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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Genetic Parameters for Traits in Performance and Progeny Tests and Their Genetic Relationships in Japanese Black Cattle
Oikawa, T. ; Hoque, M.A. ; Hitomi, T. ; Suzuki, K. ; Uchida, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 611~616
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.611
Genetic parameters for performance traits on 409 bulls and growth and carcass traits on 591 of their steer progeny were estimated in Japanese Black cattle with Gibbs sampling. Traits of bulls included body weight at the start (BWS) and finish (BWF) of test, daily gain (DG), concentrate, roughage and TDN intake, and TDN conversion ratio. Progeny traits were BWS, BWF, DG, rib eye area, marbling score (MSR), dressing percentage and subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT). In bulls, heritabilities were high for BWS (0.50) and BWF (0.63) and moderate for concentrate (0.48) and TDN intake (0.45), while in progeny, the heritability for all the studied traits was moderate to high (ranging from 0.30 to 0.73), highlighting the potential for genetic improvement of these traits. Genetic correlations between TDN intake and growth traits (BWS, BWF and DG) in bulls were highly positive (ranging from 0.77 to 0.94). The weak but negative genetic correlation (-0.20) between MSR and SFT in progeny indicated that improvement of beef marbling without increasing subcutaneous fat deposition could be possible. The estimated genetic correlations of roughage intake of bulls with body weights (BWS and BWF) and MSR of their progeny were moderate (ranging from 0.35 to 0.52). On the basis of the selection for bulls, growth traits and TDN intake correlated positively with SFT (ranging from 0.43 to 0.53) of their progeny, suggesting the necessity of controlling the increase of SFT in selection programs.
Analysis of Genetic Diversity of the Thai Swamp Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Using Cattle Microsatellite DNA Markers
Triwitayakorn, K. ; Moolmuang, B. ; Sraphet, S. ; Panyim, S. ; Na-Chiangmai, A. ; Smith, Duncan R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 617~621
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.617
Recently the numbers of the Thai swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), a native species of Thailand, have been rapidly declining, leading to a requirement for conservation programs for this breed. Such studies of the genetic diversity of this species are essential for conservation decisions and to assist the rational implementation of breeding programs. In this study, the genetic diversity of 80 Thai swamp buffalo, randomly selected from seven different research stations of the Thai Department of Livestock Development, were studied using ten cattle microsatellite markers. Polymorphic PCR products were observed at all microsatellite loci, with percentages of polymorphic loci ranging from 80.00 to 100.00%. The population from Payao showed the lowest level of polymorphism. The mean number of alleles per locus was 4.7 with the highest number of alleles being eight (ETH152) and the lowest being three (HAUT27 and ILSTS030). The average unbiased heterozygosity for all seven populations was 0.61 and varied between 0.5314 (Samui) and 0.6798 (Surin). The genetic distance according to NEI's (1972) ranged from 0.0722 to 0.4427. The populations from Surin and Burirum are the closest populations, while populations from Samui and Payao are the most divergent. The information generated by this study will greatly aid in the establishment of effective breeding and conservation programs for the Thai swamp buffalo.
Molecular Characterization of Hallikar Breed of Cattle Using Microsatellite Markers
Kumar, S. Naveen ; Jayashankar, M.R. ; Nagaraja, C.S. ; Govindaiah, M.G. ; Saravanan, R. ; Karthickeyan, S.M.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 622~626
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.622
Molecular characterization of Hallikar, the native cattle breed of Karnataka, was undertaken using 19 cattle specific, highly polymorphic microsatellite markers recommended by FAO. The genomic DNA was subjected to PCR amplification and alleles were resolved through six per cent denaturing PAGE with a 10 bp DNA ladder followed by silver staining. Genotyping of animals was done based on allele size. The number of alleles ranged from three to nine with allele sizes ranging from 102 bp to 294 bp. These alleles were distributed in the frequency range between 0.0306 and 0.8673 in the population. The mean observed number of alleles was
. The mean observed and expected heterozygosities were
, respectively. The high heterozygosity observed implies presence of higher genetic variability within Hallikar breed. The PIC (Polymorphism Information Content) values ranged from 0.2322 (ETH152) to 0.8654 (ETH225). The percentage of polymorphic loci obtained was 100 as all the 19 microsatellite markers were found to be polymorphic. Except for ETH152, all the other loci had high PIC values, indicating that these markers are highly informative for characterization of Hallikar breed. The population was tested for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium at 19 microsatellite loci, and at 74 per cent of the loci the population was found to be in disequilibrium.
Association of Leptin Polymorphism with Production, Reproduction and Plasma Glucose Level in Iranian Holstein Cows
Moussavi, A. Heravi ; Ahouei, M. ; Nassiry, M.R. ; Javadmanesh, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 627~631
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.627
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of genetic differences in the bovine leptin gene and milk yield, reproduction, body condition score (BCS), and plasma glucose level in Iranian Holstein cows. In total, two hundred and thirty eight cows were used and genotyped for a restricted fragment length polymorphism at the leptin gene locus. Two genotypes, AA and AB, have been distinguished which have the frequencies of 0.89 and 0.11, respectively. The genotypes were distributed according to the Hardy - Weinberg equilibrium (
= 0.733). During the first 12 wk of lactation, milk yield and composition, live weight, BCS and plasma glucose were measured in 50 cows. Data were analyzed based on a repeated measures ANOVA. During this period, milk yield and composition, live weight, BCS and plasma glucose level were similar among the genotypes. The first cumulative 60-d milk yield, 305-d milk yield, days to first breeding, days open and days from first breeding to conception using previous lactation records were also analyzed using Standard Least Square within mixed models. Fixed effects were year, season, parity and age at calving, and sire. For the reproductive traits the cumulative first 60-d milk yield was also added to the model. Animal was fitted as a random effect. A significant association was detected between the RFLP-AB genotype and 305-d milk yield (p<0.05). The first 60-d cumulative milk yield was similar for the two genotypes (p = 0.21) and tended to be higher in the heterozygous cows. The heterozygous genotypes at the above mentioned locus had a trend to better reproductive performance than the homozygous. The results demonstrate that the RFLP B-allele can yield a higher 305-d milk production with a trend to better reproductive performance.
Oviduct-specific Glycoprotein 1 Locus is Associated with Litter Size and Weight of Ovaries in Pigs
Niu, B.Y. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ; Li, F.E. ; Jiang, S.W. ; Deng, C.Y. ; Ding, S.H. ; Guo, W.H. ; Lei, M.G. ; Zheng, R. ; Zuo, B. ; Xu, D.Q. ; Li, J.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 632~637
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.632
Oviduct-specific glycoprotein 1 (OVGP1) is implicated in playing a role in fertilization and early embryo development. In this study, we have obtained the sequence of intron 9 of OVGP1 gene in swine. Comparative sequencing of Meishan (a native Chinese breed) and Large White pig breeds revealed an A/T substitution at position 943. A PCR-EcoRI-RFLP assay was developed to detect this mutation. Polymorphism analysis in Qingping animals showed that pigs with BB genotype had lower number of piglets born alive (NBA) in multiple parities than pigs with AA (p<0.05) and AB genotype (p<0.01). In Large
offspring, the weight of both ovaries (OW) of the BB genotype was significantly lighter than that of AB (p = 0.05) and AA (p<0.01) genotypes. Analysis of the data also revealed that the mutation locus affected these two traits mostly by additive effects. These studies indicated that the polymorphism was associated with NBA and OW in two distinct populations and further investigations in more purebreds or crossbreds are needed to confirm these results.
Effect of Sources of Supplementary Protein on Intake, Digestion and Efficiency of Energy Utilization in Buffaloes Fed Wheat Straw Based Diets
Mehra, U.R. ; Khan, M.Y. ; Lal, Murari ; Hasan, Q.Z. ; Das, Asit ; Bhar, R. ; Verma, A.K. ; Dass, R.S. ; Singh, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 638~644
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.638
Sixteen adult male buffaloes (average body weight
) were equally distributed into four groups in an experiment to study the effect of supplementary protein sources on energy utilization efficiency in buffaloes fed a wheat straw-based diet. The animals in the control group were offered a basal diet composed of 700 g deoiled ground nut cake and ad libitum wheat straw. Animals of other groups were offered 1.8 kg of soyabean meal (SBM), linseed meal (LSM) or mustard cake (MC) along with the basal diet. Protein supplementation increased the digestibility of DM (p<0.01), OM (p<0.01) CP (p<0.01) and CF (p<0.05). Maximum CP digestibility was observed on SBM, followed by LSM and MC when compared to the control. Total DMI and DOMI was significantly (p<0.01) higher in protein supplemented groups with no differences between treatment groups. Digestible crude protein (DCP) intake and N balance were significantly (p<0.01) different between the groups; maximum response was obtained with SBM supplementation, followed by LSM and MC. Faecal energy was significantly (p<0.01) lower in SBM and LSM groups in comparison to other groups. Methane production (% DEI) was significantly (p<0.05) lower on the SBM treatment. Metabolizable energy (ME) intake increased significantly due to protein supplementation. Metabolizable energy intake (MEI) of animals in the MC group was less than LSM and SBM. Energy balance was increased significantly (p<0.01) due to protein supplementation and within supplement variation was also significant with maximum balance in SBM followed by LSM and MC groups. Protein supplementation significantly (p<0.05) increased the digestibility and metabolizability of energy from whole ration. Metabolizable energy (ME) content (Mcal/kg DM) of SBM, LSM and MC was 4.49, 3.56 and 2.56, respectively. It was concluded that protein supplementation of wheat straw increased intake, digestibility and metabolizability of energy and maximum response could be obtained when soybean meal was used as a supplement.
Feeding Value of Urea Treated Wheat Straw Ensiled with or without Acidified Molasses in Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Khan, M. Ajmal ; Sarwar, Muhammad ; Nisa, M. ; Khan, M.S. ; Bhatti, S.A. ; Iqbal, Z. ; Lee, W.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kim, H.S. ; Ki, K.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 645~650
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.645
Thirty early lactating Nili-Ravi buffaloes, six animals in each group, were used in a completely randomized design to examine the feeding value of 4% urea treated wheat straw (UTWS) ensiled with 6% or without acidified molasses. Five experimental diets were formulated. The control ration was balanced to contain 30% DM from UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. The other four diets were formulated to have 30, 40, 50 and 60% DM from UTWS ensiled with 6% acidified molasses, respectively. Dry matter and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intakes were higher in buffaloes fed diets containing UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses compared with those fed a diet containing UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. Intake of DM was not significantly different in buffaloes fed diets containing varying levels of UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses. A similar trend was observed for crude protein (CP) intake. Apparent DM and NDF digestibilities were significantly higher in buffaloes fed diets containing UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses compared with those fed UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. However, differences in DM and NDF digestibilities were non-significant across buffaloes fed diets containing varying levels of UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses. Milk yield (4% fat corrected) was significantly higher in buffaloes fed diets containing UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses than those fed a diet containing UTWS ensiled without acidified molasses. Milk yield was similar in buffaloes fed varying level of UTWS ensiled with acidified molasses. Milk CP, true protein, solid-not-fat and total solids were similar in buffaloes fed UTWS ensiled with or without acidified molasses. The UTWS ensiled with 6% acidified molasses can be included at up to 60% DM of lactating buffalo rations without any ill effect on productivity.
Amino Acid Profiles of Tropical Legumes, Cooper (Glycine wightii), Tinaroo (Neonotonia wightii) and Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), at Pre-blooming and Blooming Stages
Tokita, Norio ; Shimojo, Masataka ; Masuda, Yasuhisa ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 651~654
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.651
An experiment was conducted to investigate amino acid composition of three tropical legumes (Cooper (Glycine wightii), Tinaroo (Neonotonia wightii) and Siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum)) at two different stages (pre-blooming and blooming stages). Chemical composition and totally 16 amino acids of these plants were analysed for comparison of their composition among species at different growing stages and characterizing the amino acid pattern of these legumes. Crude protein content of the plants ranged from 16% to 27% on a dry matter basis. The total amount of 16 amino acids analyzed in this experiment was highest at 89.7 mg/16 g N in Cooper at pre-blooming and lowest at 80.9 mg/16 g N in Glycine at blooming stage. Total amount of amino acids in each legume species tended to slightly decrease with their maturity but no statistical difference was found. The percentage of aspartic acid, glutamic acid and proline in the total amount of amino acids was dominant at 9% to 13%, and that of methionine was less than 1.6%. In this experiment it was concluded that three tropical legumes were rich in crude protein content and characterized by 16 different amino acids with lower sulfur-containing amino acid as methionine.
The Effects of Xylose Treatment on Rumen Degradability and Nutrient Digestibility of Soybean and Cottonseed Meals
Sacakli, P. ; Tuncer, S.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 655~660
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.655
Two trials were conducted to evaluate the effect of xylose treatment on rumen degradability characteristics of DM, OM and CP and in vivo digestibility of DM, OM, CP and crude fiber (CF) of soybean meal (SBM) and cottonseed meal (CSM). In Trial 1, three ruminally cannulated Merino rams were used. Xylose treatments at both levels, 0.5 and 1%, decreased effective degradability of DM, OM and CP of SBM, whereas 0.5 and 1% xylose treatment of CSM did not show any effect on effective degradability of DM, OM and CP. By contrast, maximum potential degradabilities of DM, OM and CP of CSM seemed to be increased by 1% xylose treatment. It was concluded that xylose treatment was effective in protecting SBM proteins from degradation in the rumen, but the same treatment was not so effective for CSM protein. In trial 2, three Merino rams were used. With treatments, DM, OM, CP and CF digestibilities of SBM and CSM were not changed. Crude fiber digestibility was numerically increased by the treatments of 0.5 and 1% xylose of both SBM and CSM compared to untreated SBM and CSM but differences were not significant. In conclusion SBM proteins can be effectively protected from degradation in the rumen by xylose treatment, without negatively affecting in vivo digestibility of protein, whereas xylose treatment appeared to be less effective on protecting of CSM proteins.
Effects of Size and Rate of Maturing on Carcass Composition of Pasture- or Feedlot- Developed Steers
Brown, A.H. Jr. ; Camfield, P.K. ; Baublits, R.T. ; Pohlman, F.W. ; Johnson, Z.B. ; Brown, C.J. ; Tabler, G.T. ; Sandelin, B.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 661~671
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.661
Steers (n = 335) of known genetic backgrounds from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study the main effects and possible interactive effects on carcass composition. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight (LL), intermediate mature weight-late maturing (IL), intermediate mature weight-early maturing (IE), and small mature weight-early maturing (SE). Each year, in a nine year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and harvested at approximately 20 and 14 mo of age, respectively. Data recorded were chilled carcass weight and percentages of forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round, rump, shortloin, sirloin, flank, lean, fat, bone, and retail cuts. The growth
system interaction was an important source of variation in chilled carcass weight (p = 0.0395) and percentage retail cuts (p = 0.001), lean (p = 0.001), fat (p = 0.001), rump (p = 0.0454), shortloin (p = 0.0487), and flank (p = 0.001). The ranking of the growth
system means for percentage lean was LL-pasture>IL-pasture = IE-pasture = SE-pasture>LL-feedlot, IL-feedlot>IE-feedlot = SE-feedlot. The growth
system interaction was non-significant (p>0.05) for forequarter, foreshank, chuck, rib, plate, brisket, hindquarter, round and bone. Growth types of IE and SE yielded greater (p<0.05) mean forequarter than did growth types of IL and LL (
). Mean bone was highest (p<0.05) for the LL growth type and lowest (p<0.05) for the SE growth type (
). Mean bone was greater (p<0.05) for the pastured steers than for the feedlot steers (
). These data indicate that growth type responded differently in the two production systems and that these results should be helpful in the match of genetics to production resources.
Effects of Some Management Factors on Milk Production in First-calf Heifers
Broucek, J. ; Arave, C.W. ; Kisac, P. ; Mihina, S. ; Flak, P. ; Uhrincat, M. ; Hanus, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 672~678
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.672
The objective of this study was to investigate whether milk performance is impacted by the housing of heifers from the second to the seventh day of life, the method of feeding milk from the second week of life to weaning, the sire lineage and by the season of birth and season of calving. From 32 Holstein heifer-calves, which spent their first day of life in a loose housing maternity pen with their mother, 19 heifers were randomly placed in hutches (IH), and 13 stayed in a loose housing maternity pen (MP). At the seventh day IH heifers were assigned to one of two treatments, 10 heifers were randomly taken from IH and relocated to a loose housing pen with an automatic feeding station (AD), 9 calves stayed in hutches with bucket drinking (BD). MP heifers were moved to a group pen with nursing cows (UD). All animals were weaned at the age of 8 weeks (56 days) and kept in group pens. After calving, they were in free-stall housing. Trial cows were divided according to the sire, season of birth and calving. The five-factorial ANOVA revealed that among all the factors taken into account in this study, only sire lineage and season of birth had significant effects. The production of milk, FCM and protein were higher in the MP group than in the IH group. The UD group tended to have the highest production of milk, FCM, protein, lactose, SNF and total solids (TS) and the AD group the lowest. The content of fat and TS were highest in the AD group. Effects of the sire were significant for average daily gains (ADG) from birth to weaning (
, p<0.05), contents of fat (
, p<0.05), protein (
, p<0.05), and TS (
, p<0.05). In the season of birth evaluation, statistical difference was found only in the content of protein (
, p<0.05). Cows born in March-May had the highest % protein and cows born in June-August the lowest (
). Dairy cows born and subsequently calving in December-February had the highest production of milk, protein and TS, and dairy cows born in June-August the lowest. FCM and fat yields were highest in the group born in September-November and lowest in the group born in June-August.
Effect of Soybean Oil Supplementation on the Contents of Plasma Cholesterol and Cis9, trans11-CLA of the Fat Tissues in Sheep
Choi, S.H. ; Wang, J.H. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Oh, Y.K. ; Song, M.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 679~683
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.679
A feeding trial was conducted with 10 sheep for 12 weeks to examine the effect of soybean oil (SBO) supplementation on long-chain fatty acids composition, especially cis9,trans11-conjugated linoleic acid (c9,t11-CLA) in fat tissues. Sheep were fed either a SBO supplemented diet (5%, DM basis) or a control diet without SBO. Chopped rye grass hay was fed as roughage. Concomitant increases in contents of total cholesterol (T-C) and HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) in the plasma of sheep were observed from the SBO supplementation. The supplementation of SBO reduced (p<0.05) the proportions of
but increased (p<0.05) the proportions of
and octadecenoic acid (t11-
) in the intramuscular fat. The
proportion only in the subcutaneous fat was increased (p<0.05) by the SBO supplementation. The SBO supplementation slightly increased CLA proportion in the intramuscular fat and subcutaneous fat.
Effect of Tween 80 on Hydrolytic Activity and Substrate Accessibility of Carbohydrolase I (CBH I) from Trichoderma viride
Kim, Wanjae ; Gamo, Yuko ; Sani, Yahaya Mohammed ; Wusiman, Yimiti ; Ogawa, Satoru ; Karita, Shuichi ; Goto, Masakazu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 684~689
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.684
The present study examined the effects of Tween 80 on the attachment and hydrolytic activity of a cellulase enzyme against ball-milled cellulose (BMC), using the whole component (native CBH I) and the catalysis module (core CBH I) of carbohydrolase I purified from Trichoderma viride (Meicelase, Meiji Seika, Tokyo, Japan). The effects were evaluated as protein concentrations in the supernatant after mixing enzyme and substrate with Tween 80 at room temperature. Tween 80 decreased the adsorption of native CBH I and core CBH I onto BMC (p<0.001) and increased the amount of reducing sugars released from BMC by native CBH I (p<0.001). However, Tween 80 did not enhance the hydrolytic activity of core CBH I. Observations using SEM revealed that Tween 80 caused cellulose filter paper to swell and enhanced surface cracks and filaments caused by native CBH I but not by core CBH I. These results suggested that Tween 80 decreases enzyme adsorption to its substrate but enhances enzymatic activity.
Defoliation Effects on Root and Rhizome Development of Kura Clover
Kim, B.W. ; Albrecht, K.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 690~694
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.690
There is limited information on the relationship between defoliation and root and rhizome development of kura clover (Trifolium ambiguum M. Bieb.). To determine the effects of defoliation severity on root and rhizome growth of young kura clover plant (seedling about 8 wk old), this research was conducted in 2002 (Experiment 1) and 2003 (Experiment 2) in a glasshouse at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Four kura clover entries were used in this experiment: two were started from seed materials (ARS-2678 and 'Rhizo') and two were clones from mature, field-grown Rhizo kura clover plant. Three defoliation frequencies (2-, 4- and 6-wk intervals) and two defoliation intensities (complete and partial defoliation) were imposed on each of the four kura clover entries. Root, rhizome, and leaf dry matter (DM) generally increased with less frequent defoliation, however, the increase in rhizome DM was not significant between 4- or 6-wk defoliation periods. The root and leaf DM under complete defoliation (CD) were significantly lower than under partial defoliation (PD). In Exp. 1, rhizome DM was not significantly different between CD and PD; it was significantly lower under CD in Exp. 2. ARS-2678 showed excellent root development characteristics, however, its rhizome DM was significantly lower than Rhizo clones. The rhizome development from Rhizo clones was greater than that from seed materials. If maximum root and rhizome growth are expected from young kura clover plant, the intensity and frequency of defoliation should be minimized or defoliation should be avoided.
Effect of Cassava Hay in High-quality Feed Block as Anthelmintics in Steers Grazing on Ruzi Grass
Wanapat, Metha ; Khampa, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 695~698
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.695
Six, one-year old dairy steers were randomly divided into two groups according to a Completely randomized design (CRD) to receive high-quality feed block (HQFB) without cassava hay and drenching (HQFB1+Ivomex) and HQFB with cassava hay (HQFB2) as block licks while grazing on Ruzi grass pasture. During the eight weeks, fecal parasitic egg counts dramatically declined for both treatment groups with 63.2 and 27.6% reduction from initial period for HQFB1+Ivomex and HQFB2, respectively. However, digestion of coefficients of nutrients particularly OM, were significantly higher in HQFB2 than, those in HQFB1+Ivomex, in addition, ADG of animals in HQFB2 tended to be higher than the group on HQFB1. It was, hence concluded that cassava hay could not only provide as a protein source but also serve as an anthelmintic in ruminants.
Effect of Forage to Concentrate Ratio and Monensin Supplementation on cis-9, trans-11 Conjugated Linoleic Acid and trans-11 Octadecenoic Acid Concentrations of Ruminal Contents and Plasma in Sheep
Zhang, Yuzhi ; Kong, Xianghao ; Zhu, Xiaoping ; Wang, Runlian ; Yan, Yichai ; Jia, Zhihai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 699~704
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.699
Twenty-four cannulated Small-tailed Han
Poll Dorset wethers (BW
) were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate ratio (40:60 vs. 70:30), monensin supplementation (0, 15 or 30 ppm, DM basis) and interactions of these two factors on cis-9, trans-11 conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) and trans-11 octadecenoic acid (trans11-
) concentrations in ruminal contents and plasma in sheep. The experiment was designed as a
factorial. The diet contained Chinese wild rye grass hay (Aneurolepidium Chinese), cracked corn, soybean meal, NaCl, limestone and trace mineral premix. Dietary crude fat and linoleic acid (
) were adjusted with soybean oil to about 7.0% and 24.0 mg/g (DM basis), respectively. High forage diets increased (p<0.001) the concentrations of trans11-
and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in ruminal contents and plasma. Monensin supplementation increased (p<0.001) the concentration of trans11-
in ruminal contents, but had no effect on that of cis-9, trans-11 CLA. Concentrations of trans11-
(p<0.019) and cis-9, trans-11 CLA (p<0.022) in plasma increased with dietary monensin levels. Interactions of forage: concentrate ratio and monensin level tended to affect the concentrations of trans11-
(p<0.083) in ruminal contents. Increasing forage levels increased the concentrations of trans11-
and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in the rumen. Supplementing with monensin increased the ruminal production of trans11-
and concentrations of trans11-
and cis-9, trans-11 CLA in plasma.
Urea Treated Corncobs Ensiled with or without Additives for Buffaloes: Ruminal Characteristics, Digestibility and Nitrogen Metabolism
Khan, M.A. ; Iqbal, Z. ; Sarwar, M. ; Nisa, M. ; Khan, M.S. ; Lee, W.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 705~712
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.705
Influences of urea treated corncobs (UTC) ensiled with or without different additives on ruminal characteristics, in situ digestion kinetics, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen metabolism were examined in a
Latin square design using five ruminally cannulated buffalo bulls. Five iso-caloric and iso-nitrogenous diets were formulated to contain 30% dry matter (DM) from concentrate and 70% DM from 5% UTC ensiled without any additive (U) or with 5% enzose (EN), 5% acidified molasses (AM), 5% non-acidified molasses (NM) and 5% acidified water (AW), respectively. These diets were fed to buffalo bulls at 1.5% of their body weight daily. Ruminal
-N concentration at 3 hours (h) post feeding was significantly higher in bulls fed U, NM and AW diets, however, at 6, 9 and 12 h post feeding it was significantly higher in bulls fed EN and AM diets. Ruminal total volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acetate concentrations were significantly higher with EM and AM diets compared with other diets at 3, 6, 9 and 12 h post feeding. Ruminal pH at 6 and 9 h post feeding was higher with EN and AM diets; however; it was notably lower with these diets at 3 h post feeding. Total ruminal bacterial and cellulolytic bacterial counts were higher in bulls fed EN and AM diets than in those fed the other diets. In situ ruminal DM and NDF degradabilities and total tract digestibilities were significantly higher with UTC ensiled with enzose and acidified molasses than those ensiled without any additive or other additives. Nitrogen balance was significantly higher in bulls fed EN and AM diets than those fed U, AW and NM diets. The UTC ensiled with enzose or acidified molasses resulted in better digestibility and N utilization than those ensiled without any additive, with non-acidified molasses and acidified water in buffaloes.
Effects of Dietary Iodine and Selenium on the Activities of Blood Lymphocytes in Laying Hens
Song, Zhigang ; Guo, Yuming ; Yuan, Jianmin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 713~719
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.713
The effect of dietary iodine and selenium supplementation, alone or in combination, on peripheral blood lymphocyte function was determined in laying hens. Eight-hundred-and-sixty-four New-Loman laying hens were randomly allotted into 12 dietary treatments with different inclusion levels of iodine (0, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg), selenium (0, 0.05, 0.1 and 0.2 mg/kg) or their combinations for 24 weeks. The lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation index, concanavalin A (ConA) stimulation index, peroxide enzyme activity and phagocytosis to neutral red particles were tested. There were significant differences in LPS stimulation index, ConA stimulation index, peroxide enzyme activity and phagocytosis to neutral red particles in different iodine or selenium supplementation levels (p<0.05). The highest iodine and selenium supplementation both resulted in highest LPS-/ConA-stimulation indices (p<0.05). However, when iodine was lower than 0.2 mg/kg, the additional effect of different levels of selenium did not always result in significant differences in these indices. The results indicated that iodine and selenium may affect immunity in laying hens and, when the iodine level in the laying hen is lower than 0.2 mg/kg, a selenium allowance higher than 0.1 mg/kg may be necessary to improve immunity.
Growth, Feed Utilization and Nutrient Retention of Juvenile Olive Flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) Fed Moist, Semi-moist and Extruded Diets
Kim, J.-D. ; Shin, S.-H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 720~726
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.720
In an attempt to develop an artificial diet for growing olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus), weight gain, feed utilization and nutrient retention were investigated in fish fed moist (MP), semi-moist (SMP) and extruded pellets (EP). Excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus was also estimated based on their whole body gain and intake. EP and MP composed of raw fish and SMP made of formulated powder feed with water were prepared to have the same energy contents on a dry matter basis. A total of 240 fish with an average initial weight of 120 g were randomly distributed to each (20 fish/tank) of 12 circular plastic tanks (4 tanks/treatment) and fed experimental diets for 8 weeks. Fish groups fed EP (209 g) or SMP (209 g) recorded higher final weight than those fed MP (176 g), while dry feed consumption was highest in SMP groups (106 g), followed by MP (71 g) and EP groups (62 g). As a consequence, fish groups fed EP showed much lower feed conversion ratio than the other two groups. Protein efficiency ratio was also significantly higher in fish groups fed EP (2.55) than in those fed MP (1.44) and SMP (1.31). Fish groups fed EP, which showed the highest nitrogen retention of 43.9%, resulted in the lowest excretion of nitrogen of 35.5 g per kg gain. Also, the lowest phosphorus excretion of 6.0 g per kg gain was found in the EP groups with the highest P retention (37.0%) among treatments. Although the EP groups had the lowest dietary energy intake, they retained the highest energy in the whole body among treatments. The present results showed that EP could be more advantageous than MP or SMP in terms of growth, feed utilization and excretion of nitrogen and phosphorus for olive flounder.
Effects of Arsenic (As
) on Lipid Peroxidation, Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Enzymes in Growing Pigs
Wang, L. ; Xu, Z.R. ; Jia, X.Y. ; Jiang, J.F. ; Han, X.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 727~733
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.727
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of arsenic (
) on lipid peroxidation, glutathione content and antioxidant enzymes in growing pigs. Ninety-six Duroc-Landrace-Yorkshire crossbred growing pigs (48 barrows and 48 gilts, respectively) were randomly assigned to four groups and each group was randomly assigned to three pens (four barrows and four gilts). The four groups received the same corn-soybean basal diet which was supplemented with 0, 10, 20, 30 mg/kg As respectively. Arsenic was added to the diet in the form of
. The experiment lasted for seventy-eight days after a seven-day adaptation period. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione (GSH) contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activities were analyzed in serum, livers and kidneys of pigs. The results showed that pigs treated with 30 mg As/kg diet had a decreased average daily gain (ADG) (p<0.05) and an increased feed/gain ratio (F/G) (p<0.05) compared to the controls. The levels of MDA significantly increased (p<0.05), and the contents of GSH and the activities of SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST significantly decreased (p<0.05) in the pigs fed 30 mg As/kg diet. The results indicated that the mechanism of arsenic-induced oxidative stress in growing pigs involved lipid peroxidation, depletion of glutathione and decreased activities of some enzymes, such as SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GST, which are associated with free radical metabolism.
Effects of Cold Stress on Broiler Performance and Ascites Susceptibility
Ipek, A. ; Sahan, U. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 734~738
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.734
The present study was conducted to determine the effect of cold stress on broiler performance and ascites susceptibility. Male chicks were obtained from a commercial strain of broiler breeders. The trial was divided into two treatments (control and cold stress groups). Ascites was induced in broiler chickens in the trial by exposing the chickens to low temperature (Ta) and by supplying a pelleted diet. The two experimental treatments consisted of: 1) Control group,
wk. 2) Cold stress group,
wk. From the end of the
wk all broilers were reared to 6 wk of age at a constant temperature of
. There was significant difference in live BW during wk 1 to 5. The control group was consistently the heaviest; however, at 6 wk of age, both groups weighed the same. Body weight gain up to 3 wk was significantly decreased by cold stress. During wk 3 and 6 the chicks in the cold stress group had greater BW gain compared with the chicks in the control group. There were significant differences in mortality due to ascites between the groups. During wk 3 and 6 the cold stress group exhibited the most ascites mortality (9.52%) when compared with the control group (1.90%). At 5 wk of age cold stress condition caused significant changes in packed cell volume (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cell counts (RBC). Right ventricle weight was significantly heavier in the cold stress group than the control. There were also significant differences in right ventricle/total ventricle (RV/TV) ratios at 5 wk. the right ventricle/total ventricle ratios in the cold stress group was higher (0.25) than the control group (0.20). It was concluded that, fast growth and cold temperatures are the primary triggers for ascites during commercial broiler production.
Postmortem Proteolysis of Breast and Leg Muscles from Taiwan Colored Chickens and Silkie Bantams
Tsai, Shih-Fen ; Lin, Chia-Ying ; Lu, Jin-Jenn ; Chou, Rong-Ghi R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 739~743
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.739
Postmortem proteolysis of breast (BM) and leg (LM) muscles from Taiwan colored chickens (TCC) and silkie bantams (SB) at
were compared. Myofibrils were prepared from BM and LM samples that were randomly taken from the carcasses of SB and TCC after 0, 1, 3, 7 and 14 days of storage at
. pH of samples was determined, and degradation of myofibrillar proteins was analyzed by the SDS-PAGE and western blots. The results showed that pH was lower in BM than in LM samples from both avian strains. Appearance of 30 kDa components and disappearance of titin and nebulin were more rapidly as seen on SDS-PAGE in BM than in LM samples. Western blots labeled with a monoclonal antibody to desmin also demonstrated that desmin degraded more quickly in BM samples. Our data might suggest that postmortem proteolysis occurred more rapidly in BM than in LM from both TCC and SB.
Effect of Substituted Conjugated Linoleic Acid for Fat on Meat Qualities, Lipid Oxidation and Residual Nitrite Content in Emulsion-type Sausage
Hah, K.H. ; Yang, H.S. ; Hur, S.J. ; Moon, S.S. ; Ha, Y.L. ; Park, G.B. ; Joo, Seon-Tea ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 744~750
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.744
An experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of substituted conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for fat on qualities, lipid oxidation and residual nitrite contents in emulsion-type sausage (ETS) after different periods of storage. The control sausage contained 20% fat, however, the substituted CLA for fat sausages contained 17.5% fat+2.5% CLA, 15% fat+5% CLA, 12.5% fat+7.5% CLA and 10% fat+10% CLA, respectively. CLA concentration was significantly increased (p<0.05) by substitution of CLA sources for fat, and storage did not affect the CLA concentration. TBARS were significantly increased with the increasing of storage time in all treatments (p<0.05). Significantly higher
values were observed in the 10% CLA treatment compared to other treatments during storage. Moreover,
values in CLA treatments significantly (p<0.05) increased compared to the control. Again,
values were significantly (p<0.05) higher in CLA treatments than those of the control during storage. The concentration of residual nitrite in ETS was significantly (p<0.05) different between the treatments during storage and the results were in the following order: control >2.5% CLA>5% CLA and 7.5% CLA>10% CLA. Overall acceptability of CLA treatments was significantly (p<0.05) lower than the control during storage, whereas no significant differences were found in overall acceptability between the treatments after 28 days of storage.
Adhesion Properties of Indigenous Dadih Lactic Acid Bacteria on Human Intestinal Mucosal Surface
Dharmawan, Jorry ; Surono, Ingrid S. ; Kun, Lee Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 751~755
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.751
Dadih is Indonesian traditional fermented buffalo milk believed by the natives to have beneficial effects on human health. This may be due to the probiotic properties possessed by the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) involved in its fermentation process. It was discovered that ten strains of dadih lactic isolates possessed some probiotic properties in vitro. In this study, the adhesion properties of dadih LAB, in comparison with documented probiotic strains, were investigated in vitro by using mucin extracted from human faeces and Caco-2 cells as the models for human intestinal mucosal surface and intestinal cells respectively. The adhesion results showed the distinction of Lactobacillus reuteri IS-27560 in adhering to both mucus layer and Caco-2 cells. The competition assay for adhesion to the mucus layer between dadih LAB and selected pathogens indicated the competence of Lactococcus lactis IS-16183 and Lactobacillus rhamnosus IS-7257 in significantly inhibiting the adhesion of Escherichia coli O157:H7. Accordingly, these two strains may be potential candidates for use as probiotic strains. Overall, the adhesion properties of all dadih LAB strains were relatively comparable to that of Lactobacillus casei Shirota and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG, the documented probiotic strains.
Effects of Various Cooking and Re-heating Methods on Cholesterol Oxidation Products of Beef Loin
Lee, S.O. ; Lim, D.G. ; Seol, K.H. ; Erwanto, Y. ; Lee, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 5, 2006, Pages 756~762
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.756
The objective of this study was to define the effects of various cooking and re-heating methods (pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling and micro-waving) on the cholesterol and formation of cholesterol oxidation products in beef loin during storage at
. Raw samples showed lower total cholesterol content than cooked products sampled during storage for 6 d. The following cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) were separated by gas chromatography:
-hydroxy cholesterol, 25-hydroxy cholesterol, cholestane-
-epoxide and 7-ketocholesterol. Total amounts of COPs/cholesterol at 0 d were 0.74, 0.63, 0.76, 1.23 and 0.83% for the raw sample, pan roasting, steaming, oven grilling and micro waving methods, respectively. After 6 d storage almost of the samples had higher content of total COPs than at 0 and 3 d; the lowest (0.55%) COPs was found in the steaming cooking and re-heating method. The highest (5.96%) of COPs was found in the pan roasting cooking and re-heating method after 6 d storage. In conclusion, the concentration of total cholesterol and cholesterol oxidation of beef loin were increased as a consequence of cooking and re-heating methods. Steaming and micro-waving methods showed the lowest of cholesterol oxidation products under refrigerated storage for 6 d. However, each cooking and re-heating method had its own distinctive cooking effects.