Go to the main menu
Skip to content
Go to bottom
REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
> Journal Vol & Issue
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Correlations between Heterozygosity at Microsatellite Loci, Mean d
and Body Weight in a Chinese Native Chicken
Liu, G.Q. ; Jiang, X.P. ; Wang, J.Y. ; Wang, Z.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1671~1677
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1671
A total of two hundred twenty eight half-sib chickens were scored for allele size at 20 microsatellite loci to estimate individual heterozygosity and mean
. The averages of microsatellite heterozygosity, allele per locus and mean
were 0.39, 3.6 and 49, respectively. The body weight was measured biweekly from birth to twelve weeks of age. Gompertz function was assumed to simulate body weight and to estimate the growth model parameters. Due to sex effect on body weight, the regression of body weight on heterozygosity as well as on mean
in males and females was analyzed separately in the present study. Positive correlations were found between microsatellite heterozygosity and body weight in males and females (p<0.05). Positive correlation also observed between individual heterozygosity and simulated maximum daily gain estimated from Gompertz function in female chickens (p<0.05). There were no significant correlations between mean
and body weight. The results suggest that local effect hypothesis could explain the correlations between heterozygosity and fitness-related traits in the domesticated chicken population, rather than the general effect hypothesis does.
Sire-maternal Grandsire Model and Sire Model in Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Average Daily Gain and Carcass Traits of Japanese Black Cattle
Kim, Jong-Bok ; Lee, Chaeyoung ; Tsuyuki, Tsutomu ; Shimogiri, Takeshi ; Okamoto, Shin ; Maeda, Yoshizane ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1678~1684
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1678
The objectives of this study were to estimate genetic parameters and sire breeding values for average daily gain (ADG) and carcass traits using sire-maternal grandsire model with REML approach, sire model with REML approach, sire model without relationships among sires and with REML and ANOVA approach, and to investigate advantages and disadvantages of these methods. Data were collected from 42,325 Japanese Black steers and heifers finished and slaughtered from 1991 to 2004. Traits analyzed in this study were average daily gain (ADG) during the fattening period, live weight at slaughter (LW), cold carcass weight (CW), estimated lean yield percentage (LYE), longissimus muscle area (LMA), subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT), rib thickness (RT), and marbling score (BMS). Bivariate analyses were also performed to obtain genetic and phenotypic correlation coefficients among traits. Estimated breeding values were obtained from each model, and simple and rank correlations among breeding values from each model were calculated. Estimates of heritability using the four models ranged from 0.25 to 0.31 in ADG, from 0.21 to 0.24 in LW, from 0.23 to 0.27 in CW, from 0.10 to 0.17 in DP, from 0.40 to 0.42 in LYE, from 0.19 to 0.31 in LMA, from 0.31 to 0.34 in SFT, from 0.26 to 0.33 in RT, and from 0.18 to 0.44 in BMS. The differences in heritability estimates using the four models seemed to be feasible in ADG, CW, DP, LMA, RT, and BMS. Genetic correlation coefficients of ADG with CW, SFT, RT and BMS were moderate to high and positive while the genetic correlation coefficients between ADG and LYE was low and negative. Correlation coefficients of BMS with SFT were negligible for both genetic and phenotypic correlations. The correlations of estimates evaluated from sire models with those from sire-maternal grandsire model were not large enough to convincing that breeding values using a sire model were corresponding to those using a sire-maternal grand sire model. If information of maternal grand sires are not available, the sire model with incomplete pedigree information included only sire of sire (Model 2) is optimal among the sire models evaluated in this study.
Evaluation of Genetic Variability in Kenkatha Cattle by Microsatellite Markers
Pandey, A.K. ; Sharma, Rekha ; Singh, Yatender ; Prakash, B. ; Ahlawat, S.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1685~1690
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1685
Kenkatha cattle, a draft purpose breed, which can survive in a harsh environment on low quality forage, was explored genetically exploiting FAO-suggested microsatellite markers. The microsatellite genotypes were derived by means of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by electrophoretic separation in agarose gels. The PCR amplicons were visualized by silver staining. The allelic as well as genotypic frequencies, heterozygosities and gene diversity were estimated using standard techniques. A total of 125 alleles was distinguished by the 21 microsatellite markers investigated. All the microsatellites were highly polymorphic with mean allelic number of 5.95
1.9 (ranging from 3-10 per locus). The observed heterozygosity in the population ranged between 0.250 and 0.826 with a mean of 0.540
0.171, signifying considerable genetic variation. Bottleneck was examined assuming all three mutation models which showed that the population has not experienced bottleneck in recent past. The population displayed a heterozygote deficit of 21.4%. The study suggests that the breed needs to be conserved by providing purebred animals in the breeding tract.
Association of Polymorphisms in the Bovine Leptin Gene with Ultrasound Measurements for Improving in Korean Cattle
Kong, H.S. ; Oh, J.D. ; Lee, S.G. ; Hong, Y.S. ; Song, W.I. ; Lee, S.J. ; Kim, H.C. ; Yoo, B.H. ; Lee, H.K. ; Jeon, G.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1691~1695
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1691
The identification method that inflects real time ultrasound (RUT) and the potential application of marker assisted selection (MAS) for improvement of a cow population of Hanwoo (Korean Native cattle) was studied. The averages of RUT longissimus muscle area, RUT fat thickness, and RUT marbling score scanned at the 13th rib were 55.78
, 3.70 mm and 3.83 scores, respectively. We investigated the effects of the two SNPs (Kpn2 I and Msp I) in the leptin gene on carcass traits for Hanwoo cows by using ultrasound measurements. Genotype CC of the Kpn2 I had a significantly higher effect on back fat thickness (4.23 mm) and longissimus muscle area (57.57
) than genotype TT (3.14 mm, 53.93
, respectively, p<0.05). Genotype AA of the Msp I had a significantly higher effect only on marbling score (5.37) than genotype AB (3.57, p<0.05) and BB (3.37, p<0.05). Significant effects of SNPs in the leptin gene were found for the ultrasound measures of body composition in live cattle.
Genetic Persistency of First Lactation Milk Yield Estimated Using Random Regression Model for Indian Murrah Buffaloes
Geetha, E. ; Chakravarty, A.K. ; Vinaya Kumar, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1696~1701
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1696
A random regression model was applied for the first time for the analysis of test day records and to study the genetic persistency of first lactation milk yield of Indian Murrah buffaloes. Wilmink's Function was chosen to describe the shape of lactation curves. Heritabilities of test day milk yield varied from 0.33 to 0.58 in different test days. The highest heritability was found in the initial test day (
day) milk yield. Genetic correlations among test day milk yields were higher in the initial test day milk yield and decreased when the test day interval was increased. The magnitude of genetic correlations between test day and 305 day milk yield varied from 0.25 to 0.99. The genetic persistencies of first lactation milk yield were estimated based on daily breeding values using two methods.
is the genetic persistency estimated as a summation of the deviation of estimated daily breeding value on days to attain peak yield from each day after days to attain peak yield to different lactation days.
is the genetic persistency estimated as the additional genetic yield (gained or lost) from days to attain peak yield to estimated breeding value on different lactation days relative to an average buffalo having the same yield on days to attain peak yield. The mean genetic persistency on 90, 120, 180, 240, 278 and 305 days in milk was estimated as -4.23, -21.67, -101.67, -229.57, -330.06 and -388.64, respectively by
, whereas by
on same days in milk were estimated as -3.96 (-0.32 kg), -23.94 (-0.87 kg), -112.81 (-1.96 kg), -245.83 (-2.81 kg), -350.04 (-3.28 kg) and -407.58 (-3.40 kg) respectively. Higher magnitude of rank correlations indicated that the ranking of buffaloes based on their genetic persistency in both methods were similar for evaluation of genetic persistency of buffaloes. Based on the estimated range of genetic persistency three types of genetic persistency were identified. Genetic correlations among genetic persistency in different days in milk and between genetic persistencies on the same day in milk were very high. The genetic correlations between genetic persistency for different days in milk and estimated breeding value for 305 DIM was increased from 90 DIM to 180 DIM, and highest around 240 DIM which indicates a minimum of 240 days as an optimum first lactation length might be required for genetic evaluation of Indian Murrah buffaloes.
Evaluation of a Fine-mapping Method Exploiting Linkage Disequilibrium in Livestock Populations: Simulation Study
Kim, JongJoo ; Farnir, Frederic ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1702~1705
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1702
A simulation study was conducted to evaluate a fine-mapping method exploiting population-wide linkage disequilibrium. Data were simulated according to the pedigree structure based on a large paternal half-sib family population with a total of 1,034 or 2,068 progeny. Twenty autosomes of 100 cM were generated with 5 cM or 1 cM marker intervals for all founder individuals in the pedigree, and marker alleles and a number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) explaining a total of 70% phenotypic variance were generated and randomly assigned across the whole chromosomes, assuming linkage equilibrium between the markers. The founder chromosomes were then descended through the pedigree to the current offspring generation, including recombinants that were generated by recombination between adjacent markers. Power to detect QTL was high for the QTL with at least moderate size, which was more pronounced with larger sample size and denser marker map. However, sample size contributed much more significantly to power to detect QTL than map density to the precise estimate of QTL position. No QTL was detected on the test chromosomes in which QTL was not assigned, which did not allow detection of false positive QTL. For the multiple QTL that were closely located, the estimates of the QTL positions were biased, except when the QTL were located on the right marker positions. Our fine mapping simulation results indicate that construction of dense maps and large sample size is needed to increase power to detect QTL and mapping precision for QTL position.
Analysis on Association of a SNP in the Chicken OBR Gene with Growth and Body Composition Traits
Wang, Ying ; Li, Hui ; Zhang, YuanDan ; Gu, ZhiLiang ; Li, ZhiHui ; Wang, QiGui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1706~1710
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1706
Leptin receptor (OBR) is a member of the class I cytokine receptor family. It signals mainly via the JAK/STAT pathway and plays an important role in regulating body energy storage and metabolism. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the OBR gene on chicken growth and body composition. Broiler lines selected divergently for or against abdominal fat were used. Primers for the exon9-region in the OBR gene were designed using chicken genomic sequences from the public genome domain. A C/A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was found and its three genotypes (AA, AB and BB) were identified in this population. The results showed that the OBR polymorphism was associated with fatness traits, such as abdominal fat weight and abdominal fat percentage. This research suggests that OBR or a linked gene has effect on fat deposition in the chicken.
Morphological Criteria of Bovine Ovaries for Predicting Retrieval Efficiency of Preantral Follicles
Choi, Moon Hwan ; Oh, Ji Hwan ; Kim, Tae Min ; Han, Jae Yong ; Lim, Jeong Mook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1711~1715
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1711
To predict the number of preantral (primordial, primary and secondary) follicles retrieved from bovine ovaries, we examined the relationship between morphological parameters of ovaries and number of preantral follicles retrieved mechanically. The preantral follicles were retrieved mechanically by slicing ovarian tissue and the influences of size of the ovaries, number of antral follicles, and presence of cystic follicle and corpus luteum on the retrieval were evaluated. Total 77 ovaries were used and significant (p<0.05) relationship was detected between the number of antral follicles and the presence of cystic follicles, and the retrieval number. More preantral follicles were retrieved from the ovaries having more than 20 antral follicles than those having less than 20 antral follicles (17,760
5,637 vs. 3,689
537) in the ovarian cortex. The retrieval number was significantly reduced in cystic ovaries compared with non-cystic ovaries (5,167
825 vs. 20,631
6,507). However, neither ovary size (<3.5, 3.5 to 4.0, 4.0 to 4.5 and >4.5 cm) nor the presence of corpus luteum affected the follicle retrieval. In conclusion, the number of preantral follicles retrieved from the ovaries can simply be predicted by the number of antral follicles and the presence of cystic follicles in the ovarian cortex.
Influence of Osmolality of Complete Semen Extender on Motion Characteristics of Frozen-thawed Ram Spermatozoa
Joshi, Anil ; Mathur, A.K. ; Naqvi, S.M.K. ; Mittal, J.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1716~1721
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1716
The present study was conducted to observe the effect of osmolality of glycerolated TEST-yolk glycerol extenders on post-thawing sperm kinematics of ram spermatozoa of the native Malpura breed maintained in a semi-arid tropical environment. Good quality semen obtained from adult rams was pooled, split and diluted to 1,000 million spermatozoa per ml in complete TEST-yolk-glycerol extenders of 900, 1,200, 1,500 and 1,800 mOsm/kg osmolality. Diluted semen samples were loaded in 0.25 ml straws and cooled down to
freezing temperature at the rate of
per minute under controlled conditions before plunging into liquid nitrogen for storage. The thawing of straws was performed at
in a water bath for 10 seconds and sperm kinematics of the frozen-thawed spermatozoa were assessed by a computer-assisted sperm analysis technique. Osmolality of diluent had no significant effect on post-thawing % motility, % rapid, % medium and % slow moving frozen-thawed spermatozoa but significantly (p< 0.05) affected the % linearity and % straightness. The post-thawing % motility and % rapid motile spermatozoa were highest in samples extended in diluent of 1,500 mOsm/kg osmolality and lowest in 900 mOsm/kg. The curvilinear velocity of spermatozoa was significantly (p<0.05) higher for samples extended in 1,800 mOsm/kg, compared to those in 900 and 1,200 mOsm/kg, but the effect was not significantly different to those extended in diluent of 1,500 mOsm/kg osmolality. The study indicated that ram spermatozoa could tolerate a wide osmolality range for dilution in the complete TEST-yolk-glycerol extender for their cryosurvival. The highest recovery of motile spermatozoa following thawing was achieved in samples extended in the TEST-yolk-glycerol diluent of 1,500 mOsm/kg osmolality.
Non-traditional Straws: Alternate Feedstuffs for Ruminants
Kaushal, S. ; Wadhwa, M. ; Bakshi, M.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1722~1727
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1722
The nutritive value of 4 straws, obtained after thrashing of seeds from fodder crops, was assessed as complete feed for ruminants. Sixteen male Murrah buffaloes (liveweight 365.8
19.5 kg), were divided into 4 equal groups and offered ad lib. straw of either Trifolium resupinatum, Trifolium alexandrium, Medicago sativa or Lolium perenne, supplemented with minerals and vitamin A, for 40 days in a completely randomized design. Simultaneously, each straw was offered to 3 rumen fistulated male buffaloes in order to assess the biochemical changes in the rumen. Compared to other straws M. sativa straw had higher (p<0.05) organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), acid-detergent fiber (ADF) and cellulose content. L .perenne had the highest (p<0.05) hemicellulose and lowest (p<0.05) CP and acid-detergent lignin (ADL) content. T. resupinatum had the lowest concentration of cell wall constituents (CWC). The digestibility of nutrients of T. resupinatum and L. perenne straw was similar, but higher (p<0.05) than that of other straws. M.sativa straw showed highest (p<0.05) digestibility of CP. The highest OM digestibility of T. resupinatum and CP digestibility of M. sativa were responsible for highest (p<0.05) total volatile fatty acids and trichloroacetic acid precipitable nitrogen in the strained rumen liquor. The digestible crude protein (DCP) was highest (p<0.05) in M. sativa followed by that in T. alexandrium. The total purine derivatives excreted in urine varied from 0.22-0.32 mmol/kg
. The efficiency of microbial protein synthesis indicated that OM of straws of M. sativa and that of T. alexandrium was used more (p<0.05) efficiently. The microbial protein synthesized was highest in T. resupinatum, but statistically similar to other groups. The values for N-retention and apparent biological value were highest for L. perenne, though comparable with that of M. sativa and T. alexandrium. The available metabolizable energy (ME) was highest (p<0.05) in T. resupinatum followed by that in L. perenne and lowest in M. sativa. It was concluded that all the straws, supplemented with minerals and vitamin A, could be fed exclusively to adult ruminants with no adverse affect, as animals were able to maintain body weight (372
Effects of Green Tea (Camellia sinensis) Waste Silage and Polyethylene Glycol on Ruminal Fermentation and Blood Components in Cattle
Nishida, T. ; Eruden, B. ; Hosoda, K. ; Matsuyama, H. ; Nakagawa, K. ; Miyazawa, T. ; Shioya, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1728~1736
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1728
The effects of green tea (Camellia sinensis) waste silage and supplemental polyethylene glycol (PEG) on rumen fermentation and blood components were studied in cattle. Six Holstein steers were fed three diets in a 3
3 Latin square design, replicated twice. One diet was a control with no added silage, and the other two diets were supplemented (20% of the dry matter) with green tea waste silage either with (PEG) or without PEG (tea). Most of the fermentation parameters including major volatile fatty acids (VFA) were not affected by the diet treatments. The concentrations of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in the PEG group and urea nitrogen in the tea and PEG groups were greater than those in the control before morning feeding. The plasma 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid equivalent concentration was not different before morning feeding, but 3 h after morning feeding, its concentrations in both the tea and PEG groups were higher than in the control. Although the concentration of plasma vitamin A in the animals was not affected by feeding green tea waste silage, the concentrations of plasma vitamin E were significantly higher in the tea and PEG groups than in the control, both before and 3 h after morning feeding. The results from the present study suggest that feeding diets containing 20% of the dietary dry matter as green tea waste silage to Holstein steers has no negative impact on their ruminal fermentation, and increases their plasma antioxidative activity and concentration of vitamin E.
Effects of Dietary Protein Level on Dry Matter Intake, and Production and Chemical Composition of Velvet Antler in Spotted Deer Fed Forest By-product Silage
Jeon, B.T. ; Kim, M.H. ; Lee, S.M. ; Moon, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1737~1741
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1737
The aim of this study was to provide basic information to allow improved nutritional management for velvet production by investigating the effects of dietary protein levels on dry matter intake and production and chemical composition of velvet antler in spotted deer (Cervus nippon). Twenty-four spotted deer stags were assigned to 4 unreplicated groups, Control (15% CP in diet, higher dry matter), CP10 (10% CP), CP15 (15% CP) and CP20 (20% CP). The velvet antlers were harvested from each stag on the 55th day after casting of the buttons from the previous set, measured for their size and weight, and the chemical composition of each antler was determined in three sections (top, middle, and base). Dry matter (DMI) and crude protein (CPI) intake were highest (p<0.05) for the Control and increased progressively (p<0.05) with increasing dietary protein level. Although not significant, mean length and girth of the main antler beam tended to be larger in either left or right beam with increasing protein level in the diet, longest in CP20 and shortest in CP10. Velvet antler production was lowest in CP10 and highest in CP20, which differed significantly (p<0.05). Only negligible differences were found between groups in chemical composition. It is concluded that dietary protein clearly influenced dry matter intake and velvet antler production, whereas there was comparatively little effect of dietary protein on chemical composition of antler in spotted deer.
Monitoring Feeding Adequacy in Dairy Cows Using Milk Urea and Milk Protein Contents under Farm Condition
Dhali, A. ; Mehla, R.K. ; Sirohi, S.K. ; Mech, A. ; Karunakaran, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1742~1748
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1742
The experiment was conducted on 264 crossbred Karan-Fries (Holstein Friesian
Tharparkar) cows, over one year to explore the possibility of using milk urea (MU) concentration and milk protein content to monitor feeding adequacy under farm condition and to investigate the effects of different animal factors and season on MU concentration. Individual noon (1200 to 1300 h) milk samples were collected once in every month and analysed for urea and protein contents. Representative feed samples were also collected on the same day of milk collection and were analysed for CP content. A significant positive association (p<0.01) between MU concentration and milk yield was observed. MU concentrations (mg/dl) were found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher and lower in first lactation (44.8
0.7) and in early lactation stage (40.7
0.5), respectively. Average MU values were found to be significantly (p<0.01) higher in winter (50.7
0.3) and lower in summer (32.9
0.6). During the investigation, of the total MU observations, 50.3% were within the range of 30 to 50 mg/dl, 21.4% were <30 mg/dl and only 7.5% were >60 mg/dl. MU concentration was found to be associated significantly (p<0.05) with CP content of forages rather than concentrate. A close positive association (p<0.01) between MU level and daily milk protein (DMP) yield was observed during the investigation. The regression equation, DMP yield (g) = -24.6+33.5 daily milk yield (kg) +0.9 MU (mg/dl) was developed to establish the reference level of DMP yield. The result indicates that the effect of parity and stage of lactation may be ignored while interpreting MU values. However, reference MU values may be standardised separately for high milk yielders as level of milk yield contributes significantly to the variation of MU. The study revealed that the MU values together with DMP yield and milk protein content could be used as a potential non-invasive pointer to monitor feeding adequacy in dairy cows under farm conditions.
Influence of Rumen Escape Starch on α-Amylase Activity in Pancreatic Tissue and Small Intestinal Digesta of Lambs
Xu, M. ; Yao, J.H. ; Wang, Y.H. ; Wang, F.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1749~1754
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1749
Two slaughter experiments were conducted to determine the effects of rumen escape starch, by altering dietary starch concentration and corn particle size, on
-amylase activity in the pancreas and the small intestinal digesta of lambs. In experiment 1, 18 wether lambs (28.5
1.6 kg) were fed low, medium or high starch diets for 35 d and slaughtered. Dietary starch concentrations linearly increased rumen escape starch (p<0.05). Pancreatic
-amylase activity was lower (p<0.05) in lambs fed the low starch diet. When expressed per gram of digesta,
-amylase activity was lower in lambs fed the low starch diet. However, expressed as total activity,
-amylase in the digesta was greater in lambs fed the medium starch diet. In experiment 2, 12 wether lambs (23.5
0.3 kg) were fed diets with finely cracked corn, coarsely cracked corn and whole corn. These dietary treatments continued for 35 d before tissue collection. Rumen escape starch increased with increasing corn particle size (p<0.05).
-amylase activity in the pancreas and the small intestinal digesta was significantly greater (p<0.05) in lambs fed the coarsely cracked corn. These data suggest that increasing rumen escape starch results in a quadratic increase in total
-amylase activity in the pancreas and the small intestinal digesta. Maximum
-amylase activity is reached when rumen escape starch is about 100-120 g/d in 25-30 kg lambs.
Energy Expenditure in Crossbred Cattle Fed Paddy Straw of Different Form
Bhatta, Raghavendra ; Kumar, Vijay ; Sridhar, Manpal ; Singh, Khub ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1755~1760
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1755
Studies were carried out at the National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology, India to determine the effect of feeding chopped paddy straw (Oryza sativa) on the energy expenditure in crossbred cattle. Four crossbred cattle male, aged 5-6 years and weighing about 450 kg were used for this study. Three experimental trials, one each for the feeding of un-chopped paddy straw offered ad libitum (UCA), chopped paddy straw fed at restricted level (CR) and chopped paddy straw offered ad libitum (CA) were conducted. The quantity of un-chopped paddy straw consumed during UCA was assumed as the voluntary intake by the cattle and the same quantity was offered after chopping during CR. Each trial comprised of 21 d preliminary feeding period and 5 d of observation recording period. Expired gas was collected in Douglas bags using a face-mask and three-way valve at 6 hourly intervals i.e., at 09.30, 15.30, 21.30, and 03.30 h throughout the observation period. Expired gas and ambient air inspired by the animals were analyzed for the oxygen content through paramagnetic oxygen analyzer. Energy expenditure (EE) by the animals was calculated by determining the volume of oxygen consumed per minute (STP) and multiplying by 4.825. Paddy straw used in all the three trials contained (g/kg DM) 90.0 CP, 786 OM, 700 NDF, 489 ADF, 357 Cellulose and 60.0 ADL. Metabolizable energy (ME) was 6.9 MJ/kg DM. Dry matter intake (DMI) both in UCA and CR was about 6.8 kg, except that it was chopped in CR. Chopping has resulted in 32% improvement (9 kg) in DMI of CA as compared to that of UCA. Although ME intake was similar in UCA and CR (47.2 MJ/day), energy expenditure (EE) was higher in UCA (23.3 MJ) when compared to that of CR (19.5 MJ). The ME intake (63.3 MJ) as well as EE (27.1 MJ) was highest in CA. Energy expenditure when expressed as MJ/kg DMI was 3.48, 2.90 and 3.12; whereas as per cent of ME intake it was 50, 41 and 44 in UCA, CR and CA respectively. Our study has unequivocally confirmed that chopping of poor quality roughages like paddy straw has definite advantages not only in terms of improving the intake by decreasing the time taken for ingestion but also in reducing the energy cost of eating.
Influence of Transgenic Corn on the In vitro Rumen Microbial Fermentation
Sung, Ha Guyn ; Min, Dong Myung ; Kim, Dong Kyun ; Li, De Yun ; Kim, Hyun Jin ; Upadhaya, Santi Devi ; Ha, J.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1761~1768
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1761
In this study, the comparative effects of transgenic corn (Mon 810 and Event 176) and isogenic corn (DK729) were investigated for their influence on in vitro rumen fermentation. This study consisted of three treatments with 0.25 g rice straw, 0.25 g of corn (Mon810/Event176/DK 729) mixed with 30 ml rumen fluid-basal medium in a serum bottle. They were prepared in oxygen free conditions and incubated at
in a shaking incubator. The influence of transgenic corn on the number of bacterial population, F. succinogenes (cellulolytic) and S. bovis (amylolytic), was quantified using RT-PCR. Fermentative parameters were measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h and substrate digestibility was measured at 12 and 24 h. No significant differences were observed in digestibility of dry matter, NDF, ADF at 12 and 24 h for both transgenic and isogenic form of corns (p>0.05) as well as in fermentative parameters. Fluid pH remained unaffected by hybrid trait and decreased with VFA accumulation as incubation time progressed. No influence of corn trait itself was seen on concentration of total VFA, acetic, propionic, butyric and valeric acids. There were no significant differences (p<0.05) in total gas production, composition of gas (methane and hydrogen) at all times of sampling, as well as in NH3-N production. Bacterial quantification using RT-PCR showed that the population number was not affected by transgenic corn. From this study it is concluded that transgenic corn (Mon810 and Event 176) had no adverse effects on rumen fermentation and digestibility compared to isogenic corn. However, regular monitoring of these transgenic feeds is needed by present day researchers to enable consumers with the option to select their preferred food source for animal or human consumption.
Effects of Dietary Hizikia fusiformis on Growth and Immune Responses in Juvenile Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus)
Pham, Minh Anh ; Lee, Kyeong-Jun ; Lee, Bong-Joo ; Lim, Se-Jin ; Kim, Sung-Sam ; Lee, Young-Don ; Heo, Moon-Soo ; Lee, Ki-Wan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1769~1775
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1769
An eight week feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of hizikia (Hizikia fusiformis) on growth performance, immune responses and resistance of juvenile olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) to Streptococcus iniae. Four experimental diets (designated as Hiz 0, Hiz 2, Hiz 4 and Hiz 6) were formulated to be isonitrogenous (50% crude protein) and isocaloric (17.2 MJ/kg DM). Hizikia powder was added at 0%, 2%, 4% and 6% in diets Hiz 0, Hiz 2, Hiz 4 and Hiz 6, respectively. Three replicates of fish groups (15 fish/tank) were fed one of the experimental diets. At the end of feeding trial, no significant differences were observed in final body weight, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio, feed utilization and feed intake among fish groups fed the experimental diets. However, there was clear trend that the growth performances of fish were improved by the increment of dietary hizikia showing a positive growth effects. Mean phagocytes activated with nitro-blue-tetrazolium were significantly increased with the increment of dietary hizikia. The cumulative mortality was significantly (p<0.05) lower in the fish groups fed Hiz 6 diet (no mortality) than that in the other fish groups for 15 days of S. iniae challenge test. The findings of this study suggest that a dietary supplementation of hizikia could enhance the nonspecific immune response and improve the resistance of juvenile olive flounder to S. iniae.
Quantification of Karanjin, Tannin and Trypsin Inhibitors in Raw and Detoxified Expeller and Solvent Extracted Karanj (Pongamia glabra) Cake
Panda, A.K. ; Sastry, V.R.B. ; Kumar, A. ; Saha, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1776~1783
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1776
Despite being a rich source of protein (28-34%), karanj (Pongamia glabra) cake is found to be bitter in taste and toxic in nature owing to the presence of flavonoid (karanjin), tannin and trypsin inhibitor, thereby restricting its safe inclusion in poultry rations. Feeding of karanj cake at higher levels (>10%) adversely affected the growth performance of poultry due to the presence of these toxic factors. Therefore, efforts were made to detoxify karanj cake by various physico-chemical methods such as dry heat, water washing, pressure cooking, alkali and acid treatments and microbiological treatment with Sacchraromyces cerevisiae (strain S-49). The level of residual karanjin in raw and variously processed cake was quantified by high performance liquid chromatography and tannin and trypsin inhibitor was quantified by titrametric and colorimetric methods, respectively. The karanjin, tannin and trypsin inhibitor levels in such solvent and expeller pressed karanj cake were 0.132, 3.766 and 6.550 and 0.324, 3.172 and 8.513%, respectively. Pressure-cooking of solvent extracted karanj cake (SKC) substantially reduced the karanjin content at a cake:water ratio of 1:0.5 with 30-minute cooking. Among chemical methods, 1.5% (w/w) NaOH was very effective in reducing the karanjin content.
treatment was also equally effective in karanjin reduction, but at a higher concentration of 3.0% (w/w). A similar trend was noticed with respect to treatment of expeller pressed karanj cake (EKC). Pressure cooking of EKC was effective in reducing the karanjin level of the cake. Among chemical methods alkali treatment [2% (w/w) NaOH] substantially reduced the karanjin levels of the cake. Other methods such as water washing, dry heat, HCl, glacial acetic acid, urea-ammoniation, combined acid and alkali, and microbiological treatments marginally reduced the karanjin concentration of SKC and EKC. Treatment of both SKC and EKC with 1.5% and 2.0% NaOH (w/w) was the most effective method in reducing the tannin content. Among the various methods of detoxification, dry heat, pressure cooking and microbiological treatment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae were substantially effective in reducing the trypsin inhibitor activity in both SKC and EKC. Based on reduction in karanjin, in addition to tannin and trypsin inhibitor activity, detoxification of SKC with either 1.5% NaOH or 3%
, w/w) and with 2% NaOH were more effective. Despite the effectiveness of pressure cooking in reducing the karanjin content, it could not be recommended for detoxification because of the practical difficulties in adopting the technology as well as for economic considerations.
Phytobiotics and Organic Acids As Potential Alternatives to the Use of Antibiotics in Nursery Pig Diets
Kommera, S.K. ; Mateo, R.D. ; Neher, F.J. ; Kim, S.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1784~1789
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1784
Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of phytobiotics and organic acids on growth performance of nursery pigs as an alternative to antibiotics. Phytobiotics refer bioactive compounds from plant materials including essential oils and herbal extracts. In Exp. 1,144 pigs, weaned at 23.4
0.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments. Treatment diets were: 1) NC (no antibiotics and no phytobiotics); 2) PC (NC+carbadox, 50 mg/kg); and 3) PB (NC+phytobiotics; 0.1% PEP1000-
. Each treatment had six replicates with eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the experimental diets for 5 wks in 3 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 2 wk; phase 3 for 1 wk). In Exp. 2, 192 pigs, weaned at 19.2
0.3 d age, were allotted to three dietary treatments: 1) NC; 2) PC; and 3) PBO (NC+phytobiotics; 0.2% or 0.1% PEP1000-
and organic acids; 0.4% or 0.2%
for the phase 1 and 2, respectively) with eight replicates per treatment and eight pigs per pen. Pigs were fed the assigned diets for 5 wks in 2 phases (phase 1 for 2 wk; phase 2 for 3 wk). Body weights were measured at the beginning of the experiment and at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Feed intake was measured at the end of each week in both Exp. 1 and 2. Diarrhea score was measured daily during the entire period for Exp. 1 and during the phase 1 for Exp. 2. In Exp. 1, the PC had a higher (p<0.05) overall ADG than the NC, but the overall ADG of the PB did not differ (p>0.05) from the NC or the PC. In Exp. 2, the overall ADG did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period. The overall ADFI and the overall gain:feed ratio did not differ (p>0.05) among all the treatments during the entire experimental period in both Exp. 1 and 2. The PC had a higher (p<0.05) overall diarrhea score (harder stools) than the NC and the PB in Exp. 1, and a higher (p<0.05) overall diarrhea score than the NC in Exp. 2. The overall diarrhea score of the PB and the PBO did not differ (p>0.05) from the NC or the PC in Exp. 1 and 2. Results from this study show that the growth of pigs fed the diets with phytobiotics or the combination of phytobiotics and organic acids did not differ from those both with antibiotics and without antibiotics when tested in an environmentally controlled research facility. Further experiments are required to study the growth performance in disease challenged conditions.
Effect of Feeding Cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) High Black Rice Bran on Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Measurements, Growth Performance and Pork Quality of Pigs
Kil, D.Y. ; Ryu, S.N. ; Piao, L.G. ; Kong, C.S. ; Han, S.J. ; Kim, Y.Y ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1790~1798
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1790
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cyanidin 3-glucoside (C3G) high black rice bran on nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality of pigs. In Exp. I, a total of fifteen pigs (19.91
1.80 kg, average initial body weight) were used in assay of nutrient digestibility and blood measurements. All pigs were allotted to 5 treatments with 3 replicates according to a completely randomized design (CRD) in an individual metabolic crate. Treatments included 1) CON: basal diet, 2) BRB-2: basal+brown rice bran 2%, 3) BRB-4: basal+brown rice bran 4%, 4) CRB-2: basal+C3G high black rice bran 2% and 5) CRB-4: basal+C3G high black rice bran 4%. The digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fat (CF), crude ash (CA) and crude fiber (CF) was not affected by dietary treatments. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol concentrations were not affected by addition of C3G high black rice bran. However, at the end of experiment, pigs fed rice bran showed decreased tendency in total cholesterol concentration. Especially pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed significantly lower total cholesterol concentration compared to pigs fed brown rice bran (p<0.03). There was numerically lower total cholesterol concentration with increasing levels of black rice bran in the diet. In terms of serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT) and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), there were no significant differences among treatments, even though pigs fed CRB-4 showed the lowest GOT concentration compared to other pigs. In Exp. II, sixteen finishing pigs (average initial body weight 89.96
0.35 kg) were divided into 4 treatments to investigate the effect of feeding C3G high black rice bran on growth performance and pork quality. There were no significant differences in average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) among the treatments. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed numerical decrease in ADG and increase in FCR while not effecting feed intake. There was no significant difference in live weight, carcass weight, carcass rate, backfat thickness and carcass grade. However, pigs fed C3G high black rice bran tended to show lower backfat thickness than pigs fed basal diet. Pigs fed C3G high black rice bran showed a tendency of decreased TBA value than pigs fed basal diet, although there was no overall significant difference among treatments. In conclusion, nutrient digestibility, blood measurements, growth performance and pork quality were not significantly affected by feeding C3G high black rice bran to pigs. However, C3G high black rice bran might have an effect on lowering serum total cholesterol and decrease the TBA value in pork compared to control group and these effects might be due to high concentration of antioxidative compounds in C3G high black rice bran.
Effects of Marbling on Meat Quality Characteristics and Intramuscular Connective Tissue of Beef Longissimus Muscle
Li, Chunbao ; Zhou, Guanghong ; Xu, Xinglian ; Zhang, Jingbo ; Xu, Shuqin ; Ji, Yanfeng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 12, 2006, Pages 1799~1808
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1799
This study was designed to explore the effects of marbling on meat quality characteristics and intramuscular connective tissue of beef longissimus muscle. Chemical determinations, histological and mechanical measurements were performed on the raw and cooked meat at d 4 postmortem. The results showed that crude fat, collagen, fiber diameter and maximum transition temperature of intramuscular connective tissue increased (p<0.05) with the increase of marbling score. The cooking losses, collagen solubility, WBSF and perimysial thickness decreased (p<0.05) with the increasing marbling. WBSF correlated (p<0.05) with moisture, crude fat, collagen, cooking losses, sarcomere length and perimysial thickness. The development of marbling results in the decline in cooking losses, the avoidance of sarcomere shortening, and the disorganization of the perimysia, which accounts for the improvement of beef tenderness.