities in Pig
Oh, S.H. ; Lee, D.H. ; See, M.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 7~12
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.7
The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters between first and later parities as different traits in reproductive traits of pigs using multiple trait animal model procedures. Data related to reproductive traits from a total of 2,371 individuals maintained at a farm were taken from the pedigree file. Sires and dams were consisted of Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire breeds, respectively. The first and later parity records were considered as different traits. Traits included in analyses were total pigs born (TB1), number of pigs born alive (NBA1), number of pigs weaned (NW1), and litter weaning weight (LWT1) in the first parity, and total pigs born (TB2), number of pigs born alive (NBA2), number of pigs weaned (NW2), litter weaning weight (LWT2) and interval between farrowing events (FTF) in later parities. Heritability estimates of TB1, NBA1, NW1 and LWT1 in the first parity were 0.27, 0.25, 0.16 and 0.20, respectively. For TB2, NBA2, NW2, LWT2 and FTF in later parities, heritabilities were estimated as 0.15, 0.15, 0.08, 0.11 and 0.07, respectively. Genetic correlations between sow reproductive traits in the first parity and in the second and later parity were estimated to be 0.89, 0.77, 0.58 and 0.66, respectively, between TB1 and TB2, NBA1 and NBA2, NW1 and NW2, and LWT1 and LWT2. While phenotypic correlations between TB1 and TB2, NBA1 and NBA2, NW1 and NW2, and LWT1 and LWT2 were estimated as 0.18, 0.15, 0.06 and 0.10, respectively. Genetic correlations between reproductive traits of first and later parities were not high indicating that reproductive traits for sows should be analyzed while considering the parities as different traits.
Estimates of Genetic Parameters and Genetic Trends for Production Traits of Inner Mongolian White Cashmere Goat
Bai, Junyan ; Zhang, Qin ; Li, Jinquan ; Dao, Er-Ji ; Jia, Xiaoping ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 13~18
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.13
Two different animal models, which differ in whether or not taking maternal genetic effect into account, for estimating genetic parameters of cashmere weight, live body weight, cashmere thickness, staple length, fiber diameter, and fiber length in Inner Mongolia White Cashmere Goat were compared via likelihood ratio test. The results indicate that maternal genetic effect has significant influence on live body weight and cashmere thickness, but no significant influence on the other traits. Using models suitable for each trait, both genetic parameters and trends were analyzed with the MTDFREML program. Heritability estimates from single trait models for cashmere weight, live body weight, cashmere thickness, staple length, fiber diameter and fiber length were found to be 0.30, 0.07, 0.21, 0.29, 0.28 and 0.21, respectively. Genetic correlation estimates from two-trait models between live body weight and all other traits (-0.06~0.07) was negligible, as were those between fiber diameter and all other traits (-0.01~0.03) except cashmere thickness (0.19). Cashmere weight and staple length had moderate to low genetic correlations with other traits (-0.24~0.39 and -0.24~0.34, respectively) except for live body weight and fiber diameter. Cashmere thickness had a strong genetic correlation with fiber length (0.81), and low genetic correlation with other traits (0.19~0.34) except live body weight. Genetic trend analysis suggests that selection for cashmere weight was very effective, which has led to the slow genetic progress of cashmere thickness and fiber length due to their genetic correlations with cashmere weight. The selection for live body weight was not effective, which was consistent with its low inheritability.
Reproductive Performance of Dairy Buffaloes Supplemented with Varying Levels of Vitamin E
Panda, N. ; Kaur, Harjit ; Mohanty, T.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 19~25
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.19
The effect of vitamin E supplementation on plasma
-tocopherol level, total antioxidant level and reproductive performance in Murrah buffaloes was studied during periparturient period. Twenty-four advance pregnant buffaloes were randomly divided into four equal groups as
and were supplemented with 0, 1,000, 1,500 and 2,000 IU of
-tocopheryl acetate (Merck) from 60 days prepartum to 30 days postpartum and 0, 500, 750 and 1,000 IU from 30 to 60 days postpartum, respectively. Blood samples were collected at -60, -45, -30, -15, -7, 0, 7, 15, 30 and 60 days of parturition and were analyzed for plasma
-tocopherol and total antioxidant activity (TAA). The intake of DM, CP and TDN did not vary among different groups. Plasma
-tocopherol and TAA around parturition (-7 to 15 day) in
were significantly higher than the control group. There was 17% reduction in retention of fetal membranes (RFM) and metritis in
than control. The post partum estrus interval averaged 58.00, 55.33, 51.83 and 43.00 days in
respectively. There was significant reduction in days open in both
in comparison to
group (127,130 Vs.146). All the vitamin E supplemented groups showed reduction in days open than their previous lactation performance. Supplementation of vitamin E at
from 60 day prepartum to 30 day post partum to buffaloes exhibited beneficial effect on plasma
-tocopherol level and TAA around parturition and continuation of its supplementation at
from 30 to 60 days of lactation improved post partum reproductive performance of buffaloes.
Usefulness of Milk Urea Concentration to Monitor the Herd Reproductive Performances in Crossbred Karan-fries Cows
Dhali, A. ; Mishra, D.P. ; Mehla, R.K. ; Sirohi, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 26~30
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.26
The study was undertaken to investigate the validity of milk urea concentration as an index of the reproductive performances in crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian
Tharparkar) cows under farm condition. Milk urea was analysed in noon milk samples (1200 to 1300 h) to interrelate with the interval from parturition to first service, number of insemination per conception, first service conception rate and service period. Milk progesterone (P4) was analysed in noon milk samples on the day 1, 10, 20 and 30 post insemination to study the effect of milk urea concentration on early embryonic mortality. The interval from parturition to first service was found significantly (p<0.01) higher (
days) when milk urea concentration was
. The average milk urea concentrations (mg/dl) were found
, respectively in cows that conceived at
insemination. However, the variation was not statistically significant. The first insemination conception rate was found significantly (p<0.05) higher (68.8%) when milk urea level was
. The service period was found significantly (p<0.05) higher (
days) when milk urea concentration was
. The milk P4 level indicated that the cows, those were detected as non-pregnant on day 60 post insemination were initially pregnant but the pregnancy was terminated sometime during the day 30 to 60 post insemination. The study indicates that the milk urea values may be used as an index of reproductive performances in dairy herd when individual animals are not being monitored for nutritional status. The altered milk urea values may be utilised by the farmers as ready reference to rectify the protein and energy nutrition in cows to achieve the better reproductive performances in herd.
Effect of Cutting Interval and Cutting Height on Yield and Chemical Composition of Hedge Lucerne (Desmanthus virgatus)
Suksombat, Wisitiporn ; Buakeeree, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 31~34
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.31
The experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cutting interval and cutting height on the yield and nutrient composition of hedge lucerne (Desmanthus virgatus) when grown on a sandy soil in the Northeast of Thailand. The cutting intervals compared were 30, 40 and 50 days between harvests and the cutting heights 30, 40 and 50 cm above ground level. The experiment was a
factorial layout in a randomized complete block design with 4 replications-giving a total of 36 plots each
. Harvested plant material was weighed, dried and the ground subsamples taken for analyses of crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF), ash, ether extract (EE) and nitrogen-free extract (NFE). At the last harvest the hedge lucerne samples were separated to determine leaf to stem ratios and then analyzed for nutrient composition in the leaf and stem. Results showed that increasing the cutting interval (i.e. advancing age of maturity) increased dry matter and nutrient yields significantly. In terms of nutrient content, it also increased the crude fiber, ash, ether extract and nitrogen free extract percent in the plant. However, crude protein percent was markedly decreased as the cutting interval increased. Increasing cutting height had no effect on dry matter yield and yields of nutrients, but in terms of nutrient content, it increased crude protein and ash content, but decreased crude fiber content. The percent EE and NFE in the plant was unaffected by cutting height. From the results presented it is clear that cutting a stand of hedge lucerne every 40 to 50 days will achieve greater dry matter and nutrient yields than cutting more frequently, at 30 days. The cutting height at harvest, whether 30, 40 or 50 cm above ground level had no effect on dry matter or nutrient yields of hedge Lucerne. Hedge lucerne therefore offers the Thai poultry farmer a useful alternative protein supplement for poultry diets rather than relying on the more expensive soybean meal. As it can be readily and successfully grown on a range of soil types and climates throughout Thailand, hedge lucerne also offers the Thai farmer a valuable additional source of income.
The Effects of Three Herbs as Feed Supplements on Blood Metabolites, Hormones, Antioxidant Activity, IgG Concentration, and Ruminal Fermentation in Holstein Steers
Hosoda, K. ; Kuramoto, K. ; Eruden, B. ; Nishida, T. ; Shioya, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.35
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of three herb supplementations on blood metabolites, hormones, antioxidant activity, immunoglobulin (Ig) G concentration, and ruminal fermentation in steers. Four Holstein steers in a
Latin square design received four herb treatments. The treatments consisted of the steers' regular diets with addition of: 1) nothing (control), 2) peppermint, 3) clove, and 4) lemongrass at 5% of the diet (DM basis). Clove supplementation increased the plasma concentration of cholesterol by about 10% (from 79 to 87 mg/dl). Peppermint and lemongrass feeding resulted in an increase in the concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen (from 5.9 to 6.9 and 6.4 mg/dl, respectively). The three herb treatments had no effect on other metabolites and hormones. Steers receiving clove supplementation showed a higher plasma antioxidant activity. The three herb treatments caused lower concentrations of IgG in the blood. Peppermint and lemongrass feedings increased, and clove feeding decreased ruminal concentrations of ammonia. There were no significant differences in VFA concentrations among herbal treatments, except for the decrease in propionate concentration in steers receiving clove treatment. This study suggested that clove feeding changed cholesterol metabolism and increased antioxidant activity in plasma, and feeding of three herbs affected immunity system and ruminal fermentation in steers.
Effect of Oiling and Antimicrobial Spray of Litter on Performance of Broiler Chickens Reared on Leaves and Corn Cob Bedding Materials under Heat Stress Conditions
Khosravinia, Heshmatollah ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 42~47
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.42
This study was conducted to investigate the efficacy of surface spraying of antimicrobial solutions, oil and application of both on performance of broiler chicken under heat stress and reared on leaves and ground corn cobs as two alternative bedding materials. Six hundred seventy five day-old straightrun Arian broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 45 pens (at density of
) in an open sided partially-controlled shed. Three bedding materials viz. wood shavings (WS), ground corn cobs (GCC) (1.5 cm in length) and leaves were subjected to surface spraying of oil (
animal food grade sunflower oil), anti microbial solutions (3%) and mix treatment of both. Data on performance traits, incidence of breast and food pad lesions and litter characteristics were gathered and analysed in an appropriate factorial arrangements. Body weight at 56 d, feed intake up to 14 d, litter moisture at 28 d, litter pH at 14 d and litter temperature at 14 and 56 d were significantly influenced by litter type (p<0.05). Litter treatment revealed significant impact on body weight at 28, 42 and 56 d, feed intake during 29-42 and 1-42 d, mortality up to 56 d, litter temperature at 28 and 56 d, and litter pH at 28 and 56 d. Leaves and ground corn cobs have shown good potential as alternative bedding materials for rearing broilers. Surface spraying of antimicrobial solutions, oil and applying both were not effective tools to promote the broiler's health and performance. Meat type poultry growers and integrators are considered as primary audiences of the results achieved.
Recovery over Time of Production Performance and Biological Functions of Laying Hens after Withdrawal Toxic Levels of Dietary Roxarsone
Wu, Chean-Ping ; Tsay, Shiow-Min ; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ; Chen, Kuo-Lung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 48~54
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.48
Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenylarsonic acid) has been used as feed additives in poultry industries to improve production and control coccidiosis. The effect of high dietary levels of Roxarsone (ROX) on the performance and function of internal organs and the kinetics of recovery as well as its after-effects were examined in laying hens. The inclusion rates of ROX were 0, 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg per kg feed. Inclusion up to 200 mg did not show any adverse effects (p>0.05), whereas in the 300 and 400 mg groups, significant effects, particularly in the latter, were observed for three weeks after ROX addition (p<0.05). Recovery of the physical appearance occurred soon after ROX addition was withdrawn. Recovery of performance and internal organs, however, appeared to be dependent on the amount of residual ROX in the body; as the amount of ROX decreased, the toxic effect of ROX also decreased. In the third week after the withdrawal of ROX, complete recovery was observed in the lower dosage groups (100 or 200 mg groups) (p>0.05), whereas in the higher dosage groups (300 or 400 mg groups), recovery took at least five weeks; when complete recovery was observed in egg production and in liver weight (p>0.05). On the other hand, ROX might have damaged the liver and other tissues. The recovery of liver weight was probably due to accumulation of fatty particles rather than repair. It appeared, therefore, there were little after-effects of ROX on the hen's physical appearance, but some internal organs were probably damaged.
Effects of Dietary Selenium Supplementation on Growth Performance, Selenium Retention in Tissues and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-finishing Pigs
Tian, J.Z. ; Yun, M.S. ; Ju, W.S. ; Long, H.F. ; Kim, J.H. ; Kil, D.Y. ; Chang, J.S. ; Cho, S.B. ; Kim, Y.Y. ; Han, In K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 55~60
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.55
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of selenium (Se) sources and levels on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and Se retention in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 56 crossbred pigs ([
Large White) with average
BW were allotted to 7 treatments on the basis of sex and weight in two replicates and four pigs per pen. A
factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a randomized complete block (RCB) design. Two sources of Se (selenite Se or Se-enriched yeast) were added at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5 mg/kg to each treatment diet. A basal diet without Se supplementation was the seventh treatment group. Three pigs per treatment were randomly selected and samples of loin, liver, pancreas and a kidney were collected, frozen and later analyzed for Se. The digestibility trial was conducted to evaluate the apparent absorption and retention of Se and availability of other nutrients. Growth performance was not affected by dietary sources and levels of Se. No growth retardation was observed in the 0.5 mg/kg dietary Se treatment group regardless of Se sources. The Se concentration of serum in Se supplemented groups was increased compared with the control group (p<0.01). During the growing and finishing phase, Se in serum was clearly increased when organic Se was provided (p<0.01). Interaction of Se source
Se level was observed in Se concentration of loin, liver and pancreas of the pigs at the end of experiment. Selenium retention in the liver, kidney, pancreas and loin of pigs was increased as dietary Se level increased and was higher when pigs were fed organic Se resulting in an interaction response (p<0.01). Nutrient digestibilities were not affected by dietary Se sources or levels. No dietary Se source
Se level interaction was observed in nutrient digestibility. The results from this experiment indicated that dietary Se sources and levels affected the distribution of Se in the body of growing-finishing pigs. Organic source of Se, such as Se-enriched yeast resulted in higher serum and tissue Se concentration compared to inorganic form, while no beneficial effects on nutrient digestibility were observed from dietary Se supplementation in growing-finishing pigs.
Effects of Different Products and Levels of Selenium on Growth, Nutrient Digestibility and Selenium Retention of Growing-finishing Pigs
Tian, J.Z. ; Yun, M.S. ; Kong, C.S. ; Piao, L.G. ; Long, H.F. ; Kim, J.H. ; Lee, J.H. ; Lim, J.S. ; Kim, C.H. ; Kim, Y.Y. ; Han, In K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 61~66
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.61
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different selenium (Se) products (inorganic, organic A, organic B) added at two supplemental dietary Se levels (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and Se retention in growing-finishing pigs. A
factorial arrangement of treatments was used in a RCB design, with a non-Se-fortified basal diet serving as the negative control. A total of 56 crossbred pigs (28 male and 28 female pigs) initially weighing an average
BW were allotted to each treatment with four pigs per pen on the basis of sex and weight. Two pigs per pen were selected and bled from the anterior vena cava at 3- weekly intervals to analyze Se concentration. In the growing phase (0-6 weeks), increased ADFI was observed when pigs were fed organic Se compared to those fed the control diet or inorganic Se treatment (p<0.05). Pigs fed inorganic Se had a great ADFI than pigs fed organic Se (p<0.05) in the late finishing phase (7-12 weeks), although there were no differences in whole period ADFI between organic or inorganic Se products. During 12 weeks of the whole experimental period, serum Se concentration increased linearly when dietary Se level increased regardless of Se products (p<0.05). Both dietary Se source (p<0.05) and Se level (p<0.01) influenced the Se concentration of various pig tissues at end of this experiment and Se content was the highest in the kidney. For the determination of nutrient digestibility, a metabolic trial was conducted in 3 replicates in randomized complete block (RCB) design. A total of 21 barrows (
of average BW) were used in the metabolic study. Selenium supplementation had no effect on nutrient digestibility except for crude protein. Crude protein digestibility increased with dietary supplementation of organic Se (A) compared with other forms of Se products or control diet (p<0.05). Consequently, this experiment indicated that dietary Se products and levels had no effect on growth performance of pigs. Se concentration in tissues and serum was increased in proportion to dietary Se level, especially when organic Se was provided. Although pigs were fed organic forms of Se, bioavailability of organic forms varied among products, consequently bioactivity of organic products to the animals should be evaluated before practical application in animal feed.
Effect of Feeding Time on Laying and Reproductive Performance of Pharaoh Quail (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) Housed in Different Cage Systems
Petek, Metin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 67~71
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.67
A total of 120 male and 240 female quail (Coturnix coturnix Pharaoh) were used to determine the effect of feeding time on laying and reproductive performance of Pharaoh quail. They were fed ad libitum between 09:00 to 17:00 or full day, daily. Each female-male pair was housed in multiple-bird cages and colony cages. Initial and final body weight, quail-day egg production, feed consumption per egg and mortality were measured to determine laying performance of breeders. A total of 960 eggs were used to determine reproductive performance of quail in each treatment group. Eggs were incubated in a commercial setter and hatcher in standard conditions. Embryonic mortality, apparent fertility, hatchability of total and fertile eggs were calculated to determine the reproductive performance. Results indicated that feeding between 09:00 to 17:00 h reduced final body weight and egg production (p<0.001, p<0.001). Whereas, limited time of feeding improved hatchability of total (p<0.001) and fertile eggs (p<0.001) and reduced embryonic mortality (p<0.001) when compared with the effects of feeding full day. It was found that there were no significant differences for the egg production of quail housed in different cage systems. Quail caged in multiple-bird cages consumed less feed (p<0.01) compared to quail housed in colony cages. There were significant differences for the mortality (p<0.05), hatchability of total (p<0.001) and fertile eggs (p<0.001), and embryonic mortality (p<0.001) during the incubation due to main effect of cage systems. There were significant cage
time interactions for hatchability of total and fertile eggs and embryonic mortality (p<0.001). As a conclusion; feeding from 09:00 to 17:00 reduced laying performance of quail and improved the reproductive traits compared to full day feeding of quail breeders. But, further investigations are needed to determine the optimum length of feeding time and egg production of breeders in quail fed limited time must be evaluated in comparison with its beneficial or detrimental effects.
Effects of Different Mycotoxin Adsorbents on Performance, Meat Characteristics and Blood Profiles of Avian Broilers Fed Mold Contaminated Corn
Wang, R.J. ; Fui, S.X. ; Miao, C.H. ; Feng, D.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 72~79
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.72
1,225 healthy day-old avian broiler chicks were used to investigate the effects of activated charcoal (AC, made from willow tree), hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicates (HSCAS) and esterified glucomannan (EGM) supplementation on broiler performance, blood profiles and meat characteristics when less moldy or moldy corn was included to formulate seven isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets: Positive Control (less moldy corn diet, PC), PC+2% AC, Negative Control (moldy corn, NC), NC+0.05% EGM, NC+0.1% EGM, NC+0.5% HSCAS and NC+1% AC. PC+2% AC resulted in lower growth rate, poorer feed conversion ratio (FCR), more leg problems and higher mortality of birds than those fed PC diet (p<0.05). Inclusion of 0.05% EGM, 0.1% EGM, 0.5% HSCAS and 1% AC in NC diet did not improve average daily weight gain (ADG) or affect feed intake of birds during the first or the second three-week periods. However, 0.05% EGM tended to (p>0.05) and 0.1% EGM significantly (p<0.05) improved FCR during the first three-week period. Breast meat of NC birds had higher Minolta
values (white) but lower
(yellowish) values (p<0.01) than the PC birds. Addition of 0.05% EGM and 0.1% EGM in NC diet reduced the
values (p<0.05), improved
values (p<0.05) of breast meat of birds fed NC diet, but had no effect on meat color when 0.5% HSCAS or 1% AC was included (p>0.05). Relative weight of liver to body was reduced by feeding NC diet (p<0.05) and could not be normalized by different mycotoxin adsorbents (p>0.05) to the ratio of the PC birds. Relative weight of cholecyst of NC birds was increased compared with PC birds and could only be normalized by addition of 0.05% EGM and 1% AC (p<0.05) in NC diet. NC birds had lower serum albumin level than the PC birds (p<0.05) and addition of 0.05% EGM or 1% AC in NC diet did normalize serum albumin level. Addition of 0.5% HSCAS in NC diet further reduced serum albumin, globulin, total protein and uric acid levels (p<0.05). It was concluded that lower FCR during the first three-week period of growth and deterioration of meat quality observed in bird fed moldy corn with moderate T2 and fuminisin contamination and damaged nutrients and pigment availability, might be improved by dietary supplementation of 0.05% to 0.1% EGM, but not by 1% AC or 0.5% HSCAS supplementation.
Effects of Essential Oils Supplementation on Growth Performance, IgG Concentration and Fecal Noxious Gas Concentration of Weaned Pigs
Cho, J.H. ; Chen, Y.J. ; Min, B.J. ; Kim, H.J. ; Kwon, O.S. ; Shon, K.S. ; Kim, I.H. ; Kim, S.J. ; Asamer, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 80~85
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.80
Ninety six crossbred pigs (Landrace
Duroc) were used to determine the effects of essential oils (Fresta F
) supplementation on growth performance, immune response and fecal noxious gas of weaned pigs. Treatments were 1) NC (negative control; basal diet without antibiotics), 2) PC [positive control; basal diet+CSP (CTC+Sulfathiazole+Penicillin) 0.1%], 3) NCF (basal diet+Fresta F
0.03%) and 4) PCF [basal diet+CSP (CTC+Sulfathiazole+Penicillin) 0.1%+Fresta F
0.02%]. From d 0 to 14, ADFI was increased in pigs fed PCF diet (p<0.05). From d 14 to 28, pigs fed PCF diet had greater ADG and ADFI than pigs fed NC diet (p<0.05). From d 28 to 49, ADG and ADFI in pigs fed PCF diet were higher than in pigs fed NC diet (p<0.05). Through the entire experimental period, ADG and ADFI in pigs fed PCF diet were the highest compared to pigs fed NC and PC diets (p<0.05). There was no significant difference in fecal consistency score among the treatments (p>0.05). No statistical differences (p>0.05) were found in red blood cells (RBC) counts, white blood cells (WBC) counts, lymphocyte counts, total protein and albumin. Serum IgG concentration of PCF treatment was greater than that of other treatments (p<0.05). From d 0 to 14, there was no significant difference in digestibility of dry matter and nitrogen among the treatments (p>0.05). From d 14 to 28, digestibility of dry matter in pigs fed PC, NCF and PCF diets was higher than that of pigs fed NC diet (p<0.05) and treatments with added essential oils were higher than other diets on digestibility of nitrogen (p<0.05). Also, from d 28 to 49, digestibility of nitrogen in pigs fed PCF diet was the highest among others (p<0.05). On d 14 and 28, no statistical differences (p>0.05) were found in volatile fatty acid (VFA), ammonia nitrogen (
-N) and hydrogen sulfide (
) concentrations among treatments. On d 49, there was no significant difference in VFA concentration among the treatments (p>0.05).
-N concentration in pigs fed PCF diet was lower than in pigs fed other diets (p<0.05).
concentration in pigs fed diets with added essential oils was lower than others. In conclusion, the results suggest that the dietary addition of essential oils and antibiotics into diets for weanling pigs improved growth performance, IgG concentration and nitrogen digestibility and decreased noxious gas concentration. Essential oils can be used to partly replace antibiotics in diets for weaned pigs without negative affects on growth performance.
Feeding Turkey Poults with Starter Feed and Whole Wheat or Maize in Free Choice Feeding System: Its Effects on Their Performances
Erener, G. ; Ocak, N. ; Garipoglu, A.V. ; Sahin, A. ; Ozturk, E. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 86~90
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.86
This study was carried out to determine the effects of free choice feeding of starter feed and whole cereals on the growth of turkey poults. Two hundred-seventy poults (7-d old) were divided into 3 treatment groups each with 3 replications containing 15 males and 15 females. Control poults (C) were fed only on starter feed (280 g CP and 11.7 MJ ME/kg). Treatments for choice-fed turkey poults were offered a choice of a starter feed and wheat (120 g CP and 12.3 MJ ME/kg) for wheat selecting (WS) or maize (83 g CP and 13.9 MJ ME/kg) for maize selecting (MS) group in separate feeders. Final live weight (2,280.7 g for the C vs. 2,374.3 and 2,324.6 g for the WS and MS), daily gain (39.21 g vs. 40.87 and 39.99 g) and total feed intake (95.2 g vs. 103.2 and 97.9 g) in the WS poults were significantly higher (p<0.05) than those of the C group, but feed conversion ratio was not significantly different between the treatments. The proportional intakes of cereals vs. total feed intake were 11% in both the WS and MS group. The amount of protein intake in the C group (280 g CP/kg diet) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in WS and MS groups (263 and 259 g CP/kg diet, respectively) whilst the ME intake in the C group (11.7 MJ/kg diet) was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that in MS group (11.9 MJ/kg diet). Our results showed that turkey poults fed starter feed and whole wheat in a free choice feeding system have a higher efficiency in terms of daily gain, final live weight, and an economic advantage may be obtained from free choice feeding due to a reduced protein intake and feed cost.
Effect of Choice Feeding on Performance, Gastrointestinal Development and Feed Utilization of Broilers
Yao, Junhu ; Tian, Xiaoyan ; Xi, Haibo ; Han, Jincheng ; Xu, Ming ; Wu, Xiaobing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 91~96
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.91
The experiment was conducted to study the effect of choice feeding on growth performance, carcass quality, gastrointestinal development and feed utilization of 22-49 days old broilers. One hundred and forty four 22-day-old broilers were randomly allocated to 3 treatments with 4 replicates per treatment and 12 birds per replicate. Three feeding regimes are complete diet (control), ground corn and protein concentrate (treatment I), and soybean meal and balancer (treatment II). Protein concentrate is the residue part of complete diet without corn, and balancer is the residue part of complete diet without soybean meal. Treatment I and II are designed for the broilers to freely choose the two parts of diet. The results showed that: (1) broilers under choice feeding (treatment I and II) had lower performances compared with the control; (2) gastrointestinal development and the efficiency ratios that broilers converted dietary crude protein and lysine to body weight gain were improved in treatment I (p<0.05); (3) there were no significant differences in the apparent metabolizabilities of dietary dry matter, crude protein and gross energy, and deposition ratios of dietary nitrogen and energy, and carcass quality among three feeding regimes (p>0.05).
Use of δ-Aminolevulinic Acid in Swine Diet: Effect on Growth Performance, Behavioral Characteristics and Hematological/Immune Status in Nursery Pigs
Mateo, R.D. ; Morrow, J.L. ; Dailey, J.W. ; Ji, F. ; Kim, Sung Woo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 97~101
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.97
Certain amino acids are essential precursors of a variety of important biomolecules in addition to their major function as protein building blocks.
-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is synthesized from the condensed form of succinyl-CoA with glycine after decarboxylation catalyzed by ALA synthase. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of ALA supplementation on growth performance, behavioral characteristics and hematological/immune status in nursery pigs. A total of 144 pigs weaned at 21 d of age were allotted to three dietary treatments representing (-) control (w/o antibiotics; NC), (+) control (w/carbadox at 50 mg/kg; PC), and the treatment group with ALA supplementation (0.05%; TA). Each treatment had 6 pens (replicates) with 8 pigs per pen. Pigs were fed phase 1 (21.9% CP, 1.40% Lys) and 2 (20.6% CP, 1.15% Lys) experimental diets for 3 and 2 wks, respectively. Feed intake and weight gain were measured weekly during phase 1 and at the end of phase 2. At the end of phase 2, blood samples were taken and analyzed using an automated hematology analyzer. Skin color and activity of pigs (48 h) from all pens in each treatment were measured at the second week of phase 2. Growth performance was not affected (p>0.05) by the dietary supplementation of ALA during the 5 wk nursery period. Pigs in the TA (6.46) and PC (6.68) had a higher (p<0.05) number of red blood cells (
) than pigs in the NC (6.15). Pigs in PC (12.16) had a higher (p<0.05) hemoglobin level (g/dL) than pigs in the NC group (11.29) and the TA group (11.47). Pigs in the TA and PC had darker (p<0.05) and less (p<0.05) yellow skin color than pigs in the NC. Pigs in the PC tended (p = 0.081) to be less active than pigs in the other groups. There were no differences in behavioral characteristics between the NC and the TA. The data suggest that ALA supplementation has no adverse effects on growth performance of nursery pigs. Moreover, ALA supplementation increased red blood cell counts which may be beneficial to pigs.
Microbial Transglutaminase Improves the Property of Meat Protein and Sausage Texture Manufactured with Low-quality Pork Loins
Katayama, K. ; Chin, K.B. ; Yoshihara, S. ; Muguruma, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 102~108
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.102
Microbial transglutaminase (MTGase) was investigated to determine whether it was an effective binding agent for the processing of low-quality pork loins. MTGase especially promoted the coagulation of myosin heavy chain (MHC). However, the effect of MTGase on MHC from low-quality meat was less than that from the normal meat when the reaction time was not enough. The breaking strength of the heat-induced gel made of myosin B from low-quality meat with MTGase was lower than that of normal meat. Sausage made with low-quality meat with MTGase did not exhibit improved hardness, as compared to that made with normal meat. Results of this study indicated that use of low-quality meat in the manufacture of sausage was feasible to get textural property equal to that of normal meat sausage, when a half or more of the raw material was normal meat and MTGase was used in the sausage.
Microbiological Changes of Marinated Broiler Drumsticks Treated with the Lactoperoxidase System and with or without Thermal Treatment
Tan, Fa-Jui ; Ockerman, Herbert W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 109~112
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.109
The objective of this study was to evaluate the combined effects of lactoperoxidase system (LPS), thermal treatment and storage time on total microflora and psychrotrophs counts of the marinated broiler drumsticks. A marinade that contained acetic acid (1%) and salt (3%) with pH adjusted to 4 was developed as a standardized marinade. Drumsticks were marinated with various LPS levels, combined with thermal treatment (4 or
for 2 min), and then stored at
for 18 h. The microbial counts of the samples were measured after 0, 2, 4 and 7 days of storage for drumsticks held at
. The results indicate that adding LPS at the level of 1 unit (
LP, 5.9 mM KSCN, and 2.5 mM
) significantly (p<0.05) decreased the total microflora and psychrotrophs counts of the marinated broiler drumsticks. In addition, samples treated with a thermal treatment (
for 2 min) had significantly (p<0.05) lower microbial counts when compared with the control.
Effects of Dietary Rhus verniciflua Stokes Supplementation on Meat Quality Characteristics of Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) Beef during Refrigerated Storage
Kim, Yong Sun ; Liang, Cheng Yun ; Song, Young Han ; Lee, Sung Ki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 113~118
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.113
The effects of dietary Rhus verniciflua Stokes supplementation (0%, 2%, 4% and 6%/feed) on meat color, water-holding capacity (WHC), lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition in m. longissimus from Hanwoo (Korean cattle) beef during refrigerated storage were investigated. The
values of 4% group were significantly (p<0.05) higher than those of the other groups for 7 days of storage. The
values declined gradually during storage in all of the groups and the decline was more rapid in control group. The metmyoglobin (%) was significantly (p<0.05) increased during storage time in all of the groups, but the 4% group had a lower rate of metmyoglobin accumulation during storage. WHC was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the 2% and 4% groups than in the other groups. The TBARS (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) value of day 0 was not significantly (p>0.05) different among 4 diet conditions, but the TBARS value after 5 days of storage was significantly (p<0.05) higher in the control group than in other groups. The proportions of C18:1, MUFA, UFA and MUFA/SFA ratio were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the meat from Rhus verniciflua Stokes-supplemented Hanwoo than in the control group. Consequently, the meat from Rhus verniciflua Stokes-supplemented Hanwoo showed higher color stability, WHC, unsaturated fatty acids and retarded lipid oxidation compared to the control meat. In particular, dietary Rhus verniciflua Stokes supplementation with 4% extended storage life compared to the other groups.
Effect of Rare Earth Elements on Proliferation and Fatty Acids Accumulation of 3T3-L1 Cells
He, M.L. ; Yang, W.Z. ; Hidari, H. ; Rambeck, W.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 119~125
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.119
The present study including two experiments was designed to determine the effect of media containing different rare earth elements (REE) on proliferation and fatty acids accumulation in 3T3-L1 cell cultures. In Experiment 1, 3T3-L1 preadipocytes in 96-well plates (
) were cultured with Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM) containing 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) for 24 h. Then the media were changed to the following 10 different media for 48 h: DMEM containing 10% FBS for the control; the above media containing
or the mixture of these REE chlorides. The proliferation rate of the cells was measured and compared by a non-isotope method-XTT method. In Experiment 2 the cells in 24-well plates (
) were cultured in DMEM containing 10% FBS for 7 days until confluent and then were changed to above DMEM containing dexamethasone, methyl-isobutylxanthine and insulin (DMI) for two days. Afterwards the media were changed to the 10 different media with REE supplements as in Experiment 1 and cultured for 6 days. The cells were then harvested for fatty acids analysis by gas chromatography. It was found that supplementation of La (5, 10 and
), Ce (
) and the mixture REE (5, 10 and
) stimulated (p<0.05) the proliferation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes (Experiment 1). In the differentiating 3T3-L1 cells supplementation of La (
), Ce (
) and the mixture REE (
) decreased (p<0.05) the concentration of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) per
, while the supplementation of La (
), Ce (
) and the mixture REE (
) increased (p<0.05) the ratio of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to MUFA. These results indicate that the supplementation of REE to the media may affect proliferation, differentiation and lipogenesis rates of 3T3-L1 cells. However, the effect may depend upon the level or type of REE applied.
The Effects of Freeze Drying and Rehydration on Survival of Microorganisms in Kefir
Chen, Hsi-Chia ; Lin, Chin-Wen ; Chen, Ming-Ju ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 126~130
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.126
The purpose of this research was to study the effect of freeze drying on the microorganisms in kefir. Influences of lyoprotectants and rehydrated media (water at
; 10% reconstituted milk at
) on the viability of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in freeze-dried kefir were investigated. Kefir was made from cow milk which was inoculated with 5% kefir grains, and incubated at
for 20 h. Lyoprotectants (galactose, lactose, maltose, sucrose and trehalose) were added independently before dehydration of kefir by freeze drying. Results indicated significant loss in viability of microorganisms in kefir after freeze-drying. Addition of 10% galactose or 10% sucrose as lyoprotectants significantly increased the survival rates of both lactic acid bacteria and yeasts (p<0.05). The
rehydration temperature showed the best viabilities for yeasts, however, viability was not significantly affected by rehydration media (p>0.05).
Characterization of Lactic Bacterial Strains Isolated from Raw Milk
Kim, Hyun-jue ; Shin, Han-seung ; Ha, Woel-kyu ; Yang, Hee-jin ; Lee, Soo-won ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 131~136
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.131
During lactic acid bacteria (LAB) transit through the gastrointestinal tract, ingested microorganisms were exposed to successive stress factors, including low pH in the human stomach and in bile acid. These stress factors can be used as criteria for the selection of a viable probiotic strain. Four such strains (Lactobacillus helveticus SGU 0011, Lactobacillus pentosus SGU 0010, Streptococcus thermophilus SGU 0021 and Lactobacillus casei SGU 0020) were isolated from raw milk. When the identified LAB were exposed to synthetic gastric juice, whereas L. casei SGU 0020 and S. thermophilus SGU 0021 exhibited a 0% survival rate, L. helveticus SGU 0011 and L. pentosus SGU 0010 exhibited 60% and 95% survival rates. L. casei SGU 0020 and S. thermophilus SGU 0021 could not be examined with regard to their tolerances to artificial bile juice, as they uniformly died upon exposure. However, L. helveticus SGU 0011 and L. pentosus SGU 0010 individually survived at rates of 39% and 93%. Also, all four of these strains were confirmed to be tolerant of ten different antibiotics.
Study on a Binder by Using Porcine Blood Plasma Transglutaminase, Thrombin and Fibrinogen
Tsai, Chong-Ming ; Tseng, Tsai-Fuh ; Yang, Jeng-Huh ; Chen, Ming-Tsao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 137~143
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.137
The purpose of this study was to prepare a binder containing porcine blood transglutaminase (TGase), thrombin and fibrinogen. Extracted TGase, thrombin and fibrinogen were used alone or mixed with different proportions of their volume (v/v/v) by nine combinations as follows were 0.5:1:15, 0.5:1:20, 0.5:1:25, 1:1:15, 1:1:20, 1:1:25, 1.5:1:15, 1.5:1:20 and 1.5:1:25, respectively. Five ml of each combination were mixed with 0.6 ml of 0.25 M calcium chloride before experiment. After storage at 4C for 0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks, enzyme activity, total plate count, pH value, and SDS-PAGE of TGase, thrombin and fibrinogen were tested and pH value, clotting time and gel strength of the nine combination binders were determined. The results showed that total plate count of thrombin and pH value of TGase were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in other treatments. SDS-PAGE results showed that purified TGase, thrombin and fibrinogen from porcine blood plasma compared with commercial products (Sigma) had the same band patterns and nine different combination binders had no significant effect. Enzymatic activity of TGase and thrombin decreased as storage time increased. Total plate count of TGase, thrombin and fibrinogen and clotting time of the binder increased as storage time increased. The higher amount of fibrinogen in combinations, the stronger the gel strength.
Effectiveness of Lactobacillus plantarum Strain KJ-10311 to Remove Characteristic Malodorous Gases in Piggery Slurry
Kim, J.D. ; Park, Ki-Moon ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 1, 2006, Pages 144~152
Various piggery slurry samples were collected from different pig farms in Korea. Five microorganisms that have a potential to deodorize characteristic malodorous gases were screened and were compared for their ability to deodorize the malodorous gases. As a result, a novel malodorous gas-deodorizing bacterial strain KJ-10311 was isolated due to the most abundant of nitrate-supplemented minimal medium under anaerobic conditions. Crimp-sealed serum bottles containing nitrate-supplemented minimal medium (MM-
) in airtight bottles were inoculated with KJ-10311. Nitrate concentration decreased rapidly after 20 h incubation and nitrite production reached almost zero during the time the experimental was carried out. Taxonomic identification including 16S rDNA base sequencing, and phylogenetic analysis indicated that the isolate KJ-10311 had a 99.9% homology with Lactobacillus plantarum. Among the volatile fatty acids, acetic acid contained in large amounts in fresh piggery slurry decreased about 40% after 50 h incubation of the strain KJ-10311. n-Butyric acid, n-valeric acid, and iso-valeric acid gradually decreased, and iso-butyric acid and capronic acid significantly eliminated at initial time with the treatment. Moreover,
removal efficiency reached a maximum of 98.5% after 50 h of incubation. The concentration of
did not change. Air-dried pig feces contents of 30% is important to the promotion for the growth of the isolate KJ-10311 and pH decreased from 7.0 initially to 5.4-5.9 after 20 h of incubation of all cultures.