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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Effect of Alpha-lactalbumin Gene Polymorphism on Milk Production Traits in Water Buffalo
Dayal, S. ; Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Vohra, V. ; Kumar, P. ; Sharma, Arjava ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 305~308
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.305
A genetic study was conducted to elucidate the effect of alpha-Lactalbumin (
-LA) gene polymorphism on milk production traits involving total milk yield and daily milk yield during first lactation in two breeds of water buffaloes namely, Murrah and Bhadawari. Single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) was carried out to explore genetic polymorphism present at this locus. For this study, exon 1 region of
-LA was analyzed. Finally, polymorphism data was associated with milk production traits by employing least square analysis. In Murrah buffalo, five genotypes such as AB, BB, BC, CC and CD and four alleles A, B, C and D were detected whereas in Bhadawari buffalo two genotypes namely, AB and BC and three alleles namely, A, B and C were found. Genotypes showed significant effects (
) on total milk yield and daily milk yield in Bhadawari buffalo but had non-significant effects on these traits in Murrah buffalo.
Study on Milkability Traits in Holstein Cows
Lee, D.H. ; Choudhary, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 309~314
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.309
The present investigation was undertaken to study the milkability characteristics of Holstein cows. Out of 6,660 initial records 4,607 records were finally included in the analysis after deleting some records with an abnormal range of values for the traits considered. These 4,607 Holstein cows belonged to a total of 122 herds located in a province in Korea. The 'LactoCorder' instrument was used to electronically record the milkability traits at the milking parlor. A total of 19 traits were studied which were broadly classified into milk yield, milking speed, milking time and the electrical conductivity related traits. The SAS 9.1 statistical software was used to carry out analyses. The average maximum milk flow per minute was 3.21 kg/min, while the average milking speed during the main milking process (DMHG) had a mean value of 2.30 kg/min. The total milk yield was 14.14 kg, 62% of which was milked during the first three minutes of the milking. The average total milking time was 8.23 min. Among the three phases of the main milking process, the time of stable milk flow had the longest time (2.97 min) followed by the time at the decline phase (2.62 min). The average time taken to reach the plateau phase was 1.08 min, which can still be reduced further through improved managemental practices. Among milk yield traits, milk yield during the first two (MG2) and three (MG3) minutes of milking had high positive correlation with milking speed traits and negative correlations with almost all the milking time traits except time of incline in milk flow from 0.5 kg/min till the attainment of the plateau phase (tAN). Milking speed traits had negative correlations with total milking time, time at main milking process, time at plateau and with the time at decline. Since there was medium to high negative correlation between the milking speed and the time at plateau, there is a need for selection of cows which have intermediate milking speed so that it could require less milking time and also the optimum (higher and longer) plateau time. Proper pre-stimulation and avoiding over milking will help in further reducing the milking time and thus will add to the net profit of the farmer.
Genetic Variation of Growth Hormone Gene and Its Relationship with Milk Production Traits in China Holstein Cows
Zhou, Guo-li ; Zhu, Qi ; Jin, Hai-guo ; Guo, Shan-li ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 315~318
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.315
Associations were analysed between polymorphisms localized in intron 3 of the growth hormone gene (GH-MspI) and milk production traits of 543 China Holstein cows. A PCR-RFLP method was used for identification of genotypes. The following frequencies of genotypes and alleles were found: 0.77, 0.21 and 0.02 for +/+, +/- and -/-, respectively, and 0.87 and 0.13 for
, respectively. Significant differences between herds were observed in the frequencies of both genotypes and alleles. The results of least squares analysis showed that in all three lactation phases the GH +/+ cows yielded most milk (p<0.01 for lactation I and p<0.05 for lactations II and III), whereas +/- cows showed higher milk fat content than +/+ individuals (p<0.05 for lactation I and II, and p<0.01 for lactation III). The +/+ cows yielded more fat than +/- individuals (p<0.01 only in lactation I). The +/+ cows yielded more milk protein than +/- individuals (p<0.01 for lactation I, II, and III). The +/+ cows produced milk of higher protein content than that of +/- individuals (p<0.05 only in lactation II). Based on these results, we conclude that the +/+ of GH locus should be the favored genotype in China Holstein cow breeds for use in marker-assisted selection programmes.
Estimation of Genetic Parameters for Economic Traits in Korean Native Chickens
Sang, Byung Don ; Kong, Hong Sik ; Kim, Hak Kyu ; Choi, Chul Hwan ; Kim, Si Dong ; Cho, Yong Min ; Sang, Byung Chan ; Lee, Jun Heon ; Jeon, Gwang Joo ; Lee, Hak Kyo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 319~323
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.319
Heritabilities and genetic correlations of economic traits were estimated with a multiple-trait animal model on 5 different strains of Korea Native Chickens (KNC): Red Brown (RB), Yellow Brown (YB), Gray Brown (GB), Black (B) and White (W). The data used for this study were collected from the Daejeon branch of the National Livestock Research Institute and included 11,233 performance records and 12,729 individual animals. DFREML and SAS BASE/STAT packages were used to estimate genetic parameters and descriptive statistics. The estimated heritabilities for strain RB, YB, GB, B and W, respectively, for age at 1st egg were 0.24, 0.27, 0.12, 0.32 and 0.18; for body weight at first egg were 0.39, 0.43, 0.38, 0.52 and 0.57; for body weight at age of 270 days were 0.43, 0.51, 0.30, 0.52 and 0.67; for egg weight at first egg were 0.08, 0.13, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.07; for egg weight at age of 270 days were 0.37, 0.43, 0.22, 0.34 and 0.41; and for number of eggs laid by age of 270 days were 0.24, 0.25, 0.37, 0.36 and 0.30. The genetic and phenotypic correlations were also estimated.
cDNA Cloning and Polymorphism of the Porcine Carbonic Anhydrase III (CA3) Gene
Wu, J. ; Deng, Changyan ; Xiong, Y.Z. ; Zhou, D.H. ; Lei, M.G. ; Zuo, B. ; Li, F.E. ; Wang, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 324~328
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.324
Carbonic anhydrase III (CA3) is a member of a multigene family that encode carbonic anhydrase isozymes. In this study, a complete coding sequence of the pig CA3 gene which encodes a 260 amino-acid protein was determined. The amino acid comparison showed high sequence similarities with previously identified human (86.5%) CA3 gene and mouse (91.5%) Car3 gene. The partial genomic DNA sequences were also investigated. The length of intron 1 was 727 bp. Comparative sequencing of three pig breeds revealed that there was a T
C substitution at position 363 within intron 1. The substitution was situated within a NcoI recognition site and was developed as a PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) marker for further use in population variation investigations and association analysis. Two alleles (A and B) were identified, and 617 bp fragments were observed for the AA genotype and 236 bp and 381 bp fragments for the BB genotype. The polymorphism of CA3 was detected in 8 pig breeds. Allele B was predominant in the Western pig breeds. In addition, association studies of the CA3 polymorphism with carcass traits in 140
offspring showed that the NcoI PCR- RFLP genotype may be associated with variation in several carcass traits of interest for pig breeding. Allele B was associated with increases in lean meat percentage, loin eye height and loin eye area. Statistically significant association with backfat thickness was also found; pigs with the AB genotype had much less backfat thickness than AA or BB genotypes.
Characteristics of Structure and Expression Pattern of ADSF/resistin Gene in Korean Native Cattle
Kang, Hye Kyeong ; Park, Ji Ae ; Seo, Kang Seok ; Kim, Sang Hoon ; Choi, Yun Jai ; Moon, Yang Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 329~334
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.329
Adipocyte-specific secretory factor (ADSF)/resistin, a hormone, is a small cysteine-rich protein secreted from adipose tissue and has been implicated in modulating adipogenesis in humans and rodents. The objective of this study was to clone a gene encoding ADSF/resistin and to characterize its function in Korean Native Cattle (Hanwoo). The coding sequence was 330 base pairs and it encoded a protein of 109 amino acids. An NCBI BLAST-search revealed the cloned cDNA fragment shared significant homology (82%) with the cDNA encoding the human ADSF/resistin. The nucleotide sequence homology of the Hanwoo sequence was 73% and 64% for the rat and mouse, respectively. A 654 bp ADSF/resistin gene promoter was cloned and putative binding sites of transcription factors were identified. Tissue distribution of ADSF mRNA was examined in liver, skeletal muscles (tenderloin, biceps femoris), subcutaneous fat, and perirenal fat by RT-PCR. ADSF mRNAs were detected in fat tissues but not in liver and muscles, suggesting that ADSF/resistin expression may be induced during adipogenesis. Although, the physiological function of ADSF/resistin in the cow remains to be determined, these data indicate ADSF is related to the adipocyte phenotype and may have a possibly regulatory role in adipocyte function.
The Role of Mercury in the Etiology of Sperm Dysfunction in Holstein Bulls
Arabi, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 335~340
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.335
A large number of toxicological substances and pharmacological and physical agents can cause reproductive intervention at the cellular and molecular level. The present study was designed to assess the effect of mercury (
) at 50 to
concentration ranges, in vitro, on the sperm membrane and DNA integrity, viability, and acrosomal status of normal bull spermatozoa. The samples were processed for sperm analyses using semen-diluting fluid (PBS, pH 7.2). We recorded a sharp increase in the lipid peroxidation/LPO rate; the highest was at
mercury concentration, indicating a deleterious effect of mercury on the sperm membrane intactness. There was also a strong negative correlation between LPO rate and % viable spermatozoa (R = 0.987, p<0.001). Data obtained from a comet assay technique revealed that mercury is capable of inducing DNA breaks in the sperm nuclei. Interestingly, 92% of DNA breaks were double-stranded. The correlation between LPO rate and % DNA breaks was 0.984. Performing the gelatin test indicates that mercury is able to alter the integrity of acrosomal membranes showing an abnormal acrosome reaction. In this regard, a strong link was found between LPO rate and % halos (R = 0.990, p<0.001). Collectively, mercury proved to be a potent oxidant in the category of environmental factors affecting bull spermatozoa. Hence, considering the wide spread use of mercury and its compounds, these metals should be regarded with more concern.
Factors Affecting Superovulation and Embryo Transfer in Boer Goats
Chang, Zhongle ; Fan, Xinzhong ; Luo, Mingjiu ; Wu, Zhanyuan ; Tan, Jinghe ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 341~346
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.341
Despite many studies, results of superovulation protocols are not consistent in farm animals. In this study, 151 Boer goats were superovulated to examine the factors affecting superovulation and embryo transfer (MOET). An optimal regime for superovulation treatment was identified as a 4-day treatment with decreasing dosages of 6-7 mg Chinese FSH or 240 mg Canadian FSH. The 4-day treatment with decreasing dosages of 6-7 mg Chinese FSH was, therefore, adopted to study effects of the age of does, season and repeated treatments on superovulation and embryo transfer. The best season for superovulation and embryo transfer and pregnancy was autumn, and the best age range was 12-35 months old. Within animals there were no significant differences in the number of ovulations and the rate of transferable embryos between the first and the second superovulation. However, these parameters declined significantly for the third superovulation. No marked effects of the number of ovulations on the proportion of transferable embryos were noted. The parturition rate of the recipients receiving single embryos was not different significantly from those receiving two embryos, and the kidding rate calculated from embryos transferred did not differ significantly between recipients receiving one and two embryos.
Measurement of Microbial Protein Supply in Murrah Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) Using Urinary Purine Derivatives Excretion and PDC Index
Dipu, M.T. ; George, S.K. ; Singh, P. ; Verma, A.K. ; Mehra, U.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 347~355
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.347
A study was conducted to predict the rumen microbial protein production based on urinary excretion of purine derivatives in buffaloes fed a diet of wheat straw and concentrate (40:60) at four fixed levels of feed intake. (95, 80, 60 and 40% of preliminary voluntary feed intake) following experimental protocol of IAEA (Phase I). The buffaloes were allocated according to a
latin square design. The urinary allantoin, uric acid, total PD excretion (mmol/d) in treatments L-95, L-80, L-60 and L-40 was 20.13, 16.00, 12.96 and 9.17; 1.88, 2.12, 2.11 and 2.15; 22.01, 18.12, 15.07 and 11.32, respectively and were significantly (p<0.05) different among treatments except for uric acid. The rate of PD excretion (mmol/d) was positively correlated with the digestible organic matter intake. Variations were observed in PD and creatinine concentration in spot samples collected at 6-hour interval. However, daily PD:Creatinine ratio (PDC index) appears to be a reasonably good predictor of microbial-N supply. The contribution of basal purine excretion to total excretion of purine derivatives (PD) was determined in pre-fasting period followed by a fasting period of 6 d (Phase II). Daily PD and creatinine excretion (mmol/kg
) during fasting averaged 0.117 and 0.456 respectively for buffaloes. The excretion rates of PD decreased significantly (p<0.01) during fasting compare to pre-fasting period, the urinary creatinine excretion remained almost similar. Except for creatinine, plasma concentration of target parameters significantly (p<0.01) declined during fasting. Likewise, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal clearance of allantoin and uric acid also decreased. Based on the PD excretion rates during fasting and at different levels of feed intake obtained in this study, a relationship between daily urinary PD excretion (Y-mmol) and microbial purine absorption (X-mmol) was developed for buffaloes as Y = 0.74X+0.117 kg
. The microbial N supply (g/kg DOMI) remained statistically similar irrespective of dietary treatment. The results showed that excretion of urinary purine derivatives is positively correlated with the levels of feed intake in Murrah buffaloes and thus, estimation of urinary purine derivatives and PDC index could be used to determine microbial nitrogen supply when there is large variation in level of feed intake.
Effects of Neutral Detergent Fiber from Rice Straw on Blood Metabolites and Productivity of Dairy Cows in the Tropics
Kanjanapruthipong, Jeerachai ; Thaboot, B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 356~362
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.356
This study aimed to assess the effects of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) from rice straw on blood metabolites and productivity of dairy cows in the tropics. Eight Holstein
indigenous (75-87.5% Holstein) were randomly allocated to dietary treatments according to a double
Latin square design. Contents of roughage NDF from rice straw were 12.8, 14.8, 16.8 and 18.8% dry matter (DM) and concentrate NDF content was 10.2% DM, so that levels of dietary NDF were 23, 25, 27 and 29% DM. Dietary treatments were isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets. The average maximum and minimum temperature humidity index during the experimental period were 85.6 and 76.9, respectively. Plasma glucose (p<0.05), dry matter intake and 4% fat corrected milk (p<0.01) decreased with increasing contents of roughage NDF from rice straw, while rectal temperature, serum urea, cortisol, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (p<0.05), serum total protein and
-hydroxybutyrate (p<0.01) increased. Serum triglyceride, total cholesterol and high density lipoprotein-cholesterol were not affected (p>0.05). Decreased rectal temperature and concentrations of serum cortisol were associated with decreasing levels of
-hydroxybutyrate and serum urea, but with increased concentrations of plasma glucose, DMI and 4% fat corrected milk indicating that lactating cows fed lower fiber diets were in lower oxidative stress. Therefore higher intake and metabolic efficiency in dairy cows fed diets lower in roughage NDF from rice straw would be of an advantage in productive systems under tropical conditions.
In vitro Evaluation of Phalaris minor Seeds as Livestock Feed
Kaur, J. ; Pannu, M.S. ; Kaushal, S. ; Wadhwa, M. ; Bakshi, M.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 363~367
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.363
The nutritional worth of Phalaris minor seeds was assessed in comparison to conventional cereal grains like maize and wheat. P. minor seeds had higher total ash and cell wall constituents as compared to wheat and maize grains. The CP content of P. minor was comparable to wheat grains but higher than maize grains. The in vitro studies revealed that the net gas production and availability of ME from P. minor was comparable to that of maize but the digestibility of nutrients was significantly (p<0.05) lower than that of conventional cereal grains. The digestion kinetic parameters for DM and CP revealed that P. minor had the highest (p<0.05) soluble fraction (a) followed by wheat and maize. Reverse trend was observed for insoluble but potentially degradable fraction (b). The effective and true DM and CP degradability was significantly (p<0.05) higher in wheat grains followed by that in P. minor and maize grains. The digestibility of OM and NDF was not affected by replacing cereal grains in concentrate mixture with P. minor seeds up to 75 per cent level. But the availability of ME from concentrate mixtures was comparable to control only up to 50% level of replacement. Replacement of cereal grains with P. minor did not affect the rapidly soluble fraction and insoluble but potentially degradable fraction of concentrate mixture containing P. minor up to 75 per cent, but it was depressed significantly at 100% replacement level. The effective and true degradability of DM of concentrate mixtures containing P. minor from 50 to 100 per cent was comparable to that of conventional concentrate mixture (CCM). The wheat based concentrate mixtures showed higher net gas production (208 vs. 201 ml/g DM/24 h), digestibility of nutrients and ME availability (9.64 vs. 9.54 MJ/kg DM) as compared to maize based concentrate mixture. The wheat based concentrate mixture had significantly (p<0.05) higher rumen undegradable fraction and effective degradability. The data conclusively revealed that conventional cereal grains could be replaced with P.minor seeds up to 75 per cent without affecting the availability of nutrients.
Effect of Levels of Sodium DL-malate Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency of Concentrates Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip in Dairy Steers
Khampa, S. ; Wanapat, Metha ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Nontaso, N. ; Wattiaux, M.A. ; Rowlison, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 368~375
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.368
Four rumen-fistulated dairy steers were randomly assigned according to a
Latin square design to investigate effects of supplementation levels of sodium dl-malate in concentrates on rumen ecology, ruminal fermentation, nitrogen balance, feed intake and digestibility of nutrients and ruminal microbial protein synthesis. The dietary treatments were cassava concentrate-based, containing sodium dl-malate supplementation at 0, 9, 18 and 27 g/hd/d with urea-treated rice straw (UTS) fed ad libitum. The experiment was conducted for four periods, each period lasting 21 days. Ruminal pH increased with incremental addition of malate (p<0.05). Additionally, molar proportions of propionate were higher in supplemented groups and was highest at 18 g/hd/d of malate supplement (p<0.05). Microbial protein synthesis tended to be higher in dairy steers receiving sodium dl-malate supplements and also was the highest at 18 g/hd/d. Variable bacterial populations, such as amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic species were increased (p<0.05). Furthermore, protozoal populations were decreased significantly (p<0.05), while fungal zoospores were dramatically increased in dairy steers receiving sodium dl-malate supplement (p<0.05). These results suggested that supplementation of concentrate containing a high level of cassava chip at 18 g/hd/d with UTS in dairy steers could improve rumen fermentation efficiency and rumen microbial protein synthesis.
Influence of Temperature and pH on Fermentation Pattern and Methane Production in the Rumen Simulating Fermenter (RUSITEC)
Bhatta, R. ; Tajima, K. ; Kurihara, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 376~380
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.376
An experiment was conducted to study the effect of temperature and pH on in vitro nutrient degradability, volatile fatty acid profile and methane production. The fermenter used was the semi-continuous system, known as the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). Sixteen cylinders were used at one time with a volume of 800 ml, the dilution rate was set at 3.5%/hour, the infused buffer being McDougall's artificial saliva. Basal diet (9.6 g DM) used in RUSITEC consisted of (DM) 6.40 g Timothy hay, 1.86 g crushed corn and 1.34 g soybean meal. The food for the fermentation vessel was provided in nylon bags, which were gently agitated in the liquid phase. The experiment lasted for 17 d with all the samples taken during the last 5 d. Treatments were allocated at random to four vessels each and were (1) two temperature levels of
(2) two pH levels of 6.0 and 7.0. The total diet contained (
DM) 957 OM, 115 CP and
(DM) GE. Although increase in temperature from
reduced degradation of major nutrients in vitro, it was non-significant. Interaction effect of temperature with pH also reflected a similar trend. However, pH showed a significant (p<0.05) negative effect on the degradability of all the nutrients in vitro. Altering the in vitro pH from 7 to 6 caused marked reduction in DMD from 60.2 to 41.8, CPD from 76.3 to 55.3 and GED from 55.3 to 35.1, respectively. Low pH (6) depressed total VFA production (61.9 vs. 34.9 mM) as well as acetate to propionate ratio in vitro (from 2.0 to 1.5) when compared to pH 7. Compared to pH 7, total gas production decreased from 1,841 ml to 1,148 ml at pH 6,
production also reduced from 639 to 260 ml and 138 to 45 ml, respectively. This study supported the premise that pH is one of the principal factors affecting the microbial production of volatile fatty acids and gas. Regulating the ruminal pH to increase bacterial activity may be one of the methods to optimize VFA production, reduce methane and, possibly, improve animal performance.
Influence of Re-growth Interval on Chemical Composition, Herbage Yield, Digestibility and Digestion Kinetics of Setaria sphacelata and Cenchrus ciliaris in Buffaloes
Mahr-un-Nisa, Mahr-un-Nisa ; Khan, M. Ajmal ; Sarwar, Muhammad ; Mushtaque, M. ; Murtaza, G. ; Lee, W.S. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 381~385
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.381
This study examined the influence of re-growth periods on chemical composition, biomass production, nutritive value and digestion kinetics of Setaria sphacelata (SS) and Cenchrus ciliaris (CC) in ruminally cannulated buffalo bulls. Two re-growth intervals i.e. clipping every month (
) and clipping after every two months (
) were compared with the control (clipped after 4 months). Mean values of leaf to stem ratio in SS and CC grasses were decreased (p<0.05) with increasing re-growth interval. The lowest leaf to stem ratio was recorded in control plots of both grasses. In both grasses, increasing growth period increased the concentrations of dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and organic matter (OM) and decreased crude protein (CP). Mean dry herbage, OM and CP yields of SS and CC were increased (p<0.05) with increasing re-growth interval. Ruminal DM and NDF digestibilities of SS and CC were decreased (p<0.05) with increasing interval. Ruminal rate of DM and NDF disappearance was higher while the ruminal lag time of these nutrients was lower with monthly than with bi-monthly clipping interval. The results from present study imply that SS and CC clipped after every two months is more beneficial than when clipped every month or every four months in terms of optimal biomass with adequate nutritional value for buffaloes.
Effects of Isolated and Commercial Lactic Acid Bacteria on the Silage Quality, Digestibility, Voluntary Intake and Ruminal Fluid Characteristics
Ando, Sada ; Ishida, M. ; Oshio, S. ; Tanaka, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 386~389
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.386
Silage is a major component of cattle rations, so the improvement of silage quality by the inoculation of lactic acid bacteria is of great interest. In this study, commercially distributed Lactobacillus plantram and Lactobacillus rhamnousas NGRI 0110 were used for ensilaging of guinea grass. The four treatments used were a control silage, a silage with cellulase addition, a silage with cellulose+L. plantram addition, and a silage with cellulose + NGRI 0110 addition. Silage quality, voluntary intake, nutrient digestibility, and the characteristics of ruminal fluid of wethers were investigated. Silage to which lactic acid bacteria were added showed low pH and acetic acid concentration and the highest lactic acid content. Dry matter and organic matter digestibility were significantly (p<0.05) increased by cellulase addition and significantly (p<0.05) higher values were observed in L. plantram- and NGRI 0110-added silage. Voluntary intake of NGRI 0110-added silage was the highest and that of control silage was the lowest. We concluded that the observed ability of NGRI 0110 to tolerate low pH and to continue lactic acid fermentation in high lactic acid concentration had also occurred in actual ensilaging. The results indicate that the addition of lactic acid bacteria might improve silage quality and increase digestibility and voluntary intake. The potential for improvement by NGRI 0110 was higher than that to be gained by the use of commercially available lactic acid bacteria.
Effect of Rumen-protected Choline Addition on Milk Performance and Blood Metabolic Parameters in Transition Dairy Cows
Xu, Guozhong ; Ye, Jun'An ; Liu, Jianxin ; Yu, Yueying ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 390~395
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.390
This work was conducted to study the effect of rumen-protected choline (RPC) addition on milk performance and blood metabolic parameters in transition dairy cows. In Experiment 1, fourteen Chinese Holstein dairy cows were supplemented with 0 or 20 g/d of RPC from 7 d before expected calving to 21 d post partum. Feeding of RPC tended to increase milk yield and milk protein percentage, while milk fat and lactose percentage were not changed. Plasma concentrations of glucose tended to increase as cows consumed RPC, while plasma concentrations of triglycerides, very low density lipoproteins, cholesterol and nonesterified fatty acids were not significantly different between the two groups. In Experiment 2, thirty-six Chinese Holstein dairy cows were supplemented with 0, 30, 60 or 90 g/d RPC from 15 d before expected calving to 15 d post partum. Feeding of RPC tended to increase yield of milk and 4% fat-corrected milk for all the lactating cows, and milk composition was similar among the four groups. Plasma concentrations of glucose were remained at a higher level in 30 or 60 g/d RPC-supplemented groups, and nonesterified fatty acids were decreased in the 30 g/d group. Concentrations of triglycerides tended to reduce in 30 and 90 g/d RPC-supplemented animals, and cholesterol was reduced in 0 or 30 g/d group. These results suggest that RPC addition tended to increase milk yield and improve blood metabolic parameters during transition dairy cows, and feeding 30 g/d of RPC may be the optimal.
Effects of the Duration of Liquid Feeding on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Weaned Pigs
Han, Yung-Keun ; Thacker, P.A. ; Yang, Joo-Sung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 396~401
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.396
A total of 72 castrated, crossbred (
) piglets (
BW) were allotted to one of three treatments including: a dry crumbled feed fed for 40 days; liquid feed provided for 10 days followed by dry crumbled feed for 30 days; and liquid feed provided for 20 days followed by dry crumbled feed for 20 days. Liquid feed was produced fresh each day by mixing water with dry crumbled feed at a ratio of 3:1. Pigs fed liquid feed for 10 days had a higher weight gain during the first 10 days (+16.8%; p = 0.01) and over the entire experimental period (+4.9%; p = 0.07) than pigs offered dry feed. Pigs fed liquid feed for 20 days also had a higher weight gain during the period from d 0 to 10 (+12.8%; p = 0.01), from d 10 to 20 (+8.5%; p = 0.06) and from d 0 to 20 (+9.7%; p = 0.01) than pigs offered dry feed. Pigs fed liquid feed for the first 10 days had higher feed intakes from d 0 to 10 (+22.6%; p = 0.01) and from d 0 to 40 (+5.3%; p = 0.02) than pigs offered dry feed. Pigs fed liquid feed for the first 20 days had a higher feed intake from d 0 to 10 (+21.8%; p = 0.01), from d 10 to 20 (+10.6%; p = 0.06), from d 0 to 20 (+14.6%; p = 0.01) and from d 0 to 40 (+6.6%; p = 0.02) than pigs offered dry feed. Feed conversion from d 0 to 40 tended to be poorer for pigs fed liquid feed during the first 20 days (p = 0.08) indicating an increase in feed wastage with liquid feeding. Nutrient digestibility at day 10 was unaffected by dietary treatment. However, at day 30, pigs fed liquid feed for 10 days had higher digestibility of dry matter (p = 0.08), energy (p = 0.10), crude protein (p = 0.03) and neutral detergent fibre (p = 0.05) than pigs fed liquid feed for 20 days. In conclusion, liquid feeding for 10 or 20 days increased the performance of weaned pigs during the specific time period that liquid feeding occurred but there were no carry over effects into subsequent production periods.
Effects of Betaine on Performence, Carcass Characteristics and Hepatic Betaine-homocysteine Methyltransferase Activity in Finishing Barrows
Feng, J. ; Liu, X. ; Wang, Y.Z. ; Xu, Z.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 402~405
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.402
This experiment was conducted to determine the effect of dietary betaine (0, 0.125%) on performance, carcass composition, pork quality and hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) activity of crossbred finishing barrows. Three replicates of ten pigs were used for each treatment. The results showed that average daily gain, feed intake and feed conversion were not affected by betaine. Compared with the control group, pigs treated with betaine had a 8.17% (p<0.05) decrease in carcass fat percentage, and a 8.84% (p<0.05) reduction in 10th-rib backfat thickness, but dressing percentage, percentage lean, longissimus muscle area, and average backfat thickness were not affected. There were also no significant differences in muscle color score, marbling score, pork pH value and water loss rate between the control and betaine-treated groups. Hepatic betaine-homocysteine methyltransferase (BHMT) activity was significantly increased by 13.97% (p<0.05) when pigs were offered 0.125% betaine.
Effects of Dietary Enterococcus faecium SF68 on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Faecal Noxious Gas Content in Finishing Pigs
Chen, Y.J. ; Min, B.J. ; Cho, J.H. ; Kwon, O.S. ; Son, K.S. ; Kim, I.H. ; Kim, S.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 406~411
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.406
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of feeding probiotic (Enterococcus faecium SF68, EF) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, blood characteristics and faecal noxious gas content in finishing pigs. A total of eighty [(
] pigs with an initial BW of
were used in this 8-week experiment. Pigs were allotted to four treatments (4 replicates per treatment and 5 pigs per pen) according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatments were: 1) CON (control; basal diet), 2) CTC (control diet+0.1% antibiotic, chlortetracycline), 3) EF1 (control diet+0.1% probiotic, EF) and 4) EF2 (control diet+0.2% probiotic, EF). During weeks 0-4, ADG was not affected by the addition of antibiotic or EF (p>0.05). In weeks 4-8, ADG tended to increase in CTC and EF treatments compared to CON treatment (p<0.10). ADFI and gain/feed were not affected in each 4-week period and the entire experimental period (p>0.05). Digestibilities of DM and N were higher in EF supplemented treatments than in CON and CTC treatments (p<0.05). Blood characteristics of WBC, RBC and lymphocyte were not affected in pigs given diets containing EF (p>0.05). Supplementation of EF in the diet decreased faecal ammonia nitrogen (
-N) and hydrogen sulphide (
) concentrations (p<0.05). Faecal acetic acid concentration tended to decrease (p<0.10) while propionic acid and butyric acid concentrations were significantly lower on diets with EF supplementation than on the diet containing antibiotic (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of EF can increase nutrient digestibility and decrease faecal
and volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentrations in finishing pigs.
Effects of Dietary Arsenical Inclusion on Lipid Metabolism and Liver Function in Mule Ducks
Chen, Kuo-Lung ; Chiou, Peter W.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 412~417
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.412
This study evaluated the effectiveness of different arsenical sources on inducing fatty liver, on changes in lipid metabolism and on liver function in mule ducks. Sixty twelve-week-old mule ducks were selected and randomly divided into five treatments, including the control group and four different arsenical sources; Roxarsone (300 mg/kg), arsanilic acid,
, containing 85.2 mg/kg arsenic were included in the basal diet. The ducks were fed the medicated basal diet for 3 weeks followed by a one-week drug withdrawal. The results showed Roxarsone treatment decreased body weight, feed intake, liver weight and abdominal fat weight (p<0.05), while it increased the relative liver weight (p<0.05) during medication period (
treatment decreased abdominal fat weight and relative abdominal fat weight when compared to the control (p<0.05). Only Roxarsone among the treatment groups increased feed intake, liver weight and relative liver weight, while the
group showed the lightest liver weight and relative liver weight among treatment groups during the withdrawal period (
week). The Roxarsone group decreased (p<0.05) NADP-malic dehydrogenase (MDH) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC) activities and increased (p<0.05) cholesterol concentration during the medication period, and elevated the MDH and ACC activities during the withdrawal period. All four arsenical treatment groups showed lymphocytic infiltration in liver tissue, while the Roxarsone and
treatments showed an increase in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities (p<0.05). During the withdrawal period, arsenical treatments resulted in liver vacuoles. However, the arsenicals differed in effectiveness and mechanisms of inducing fat vacuoles.
Effect of Lacquer (Rhus verniciflua) Supplementation on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility, Carcass Traits and Serum Profile of Broiler Chickens
Lohakare, J.D. ; Zheng, Jin ; Yun, J.H. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 418~424
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.418
This experiment was conducted to explore the efficacy of lacquer (Rhus verniciflua) supplementation on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, carcass traits and serum biochemical values in commercial broilers. Eight hundred and forty Hubbard broiler chicks (1d old) were randomly distributed and allotted to four dietary treatments for five weeks. Each treatment had 5 replicates with 42 birds each. The dietary treatments were (1) control (2) 1% lacquer, (3) 2% lacquer and 4) 4% lacquer supplied as meal in the diet. Supplementation with lacquer improved weight gain (p = 0.0960) showing a linear trend during the starter phase (0-3 wk), but weight gain, feed intake and feed conversion ratio remained unaffected at the finisher phase (4-5 wk) and overall (0-5 wk). The nutrient digestibility studies conducted after 18 and 35 days of experimental feeding showed a linear (p<0.05) increase in digestibility of CP and ether extract at both measurement timess. The carcass studies were conducted on two birds per replicate (10 per treatment) at the end of both 3 and 5 wk. The dressing percentage, liver weight, heart weight, abdominal fat and the breast meat expressed as a percentage of live weight, did not differ significantly due to treatments at both phases. The serum cholesterol and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) showed a linear decrease (p = 0.0683 and p = 0.0322, respectively) as the level of supplementation increased at 3 wk; at 5 wk serum cholesterol, HDL and triglyceride levels decreased significantly showing a positive linear effect of lacquer on fat metabolism. The meat color values such as lightness, redness and yellowness did not reveal any significant trend. Overall, it could be concluded that lacquer supplementation at higher levels did not affect growth performance, but had a positive impact on fat metabolism by influencing fat digestibility and reducing serum cholesterol and triglyceride.
The Effect of Dietary Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella Sativa L.) on the Performance of Broilers
Guler, Talat ; Dalkilic, B. ; Ertas, O.N. ; Ciftci, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 425~430
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.425
Three hundred and sixty sexed 3-day-old broiler chicks were divided randomly into six treatment groups (control, antibiotic and black cumin at four levels) of 60 birds each. Black cumin seeds at 0.5%, 1%, 2% or 3% and avilamycin at 10 mg/kgt were added to the basal diet and their effects determined on feed intake, daily live weight gain, feed conversion ratio and carcass characteristics. There were no significant differences in daily feed intake at 21 and 42 days (p>0.05). Average daily gain was significantly different between the treatments. The birds fed the diet containing 1% black cumin seeds and antibiotic were the highest average daily gain, followed by those the other treatment diets and negative control (p<0.05). From 1 to 42 days of age, feed conversion ratios were improved significantly by supplementation with 1% black cumin seeds and with antibiotic (p<0.05) by approximately 5% compared to the control group. Similarly, the highest cold carcass, thigh, breast, wing, neck and liver weights were observed in the 1% black cumin and antibiotic groups (p<0.05). Accordingly, 1% supplementation of black cumin seeds to diets could be considered as an alternative natural growth promoter for poultry instead of antibiotics.
Alteration of the Fatty Acid Profile of Pork by Dietary Manipulation
Morel, P.C.H. ; McIntosh, J.C. ; Janz, J.A.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 431~437
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.431
This work was undertaken to study the effect of dietary fat source on the fatty acid profile of pork, and to evaluate the effect of inclusion of vitamin E in pig diets on lipid oxidation of pork tissue and processed pork products. Fifty-six pigs were allocated to four treatments, that included two dietary fat sources and two levels of vitamin E inclusion. Dietary fat was derived from either tallow, a source of saturated fatty acids (SFA), or from a mixture of soybean and linseed oils, which contain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Vitamin E was included at either 0% or 0.011% of the diet. Growth and carcass characteristics were not affected by the dietary treatments. Dietary fat source affected the fatty acid profile of the longissimus muscle and subcutaneous fat tissue, with the PUFA diet resulting in significantly more polyunsaturated fatty acids in the tissues, and more favourable ratios of SFA to PUFA and C18:2 to C18:3 in terms of human health considerations. Lipid oxidation was significantly greater in tissues and processed products from PUFA-fed pigs. Inclusion of vitamin E in the diets, however, reduced the extent of lipid oxidation in the meat and meat products. Dietary manipulation of the fatty acid profile of pigs is an effective means of altering the fat composition of pork in order to provide human consumers with a healthy product. Vitamin E is effective as an antioxidant agent, particularly where processed products are concerned.
Caponization Effects on Growth Performance and Lipid Metabolism in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels
Chen, Kuo-Lung ; Hsieh, Tseng-Yueh ; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 438~443
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.438
This trial was designed to study the caponization effects on the appearance, carcass characteristics, blood constituents and lipid metabolism of Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Cockerels were caponized at 8 weeks of age. Sixteen-week-old chickens, including 10 capons, 5 slips (incomplete caponized male chickens) and 20 normal chickens of equal sexes were selected for a 10 week ad libitum feeding trial. Results showed that the testosterone concentrations in the capons and females were lower (p<0.05) than that of intact males. The comb length, height and weights were also lower (p<0.05). The weight of the slips was between that of the capons and intact males, but was heavier (p<0.05) than that of the capon. The live-weight, carcass weight and shank perimeter in the capons were higher than those of the other groups (p<0.05). Hepatic lipogenic enzyme activity analyses showed that NADP-malic dehydrogenase (MDH) activity in the capons and female chickens was higher than that in intact male chickens (p<0.05). The MDH activity in the slips was between that for the capon and intact male chickens (p>0.05). The abdominal fat weight and relative abdominal fat weight of the capons and females were heavier than that for intact males (p<0.05); the slips were between the capons and intact males. The blood lipid content results showed that the triacylglycerol and cholesterol in the capons were higher than that for intact males (p<0.05). However, the percentage of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was lower than that in intact male chickens (p<0.05). It appears that the increase in lipid accumulation in caponized male chickens is attributed mainly to an increase in MDH activity and the changes in lipid transportation in the capons.
Increasing Content of Healthy Fatty Acids in Egg Yolk of Laying Hens by Cheese Byproduct
Hwangbo, Jong ; Kim, Jun Ho ; Lee, Byong Seak ; Kang, Su Won ; Chang, Jongsoo ; Bae, Hae-Duck ; Lee, Min Suk ; Kim, Young Jun ; Choi, Nag-Jin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 444~449
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.444
This study investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of cheese byproduct on performance, egg quality and fatty acid profile of egg yolk lipids from laying hens. One hundred five 30-wk-old White leghorn laying hens were randomly distributed into five groups of twenty one hens each and maintained in individual laying cages for 4 weeks. The hens were assigned to five treatments that consisted of corn-soybean meal based diets containing 0, 1, 3, 5 or 10% of cheese byproduct. Feed intake and rate of egg production of hens were not significantly different across the treatments during the whole experiment (p>0.05). Similarly, egg yolk cholesterol level, egg weight, Haugh's unit, eggshell thickness, color, and strength were not significantly different across the treatments (p>0.05). The amount of C16:0 in egg yolk was not significantly different across the treatments, but that of C18:0 decreased with increased cheese byproduct (p<0.01). Monounsaturated fatty acid (C16:1 and C18:1) content in egg yolk was similar across the treatments. Total CLA and cis-9, trans-11 CLA content increased linearly with increased cheese byproduct (p<0.001), while trans-10, cis-12 CLA amount was not significantly different across the treatments (p>0.05). Total saturated fatty acid (SFA) in the egg yolk was decreased as the level of cheese byproduct including CLA increased (p<0.01). However, the amount of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) such as monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), n-6 PUFA, and total PUFAs in the egg yolk were not significantly different across the treatments (p>0.05). Therefore, the present results showed that cheese byproduct beneficially improved the fatty acid composition of concern to human health in the egg yolk without adverse effects on egg quality.
The Effect of Evening Primrose Oil on Chemical and Blood Cholesterol Lowering Properties of Cheddar Cheese
Kim, J.J. ; Yu, S.H. ; Jeon, W.M. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 3, 2006, Pages 450~458
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.450
The present study was carried out to investigate the changes in chemical and sensory properties, and cholesterol lowering effect of evening primrose oil (EPO) addition in cholesterol-reduced Cheddar cheese. The cholesterol removal rate reached 92.07% by
-cyclodextrin in the cheese before EPO addition. The thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value of cholesterol-reduced and EPO-added cheese increased with both ripening time and amount of EPO addition. Addition of 5% EPO resulted in a significant difference in TBA value after 4-week ripening, compared with no addition of EPO. The production of short-chain free fatty acids (FFAs) increased with ripening period in all treatments. From 4 week of ripening, the amounts of short-chain FFA in 3 and 5% EPO-added groups were significantly higher than those in other groups. Among sensory characteristics, rancidity was mostly affected by EPO addition, however, the rancidity value of 1% EPO-added was not significantly different from that of EPO-free and cholesterol-reduced cheese. Also, Cheddar cheese flavor was not profoundly affected by 1% EPO addition in all ripening periods. Total blood cholesterol dramatically decreased from 184.0 to 137.1 mg/dL with 5% EPO-added and cholesterol-reduced cheese following 8 weeks of feeding. The present results indicated that 5% EPO addition resulted in a profound lowering effect on blood total cholesterol with some adverse effects on chemical and sensory properties.