Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
The Genetic Variability and Relationships of Japanese and Foreign Chickens Assessed by Microsatellite DNA Profiling
Osman, S.A.M. ; Sekino, M. ; Nishihata, A. ; Kobayashi, Y. ; Takenaka, W. ; Kinoshita, K. ; Kuwayama, T. ; Nishibori, M. ; Yamamoto, Y. ; Tsudzuki, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1369~1378
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1369
This is the first study in which genetic variability and relationships of a large number of Japanese chicken breeds were revealed along with those of several foreign breeds by using microsatellite DNA polymorphisms. Twenty-eight breeds (34 populations) of native Japanese chickens and seven foreign breeds or varieties were analyzed. The mean number of alleles per locus, the proportion of the polymorphic loci, and the expected average heterozygosity ranged from 1.75 to 4.70, from 0.55 to 1.00, and from 0.21 to 0.67, respectively. Microsatellite alleles being unique to a particular population were detected in some populations. The
genetic distance between populations was obtained from allele frequency for every pair of the populations to construct a neighbor-joining tree. According to the phylogenetic tree, excluding a few exceptions, native Japanese chicken breeds and foreign breeds were clearly separated from each other. Furthermore, the tree topology divided native Japanese chickens into four main classes, which was almost in accordance with the classification based on body morphology; that is, (1) Cochin type, (2) Malay type, (3) layer type, and (4) intermediate type between Malay and layer types. This is the first finding for native Japanese chickens.
Genetic Parameter Estimation of Carcass Traits of Duroc Predicted Using Ultrasound Scanning Modes
Salces, Agapita J. ; Seo, Kang Seok ; Cho, Kyu Ho ; Kim, SiDong ; Lee, Young Chang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1379~1383
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1379
A total of 6,804 records for Duroc breed were collected from three farms registered at the Korean Animal Improvement Association (KAIA) from 1998 to 2004 of which both records from two ultrasound modes (A and B) were analyzed to estimate the variance components of carcass traits. Three carcass traits backfat thickness (bf), loin eye muscle area (lma) and lean meat percentage (lmp) were measured. These traits were analyzed separately as bf1, lma1 and lmp1 for ultrasound mode A and bf2, lma2 and lmp2 for ultrasound mode B with multiple trait animal model by using MTDFREML (Boldman et al., 1993). All the traits revealed medium heritability values. Estimated heritabilities for bf1, bf2, lma1, lma2, lmp1 and lmp2 were 0.45, 0.39, 0.32, 0.25, 0.28 and 0.39, respectively. Estimated genetic correlations for traits bf1 and bf2, lma1 and lma2, lmp1 and lmp2 were positive but low. Specifically, genetic correlations between bf1 and bf2 was 0.30 while the estimates for lean traits between lma1 and lma2 and between lmp1 and lmp2 were 0.15 and 0.18, respectively. Conversely, high negative genetic correlations existed between bf1 and the lean traits lma2, lmp2. Likewise, the estimated genetic correlations between lma1 and lma2 and lmp1 and lmp2 were low.
Association between SNPs within Prolactin Gene and Milk Performance Traits in Holstein Dairy Cattle
He, Feng ; Sun, Dongxiao ; Yu, Ying ; Wang, Yachun ; Zhang, Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1384~1389
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1384
Prolactin plays an important role in mammary gland development, milk section initiation and maintenance of lactation, so the bovine prolactin gene is considered as a potential quantitative trait locus affecting milk performance traits in dairy cattle. In this study, to determine the association between prolactin and milk performance traits, the genetic polymorphisms of a part of the prolactin gene were detected in a population of 649 cows of Chinese Holstein Dairy Cattle. Three SNPs in the promoter and one SNP in the intron1 of prolactin were identified, which was A/C (-767), G/T (-485), C/A (-247), and C/T (427), respectively. Statistical results indicated that one of SNP within promote, CHBP2, was significantly associated with milk yield (p<0.01), fat yield (p<0.05), protein yield (p<0.01), and protein percentage (p<0.05). The cows with genotype BB of CHBP2 had significantly higher milk yield (p<0.01), fat yield (p<0.05), and protein yield (p<0.01) than those of cows with genotype AA, while cows with genotype AA showed the highest protein percentage (p<0.05). In addition, based on the nine major haplotypes constructed from the four SNPs, the association analysis between diplotypes and milk performance trait was carried out. Results showed that the least square mean for fat yield of diplotype H2H8 was significantly higher than those of other eleven diplotypes (p<0.05). Our findings implied that CHBP2 and H2H8 of prolactin would be useful genetic markers in selection program on milk performance traits in Holstein Dairy Cattle.
Genetic Parameters of Growth Traits in Crossbred Sheep
Singh, D. ; Kumar, Ramesh ; Pander, B.L. ; Dhaka, S.S. ; Singh, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1390~1393
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1390
Data spread over 11 years (1986-1996) pertaining to a synthetic population developed by inter se mating of half-breds of Corriedale and Russian Merino with Nali maintained at CCS Haryana Agricultural University, Hisar were utilized for the estimation of genetic parameters for growth traits. The means for birth weight (BWT), weaning weight (WWT), six month body weight (SWT), yearling weight (YWT), preweaning daily gain (PRW) and post weaning daily gain (POW) were 3.35 kg, 10.79 kg, 13.28 kg, 18.96 kg, 82.6 gm and 27.6 gm, respectively. The effects of year and season of birth and sex of lamb were significant for all the traits under study except the effect of season of birth for WWT, SWT and PRW. No definite trend was observed over the years for the averages of body weight and gain. Lambs born during the spring season performed better for BWT, WWT and PRW while the performance of lambs born during autumn was better for the other traits included in the study. The male lambs were heavier than the females for body weight at all stages and gain in weight. The heritability estimates for WWT and PRW were low; for BWT and SWT were moderate and for YWT and POW were high. Birth weight had high heritability and high genetic correlations with subsequent body weights and gains but due to the presence of a maternal effect on BWT and WWT, a sequential selection procedure is recommended for the improvement of growth rate in sheep.
Mitochondrial DNA Variation and Genetic Relationships in Japanese and Korean Cattle
Sasazaki, S. ; Odahara, S. ; Hiura, C. ; Mukai, F. ; Mannen, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1394~1398
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1394
The complete mtDNA D-loop regions of Japanese and Korean cattle were analyzed for their mtDNA variations and genetic relationships. Sequencing the 30 Higo substrain and 30 Tosa substrain of Japanese Brown, respectively 12 and 17 distinct Bos haplotypes were identified from 77 polymorphic nucleotide sites. In order to focus on the relationships among Japanese and Korean cattle, two types of phylogenetic tree were constructed using individual sequences; first, a neighbor-joining tree with all sequences and second, reduced median networks within each Japanese and Korean cattle group. The trees revealed that two major mtDNA haplotype groups, T3 and T4, were represented in Japanese and Korean cattle. The T4 haplogroup predominated in Japanese Black and Japanese Brown cattle (frequency of 43.3-66.7%), while the T3 haplogroup was predominant (83.3%) and T4 was represented only twice in the Korean cattle. The results suggested that the mitochondrial origins of Japanese Brown were Japanese ancient cattle as well as Japanese Black in despite of the considerable introgression of Korean and European cattle into Japanese Brown.
Detection and Characterization of PCR-SSCP Markers of the Bovine Lactoferrin Gene for Clinical Mastitis
Zhou, Lei ; Yang, Yuan-Yuan ; Li, Zhong-Hao ; Kong, Li-Juan ; Xing, Guan-Dong ; Di, He-Shuang ; Wang, Gen-Lin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1399~1403
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1399
A total of 80 cows, including 40 top mastitis resistant and 40 top mastitis susceptible animals as Group I and Group II, were selected from a population of 520 cows based on clinical mastitis occurrence. PCR-SSCP analysis on four fragments within the 5'region and two fragments of Exons 4,15 of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) revealed that four fragments-P1,P4,E4,E15-had polymorphisms which totally included six base mutations, and only two of them had significant differences in allele frequencies between resistant and susceptible groups, P1 (53.7% vs. 70.0%, p<0.05) and P4 (55.0% vs. 68.8%, p<0.05). Further study on these two promising markers combined with the milk performance traits of cows demonstrated that their selection would result in higher fat percentage (p<0.05), lower Somatic Cell Score (SCS) (p<0.05) and Clinical Mastitis Residuals (CMR) (p<0.01) indicating higher mastitis resistance and lower milk yield (p<0.05). The putative transcription factor binding sites in the 5'region were also studied by using MatInspector 7.2.2 software, and two signal pathways regulating the expression of bLF including the NF-
pathway and nuclear hormone receptor pathway were predicted.
Correlation Analysis between the Breeding Value of Carcass Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Brown Cattle), Bos Taurus, L. and Spot Intensity on Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis
Seo, Kang Seok ; Shen, Y.N. ; Salces, A.J. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Lee, H.G. ; Kim, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1404~1408
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1404
In order to investigate the genetic marker associated with economic performance in Hanwoo (Korean Brown Cattle), proteomic approach was used. Breeding values were estimated from performance tested steers. The top 20 and bottom 19 steers based on carcass weight (CW), eye muscle area (EMA), backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) evaluation for one progeny testing period was used. Meat samples dissected from longissimus dorsi muscles were taken from the slaughter house and analyzed for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. A total of 102 significant spots out of total 146 on each gel were detected and compared with the reference gel (synthetic gel) to be evaluated. Four candidate spots for marbling score were identified: 205, 84, 204 and 198. The study confirmed the relationship between breeding values of economic traits of Hanwoo cattle and spot intensity.
Association between Polymorphisms of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene and Chicken Fat Deposition
Liu, Rui ; Wang, Yachun ; Sun, Dongxiao ; Yu, Ying ; Zhang, Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1409~1414
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1409
The objective of this study was to screen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the chicken lipoprotein lipase gene (LPL), using 545 F1 hybrids developed from
diallel crossing of four chicken breeds, and to analyze the associations between polymorphisms of the LPL and chicken fat deposition traits. PCR-SSCP was used to detect SNPs in LPL. Fifteen sets of primers were designed to amplify DNA fragments covering the 5'flanking and coding regions of LPL. It showed that there existed 5 polymorphic loci in the 5'flanking region and coding region, respectively. Association analysis was carried out between 10 polymorphic loci and intermuscular fat width, abdominal fat weight, and thickness of subcutaneous fat using ANCOVA, respectively. The results indicated that, in the 5'flanking region, the loci d and e significantly affected thickness of subcutaneous fat (p<0.05), abdominal fat weight (p<0.01) and subcutaneous fat (p<0.05), while in the coding region, synonymous mutation in exon 8 was significantly associated with intermuscular fat width (p<0.05), however, the non-synonymous mutations in exon 7 and exon 9 did not show statistically significant effects on fat deposition traits in this study.
The Effect of Prepartum Diet on Nitrogen and Major Mineral Balance of Dairy Cows during Parturition in Summer
Kamiya, Y. ; Kamiya, M. ; Tanaka, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1415~1421
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1415
Proper nutritional management during the dry period is required to prevent metabolic disorders during the time of parturition and for potential increase milk yield during early lactation, especially under the heat of summer. The effect of prepartum diets on partitioning of nitrogen (N), calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) during dry period and early lactation in summer was investigated. Nine cows were assigned to two groups and fed either control (group C: four cows) or high concentrate (group H: five cows) diets to meet 110% of their requirements before parturition. The proportion of concentrate in control diet was 35%, and that in the high concentrate diet was 45%. After parturition, all cows were fed the same diets ad libitum during lactation. Balance trials were conducted at 9, 8 and 7 days before parturition and at 12, 13 and 14 days after parturition. Before parturition, dry matter intake (DMI), DM and NFE digestibility in group C tended to be lower than those in group H. The retention of N (p<0.01) and P (p<0.05) in group C during the dry period was significantly lower than those in group H. The retention of Mg in group C during the dry period tended to be lower than in group H. The concentration of plasma NEFA in group C tended to be higher than in group H during dry period. The prepartum diet did not have an apparent effect on DMI and milk yield at 2 weeks after parturition and N, Ca, P, Mg and K balance after parturition.
Effect of Niacin Supplementation on Growth, Nutrient Utilization and Blood Biochemical Profile in Male Buffalo Calves
Kumar, Ravindra ; Dass, R.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1422~1428
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1422
In order to investigate the effect of different levels of niacin supplementation on growth, nutrient utilization, their balance and blood biochemical profile, 15 male buffalo calves (9-10 months of age,
average body weight) were divided into 3 equal groups each of 5 calves, following a completely randomized design, and fed individually for 120 days with wheat straw and concentrate mixture to meet their nutrient requirements. In addition calves were supplemented with 0 ppm (control, group I), 100 ppm (group II) and 200 ppm (group III) niacin. After 90 days of experimental feeding a metabolism trial was conducted to estimate the digestibility of nutrients and their balance. Fortnightly body weights were recorded to assess their growth rate and blood was collected from the jugular vein at day 0 and subsequently at 30-day intervals from all the experimental buffalo calves to study blood biochemical parameters. Results showed that intake and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, total carbohydrates, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, cellulose and hemicelluloses were statistically similar in the 3 groups. Buffalo calves in all three groups were in positive nitrogen, calcium and phosphorus balance, without showing any significant effect of the treatments. Dry matter, crude protein, digestible crude protein and total digestible nutrient intake (
) were similar in the control and niacin supplemented groups. Digestible crude protein (%) and total digestible nutrients (%) in the ration of the 3 groups were 8.07, 7.99, 7.92 and 56.70, 56.63, 56.74, respectively, and were comparable among the groups. The average daily gain (g) in-group II (567.50) was not significantly (p>0.05) higher than group I (500.0) and group III (510.0). Blood biochemical constituents (glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, urea-N, insulin) showed no significant effect of niacin supplementation. However, serum cholesterol (mg/100 ml) was significantly (p<0.01) lower in the 200 ppm niacin-supplemented group than in the control and 100 ppm niacin-supplemented groups. It can be concluded that supplementation of niacin at 100 and 200 ppm in the diet of buffalo calves had no significant beneficial effect on their growth and nutrient utilization.
Effects of Microbial Inoculants on the Fermentation, Nutrient Retention, and Aerobic Stability of Barley Silage
Zahiroddini, H. ; Baah, J. ; McAllister, T.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1429~1436
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1429
Fermentation characteristics, nutrient retention and aerobic stability of barley silages prepared using 6 commercial inoculants were evaluated using 126 mini-silos (3-L) in a completely randomized design. Whole barley forage was chopped, wilted to 39% DM and treated with water (control, S) or one of six inoculants: A (containing Lactobacillus plantarum); B (L. plantarum and Enterococcus faecium); C (L. plantarum and Pediococcus cerevisiae); D (L. plantarum, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Propionibacterium freudenreichii, plus hydrolytic enzymes); E (Lactobacillus buchneri plus hydrolytic enzymes); F (L. buchneri and P. pentosaceus plus hydrolytic enzymes). Samples of treated forage were collected for analysis at the time of ensiling, and then 18 silos of each treatment were filled, capped and weighed. Triplicate silos were weighed and opened after 1, 3, 5, 7, 33, and 61 d. On d 61,
of material from each silo was placed in 1-L styrofoam containers, covered with cheesecloth and held at room temperature. Silage temperature was recorded hourly for 14 d via implanted thermocouple probes. Chemical composition of the forage at ensiling was consistent with previously reported values. At d 61, pH was lowest (p<0.01) in silage S. Ammonia-N was lower (p<0.05) in silage A than in silages S, B, E, or F. Compared to pre-ensiling values, water soluble carbohydrate concentrations were elevated in silages S, A, B, C and D, and decreased in E and F. Lactic acid concentrations were similar (p>0.10) across treatments. Acetic acid levels were highest (p<0.01) in silage E and lowest (p<0.01) in silage D. Recovery of DM was lower (p<0.01) in silage F than in silages S, A, B, C, or D. On d 61, yeasts were most numerous (p<0.01) in silage D, which was the only silage in which temperature rose more than
above ambient during aerobic exposure. Silage D also had the highest (p<0.01) pH and ADIN content after aerobic exposure. Lactic acid and WSC content of silage D decreased dramatically during the 14-d aerobic exposure period. Yeast counts (at d 14 of exposure) were lowest (p<0.01) in silages E and F. In general, the commercial inoculants did not appear to enhance the fermentation of barley silage to any appreciable extent in laboratory silos.
Effect of Feeding Complete Rations with Variable Protein and Energy Levels Prepared Using By-products of Pulses and Oilseeds on Carcass Characteristics, Meat and Meat Ball Quality of Goats
Agnihotri, M.K. ; Rajkumar, V. ; Dutta, T.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1437~1449
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1437
Thirty six pre-weaned Barbari kids at 4 months age were reared on four rations computed using coarse cereal grains and by-products of pulses and oil seeds with Crude Protein (CP) and Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) of 12 and 55% (Low protein Low energy); 12 and 60% (Low protein High energy); 14 and 55% (High protein Low energy); and 14 and 60% (High protein High energy), respectively. After 180 days on feed, male animals (
) were slaughtered to study the effect of diet on carcass characteristics and meat quality. To asses the effect, if any, of such diet on product quality, meat balls were prepared and evaluated for quality changes when fresh as well as during storage (
). Feeding a ration with CP12 and TDN 60% (LH) to kids produced animals with highest slaughter weight (20.3 kg) yielding higher carcass weight and dressing percentage, lean (65.6%) and fat (6.6%) contents with low bone and trim losses. Although total variety meat yield was markedly higher in HL, the non-carcass fat deposition was relatively higher in LH carcasses. The water activity (
) of fresh goat meat ranged from 0.994-0.995 and total cholesterol 72.8-90.5 mg/100 g meat. The pH was high in HL and HH meat resulting in decreased (
) extract release volume (ERV). Meat balls were prepared using meat obtained from goats fed different rations (treatments) and stored at
. They were evaluated on day 0 and months 1, 2, 3, 4 for physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic changes. Overall moisture (%),
, TBA number and pH value were 67.9, 0.987, 0.17, 6.6 respectively and were not affected by treatments except pH that was significantly (
) lower on LH. As the storage period advanced moisture, pH,
and TBA number increased irrespective of treatments. Feeding various diets had no marked effect on microbial load of meat balls but with increasing storage period Standard Plate Count (SPC) and psychrotrophs declined (
). Treatment LL and LH produced meat balls with better flavour.
Effects of Trace Mineral Supplementation and Source, 30 Days Post-weaning and 28 Days Post Receiving, on Performance and Health of Feeder Cattle
Dorton, K.L. ; Engle, T.E. ; Enns, R.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1450~1454
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1450
Three hundred and seventy-five steers (approximately 7 mo of age and
) were utilized to determine the effects of trace mineral (TM) supplementation and source on performance during the on-farm backgrounding and feedlot receiving phases of beef cattle production. At their respective ranches, steers were stratified by body weight into six groups. Groups were then assigned to one of six pens and pens were randomly assigned to treatments. Treatments consisted of: 1) control (no supplemental Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co), 2) inorganic trace mineral (
), and 3) organic trace mineral (iso-amounts of organic Cu, Zn, Mn, and Co). Mineral treatments were fed in alfalfa pellets formulated to supply 360 mg of Zn, 200 mg of Mn, 125 mg of Cu, and 12.5 mg of Co per head per day from either organic or inorganic trace mineral sources. Control steers received alfalfa pellets with no additional Cu, Zn, Mn, or Co. Steers were allowed free access to harvested alfalfa-grass hay throughout the 30-d on-farm backgrounding phase. On day 30 post-weaning, steers were weighed and transported to the feedlot. Steers were blocked by treatment within ranch, stratified by initial body weight, and randomly assigned to one of 36 pens (9-12 head per pen; 12 pens per treatment). Steers remained on the same on-farm backgrounding trace mineral treatments, however, trace mineral treatments were included in the total mixed growing ration. Steers were fed a corn silage-based growing diet throughout the 28 d feedlot receiving period. There was no effect of TM supplementation on performance of steers during the on-farm backgrounding phase. By the end of the 28-d feedlot receiving phase, ADG was similar between control and trace mineral supplemented steers. Steers supplemented with organic TM had greater (p<0.05) ADG than steers supplemented with inorganic TM by the end of the 28-d feedlot receiving phase. Morbidity and mortality rates were similar across treatments.
Effects of Molasses at Different Levels in Concentrate Supplement on Milk Yield of Dairy Cows Grazing Setaria Grass (Setaria Sphacelata) Pasture in Fiji
Eroni, V. Tamani ; Aregheore, E.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1455~1463
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1455
Effects of different levels of molasses in a concentrate supplement on milk yield of cows grazing Setaria grass pastures were investigated. Thirty Friesian cows, 6-7 years old with mean pre-experimental body weight of
kg, in early stage of lactation were randomly allotted to five dietary treatments in a completely randomized design experiment that lasted for 126 days. Experimental dietary treatments were forage alone and forage/concentrate mixtures with molasses included at 0, 5, 10 or 15% levels designated as
, respectively. The parameters studied were voluntary dry matter (DM) intake, average daily live weight change (LWC), milk yield, body condition score (BCS) and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients. The DM and energy contents of Setaria grass were low compared to the concentrate diets. Fibre fractions-NDF, ADF, ADL, hemicellulose and cellulose; and gross energy were higher in concentrate mixtures than in the forage. Total DM intake (forage+concentrate mixtures) was significantly higher (p<0.001) in cows on the concentrate mixtures. LWC was not significantly different (p>0.05) between the cows. Average milk yields were significantly different (p<0.05) between cows. Fat corrected milk (FCM) was similar among cows in the treatments. BCS was better (p<0.001) in cows on concentrate mixtures. Digestibilities of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, ADL, OM, and energy were significantly higher (p<0.001) in cows on
than in those on
. There were no significant differences in the digestibility of DM, CP, NDF, ADF and ADL (p>0.001) in cows on concentrate mixtures. This study therefore demonstrated that lactating dairy cows in Fiji need a level of readily fermented energy source such as molasses in their diets; however, a level above 10% is not nutritionally suitable for lactating dairy cows. Based on data on production parameters-milk yield, fat corrected milk, body condition score and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients-molasses levels that range between 5-10% are recommended, however, 10% is the best and therefore recommended for inclusion in the concentrate mixture of lactating dairy cows on a basal diet of Setaria sphacelata in Fiji.
Effect of the Mixed Oil and Monensin Supplementation, and Feeding Duration of Supplements on c9,t11-CLA Contents in Plasma and Fat Tissues of Korean Native (Hanwoo) Steers
Wang, J.H. ; Choi, S.H. ; Lim, K.W. ; Kim, K.H. ; Song, Man K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1464~1469
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1464
The present study was conducted with twenty-four Korean native (Hanwoo) steers to observe the effect of mixed oil and monensin supplementation and duration of feeding on c9,t11-CLA content in plasma and fat tissues. The steers were randomly assigned to three groups of eight animals each according to body weight. Hanwoo steers in the control group were fed the commercial concentrate for the late fattening stage. The other groups of steers were fed the same diet as control steers, but the concentrate was supplemented with high-
oil mixture (soybean oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil) and fish oil at 6% level of concentrate (DM basis), and monensin (20 ppm). The second and third group of steers was fed the oil mixture supplemented diet with monensin for the last 10 weeks and 20 weeks, respectively, prior to being slaughtered. The oil mixture consisted of 45% soybean oil, 20% sunflower oil, 20% safflower oil and 15% fish oil. Average daily gain (p<0.049) and feed efficiency (p<0.018) of the steers fed the diet supplemented with oil mixture and monensin (OM-M) for 20 weeks were higher than those of the other groups of steers. Dressing percent, fat thickness and longissimus muscle area were not affected by the OM-M supplementation and duration of its feeding. The OM-M supplementation increased the content of total-cholesterol (p<0.0001-0.0007) and HDL-cholesterol (p<0.0001) in the plasma of steers compared to the control diet. The steers fed the OM-M diet had a higher proportion of c9,t11-CLA in plasma (p<0.048-0.044) than the control steers. Feeding the OM-M diet for 20 weeks increased the proportion of CLA in intramuscular (p<0.015), intermuscular (p<0.039) and subcutaneous (p<0.001) fat tissues compared with both steers fed the control diet and the OM-M diet for 10 weeks. Increased (p<0.007) proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids in steers fed the OM-M diet for 20 weeks compared to those in control steers was related to the increased (p<0.001)
and decreased (p<0.001)
proportions in subcutaneous tissue.
Effects of Lactitol and Tributyrin on Growth Performance, Small Intestinal Morphology and Enzyme Activity in Weaned Pigs
Hou, Y.Q. ; Liu, Y.L. ; Hu, J. ; Shen, W.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1470~1477
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1470
One hundred and sixty crossbred pigs (
) weaned at day
were used to investigate the effects of lactitol and tributyrin on performance, small intestinal morphology and enzyme activity. The pigs were assigned to one of five dietary groups (4 pens/diet with 8 pigs/pen) and were fed the negative control diet or the negative control diet supplemented with 10 g/kg glutamine (as a positive control), or 3 g/kg lactitol (
)-D-sorbitol), or 5 g/kg tributyrin (butanoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester), or 3 g/kg lactitol+5 g/kg tributyrin. Body weight and feed intake were measured weekly during the 4-week study. On day 7, four pigs per dietary treatment were sacrificed to examine small intestinal morphology and enzyme activity. The results showed that: (1) Compared with the negative control diet, the positive control diet improved weight gain and feed efficiency during weeks 1-2 and over the entire study (p<0.05), and also decreased duodenal and ileal crypt depth (p<0.05), but did not alter intestinal enzyme activity (p>0.05). Lactitol improved feed efficiency during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study (p<0.05), but did not improve weight gain and feed intake, intestinal morphology or enzyme activity (p>0.05). Tributyrin improved weight gain and reduced feed/gain during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study. Tributyrin significantly decreased crypt depth in the duodenum and ileum, and increased duodenal lactase and ileal maltase activity (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin increased weight gain during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study, and improved feed efficiency during weeks 1-2 and 3-4 and over the entire study (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin increased the jejunal villus height, and decreased the duodenal and ileal crypt depth (p<0.05). Lactitol+tributyrin also increased jejunal lactase and sucrase activity (p<0.05). (2) Compared with the positive control, tributyrin improved weight gain and reduced feed/gain during weeks 3-4 (p<0.05), decreased the ileal crypt depth, and improved the duodenal lactase and sucrase activity (p<0.05). Lactitol+ tributyrin improved weight gain during weeks 3-4, improved feed efficiency during weeks 3-4 and over the entire study, increased the ileal villus height, and increased jejunal lactase, sucrase and maltase activity (p<0.05). These results showed that tributyrin improved performance, intestinal morphology and enzyme activity, while the effect of lactitol was very limited. These results also showed that, compared with glutamine, tributyrin was more effective in improving intestinal morphology and enzyme activity, and tributyrin exerted a superior effect in improving performance as weaning progressed. These observations suggest that, as a chemical for repairing intestinal atrophy, glutamine and tributyrin should be used in the first and second periods of the starter phase, respectively.
The Effects of Dietary Supplementation of L-carnitine and Humic Substances on Performance, Egg Traits and Blood Parameters in Laying Hens
Yalcin, Sakine ; Ergun, Ahmet ; Ozsoy, Bulent ; Yalcin, Suzan ; Erol, Handan ; Onbasilar, Ilyas ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1478~1483
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1478
This experiment was carried out to determine the effects of supplementation of L-carnitine and humic substances alone or in combination in laying hen diets on performance, egg traits and blood parameters. A total of 180 IGH type brown laying hens aged 22 weeks were employed in a completely randomized block design with one control group and three treatment groups. Each group was divided into five replicates as subgroups, each comprising 9 hens. The diets of the first, second and third treatment groups were supplemented with 0.1 g/kg L-carnitine, 1.5 g/kg humic substances (Farmagulator
Dry Plus) and 0.1 g/kg L-carnitine+1.5 g/kg humic substances, respectively. The experimental period lasted 18 weeks. Feeding supplemental carnitine, humic substances or carnitine+humic substances resulted in increases in body weight gain (p<0.05). Dietary treatments did not significantly affect daily feed intake, daily metabolizable energy intake, egg production, egg weight, feed efficiency, mortality, egg shape index, egg breaking strength, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index, egg Haugh unit and the percentages of egg shell, albumen and yolk. Supplementation of humic substances reduced egg yolk cholesterol as mg per g yolk and mg per yolk (p<0.05). Blood serum parameters were not affected by the supplementation of carnitine, humic substances or carnitine+humic substances. The results in this study demonstrated that humic substances supplementation reduced egg cholesterol without adverse effects on performance, egg traits and blood parameters of laying hens. It was concluded that the usage of L-carnitine alone or in combination with humic substances in diets had no beneficial effects in laying hens.
The Effects of High Pressure and Various Binders on the Physico-chemical Properties of Restructured Pork Meat
Hong, Geun-Pyo ; Park, Sung-Hee ; Kim, Jee-Yeon ; Min, Sang-Gi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1484~1489
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1484
This study was carried out to investigate the effect of high pressure and the addition of non-meat proteins on the physico-chemical and binding properties of restructured pork. Pressurizations were carried out at up to 200 MPa and non-meat proteins used as a binder were isolated soy protein (ISP), sodium caseinate (SC), whey protein concentrate (WPC) and egg white powder (EWP). The pH values of all treatments were affected by the level of pressure.
-value of all treatments increased significantly (p<0.05), while both
-value of all treatments showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) with increasing pressure level. Binders could contribute only additive effects on both pH and color of the treatments. It was found that high pressure improved the water binding capacities and binding strength of the treatments. Binders also improved the binding strength of restructured pork. However, SC and WPC had no effect on water binding properties under high pressure. These results indicate that the application of high pressure had more significant effect on restructuring meat than binders.
Development and Verification of an Optimum Composition Model for a Synbiotic Fermented Milk Using Sequential Quadratic Programming Techniques
Chen, Ming-Ju ; Chen, Kun-Nan ; Lin, Chin-Wen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1490~1495
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1490
The purpose of this research was to develop an optimum composition model for a new synbiotic fermented dairy product with high probiotic cell counts, and to experimentally verify this model. The optimum composition model indicated the growth promoter ratio that could provide the highest growth rate for probiotics in this fermented product. Different levels of growth promoters were first blended with milk to improve the growth rates of probiotics, and the optimum composition model was determined. The probiotic viabilities and chemical properties were analyzed for the samples made using the optimal formula. The optimal combination of the growth promoters for the synbiotic fermented milk product was 1.12% peptides, 3% fructooligosaccharides (FOS), and 1.87% isomaltooligosaccharides (IMO). A product manufactured according to the formula of the optimum model was analyzed, showing that the model was effective in improving the viability of both Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp.
Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins in Bovine Longissimus Dorsi and Biceps Femoris Muscles
Kim, S.M. ; Park, M.Y. ; Seo, K.S. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Lee, H.-G. ; Choi, Y.J. ; Kim, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1496~1502
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1496
Skeletal muscle contains slow and fast twitch fibers. These skeletal muscle fibers express type I and type II myosin, respectively, and these myosin isoenzymes have different ATPase activity. The aim of this study was to investigate protein profiles of bovine skeletal muscles by proteomic analysis. Fifty seven spots of distinct proteins were excised and characterized. The expression of sixteen spots was differed in longissimus dorsi muscle with a minimal 2-fold change compared to biceps femoris muscle. The majority of differentially expressed proteins belonged to metabolic regulation-related proteins such as glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase, triosephosphate isomerase and carbonic anhydrase 3. The real time-PCR assay confirmed an increase or induction of specific genes: RGS12TS isoform, GAPDH, triosephosphate isomerase and carbonic anhydrase. These results suggest that the expression of metabolic proteins is under a specific control system in different bovine skeletal muscle. These observations could have significant implications for understanding the physiological regulation of bovine skeletal muscles.
Investigation of Goats' Milk Adulteration with Cows' Milk by PCR
Cheng, Yeong-Hsiang ; Chen, Su-Der ; Weng, Ching-Feng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1503~1507
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1503
Goats' milk adulteration with cows' milk is becoming a big problem. In the past, the urea-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis assay with different motility of
-casein has been applied for the identification of cows' milk adulteration. The detection sensitivity is 1.0%. The aim of this study was to develop a faster and more sensitive method to detect cows' milk which may be present in adulterated goats' milk and goats' milk powder. The published primer was targeted at highly conserved regions in bovine mitochondrial DNA (a 271 bp amplicon). This amplicon was cloned and sequenced to further confirm bovine specific sequence. The chelex-100 was used to separate bovine somatic cells from goats' milk or goats' milk powder samples. Random sampling of different brands of goats' milk powder and tablets from various regions of Taiwan showed the adulterated rate was 20 out of 80 (25%) in goats' milk powders and 12 out of 24 (50%) in goats' milk tablets. With this system, as low as 0.1% cows' milk or cows' milk powder in goat milk or goat milk powder could be identified. This chelex DNA isolation approach provides a fast, highly reproducible and sensitive method for detecting the adulteration of goats' milk products.
Suppressed Cell Proliferation and Differentiation Following an Over-expression of Myostatin is Associated with Inhibited Expression of Insulin-like Growth Factor II and Myogenin in Rat L6 Myoblasts
Jin, Eun-Jung ; Kim, Inae ; Lee, C. Young ; Park, Byung-Chul ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1508~1513
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1508
Myostatin (MSTN) and insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are a known inhibitor and stimulators of proliferation and differentiation of muscle cells, respectively. The present study was performed to investigate the relationship of MSTN-induced growth inhibition to expression of the IGF system components and myogenin, a muscle cell-specific transcription factor, in rat L6 myoblasts. The L6 cells transfected with a green fluorescent protein-MSTN plasmid expression construct had a 47% less cell number than mock-transfected cells after 3-d serum-free culture, accompanied by delayed differentiation which was suggested by inhibited aggregation of cells. Moreover, cells transfected with the expression construct had decreased expression of IGF-II and myogenin genes, but not IGF-I or its receptor genes, as examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. The reduced mitosis of the L6 cells transfected with the MSTN-expression construct increased following an addition of either IGF-I or IGF-II to the culture medium, but not to the level of mock-transfected cells. By contrast, myogenin gene expression in these cells increased after the addition of either IGF to the level of mock-transfected cells. Collectively, these results suggest that the inhibitory effect of MSTN on L6 cell proliferation and differentiation is likely to be partly mediated by serially suppressed expression of IGF-II and myogenin genes, not IGF-I gene.
Ascophyllum Nodosum Supplementation Strategies That Improve Overall Carcass Merit of Implanted English Crossbred Cattle
Anderson, M.J. ; Blanton, J.R. Jr. ; Gleghorn, J. ; Kim, S.W. ; Johnson, J.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 10, 2006, Pages 1514~1518
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1514
English crossbred steers (n = 32) and heifers (n = 32) were fed a corn-based finishing diet and supplemented with 2% Ascophyllum nodosum on a DM basis to for various feeding stages of the 119 d feeding period determine the supplementation strategy that maximized intramuscular fat deposition as determined by quality grade. All cattle were implanted with Ralgro
on d 36 of the trial and re-implanted with Revalor-S
on d 92. Cattle were blocked by sex and divided into one control and three treatment groups receiving Ascophyllum nodosum. Treatment 1 (trt 1) received Ascophyllum nodosum from d 36 to 50 of the feeding period, trt 2 received Ascophyllum nodosum for the last 14 d of the feeding period, and trt 3 which received Ascophyllum nodosum for both d 36-50 and the last 14 d of the feeding period. Cattle were weighted initially (
) and every 28 d following until they reach an average BW of
. No effect for Ascophyllum nodosum supplementation was found on measured performance characteristics. All treatment groups supplemented with Ascophyllum nodosum had higher actual marbling scores (p<0.05) than controls. Trt 1 was found to have a highest marbling score (572.5; p<0.05), whereas the control group having the lowest marbling score (473.8). Trt 1 had a higher quality grade (5.25; p<0.05) than the control (3.94) group, but did not differ from trt 2 (4.56; p = 0.105) and trt 3 (4.75; p = 0.236) where high Select = 4, and low Choice = 5. Trt 2 did not differ from trt 3 (p = 0.655), or the control group (p = 0.140) for quality grade. However, trt 3 did tend to differ (p = 0.057) from the control group for quality grade. Control group animals graded 25% Choice, 62.5% Select; trt 1 graded 75% Choice, 18.8% Select; trt 2 graded 62.5% Choice, 25% Select and trt 3 graded 56.3% Choice and 31.2% Select. Overall, treatment groups had a 39.6% increase in Choice quality grade and a 37.5% decrease in Select quality grade when compared to the control animals.