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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Relationship between the Polymorphisms of 5' Regulation Region of Prolactin Gene and Milk Traits in Chinese Holstein Dairy Cows
Li, J.T. ; Wang, A.H. ; Chen, P. ; Li, H.B. ; Zhang, C.S. ; Du, L.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 459~462
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.459
Prolactin (PRL) plays an important role in promoting mammalian mammary gland development, and milk production during lactation. Therefore the PRL gene was chosen as a candidate gene for milk traits in Holstein dairy cows. PCR-SSCP and PCR-RFLP were used to analyze genetic variations in the 5' regulation region of the PRL gene. In this part of the gene, two new polymorphic sites were detected in the Chinese Holstein dairy cows. One was a XbaI-RFLP locus, and the other was an SSCP locus. Statistical analysis showed that the XbaI-RFLP locus and the SSCP locus had a significant positive effect on milk traits.
Estimation of Genetic Variation in Holstein Young Bulls of Iran AI Station Using Molecular Markers
Rahimi, G. ; Nejati-Javaremi, A. ; Saneei, D. ; Olek, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 463~467
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.463
Genetic profiles of Iranian Holstein young bulls at the national artificial insemination station were determined on the basis of individual genotypes at 13 ISAG's recommended microsatellites, the most useful markers of choice for parentage identification. In the present study a total of 119 individuals were genotyped at 13 microsatellite loci and for possible parent-offspring combinations. A high level of genetic variation was evident within the investigated individuals as assessed from various genetic diversity measures. The mean number of observed alleles per microsatellite marker was 9.15 and the number of effective alleles as usual was less than the observed values (4.03). The average observed and expected heterozygosity values were 0.612 and 0.898, respectively. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) value (0.694) further reflected a high level of genetic variability. The average exclusion of probability (PE) of the 13 markers was 0.520, ranging from 0.389 to 0.788. The combined exclusion of probability was 0.999, when 13 microsatellite loci were used for analysis in the individual identification system. Inbreeding was calculated as the difference between observed and expected heterozygosity. Observed homozygosity was less than expected which reflects inbreeding of -3.7% indicating that there are genetic differences between bull-sires and bull-dams used to produce young bulls. The results obtained from this study demonstrate that the microsatellite DNA markers used in the present DNA typing are useful and sufficient for individual identification and parentage verification without accurate pedigree information.
Genetic Parameter Estimates for Ultrasonic Meat Qualities in Hanwoo Cows
Lee, D.H. ; Choudhary, V. ; Lee, G.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 468~474
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.468
Real time ultrasound data was generated on 10,596 live Hanwoo cows to study genetic variation on ultrasonic beef quality traits and to assess the best model to estimate genetic parameters on these traits. Pedigree stacking and data validation was done using the SAS statistical software and the genetic parameter estimates were obtained by EM-REML algorithm. Out of the five different multi-trait mixed animal models constructed, the optimal model included fixed effects of herd, year-season-appraisal, body condition score, linear and quadratic covariates for chest girth, the linear covariate effect of age and the random animal and residual effect of the five models studied. The heritability of longissimus muscle area (LMA),
rib measurement of back fat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) was 0.11, 0.17 and 0.15, respectively. Genetic correlation of LMA vs. BF, LMA vs. MS and BF vs. MS was -0.15, 0.06 and 0.61, respectively. The results showed presence of genetic variation in these ultrasonic beef quality traits in Hanwoo cows and suggest that the selection of Hanwoo cows may be possible by performing ultrasonic scans on live animals, which will ultimately be helpful in reducing the generation interval and the cost of selection procedure.
Studies on Genetic Variation of Different Chinese Duck Populations with Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Analysis
Su, Y. ; Liu, C.W. ; Liu, L. ; Ye, C.H. ; Cao, W.Q. ; Huang, Y.Q. ; Zheng, J. ; Cai, D.Y. ; Olowofeso, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 475~481
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.475
The genetic polymorphism and relationships of Muscovy, Cherry Valley Meat ducks, Partridge ducks and their crossbreds
, respectively, were studied using a random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique. The results showed that RAPD markers were effective for the analysis of genetic relationships among ducks. Amplification with 20-primers gave 760 reproducible amplified fragments. The percentage of polymorphic marker band was 74.70%, which indicates that the RAPD technique had higher efficiency of polymorphism detection and sensitivity in studying the genetic variations among ducks and showed that the genetic polymorphism was abundant between two species of duck populations. The average index of genetic distance in hybrid
was 0.2341 and higher than that of its parents, which indicates that the genetic diversity was improved by crossbreeding with Muscovy.
Mitochondrial DNA Diversity of Korean Native Goats
Odahara, S. ; Chung, H.J. ; Choi, S.H. ; Yu, S.L. ; Sasazaki, S. ; Mannen, H. ; Park, C.S. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 482~485
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.482
Korean native goats have lived on the Korean peninsula for more than 2,000 years and are regarded as a valuable genetic resource for the world. As an initial step to investigate the genetic structures of this breed, phylogenetic analysis and calculation of genetic diversities have been performed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations. A total of 19 Korean native goats were grouped into six haplotypes and the large majority of haplotypes were present in 13 animals. All mtDNA of these Korean goats belonged to the mitochondrial (mt) lineage A and revealed remarkably small genetic distances within the population when compared with other Asian goat populations, indicating less genetic variation in the Korean native goats. These results indicate high-inbred status of the Korean native goats and will influence breeding and conservation strategies adopted for this breed.
The Cryoprotective Effect on Frozen-thawed Boar Semen of Egg Yolk Low Density Lipoproteins
Hu, Jian-hong ; Li, Qing-Wang ; Li, Gang ; Chen, Xiao-Yu ; Hai-Yang, Hai-Yang ; Zhang, Shu-Shan ; Wang, Li-Qiang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 486~494
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.486
In order to protect the spermatozoa against cold shock, hen egg yolk is widely used as a cryoprotective agent in semen freezing extenders for domestic animals. The protective action of yolk is largely presumed to be due to low density lipoproteins (LDL). The effects of LDL on sperm quality of bull and northern pike (Esox lucius) after freezing-thawing have been reported, but no study has been made to evaluate the effect of LDL on boar sperm motility and other characteristics. The experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of LDL on the freezing of boar sperm in 0.25 ml straws. The aim was to evaluate the quality of boar spermatozoa cryopreserved in the presence of LDL. Motility of semen cryopreserved in LDL was analyzed and compared to semen cryopreserved with Tris-citric acid-glucose (TCG) and Tris-citric acid-fructose (TCF), two basic freezing extenders containing egg yolk. Similarly, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were also evaluated and compared to semen cryopreserved with TCG and TCF. Analysis of sperm quality after freeze-thaw showed that the motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity were improved with LDL in the extender, as compared to the TCG and TCF. The highest post-thaw integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane and motility were obtained with 9% LDL (w/v). Consequently, the optimum LDL concentration in the extender was 9%. It is also suggested that the concentration of LDL addition is important for the effect on boar sperm protection during freezing and thawing. The percentage of motile spermatozoa was significantly higher after freezing in 9% LDL than in TCG and TCF 54.4% versus 30.4% and 30.1% (p<0.05), respectively. The integrity of acrosome and plasma membrane were also significantly higher at 70.3% and 50.5% respectively with semen frozen in 9% LDL extender compared to TCG at 37.8% and 30.3% and TCF at 36.4% and 29.9%, respectively (p<0.05),. In conclusion, we propose that extender containing LDL extracted from hen egg yolk could be used as a cryoprotective media with a better efficiency than TCG and TCF. LDL improved boar semen quality, allowing better spermatozoa motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity after the freeze-thaw process. Furthermore, we found out that the extender with 9% LDL concentration significantly enhanced motility, acrosome and plasma membrane integrity of boar sperm after freezing and thawing.
Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Has Beneficial Effect Independent of Serum Components throughout Oocyte Maturation and Early Embryonic Development in Cattle
Luo, Hailing ; Kimura, Koji ; Hirako, Makoto ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 495~499
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.495
In our previous studies, we demonstrated that Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) enhances bovine oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in serum supplemented media. In this experiment, to determine the synergistic effect of VEGF with serum components on early embryonic development in vitro in cattle, 1 mg/ml polyvinyl-alcohol (PVA) was replaced with foetal bovine serum (FBS) in maturation and culture media. Bovine oocytes were matured in Synthetic Oviduct Fluid (SOF) supplemented with PVA, PVA+5 ng/ml of VEGF, FBS, or FBS+VEGF. Fertilized oocytes were cultured in the same conditions for 8 days. The development of embryos was examined at 48 h post- insemination and on days 6, 7 and 8. The results were analyzed using repeated measures two- factor ANOVA, in which the effects of VEGF and serum were assigned as two factors. The development rate to 4- to 8-cell embryos at 48 h was significantly higher in the PVA+VEGF group than in the PVA group (44.7% and 31.5%, respectively). However, the highest development rate to 4- to 8-cell embryos was obtained from the FBS+VEGF group (58.8%). On day 8, the blastocyst rates were higher in the PVA+VEGF (22.8%), FBS (32.1%, p<0.05) and FBS+VEGF (42.1%, p<0.05) groups than in the PVA group (17.1%). Two- factor ANOVA of the development rates indicates that VEGF had a significant effect, but had no synergistic effect with serum components on early embryonic development. The results of the present study demonstrate that VEGF improves the in vitro developmental competence of bovine oocytes and/or embryos independent of the effect of serum components.
Effect of Dietary Vitamin E Supplementation on Serum α-Tocopherol and Immune Status of Crossbred Calves
Samanta, A.K. ; Dass, R.S. ; Rawat, Mayank ; Mishra, S.C. ; Mehra, U.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 500~506
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.500
An experiment was conducted with twenty crossbred male calves (7-15 days old) divided into 4 different experimental groups on the basis of body weights to study the effect of vitamin E supplementation on the serum
-tocopherol concentration and immune response of the calves. All the calves were fed on milk and calf starter up to 13 weeks and afterwards, they were fed on concentrate mixture and oat hay up to 32 weeks of age. In addition, the calves in groups I, II, III and IV were supplemented with 0, 125, 250 and 500 IU feed grade DL-
-tocopheryl acetate, respectively. Blood samples were collected at 0 day and subsequently at 1, 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 months of age to monitor the serum
-tocopherol concentration in crossbred calves. After 24 weeks of experimental feeding, 4 animals from each group were intramuscularly inoculated with single dose (3 ml) of Haemorrhagic septiceaemia (Pasteurella multocida P52 strain) oil adjuvant vaccine. The cumulative group mean serum
-tocopherol concentration (
) was 88.12, 210.11, 235.21 and 294.02 in-groups I, II, III and IV, respectively and differed significantly (p<0.001) among the four groups. Lymphocyte stimulation indices (LSI) did not differ among the groups significantly. The pooled mean ELISA antibody titer against Pasteurella multocida (P52 strain) was 788.02, 926.85, 1,214.00 and 1,109.51 for group I, II, III and IV, respectively, which indicated higher antibody titer in groups supplemented with vitamin E as compared to the control group. It may be concluded that vitamin E supplementation increased the
-tocopherol concentration in serum and dietary supplementation of vitamin E at higher level has a humoral immune enhancing effect against killed bacterial antigen.
Factors Affecting In vitro True Digestibility of Napiergrass
Chen, Chia-Sheng ; Wang, Su-Min ; Hsu, Jih-Tay ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 507~513
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.507
Changes of in vitro true digestibility (IVTD) of Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum) were determined by a filter bag system, and their relationships to chemical composition, leaf to stem ratio, plant height, geographic location, climatic factors and harvest interval were studied and used to develop prediction models for the crude protein (CP), acid-detergent fiber (ADF), and neutral-detergent fiber (NDF) contents and IVTD. Partitioning the total variance of IVTD of Napiergrass showed that 80% was attributable to the effect of harvest interval. Days of growth, plant height, leaf/stem ratio, CP, ADF and NDF of Napiergrass had highly significant relationships (p<0.01) with IVTD. The highest coefficient of correlation between the ADF, NDF, and IVTD of Napiergrass and growth degree days was obtained when the base temperature was set at
. Growth degree days could predict ADF, NDF, and IVTD of Napiergrass more accurately than plant height, and plant height is not suitable to predict IVTD.
Short-term Response of Vegetation to Cattle Grazing in an Abandoned Orchard in Southwestern Japan
Hayashi, K. ; Ikeda, K. ; Ueda, A. ; Fumita, T. ; Etoh, T. ; Gotoh, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 514~520
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.514
An abandoned mandarin orange orchard in southwestern Japan was set-stocked by Japanese Black cows at two stocking rates (1.0 and 2.0 animals/ha), and vegetation dynamics and diet selection by cattle were monitored for two years, in an effort to obtain information on effective use of abandoned agricultural fields for low-cost animal production and environmental conservation. Two dominant species at the commencement of grazing, kudzu (Pueraria lobata Ohwi) and tall goldenrod (Solidago altissima L.), showed different responses to grazing during the two years; the composition of kudzu decreased, contrasting with that of tall goldenrod which increased at both stocking rates. This was caused by high preference for kudzu and avoidance or low preference for tall goldenrod by cattle. Retrogression of vegetation due to cattle disturbances occurred at both stocking rates, with the high stocking rate leading to a lower degree of succession than the low stocking rate. It was shown that cattle grazing, particularly at a high stocking rate, was effective in the management of vegetation of an abandoned orchard.
Effect of Flushing on Nutrient Utilization and Reproductive Performance of Ewes Grazing on Community Rangeland
Chaturvedi, O.H. ; Bhatta, Raghavendra ; Verma, D.L. ; Singh, N.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 521~525
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.521
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of flushing of ewes with concentrate pellets just before the mating season on their nutrient utilization and reproductive performance on farms. Forty-eight Malpura ewes, 1-5 years old were randomly divided into 2 groups of 24 each (G1and G2). Ewes in both the groups were grazed on natural rangeland from 07.00 to 18.00 hr followed by night shelter in animal shed. G1 ewes were maintained on sole grazing while G2 ewes, in addition to grazing, received concentrate pellets at the rate of 1.5% of their body weight. The mean biomass yield of the community rangeland was 0.46 ton DM/hectare. The intakes of DM (g/kg
), DCP (g/kg
) and ME (MJ/kg
) were higher (p<0.01) in G2 as compared to that of G1 being 86.5, 10.2 and 1.15 and 57.5, 4.7 and 0.75, respectively. The digestibility of DM, OM, CP, NDF and hemicellulose were also higher (p<0.01) in G2 as compared to that of G1 being 57.2, 76.7, 78.9, 51.9 and 81.6 and 50.8, 68.7, 68.4, 45.4 and 74.4, respectively. The conception rate was higher (79.2%) in flushed ewes as compared to that of non-flushed (66.7%). Five of the pregnant ewes died and another 5 aborted in G1 while in G2, 5 ewes aborted with no mortality. The lambing was higher (73.7%) in G2 than that in G1 (37.5%). The birth weight of lambs was higher (p<0.05) in G2 (3.47 kg) than that in G1 (2.95 kg). Further, the birth weight of male lambs was higher (3.28) than that of female lambs (3.14). It is concluded that the biomass yield of the community rangeland in semi-arid region of India is low and insufficient to meet the nutrient requirement of ewes prior to mating season. However, concentrate supplementation at the rate of 1.5% of body weight to ewes during this critical stage enhanced their plane of nutrition, reproductive performance, body condition and birth weights of lambs.
Effects of Ensiling Alfalfa with Whole-crop Maize on the Chemical Composition and Nutritive Value of Silage Mixtures
Ozturk, Durmus ; Kizilsimsek, Mustafa ; Kamalak, Adem ; Canbolat, Onder ; Ozkan, Cagri Ozgur ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 526~532
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.526
The aim of this study was to evaluate the chemical composition, in vitro DM degradability, ME and OMD of alfalfa-maize silage mixtures in comparison to pure maize and alfalfa silages, and to test the existence of associative effects of ensiling alfalfa forage with whole-crop maize using the in vitro gas production technique. Ensiling alfalfa with whole-crop maize had a significant (p<0.001) effect on chemical composition, pH, in vitro DM degradability, OMD and estimated ME values of mixtures. DM content of the resultant silages significantly increased with increasing proportion of whole-crop maize in the mixtures, whereas the pH value, crude protein (CP), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and ash contents of mixtures decreased due to the dilution effect of whole-crop maize which was low in CP, ADF and ash. The pH values of all alfalfa-maize silage mixtures were at the desired level for quality silage. Gas production of alfalfa-maize silage mixtures at all incubation times except 12 h increased with increasing proportion of whole-crop maize. When alfalfa was mixed with whole-crop maize in the ratio 40:60, ME and OMD values were significantly (p<0.001) higher than other silages. Maximum gas production (
) ranged from 65.7 to 78.1 with alfalfa silage showing the lowest maximum gas production. The results obtained in this study clearly showed that maximum gas production increased with increased percentage of whole-crop maize in the silage mixtures (r = 0.940, p<0.001). It was concluded that ensiling alfalfa with whole-crop maize improved the pH, OMD and ME values. However, trials with animals are required to see how these differences in silage mixtures affect animal performance.
Evaluation of Fermentation Characteristics and Nutritive Value of Green Tea Waste Ensiled with Byproducts Mixture for Ruminants
Kondo, Makoto ; Kita, Kazumi ; Yokota, Hiro-omi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 533~540
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.533
In this study, the possibility of green tea waste (GTW) as a new ingredient of byproducts-mixed silage was investigated. Characteristics of GTW were low in dry matter (DM) content (20%), and high in crude protein (30 to 36%) and tannins (8.5%). The GTW was added to mixed silages composed of tofu cake, rice straw and rice bran that are locally available in Japan. In experiment 1, the effect of GTW addition to silage made from various patterns of byproducts mixture based on tofu cake was studied. In experiment 2, the effect of GTW addition and storage temperature on fermentation characteristics, nutrient contents and in vitro ruminal gas production of byproducts-mixed silages were examined. In experiment 1, GTW addition on tofu cake accelerated acetic, propionic and butyric acid accumulation in the silage. When rice straw was mixed with tofu cake, DM content was increased from 47 to 56%, lactic acid was the main acid and the pH was decreased below 4.2. In this case, GTW addition to those mixtures did not affect acid concentrations of the silage. In experiment 2, GTW addition to the byproducts mixture increased lactic acid concentration, decreased the pH and DM loss of the silages. In GTW treatments, tannin concentration was lower in the silage stored at
. Addition of GTW into the silage also increased in vitro ruminal gas production. It was concluded that addition of GTW into byproducts-mixed silage enhanced lactic acid fermentation when there were insufficient materials for lactic acid production. Utilization of GTW as an ingredient in mixed silages would be effective in enhancing fermentation characteristics, lowering tannin content and in vitro ruminal gas production.
Effect of Dietary Soybeans Extruded at Different Temperatures on Dairy Cow Milk Composition
Lee, Soo-Won ; Yang, Joo-Sung ; Chouinard, Yvan ; Van, Binh Nguyen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 541~548
Voluntary Intake of Insoluble Granite-grit Offered in Free Choice by Broilers: Its Effect on Their Digestive Tract Traits and Performances
Garipoglu, Ali Vaiz ; Erener, Guray ; Ocak, Nuh ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 549~553
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.549
In this study, the effects of granite-grit offered free-choice on voluntary intakes of grit and subsequently on some morphologic traits of the digestive tract and performance of broilers were investigated. A total of 240 7d-old male broiler chicks (Ross 308) were allotted randomly to 10 floor pens supplied with wood shavings. The experiment lasted for 42 days. There were 2 dietary treatments, each consisting of 5 replicates. Each replicate consisted of 24 birds kept in an experimental unit with a floor size of
. Dietary treatments consisted of control (C) in which broilers were fed standard broiler rations, and acid insoluble granite-grit choice (AIGG) in which broilers were fed standard broiler rations and grit in separate troughs. Mean amounts consumed varied quite widely from week to week, but on average broilers ate 3.41 g per d per bird during the experimental period. Birds had a higher voluntary intake of granite-grit at an early age (7 to 21 d of age) than later (22 to 42 d of age). The voluntary intake of granite-grit of AIGG broilers increased (p<0.05) from 2.7 g/day at 7-14 d to 4.4 g at 15-21 d of age, and then it decreased to 3.4, 3.2 and 3.4 g/day between 22-28, 29-35 and 36-42 d of age, respectively. This level of grit intake increased (p<0.05) weights of empty gizzard (0.97 vs. 1.30 g), edible inner organs (3.51 vs. 3.69 g), and length of gut (8.86 vs. 9.01 cm) as a proportion of body weight and the content of insoluble ash (8.4 vs. 42.2 g/kg) in the faeces compared to the control group. Feeding free-choice grit had little or no effect on final live weights (2,542 vs. 2,543 g), daily gains (69 vs. 69 g), carcass weights (1,924 vs. 1,911), dressing percentages (75.6% vs. 75.1%) and feed efficiencies (1.69 vs. 1.66). Birds given grit did not gain more weight than those not given grit but they tended to have (p<0.07) lower feed intake (116.7 vs. 114.5 g), and consequently lower protein and energy intake. In conclusion, the granite-grit consumed voluntarily by broilers increased gut length and empty gizzard weight without affecting growth performance of broilers. Thus, it can be assumed that the voluntary consumption of granite-grit was too low to affect performance.
Effect of Genotype on Whole-body and Intestinal Metabolic Response to Monensin in Mice
Fan, Y.K. ; Croom, W.J. ; Daniel, Linda ; McBride, B.W. ; Koci, M. ; Havenstein, G.B. ; Eisen, E.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 554~562
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.554
Two lines of mice, M16 selected for rapid growth and a randomly selected control ICR as well as their reciprocal crosses were used to study the effects of genotype on whole-body energetics and intestinal responses to monensin. Six mice, eight weeks of age, from each line or reciprocal cross were assigned to one of two treatments, 1) drinking water containing 20 mmol/L monensin dissolved in 0.5% V/V ethanol, and 2) drinking water containing 0.5% V/V ethanol (control) for two weeks. After 11 days (age of 9 weeks and 4 days), whole-body
consumption was measured. At the end of two weeks, jejunal
consumption, intestinal tissue composition and histomorphometrics as well as the rate and efficiency of glucose absorption were estimated. In comparison with the control, monensin administration in drinking water resulted in less daily water intake (13.4 vs. 15.5 ml/mouse, p<0.01), less protein to DNA ratio of jejunal mucosa (5.41 vs. 6.01 mg/mg, p<0.05), lower villus width (88 vs.
, p<0.05), and less jejunal tissue
consumption enhancement by alcohol (7.2 vs. 10.5%, p<0.01) in mice. Other than those changes, monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on variables measured in either line of mice or their reciprocal cross. In contrast, the M16 line, selected for rapid growth, as compared to the ICR controls or the reciprocal crosses, had less initial (pre-monensin treatment) whole-body
consumption per gram of body weight (1.68 vs.
BW, p<0.01) as compared to the ICR and reciprocal crosses. In addition, the M16 mice exhibited greater growth (412 vs. 137-210 mg/d, p<0.05), better feed efficiency (41.7 vs. 19.9-29.3 mg gain/g feed, p<0.05), shorter small intestines adjusted for fasted body weight (1.00 vs. 1.22-1.44 cm/g FBW, p<0.05), wider villi (109 vs.
, p<0.05), more mature height of enterocytes (28.8 vs.
, p<0.05) and a lower rate (91 vs.
jejunum, p<0.05) and less energetic efficiency (95 vs.
glucose uptake, p<0.05) of glucose absorption compared to the ICR line and the reciprocal cross. Monensin had little (p>0.05) effect on whole-body
consumption and jejunal function, whilst selection for rapid growth resulted in an apparent down-regulation of intestinal function. These data suggest that genetic selection for increased growth does not result in concomitant changes in intestinal function. This asynchrony in the selection for production traits and intestinal function may hinder full phenotypic expression of genotypic growth potential.
Effect of Dietary Fat-soluble Vitamins on Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing Pigs
Lohakare, J.D. ; Lee, S.H. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 563~567
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.563
Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of various vitamins on performance and digestibility in growing pigs. In experiment 1, a total of 54 pigs (
) were assigned to three treatments in a randomized complete block design with three replicates (6 pigs/pen) for 40 days. The three dietary treatments were: 100% fat-soluble vitamins (FSV) and water-soluble vitamins (WSV); 150% FSV and 100% WSV of NRC (1998); and 100% FSV and 150% WSV of NRC (1998). In experiment 2, a total of 180 pigs (
) were assigned to four treatments in a completely randomized design with three replicates for four weeks (15 pigs/pen). The four dietary treatments were, 150% vitamin A and 100% other vitamins, 150% vitamin D and 100% other vitamins, 150% vitamin E and 100% other vitamins, and 150% vitamin K and 100% other vitamins. In experiment 1, there were significant differences in growth performance and digestibility of nutrients among the treatments. The ADG, ADFI and FCR of pigs fed 150% FSV diet were better (p<0.05) than those fed the control diet. However, there were no differences (p>0.05) in ADG, ADFI and FCR between pigs fed the control and 150% WSV diets. Digestibilities of dry matter, gross energy and calcium were improved in 150% FSV treatment group compared with control (p<0.05). However, the improvement was similar when compared with 150% WSV except for Ca. In experiment 2, there were no differences (p>0.05) in ADG, ADFI and FCR and nutrient digestibility between the fat-soluble vitamin treatments when fed at the 150% level. In conclusion, growing pigs were more responsive to additional fat-soluble vitamin supplements over the requirements suggested by NRC (1998) than to water-soluble vitamin supplements as measured by growth performance and digestibility of nutrients.
Effects of Dietary Lysine Supplementation on the Performance of Lactating Sows and Litter Piglets during Different Seasons
Cheng, C.S. ; Yen, H.T. ; Hsu, J.C. ; Roan, S.W. ; Wu, J.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 568~572
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.568
The effect of dietary lysine supplementation on the performance of crossbred lactating sows (n = 49, total 92 litters) and suckling piglets during the warm and cool seasons was studied. Sows were randomly allocated to one of two experimental diets, which were fed throughout a 28-day lactation period. Two diets were formulated based on corn-soybean meal with 6% wheat bran, containing 15% crude protein, and with or without 0.25% lysine-HCl supplementation. No interaction was observed between season and dietary lysine supplementation. Dietary lysine supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased weaning weight (7.11 vs. 6.46 kg) and daily gain (0.20 vs. 0.18 kg) of piglets. During the warm season lactating sows had significantly lower feed intake (3.78 vs. 6.11 kg, p<0.01), higher weight loss (19.81 vs. 9.73 kg, p<0.01) and backfat loss (0.23 vs. 0.06 cm, p<0.01), longer interval from weaning to estrus (9.32 vs. 6.21 days, p<0.05), lower litter weight gain (42.13 vs. 52.90 kg, p<0.01) and lower daily gain (0.17 vs. 0.21 kg, p<0.01) than lactating sows during the cool season. The results indicate that the influences of dietary treatment and season were independent. The 15.0% CP lactation diet with 0.25% lysine-HCl supplementation did not improve the performance of lactating sows and litter piglets, which was impaired by the warm season.
Effects of Additives on Laying Performance, Metabolic Profile, and Egg Quality of Hens Fed a High Level of Sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) during the Peak Laying Period
Imik, H. ; Hayirli, A. ; Turgut, L. ; Lacin, E. ; Celebi, S. ; Koc, F. ; Yildiz, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 573~581
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.573
This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental methionine, lysine, choline, and sulfur on laying performance, metabolic parameters, and egg quality of hens fed diets containing sorghum (Sorghum vulgare) during the peak laying period. Lohman layers (n = 144), 30-wk of age as 6 replicate cages of 4 hens, were allocated randomly to receive basal diets containing either 22% corn (B) or 22% sorghum (BS) and diets BS plus 0.57% methionine, 0.66% lysine, 0.47% choline, or 0.05% sulfur for 98 d. Feed intake (FI) and egg production (EP) were recorded daily, egg weight (EW) was measured bi-weekly, and body weight (BW) was measured monthly. A sample of 12 eggs from each experimental group was collected every month to evaluate egg quality. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected for metabolite concentrations. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA as repeated measures and significant differences between the experimental groups were assessed using Duncan's Multiple Range test. Partial replacement of corn with sorghum in the basal diet did not affect BW, EP, and FCR but increased FI by 5.7% and EW by 2.4%. The effects of additives on laying performance were variable. Except for serum total protein (STP) concentration, other metabolic parameters were not affected by partial replacement of corn with sorghum in the basal diet. Hens fed diet BS had lower SPT concentration than hens fed diet B. Except for methionine supplementation, other supplements ameliorated depression in STP concentration. The additives did not affect other metabolic parameters. Egg quality responses to the experimental diets were also variable. Partial replacement of corn with sorghum in the basal diet did not affect eggshell characteristics (both thickness and stiffness), whereas it had variable effects on inner egg quality parameters (increased yolk index, depressed yolk color, and unaltered albumen index and Haugh unit). In conclusion, laying hen diets could include low-tannin sorghum (0.26%) up to 22% without necessitating extra supplements to overcome compromised performance.
Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder and Copper on Cholesterol Content and Quality Characteristics of Chicken Eggs
Lim, K.S. ; You, S.J. ; An, B.K. ; Kang, C.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 582~586
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.582
This experiment was conducted to investigate the dietary effect of garlic powder (GP) and copper (Cu) on laying performances and the cholesterol content and quality characteristics of eggs during storage in laying hens. A total of one hundred and eighty, 50-wk-old, Hy-Line Brown layers were divided into 6 groups with 3 replicates per group (10 layers per replicate) and fed one of six diets containing GP 0%, GP 1%, GP 3%, GP 5%, Cu 200 ppm, or GP 3%-Cu 200 ppm for 5 wks. There were no differences in the laying performances and feed intakes bertween treatments. Eggshell strength, eggshell thickness and yolk color were also not affected by feeding of GP and Cu. With increasing dietary GP, Haugh unit was linearly increased after 2 wk of storage (p<0.05). The levels of serum total cholesterol in hens fed diets containing GP or Cu were lower than that of the control (p<0.05), but high density lipoprotein-cholesterol was not influenced by dietary GP or Cu. The content of egg yolk cholesterol from hens fed diets containing GP or Cu was significantly decreased from that of the control, except for the GP 1% group. Based on the results of this experiment, the decrease of Haugh unit during storage was alleviated by feeding of GP. The feeding of GP or Cu alone and in combination altered the cholesterol fractions in serum and reduced the content of egg yolk cholesterol in laying hens.
Effects of Dietary Bacillus-based Probiotic on Growth Performance, Nutrients Digestibility, Blood Characteristics and Fecal Noxious Gas Content in Finishing Pigs
Chen, Y.J. ; Min, B.J. ; Cho, J.H. ; Kwon, O.S. ; Son, K.S. ; Kim, H.J. ; Kim, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 587~592
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.587
This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of supplementation with bacillus-based probiotic (Bacillus subtilis,
; Bacillus coagulans,
and Lactobacillus acidophilus,
) on finishing pigs growth performance, nutrients digestibility, blood characteristics and fecal noxious gas content and to determine the optimal addition level of this probiotic preparation. A total of forty eight pigs with an initial body weight (BW) of
were allotted to three dietary treatments (four pigs per pen with four pens per treatment) according to a randomized complete block design. Dietary treatment included: 1) CON (basal diet); 2) BP1 (basal diet+bacillus-based probiotic 0.1%) and 3) BP2 (basal diet+bacillus-based probiotic 0.2%). The experiment lasted 6 weeks. Through the entire experimental period, ADG was improved by 11% (p<0.05) in pigs fed diets supplemented with 0.2% bacillus-based probiotic compared to pigs fed the basal diet. ADFI and gain/feed were not affected by the treatments (p>0.05). Supplementation of bacillus-based probiotic did not affect either DM and N digestibilities or blood characteristics (p>0.05) of pigs. Fecal ammonia nitrogen (
-N) measured at the end of experiment was reduced (p<0.05) when pigs were fed the diet with 0.2% bacillus-based probiotic. Fecal butyric acid concentration also decreased significantly (p<0.05) whereas acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations were not affected (p>0.05) when pigs were fed diets with added bacillus-based probiotic. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of bacillus-based probiotic can increase growth performance and decrease fecal noxious gas content concentration.
Effect of Breed (Lean or Fat Pigs) and Sex on Performance and Feeding Behaviour of Group Housed Growing Pigs in a Tropical Climate
Renaudeau, D. ; Giorgi, M. ; Silou, F. ; Weisbecker, J.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 593~600
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.593
The effects of breed and sex on individual growth performance and feeding behaviour were studied between 45 and 90 kg BW in two replicates of forty group-housed pigs. The first and the second replicates were carried out during the warm season (i.e. between February and April 2003) and during the hot season (i.e. between August and October 2003), respectively. During the warm season, ambient temperature and relative humidity averaged
and 86.0%. The corresponding values for the hot season were
and 83.6%. The pigs were grouped in pens of 10 animals on the basis of breed (Creole or Large White) and sex (gilt or castrated male) and given ad libitum access to a grower diet (9.0 MJ/kg net energy and 158 g/kg crude protein) via feed intake recording equipment (Acema 48). An ear-tag transponder was inserted into each pig and this allowed the time, duration, and size of individual visits to be recorded. The growth performance and feeding pattern were significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. The Creole pigs (CR) had a lower average daily gain (ADG) (642 vs. 861 g/d, p<0.01) and carcass lean content (
) (35.4 vs. 54.5%; p<0.01) and a higher backfat thickness at 90 kg BW (
) (23.4 vs. 10.4 mm; p<0.01) than Large White pigs (LW) whereas the average daily feed intake (ADFI) was not affected by breed (2.34 vs. 2.22 kg/d, respectively for CR and LW pigs; p>0.10). Consequently, the food:gain ratio was higher in CR than in LW (3.65 vs. 2.58; p<0.01). CR had less frequent meals but ate more feed per meal than LW (5.9 vs. 8.8 meals/d and 431 vs. 279 g/meal; p<0.01). The rate of feed intake was lower (27.6 vs. 33.9 g/min; p<0.01) and the ingestion time per day and per meal were higher in CR than in LW (87.1 vs. 69.7 min/d and 15.8 vs. 8.4 min/meal; p<0.01). The ADFI and BT90 kg were higher (2.38 vs. 2.17 kg/d and 18.1 vs. 15.9 mm; p<0.05) and LC90 kg was lower (43.5 vs. 46.4%; p<0.01) in castrated males (CM) than in gilts (G) whereas ADG was not affected by sex (p = 0.12). The difference in lean content between CM and G was greater in CR than in LW. The ADFI and ADG were reduced during the hot season (2.18 vs.2.38 kg/d and 726 vs. 777 g/d, respectively; p<0.05) whereas feed conversion and carcass lean content were not affected by season (p>0.05). Average feeding time per meal and meal size decreased during the hot season (10.9 vs. 13.2 min/meal and 316 vs. 396 g/meal; p<0.01) whereas the rate of feed intake was not affected by season (p = 0.83). On average, 0.69 of total feed intake was consumed during the diurnal period. However, this partition of feed intake was significantly affected by breed, sex, and season. In conclusion, the breed, sex and season significantly affect performance and feeding pattern in growing pigs raised in a tropical climate. Moreover, the results obtained in the present study suggest that differences observed in BW composition between CR and LW are associated with difference in feeding behaviour, in particular, the short-term regulation of feed intake.
Study on Extraction of Mucopolysaccharide-protein Containing Chondroitin Sulfate from Chicken Keel Cartilage
Shin, S.C. ; You, S.J. ; An, B.K. ; Kang, C.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 601~604
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.601
The objective of this study was to investigate technical methods for extraction of mucopolysachharide-protein containing chondroitin sulfate from keel cartilage of chickens. The chemical composition of chicken keel cartilage was determined. For the preparation of mucopolysaccharide-protein from lyophilized chicken keel cartilage, hot water extraction and alcalase hydrolysis methods were examined. Results showed that the optimum condition of hot water extraction was incubation for 120 min with a yield of 40.09% and chondroitin sulfate content of 28.46%. For alcalase hydrolysis, the most effective condition was 2% alcalase in 10 volumes of distilled water for 120 min. The yield of hydrolysate was 75.87%, and chondroitin sulfate content was 26.61%. For further separation of chondroitin sulfate from the alcalase hydrolysate, which has a higher yield than that of hot water, 60% ethanol precipitation was performed. The yield of the ethanol precipitate was 21.41% and its chondroitin sulfate content was 46.31%. The hot water extract, alcalase hydrolysate and ethanol precipitate showed similar electrophoretic migration with standard chondroitin sulfate (chondroitin sulfate A), using cellulose acetate membrane electrophoresis. These results indicated that a significant amount of mucopolysaccharide-protein containing chondroitin sulfate could be acquired form chicken keel cartilage. Therefore, keel cartilage in chicken may provide an inexpensive source of chondroitin sulfate for commercial purposes.
pH and Colour Characteristics of Carcasses of Broilers Fed with Dietary Probiotics and Slaughtered at Different Ages
Karaoglu, Mevulut ; Aksu, M.I. ; Esenbuga, N. ; Macit, M. ; Durdag, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 4, 2006, Pages 605~610
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.605
The objective of the present experiment was to determine the effects of slaughtering at different ages and the use of a commercial probiotic (115-Biogallinox) in broiler diets on the color properties of carcasses, during the first 24 h following slaughter. Ross 308 male broiler chickens obtained from a commercial hatchery were raised to either 35 or 42 days of age. Chickens were fed with different levels of probiotic (
: 0.1% and
: 0.2%) containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the experimental period. At the end of the trial all birds were slaughtered and then stored at
for 24 h. The pH and skin colour of carcasses were determined 1, 3, 7, 10, 13, 17 and 24 h after slaughter. Although the use of probiotic and post-mortem ageing time affected the pH (p<0.01), it was not affected by slaughter age (35 and 42 days) (p>0.05). The highest pH values occurred in carcasses of broilers fed 0.2% probiotic. The pH values of carcasses decreased with post-mortem ageing time (p<0.01). Main factors (treatment, slaughter age and post-mortem ageing time) had an effect on colour (
) values (p<0.01).
values of 42d-old slaughter and
group were lower than those of 35d-old slaughter and other probiotic groups. The
values of 35d-old slaughter were lower than those of 42d-old slauhgter. The
values increased during post-mortem ageing (p<0.01). It was determined that changing of the colour traits of broiler carcasses was correlated with probiotic, pH and post-mortem ageing time. Also, it was observed that darkness of carcass colour increased as time progressed.