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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Association of MC4R Gene Polymorphisms with Growth and Body Composition Traits in Chicken
Li, Chun-Yu ; Li, Hui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 763~768
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.763
Genetic and pharmacological studies in mice have demonstrated a complementary role for the melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) in the control of food intake, energy balance and body weight. This study was designed to investigate the associations of a MC4R gene polymorphism on chicken growth and body composition traits in broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat. A SNP (G54C) was found in CDS region of chicken MC4R gene. The analysis of the least squares and variance revealed a significant association between the G54C SNP and BW, CW and SL at 7 wk of age, and there were significant differences in different genotypes (p<0.05). The results from protein secondary structure prediction and tertiary structure prediction showed that it appeared a helix in
amino acid and two strands at
amino acid in mutant protein, respectively. It maybe induce the change of the activity or function of MC4R gene in poultry.
Variance Component Estimates with Dominance Models for Milk Production in Holsteins of Japan Using Method R
Kawahara, Takayoshi ; Gotoh, Yusaku ; Yamaguchi, Satoshi ; Suzuki, Mitsuyoshi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 769~774
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.769
Fractions of herd-year-season, sire by herd interaction, additive genetic and dominance genetic variances were estimated for milk production traits in Holsteins of Japan using Method R. Inbreeding depressions for milk production traits were also estimated. Estimated fractions of herd-year-season variances ranged from 0.056 to 0.074 for yield traits and from 0.033 to 0.035 for content traits. Estimated fractions of additive genetic variances to phenotypic variances (heritabilities across a herd in the narrow sense) were 0.306, 0.287, 0.273, 0.255, 0.723, 0.697 and 0.663 for milk, fat, SNF and protein yields, and fat, SNF and protein contents, respectively. Estimated fractions of dominance genetic variances ranged from 0.019 to 0.022 for yield traits and from 0.014 to 0.018 for content traits. Fractions of variances for sire by herd interaction were estimated to range from 0.020 to 0.025 for yield traits and 0.011 to 0.012 for content traits. Estimates of inbreeding depression for milk, fat, SNF and protein yields were -36.16 kg, -1.42 kg, -3.24 kg and -1.15 kg per 1% inbreeding for milk, fat, SNF and protein yields, respectively. Estimates of depression per 1% inbreeding for content traits were positive at
for fat, SNF and protein contents, respectively.
Polymorphism of Bovine Lymphocyte Antigen DRB3.2 Alleles in Iranian Native Sarabi Cows
Pashmi, M. ; Ghorashi, S.A. ; Salehi, A.R. ; Moini, M. ; Javanmard, A. ; Qanbari, S. ; Yadranji-Aghdam, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 775~778
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.775
Sarabi cows (n = 136) from the Sarabi Breeding Station were genotyped at bovine lymphocyte antigen (BoLA)-DRB3.2 locus by a genotyping system that used the polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood samples. A two-step polymerase chain reaction was carried out in order to amplify a 284 base-pair fragment of target gene. Nested-PCR products were digested with three restriction endonuclease enzymes RsaI, BstYI and HaeIII. Digested fragments were analyzed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Twenty-six BoLA-DRB3.2 alleles were identified with frequencies ranging from 0.4 to 15.1%. Six new allele types observed in this study have not been reported previously. Identified alleles include: BoLA-DRB3.
. Their frequencies were found to be 0.4, 0.4, 0.7, 11.4, 1.1, 1.8, 2.9, 2.2, 4.4, 9.6, 1.1, 13.6, 0.4, 0.4, 1.1, 0.7, 0.4, 6.2, 2.2, 3.7, 1.1, 7.7, 1.5, 15.1, 2.6 and 7.3% respectively. The six most frequent alleles (DRB3.2
) accounted for 64.7% of the alleles in the population of this herd. Numerous studies on this locus, covering different breeds, has revealed the existence of various alleles in this locus, and new investigations have introduced novel alleles. With respect to the high number of the observed alleles in this survey and the novelty of some alleles with no previous record of reporting, it is plausible to conclude that the BoLA-DRB3.2 locus is highly polymorphic in Iranian native Sarabi cows.
Association of the A-G Polymorphism in Porcine Adiponectin Gene with Fat Deposition and Carcass Traits
Dai, L.H. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ; Deng, C.Y. ; Jiang, S.W. ; Zuo, B. ; Zheng, R. ; Li, F.E. ; Lei, M.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 779~783
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.779
The adiponectin gene is known to be involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis involving food intake, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Human adiponectin gene polymorphisms have been recently reported to be associated with obesity, insulin sensitivity and the risk of type 2 diabetes. The present study was carried out to investigate the porcine adiponectin gene as a candidate gene for fat deposition and carcass traits. A mutation of A178G of the porcine adiponectin gene that resulted in substitution of the amino acid Isoleucine to Valine was identified. AcyI PCR-RFLP was used to detect the polymorphism of the genotypes in five different pig populations (Large White, Landrace, Duroc, Chinese breeds Meishan and Qingping). The A allele frequency was significantly higher among subjects from Chinsese lard type breeds, while the G allele was the only one present in those from Western lean type breeds. To determine if there was an association of the polymorphism with phenotypic variation, the mutation was tested in 267 pigs of the "Large
" F2 resource population. The results of association analyses showed significant associations of the genotypes with fat deposition and carcass traits. Allele G was significantly associated with increase in loin eye height, loin eye area and lean meat percentage and bone percentage, and decrease in fat mean percentage, ratio of lean to fat, shoulder fat thickness, 6-7 rib fat thickness, thorax-waist fat thickness and buttock fat thickness. The substitution of A178G (Ile60Val) happened to be located at amino acid 60 in the collagenous domain of porcine adiponectin which might affect the association into higher-order structures, and accordingly affect the posttranslational modifications and optimal biological activity of the multimeric forms. The identified functional polymorphism provides new evidence of adiponectin as an important candidate gene affecting fat deposition and carcass traits in pigs.
Genetic Relationship among the Korean Native and Alien Horses Estimated by Microsatellite Polymorphism
Cho, G.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 784~788
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.784
Microsatellite polymorphism and the genetic relationship were estimated using genotype information of 305 horses from 11 microsatellite loci. The breeds include the indigenous Korean breeds, Korean native horse (102) and Jeju racing horse (56) together with Japan Hokkaido horse (5), Mongolian horse (19), Thoroughbred horse (108), Quarter horse (11) and Przewalskii horse (4). Allelic frequencies, the number of alleles per locus were estimated by direct counting from observed genotype, and genetic variability was computed using the CERVUX software and DISPAN. The number of alleles per locus varied from 6 (HMS6) to 18 (ASB17) with an average value of 10.45 in horse breeds. The expected total heterozygosity (
) and coefficient of gene differentiation (
) ranged 0.764-0.921 (the average value was 0.830) and 0.102-0.266 (the average value was 0.180) in horse breeds, respectively. Four populations (Przewalskii horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, Quarter horse, Thoroughbred horse) showed lower heterozygosity than the average value (the average value was 0.710). The expected heterozygosity within breed (
) and mean no. of observed alleles ranged from
(Japan Hokkaido horse) to
(Mongolian horse), and from 2.73 (Przewalskii horse) to 8.27 (Korean native horse), respectively. The polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.490 (Przewalskii horse) to 0.761 (Mongolian horse) with an average value of 0.637 in horse breeds. The results showed three distinct clusters with high bootstrap support: the Korean native horse cluster (Korean native horse, Mongolian horse), the European cluster (Przewalskii horse, Thoroughbred horse), and other horse cluster (Jeju racing horse, Japan Hokkaido horse, and Quarter horse). A relatively high bootstrap value was observed for the Korean native horse cluster and European cluster (87%), and the Korean native horse and Mongolian horse (82%). Microsatellite polymorphism data were shown to be useful for estimating the genetic relationship between Korean native horse and other horse breeds, and also be applied for parentage testing in those horse breeds.
Improved Reproductive Efficiency in Gilts by Intrauterine Infusion of Killed Boar Semen before Breeding
Capitan, Severino S. ; Penalba, F.F. ; Geromo, F.B. ; Dalumpienes, J.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 789~792
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.789
Two separate trials were conducted to determine the effects of uterine priming prior to first breeding and quantify any changes in the reproductive efficiency of gilts. In trial I twelve (12) gilts were randomly assigned to 3 treatments:T1:infusion of distilled water (control), T2: single infusion of killed semen (KS1), and T3: double infusion of killed semen (KS2). Each treatment had 4 breeding gilts which were bred by natural insemination (NI). In trial II, another set of 12 breeding gilts were randomly allotted to the same treatments and were subsequently bred by artificial insemination (AI). Infusions, through the use of AI catheters, were done during the
estrous cycle for T1 and T2, whereas infusions for T3 were made during the
cycles. Regular breeding was subsequently made during the
estrous cycle. All gilts that returned to cycle were rebred within the 30-day period. In trial I (natural breeding), total piglets born was higher (p<0.05) in T2 (12.75 piglets) and T3 (11.75 piglets) than in the control (10.5 piglets). T3 obtained the highest (p<0.05) litter size (10.25 piglets) and heaviest litter weight (74.12 kg) at 28 days weaning, followed by T2 (9.80 piglets and 65.0 kg, respectively). The control yielded the lowest (p<0.05) litter size (7.50) and the lightest litter weight (47.00 kg) at weaning. For Trial II gilts (artificially inseminated), T3 gave higher (p<0.05) litter size born alive (10.88 piglets), total piglets born (11.72 piglets) and live litter weight at birth (15.30 kg) than those of T2 and the control. These results indicate that prebreeding intrauterine infusion of killed boar semen, either single or double, improved the reproductive performance of gilts.
Association of Polymorphisms in Epidermal Growth Factor, Prostaglandin-endoperoxide Synthase 2 and Prolactin Receptor Genes with Semen Quality in Duroc Boars
Huang, S.Y. ; Song, H.L. ; Lin, E.-C. ; Lee, W.C. ; Chiang, J.C. ; Tsou, H.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 793~798
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.793
The quality characteristics of semen are important indicators of the fertility of a boar. Development of genetic markers for the semen quality in boars will be beneficial to the improvement of porcine fertility. We investigated the relationship between the polymorphisms of epidermal growth factor (EGF), prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2) and prolactin receptor (PRLR) genes, and semen quality traits in boars. The genomic DNA of 233 boars (157 Duroc and 86 Landrace) from a central testing station was subjected to genotyping for surveying gene frequency. The EGF, PTGS2 and PRLR genotypes were determined using the restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Thirty-seven normal, mature Duroc boars from an AI center were also genotyped and their semen quality traits were collected. The effect of genotype on semen quality traits was analyzed by the least-squares means method using data corrected for season. The frequencies of the AA genotype of EGF, PTGS2 and PRLR in Duroc boars were 0.14, 0.01 and 0.66, respectively. In Landrace, the frequencies of the AA genotype were 0.03, 0.09 and 0.62, respectively. Boars with the BB genotype in EGF, with the AB genotype in PTGS2 and with the AA genotype in PRLR had significantly better semen quality with a higher percentage of normal sperm and a lower percentage of immature sperm than those with other genotypes. These findings imply that polymorphisms of EGF, PTGS2 and PRLR genes might be used as markers for improving the semen quality of boars.
Conjugated Linoleic Acids Alter Milk Fatty Acid Composition and Inhibit Milk Fat Secretion in Dairy Cows
Lee, Soo-Won ; Chouinard, Yvan ; Van, Binh Nguyen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 799~805
Effects of Candida utilis Treatment on the Nutrient Value of Rice Bran and the Effect of Candida utilis on the Degradation of Forages In vitro
Ando, Sada ; Nishiguchi, Y. ; Hayasaka, K. ; Iefuji, H. ; Takahashi, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 806~810
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.806
Candida utilis can assimilate fatty acids, so it was hypothesized that the treatment of rice by Candida utilis would improve feed quality by reducing fat content and adding the yeast function that would stimulate rumen microbes. In this study, the oil assimilation ability of Candida utilis IFO1086, 0988, 0626 and the effect of treatment of Candida utilis IFO1086, IFO0626 on the nutrient contents of rice bran were examined. The effect of Candida utilis addition on the in vitro degradability of forage was also investigated. It was found that the oil assimilating ability of IFO1086 and IFO0626 was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that of IFO0988. Candida utilis treatment reduced the EE content and increased the CP, ADF and NDF percentage. The absolute amount of ether extract was decreased by 35.9% in IFO1086 and IFO0626 treatment. The absolute amount of crude protein was not changed by yeast treatment. The ADF and NDF amounts were increased. The addition of Candida utilis increased in vitro forage degradability significantly (p<0.05). Based on these results it can be postulated that treatment of rice bran by Candida utilis may improve feed quality by reducing fat content, increasing the CP content and adding the function of yeast for stimulating rumen microbes.
Modification of Microclimate to Improve Milk Production in Tropical Rainforest of Thailand
Suriyasathaporn, W. ; Boonyayatra, S. ; Kreausukon, K. ; Pinyopummintr, T. ; Heuer, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 811~815
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.811
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of electric fan installation for milk production improvement of dairy cattle in Thailand. The study was conducted using 2 small-holder dairy farms in Chiang Mai province, during April to August 2004. Electric fans were installed in front of each row of cows. Each of the two rows of cows in the barn was defined as an experimental unit, thus each farm had two experimental units. The fans were operated alternately in 7-day intervals between rows of cows within each farm during the day or between 8.00 am to 8.00 pm. Non-operation periods were used as control. Milk yields were recorded. Data on environmental temperature and humidity were obtained from Chiang Mai Meteorological Center. Result from statistically analysis of milk record suggested an interaction between lactation period and fan installation. Therefore, this interaction term of lactation period and fan installation (PERIOD_FAN) was added as a variable to the regression model. Due to the repeated data collection of milk yield from the same cow (alternate week), milk yield was analyzed by repeated measure analysis (Mixed model). Least square means were calculated for all levels and used to compare between each pair-wise values. The final data were collected from the total of 18 cows with 2,072 data. Overall means and SEM of milk yields and days in milk separated into farm were
days for farm A and farm B, respectively. For multivariable analysis, only PERIOD_FAN and humidity were significantly associated with milk yield. Only the first period of lactation showed that the amount of milk yields during fan installation was higher than that of non-fan installation (p<0.05). Cows with fan installation produced approximately 1.2 kg/cow more milk than cows without fan installation during this period. In conclusion, the use of electric fan operated during the day time increased milk production of cows during the first period of lactation.
The Respective Effects of Shoot Height and Conservation Method on the Yield and Nutritive Value, and Essential Oils of Wormwood (Artemisia montana Pampan)
Kim, S.C. ; Adesogan, A.T. ; Ko, Y.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 816~824
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.816
This study was conducted to evaluate the shoot height at which the yield and nutritive value of wormwood (Artemisia montana) is optimized in order to provide information on its potential to support animal production (Experiment 1). A second objective was to determine how the essential oil (EO) concentration in wormwood hay and silage differ (Experiment 2). In Experiment 1, Artemisia montana was harvested at five different shoot heights (20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 cm) from triplicate
plots. Dry matter (DM) yield was measured at each harvest date and the harvested wormwood was botanically separated into leaf, stalk and whole plant fractions and analyzed for chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD). Values for total digestible nutrients (TDN), digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) were subsequently calculated using prediction equations. Dry matter yields of stalk and whole plant increased linearly (p<0.001) and leaf yield increased quadratically (p<0.01) with shoot height, whereas the leaf/stalk ratio decreased linearly (p<0.001). As shoot height increased, there was a linear increase (p<0.001) in leaf DM, ether extract (EE) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents and a quadratic increase (p<0.05) in leaf acid detergent fiber (ADF) and nitrogen free extract (NFE) contents, and stalk and whole plant DM (p<0.001), organic matter (OM, p<0.01 and p<0.05), NDF (p<0.001 and 0.05) and NFE (p<0.05) contents. However, there were decreases in leaf crude protein content (CP, quadratic, p<0.001) and stalk and whole plant EE content (linear, p<0.001), CP (quadratic, p<0.05) and ash (quadratic, p<0.05) contents. Digestibility of DM and TDN, and DE and ME value in leaves were not affected by increasing shoot height, but these measures linearly decreased (p<0.001) in stalk and whole plant. In Experiment 2, the hay had higher DM and CP concentrations, but lower EE concentration than the silage. Essential oil (EO) content in wormwood silage (0.49 g/100 g DM) was higher (p<0.05) than that in wormwood hay (0.32 g/100 g DM). Wormwood hay contained 25 essentail oils (EO) including camphor (10.4 g/100 g), 1-borneol (11.6 g/100 g) and caryophyllene oxide (27.7 g/100 g), and wormwood silage had 26 EO constituents including 3-cyclohexen-1-ol (8.1 g/100 g), trans-caryophyllene (8.6 g/100 g) and
-selinene (16.8 g/100 g). It is concluded that the most ideal shoot height for harvesting wormwood is 60 cm based on the optimization of DM yield and nutritive value. Wormwood silage had a greater quantity and array of EO than wormwood hay.
Studies on Vitamin Mineral Interactions in Relation to Passive Transfer of Immunoglobulins in Buffalo Calves
Sikka, P. ; Lal, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 825~830
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.825
Status of blood minerals and their absorption by neonate calves as influenced by fat soluble vitamins supplementation in their respective mothers, mineral supplementation in calves themselves has been evaluated. The objective was to know the impact of antioxidant vitamin supplementation to advance pregnant buffaloes, on enhanced acquired immunity during first few hours after birth, in relation to weight gain in buffalo calves. Advance pregnant buffaloes (n = 30) consisting of average body weight of
kg and of 4-6 parity were fed on 25 kg green (green Jawar-Sorghum bicolor), 2-3 kg wheat straw and 3-4 kg concentrate mixture individually per day. Intramuscular injections of vitamin triplex A
E consisting of -2,500,000 IU of vit A -Palmitate; 2,500,000 IU of vitamin
and 1,000 IU of vit E (dl-alpha tocopherol acetate) were given per dose, a month prior to parturition, twice at 15 days interval to 15 dams. Rest of the 15 pregnant buffaloes served as negative controls. Secretion of immune proteins, immunoglobulin (Ig) enhanced by 80% in colostrum. The blood serum levels of Zn, Cu, Ca, Mg were measured from birth to 90 days in calves. A significant (p<0.05) difference between the blood serum Zn levels of calves born to vitamin supplemented and non-supplemented dams was measured and a positive correlation between blood serum Zn levels and injections of vitamins was identified. Association of Zn and Cu with passive immunity status has been identified in these calves. A significant positive correlation between Zn and Cu was also identified which showed a change under the impact of vitamin supplementation in buffaloes. The study signifies the role of micronutrients supplementation in dams prior to parturition, in calf immunity development. The study indicates significant mineral - vitamins interactions during this process.
Effect of Close-up Dry Period Protein Level on Preparturiental Nitrogen Balance and Lactating Performance of Primigravid and Multiparous Holstein Cows
Adachi, N. ; Kusuhara, T. ; Nonaka, I. ; Terada, F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 831~836
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.831
This study compared the effects of two levels of crude protein (CP) supplementation during a close-up dry period on the productive performance, nitrogen balance, and blood profiles of Holstein cows. Eighteen cows (8 primigravid and 10 multiparous), 21 days prior to calving, were divided into four groups and fed a diet containing a low (11.5 to 12.7% CP) or high (14.1 to 15.3% CP) level of protein. Following parturition, all cows were offered the same diet. Nitrogen balance was measured 12 d to 10 d prior to the expected calving date. Whole feces and urine were collected. The higher close-up CP did not improve milk production during the early lactation period (14 w) in multiparous cows but tended to increase production by 2 kg of milk per day in primigravid cows. There were no differences in the weight of calves, the weight of the placenta, or the incidence of calving difficulty. Nitrogen intake, urine nitrogen and nitrogen retention were increased by the higher CP diet in primigravid and multiparous cows. All groups of cows showed a positive nitrogen balance. In particular, higher nitrogen retention was observed in primigravid cows fed the higher CP diet. With the exception of plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), non of the blood profiles were influenced by the CP level. The higher close-up CP increased the PUN during the period studied in primigravid and multiparous cows. These results indicate that a CP level of 14% during a close-up dry period is optimal for primigravid cows, and 12% CP level is sufficient for multiparous cows.
Effects of Urea Level and Sodium DL-malate in Concentrate Containing High Cassava Chip on Ruminal Fermentation Efficiency, Microbial Protein Synthesis in Lactating Dairy Cows Raised under Tropical Condition
Khampa, S. ; Wanapat, Metha ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Nontaso, N. ; Wattiaux, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 837~844
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.837
Four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a
Factorial arrangement in a
Latin square design to study supplementation of urea level (U) at 2 and 4% and sodium dl-malate (M) at 10 and 20 g/hd/d in concentrate. The treatments were as follows U2M10, U2M20, U4M10 and U4M20, respectively. The cows were offered the treatment concentrate at a ratio to milk yield at 1:2.5 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results have revealed that rumen fermentation and blood metabolites were similar for all treatments. The populations of protozoa and fungal zoospores were significantly different as affected by urea level and sodium dl-malate. In addition, the viable bacteria were similar for amylolytic and proteolytic bacteria. Cellulolytic bacteria were significantly affected by level of sodium dl-malate especially Selenomonas ruminantium and Megasphaera elsdenii while Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens was significantly affected by level of urea supplementation. In conclusion, the combined use of concentrate containing high level of cassava chip at 75% DM with urea at 4% in concentrate and sodium dl-malate at 20 g/hd/d with UTS as a roughage could improv rumen ecology and microbial protein synthesis efficiency in lactating dairy cows.
Spent Wheat Straw Compost of Agaricus bisporus Mushroom as Ruminant Feed
Fazaeli, H. ; Masoodi, A.R. Talebian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 845~851
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.845
Spent compost wheat straw is an available by-product from edible mushroom production, which constitutes a potential pollutant and is cost effective for disposal. This study was conducted to determine the nutritive value as ruminant feed of spent wheat straw compost from Agaricus bisporus mushroom production. The compost was provided from a mushroom farm, the casing soil was removed from the whole compost, and then it was sun dried and sampled for chemical analysis. An experiment was conducted, in which four wheat straw-based diets comprising control (I), 10% spent straw (II), 20% spent straw (III) and 30% spent straw (IV) were tested in a cross-over design using 8 sheep. Dry matter intake (DMI) was 74.0, 73.8, 70.2 and 57.1 and organic matter intake (OMI) was 62.7, 63.4, 58.0 and 44.4 g per kg
for diets I, II, III and IV, respectively, which, were significantly (p<0.05) lower for diet IV. Digestible OMI was respectively 33.1, 32.6, 30.6 and, 20.2 g per kg
on the four diets which were significantly (p<0.05) different between the treatments. Inclusion of spent compost straw up to 20% of the diet did not affect the digestibility of DM, OM, CF, ADF and NDF, but the diet containing 30% compost straw had statistically (p<0.05) lower digestibilities. Nitrogen balance was also significantly (p<0.05) different between the treatments.
Effects of Varying Levels of Whole Cottonseed on Blood, Milk and Rumen Parameters of Dairy Cows
Oguz, F. Karakas ; Oguz, M.N. ; Buyukoglu, T. ; Sahinduran, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 852~856
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.852
Four lactating Holstein cows were used in a
Latin-square design to determine the effects of various levels of whole cottonseed (WCS) in diets on parameters including milk (yield and fat content), rumen fluid (pH, ammonia and TVFA) and blood (
-carotene, vit. A, vit. E, urea,
, Ca, P and Mg levels). Cows consumed 0, 1, 2 or 3 kg WCS per day. No significant differences were observed among the groups on analysed parameters except plasma vitamin E concentration. In addition, when the amount of cottonseed was increased, milk yield and milk fat content also tended to increase but this increase was not statistically significant. In conclusion, feeding of WCS up to 3 kg per day with ad libitum maize silage did not cause negative effects on milk yield, milk fat and blood vitamin levels in the short term in dairy cows.
Application of Cornell Net Carbohydrate and Protein System to Lactating Cows in Taiwan
Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ; Chuang, Chi-Hao ; Yu, Bi ; Hwang, Sen-Yuan ; Chen, Chao-Ren ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 857~864
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.857
The aim of this study was to apply the Cornell net carbohydrate and protein system (CNCPS) in subtropical Taiwan. This was done by means of 3 trials, viz, in situ, lactation and metabolic trials, the latter using the urinary purine derivatives (UPD) to estimate the ruminal microbial yield. Dietary treatments were formulated according to different nutrient requirement systems including, (1) a control NRC78 group on NRC (1978), (2) a NRC88 group on NRC (1988), and (3) a CNCPS group on Cornell Net carbohydrate and protein system model. Results from the lactation trial showed that DM intake (DMI) was higher (p<0.05) in the NRC78 than the other treatment groups. The treatments did not significantly influence milk yield, but milk yield after covariance adjustment for DMI was higher in the CNCPS group (p<0.05). The FCM, milk fat content and yield were greater in both the NRC78 and the NRC88 group over the CNCPS group (p<0.05). The treatments did not significantly influence the DMI adjusted FCM. The solid-non-fat and milk protein contents were higher in the CNCPS group (p<0.05) with or without DMI covariance adjustment. Lactating efficiency was higher in the CNCPS group (p<0.05) compared to the other groups. The significantly lowest milk urea-N (MUN) with better protein utilization efficiency in the CNCPS group (p<0.05) suggested that less N would be excreted into the environment. Cows in the CNCPS group excreted significantly more and the NRC88 group significantly less urinary purine derivatives (UPD) implying that more ruminal microbial protein was synthesized in the CNCPS over the NRC88 group. The CNCPS could become the most useful tool in predicting the trends in milk yield, microbial yield and MUN.
Role of Selenium in Alteration of Erythrocyte Parameters in Bovine Fluorosis
Han, Bo ; Yoon, Soon-Seek ; Wu, Pei-Fu ; Han, Hong-Ryul ; Liang, Li-Cheng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 865~871
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.865
Signs of dental discolouration, difficulty in mastication, bony exostosis and debility were observed in cattle from Qingtongxia Ningxia, China where fluoride concentration in drinking water, soil, fodder, serum, bone, teeth, haircoat and urine were significantly higher than the corresponding health site. The problem of fluorosis in beef cattle is attributable to water containing toxic levels of fluoride. The objective of this paper was therefore to evaluate the influence of fluoride on erythrocyte parameters in cattle under high fluoride and low selenium conditions, as well as the protective efficacy of selenium exposure in feedstuff for bovine endemic fluorosis. Sixteen 6 to 7 year-old high fluoride beef cattle were randomly allotted into two groups each with eight cows: high fluoride control group, and supplemented with 0.25 mg/kg selenium per day for 83 days respectively. In addition, eight 6 to 7 year-old normal control beef cattle were selected from a non-high fluoride site. Blood samples were collected on day 0, 30 and 83 for erythrocyte parameters analysis and scanning electronic microscopy. The results indicated that erythrocytes, hemoglobin, packed cell volume values and
ATPase activity from affected cattle on the high fluoride site were significantly reduced during the period as compared with the corresponding samples of normal control cattle, a great number of echinocytes were present in peripheral blood, and subsequent anaemia. However, affected cattle exposed to selenium revealed increasable erythrocyte parameters, the extent of elevation in these values being dependent on the duration of supplementation with selenium. These findings suggest that fluoride exposure can cause erythrocyte damage, whereas selenium supplementation can antagonize fluoride-induced generation of free radicals and cumulative effects of lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes. Selenium supplementation may help to alleviate the possible hazards associated with bovine endemic fluorosis.
Effects of Biocom as a Replacement of Glutamine on Performance and Blood Biochemical Indexes of Early Weaned Piglets
Zhou, R.Y. ; Peng, J. ; Liu, Z.L. ; Fang, Z.F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 872~876
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.872
The objective of this study was to evaluate Biocom (a protein source containing a high level of glutamine and alanyl-glutamine) as a replacement for glutamine (Gln) in nursery pig diets. Forty-two pigs (fourteen pigs per treatment) weaned at 28 d of age were used in a 28-d performance trial using three dietary treatments: control (no Gln), control supplemented with Gln or Biocom. The control diet was composed of corn, soybean meal, whey and fish meal. Individual body weight, pen feed disappearance and diarrhea were monitored. On d 0, 2, 7 and 14 postweaning, respectively, five pigs per treatment were selected and bled from the anterior vena cava to obtain five replicate samples of blood on each dietary treatment for determination of blood biochemical index. Dietary supplementation of Gln and Biocom did not influence performance, plasma Gln and total serum protein concentration (p>0.05). However, the addition of Gln and Biocom could prevent serum urea nitrogen and serum cortisol from increasing on d 2 postweaning (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in any of the examined parameters between Gln- and Biocom-supplemented diets. In conclusion, dietary Gln did not influence the performance of early-weaned piglets owing to the complex diet containing whey, but could prevent the increase of serum urea and cortisol. Biocom could be used as a replacement for free pure Gln without any negative effect on early-weaned piglets.
Efficacy of Glucomannan-containing Yeast Product (Mycosorb
) and Hydrated Sodium Calcium Aluminosilicate in Preventing the Individual and Combined Toxicity of Aflatoxin and T-2 Toxin in Commercial Broilers
Girish, C.K. ; Devegowda, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 877~883
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.877
A feeding trial was conducted on commercial broilers for a period of 35 days to determine the individual and combined effects of aflatoxin (AF) and T-2 toxin (T-2) on performance, organ weights and immune status. The efficacy of dietary glucomannan-containing yeast product (GYP) (
) and hydrated sodium calcium aluminosilicate (HSCAS) in preventing the adverse effects of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin was also evaluated. Twelve dietary treatments (
factorial) comprising two dietary levels each of AF (0 and 2 mg/kg), T-2 toxin (0 and 1 mg/kg), GYP (0 and 1 kg/ton) and HSCAS (0 and 10 kg/ton) were tested on 720 commercial broiler chickens divided at random into 36 replicates of 20 chicks each (10 males and 10 females). Weight gain and feed intake were recorded weekly. Organ morphology and antibody titers for Newcastle disease (ND) and infectious bursal disease (IBD) were measured on the
day. AF and T-2 toxin individually decreased weight gain and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) (p<0.05). AF alone (p<0.05) increased weights of liver, kidney, gizzard and spleen and reduced thymus and bursal weights. T-2 toxin (p<0.05) increased liver and gizzard weights and decreased thymus weight. Both AF and T-2 toxin when fed individually affected ND and IBD titers in a significant manner. Significant interactions between AF and T-2 toxin were observed for their additive effects on weight gain, FCR, organ weights and antibody titers. Addition of GYP (p<0.05) improved weight gain, feed conversion efficiency and restored the organ weights. Antibody titers against ND and IBD were significantly improved with the supplementation of GYP. Supplementation of HSCAS (p<0.05) resulted in improvement in weight gain and restored organ weights in the groups fed AF alone, but not in T-2 toxin fed groups. HSCAS inclusion did not influence FCR in toxin fed groups. Addition of HSCAS (p<0.05) improved the antibody titers against ND and IBD only in AF fed groups. Thus, the results indicate that addition of GYP is effective in averting the individual and combined toxicity of aflatoxin and T-2 toxin in commercial broilers, while HSCAS is effective only against aflatoxin.
Effect of Dietary Vitamin E on Growth Performance and Immune Response of Breeder Chickens
Lin, Y.F. ; Chang, S.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 884~891
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.884
The effect of dietary vitamin E supplementation on immune responses was studied in breeder chickens during the maturing period. In experiment 1, 17-week old female birds were fed corn-soybean meal based diets supplemented with either 0, 40, 80, 120, or 160 mg vitamin E (all-rac-
-tocopherol acetate)/kg diet for 19 weeks. In experiment 2, 23-week old male birds were fed the corn-soybean meal based diet supplemented with either 0, 20, 40, 80 or 160 mg vitamin E/kg diet for 8 weeks. The chickens were evaluated for growth performance, antibody titer to sheep red blood cell (SRBC), Newcastle disease virus (NDV), infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), and skin response to phytohemagglutinin-P (PHA-P). The results showed that supplemental vitamin E improved body weigh gain of laying pullets during peak-laying period but had no significant effect on growth performance of cockerels. For cockerels, addition of 20 mg vitamin E/kg diet significantly enhanced (p<0.05) immune response to SRBC compared to those added with 0, 80 and 160 mg vitamin E/kg diet; addition of 20 mg vitamin E/kg diet had higher (p<0.01) antibody titer to IBDV than those added with 40-160 mg vitamin E/kg diet. No significant effects on immune response were observed in laying pullets fed supplemental vitamin E. The findings suggest that moderate supplementation of vitamin E may enhance immune responses to selective antigens in cockerels but excessive vitamin E may depress specific immune response.
The Nutritional Value of Brown Rice and Maize for Growing Pigs
Li, X.L. ; Yuan, S.L. ; Piao, X.S. ; Lai, C.H. ; Zang, J.J. ; Ding, Y.H. ; Han, L.J. ; Han, In K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 892~897
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.892
An experiment was designed to study the nutritional value of Chinese brown rice and maize for growing pigs. Six male grower pigs (Duroc
kg average initial BW) were surgically fitted with a simple T-cannula at the terminal ileum and allotted within a
Latin square design. The pigs were fed either a maize or brown rice diet in a direct method to determine their digestibility. The brown rice used in this experiment was husked from one kind of early, long grain, and non-glutinous rice (ELGNR, indica rice: non-waxy rice, containing amylopectin and amylose) in southern China. Chromic oxide was used as a marker. The diets were supplied at about 4.0% of body weight in dry matter/d. Total faeces and urine were collected on days 4 and 5; digesta was collected on days 6-8 in each period. The average body weight was 24.3 kg at the start of the experiment and 27.6 kg at the end. The results showed that the apparent ileal digestibilities of most amino acids of brown rice were significantly higher than those in maize (p<0.01), as were the apparent ileal digestibilities of crude protein (CP), digestible energy (DE), organic matter (OM) and dry matter (DM) (p<0.05). However, the apparent ileal starch digestibilities of the two treatments were similar (p>0.05). The values of the apparent faecal digestibilities derived from the two methods, marker and total faecal-collection methods, were very similar and also correlated with each other. The difference in absolute value of the apparent faecal digestibilities between brown rice and maize was smaller compared to that of the apparent ileal digestibilities. The net protein utilization was higher (p = 0.07) and the DE metabolizable rate was significantly higher (p<0.01) for brown rice than for maize. The metabolizable energy (ME) of brown rice is similar to that of maize, while the DE of brown rice was relatively lower. It can be concluded that Chinese brown rice are better than maize not only in apparent ileal digestibilities, but also in metabolizable rate of amino acids and gross energy under the present study conditions.
Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Injection in Pre-rigor Porcine M. Longissimus lumborum on Pork Quality
Yang, H.S. ; Moon, S.S. ; Jeong, J.Y. ; Choi, S.G. ; Joo, S.T. ; Park, G.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 898~904
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.898
Effects of sodium bicarbonate (SBC) injection on meat quality and functionality of porcine M. longissimus lumborum were investigated. Fifteen pigs (
) were randomly selected at a commercial slaughter plant. After slaughtering the loins were dissected from the carcass before chilling at approximately 30 minutes post mortem. The loins were divided into four cuts for sample treatment, and SBC of 0.25 M, 0.40 M and 0.75 M was injected (2% w/w) using a syringe. As SBC injection level was increased, muscle pH increased significantly (p<0.05). SBC injection decreased lightness (
) values on the surface of muscle. Moreover, with injection of SBC, drip loss %, cooking loss % and shear force were significantly (p<0.05) decreased, whereas WHC and
content were significantly (p<0.05) increased. From panel testing of uncooked pork loin, no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in aroma, off-flavor and drip between injection of SBC at different levels and the control, although color and acceptability were significantly lower (p<0.05) in control pork loin compare with injection of SBC at 0.75 M. In cooked pork loin from the panel test, aroma, flavour, off-flavour and juiciness were found to be similar (p>0.05) on all treatments, but tenderness and acceptability were significantly higher (p<0.05) with injection of SBC at 0.75 M than for control loin. Myofibrillar protein solubility of muscles treated with SBC was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that of the control, although no significant differences (p>0.05) were found in sarcoplasmic protein solubility between the treatments. These results indicated that SBC injection into pre-rigor porcine M. longissimus lumborum could improve ultimate pork quality characteristics such as meat color, water-holding capacity, and could inhibit muscle protein denaturation due to an increase in muscle pH.
Study on Skin Care Properties of Milk Kefir Whey
Chen, Ming-Ju ; Liu, J.R. ; Sheu, J.F. ; Lin, C.W. ; Chuang, C.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 905~908
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.905
The purpose of this research was to study the effects of kefir whey (kefir whey, peptides, lactic acid) on skin care properties including skin lightening effect and acne treatment. The final aim was to develop a new cosmetic product and enhance the value of dairy products. The results of skin lightening tests showed that all three kefir whey components (kefir whey, peptides and lactic acid) had inhibitory ability against melanin synthesis. Furthermore, copper chelating analysis demonstrated that both kefir whey and kefir whey peptides could chelate the copper in tyrosinase, which might explain the mechanism of inhibition. The ability for acne treatment indicated that lactic acid level higher than 60 mg/ml could inhibit the growth of Propionibacterium acne, whereas no inhibition was found with other components.
Assessment of the Non All-in All-out System and the All-in All-out System for Sows and Their Suckling Piglets
Jeon, J.H. ; Yeon, S.C. ; Kim, S. ; Kim, D.H. ; Chang, H.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 6, 2006, Pages 909~914
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.909
The goal of this study was to investigate the behavior of sows and their piglets reared using the non-all-in all-out system and the all-in all-out system during a 3-week lactation period. The 24 Landrace
Yorkshire sows (range of parity: 2 to 4) and their litters (range of litter size: 8 to 13 piglets) for each treatment (8 sows/replication) were used in this experiment. The sows were housed in farrowing crates (
) located in pens (
) with totally perforated metal flooring. The crates were kept in an experimental room that was thermostatically controlled to approximately
. A 250-W infrared heat lamp was turned on above the creep area during lactation. The sows and piglets were conventionally managed. The animals were recorded during a 24-h period at 1, 4, 7, 14 and 21 days postpartum. The videotapes were scanned every minute to obtain an instantaneous behavioral sample. In the behaviors of sows, lateral recumbency decreased and ventral recumbency increased from 1 day postpartum to 21 days postpartum. In comparison to the AIAOS, sows in the NAIAOS spent much less time on lateral recumbency (p<0.01), whereas they spent much more time on ventral recumbency and sitting at 4 days postpartum (p<0.05 and p<0.05). In the behaviors of piglets, lying increased and unsuccessful suckling decreased until 21 days postpartum. Compared to the AIAOS at 4 days postpartum, piglets in the NAIAOS spent less time lying (p<0.01), whereas they spent much more time walking and unsuccessful suckling (p<0.01 and p<0.05). These results suggest that the all-in all-out system may be preferable to the non-all-in all-out system for promoting welfare.