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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Prediction of Future Milk Yield with Random Regression Model Using Test-day Records in Holstein Cows
Park, Byoungho ; Lee, Deukhwan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 915~921
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.915
Various random regression models with different order of Legendre polynomials for permanent environmental and genetic effects were constructed to predict future milk yield of Holstein cows in Korea. A total of 257,908 test-day (TD) milk yield records from a total of 28,135 cows belonging to 1,090 herds were considered for estimating (co)variance of the random covariate coefficients using an expectation-maximization REML algorithm in an animal mixed model. The variances did not change much between the models, having different order of Legendre polynomial, but a decreasing trend was observed with increase in the order of Legendre polynomial in the model. The R-squared value of the model increased and the residual variance reduced with the increase in order of Legendre polynomial in the model. Therefore, a model with
order of Legendre polynomial was considered for predicting future milk yield. For predicting the future milk yield of cows, 132,771 TD records from 28,135 cows were randomly selected from the above data by way of preceding partial TD record, and then future milk yields were estimated using incomplete records from each cow randomly retained. Results suggested that we could predict the next four months milk yield with an error deviation of 4 kg. The correlation of more than 70% between predicted and observed values was estimated for the next four months milk yield. Even using only 3 TD records of some cows, the average milk yield of Korean Holstein cows would be predicted with high accuracy if compared with observed milk yield. Persistency of each cow was estimated which might be useful for selecting the cows with higher persistency. The results of the present study suggested the use of a
order Legendre polynomial to predict the future milk yield of each cow.
Effect of Butyrophilin Gene Polymorphism on Milk Quality Traits in Crossbred Cattle
Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Misra, S.S. ; Sheikh, Feroz D. ; Sukla, Soumi ; Kumar, Pushpendra ; Sharma, Arjava ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 922~926
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.922
A genetic polymorphism study on butyrophilin gene was carried out to explore variability of this gene and to estimate effects of such variability on milk quality traits in crossbred cattle. Polymorphism was unraveled by conducting Hae III PCR-RFLP of this gene. Three genotypes such as AA, BB and AB and two alleles namely A and B were observed in crossbred population. The frequencies of genotypes and alleles were 0.78, 0.17 and 0.04 for AA, AB and BB genotypes, respectively, and 0.87 and 0.13 for A and B alleles, respectively. The nucleotides, which have been substituted from allele A to B, were observed as C to G (
nucleotide), C to T (
nucleotide), A to T (
nucleotide), G to A (
nucleotide), A to C (
nucleotide) and C to T (
nucleotide). The nucleotide substitutions at
position of the fragment were found as silent mutations whereas nucleotide changes at
positions were detected as substitution of amino acid lysine with arginine, valine with isoleucine, and leucine with proline from allele A to B. The genotypes had significant effects (
) on total milk solid%, fat%, SNF%, while showing nonsignificant impact on total protein%. AA genotype produced highest average yield for all the traits.
Analysis of Microsatellite Markers on Bovine Chromosomes 1 and 14 for Potential Allelic Association with Carcass Traits in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)
Choi, I.S. ; Kong, H.S. ; Oh, J.D. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Cho, B.W. ; Choi, Y.H. ; Kim, K.S. ; Choi, K.D. ; Lee, H.K. ; Jeon, G.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 927~930
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.927
This study was conducted to investigate potential effects of previously identified QTL regions on carcass traits in Hanwoo. The data analyzed in this study was collected from 326 steers of 67 proven sire. Thirteen micorsatellite markers spanning QTL regions on bovine chromosomes 1 and 14 were genotyped in 326 steers. The following breeding values were analyzed for QTL effects. Cold carcass weight breeding value (CCWBV), longissimus muscle area breeding value (LMABV), marbling score breeding value (MSBV) and backfat thickness breeding value (BFTBV). Chi-square tests were performed to compare frequencies of individual allele between high and low breeding value groups. Significant differences of allele frequencies in BMS711, MCM130, BMS4049, and BMS2263 were found. And also, in RM180, BL1029, BM4305, and BMS2055 there were significant differencies of allele frequencies. These results showed a potential application for investigation of putative QTL locations.
Sequence Characterization, Expression Profile, Chromosomal Localization and Polymorphism of the Porcine SMPX Gene
Guan, H.P. ; Fan, B. ; Li, K. ; Zhu, M.J. ; Yerle, M. ; Liu, Bang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 931~937
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.931
The full-length cDNA of the porcine SMPX gene was obtained by the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The nucleotide sequences and the predicted protein sequences share high sequence identity with both human and mouse. The promoter of SMPX was sequenced and then analyzed to find the promoter binding sites. The reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) revealed that SMPX has a high level of expression in heart and skeletal muscle, a very low expression in lung and spleen and no expression in liver, kidney, fat and brain. Moreover, SMPX has a differential expression level in skeletal muscle, the expression in 65-day embryos being higher than other stages. The porcine SMPX was mapped to SSCXp24 by using a somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP) and was found closely linked to SW1903 using the radiation hybrid panel IMpRH. An A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) in the 3'-untranslated region (3'-UTR) was detected in eight breeds. The analysis of allele frequency distribution showed that introduced pig breeds (Duroc and Large White) have a higher frequency of allele A while in the Chinese indigenous pig breeds (Qingping pig, Lantang pig, YushanBlack pig, Large Black-White pig, Small Meishan) have a higher frequencies of allele G. The association analysis using an experimental population (188 pigs), which included two cross-bred groups and three pure-blood groups, suggested that the SNP genotype was associated with intramuscular fat content.
Genetic Diversity of Magra Sheep from India Using Microsatellite Analysis
Arora, R. ; Bhatia, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 938~942
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.938
Genetic diversity of Magra - a lustrous carpet wool breed of India, was investigated by means of 25 ovine microsatellite markers proposed by the Food and Agriculture Organization and the International Society for Animal Genetics (FAO-ISAG). All used microsatellites amplified well and exhibited polymorphisms. A wide range of genetic variability was observed as allele number from 3 (BM6506, OarCP20) to 10 (CSSM31), observed heterozygosity from 0.200 (BM6506) to 0.947 (OarHH35), expected heterozygosity from 0.368 (CSSM47) to 0.864 (BM1314) and Polymorphism Information Content (PIC) from 0.347 (CSSM47) to 0.849 (BM1314). This supported the utility of these microsatellite loci in the measurement of genetic diversity indices in Indian sheep too. Various average genetic variability measures viz., allele diversity (5.7), observed heterozygosity (0.597), expected heterozygosity (0.694) and mean PIC (0.648) values showed high genetic variability despite accumulated inbreeding as reflected by the high average inbreeding coefficient (
) due to the unequal sex ratio of the breeding animals.
The Genetic Diversity of Trans-caucasian Native Sheep Breeds
Hirbo, Jibril ; Muigai, Anne ; Naqvi, A.N. ; Rege, E.D. ; Hanotte, Olivier ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 943~952
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.943
The genetic variation in 10 indigenous Caucasian sheep breeds was studied with 14 micro-satellite loci in order to determine the genetic diversity among and between the breeds. Five breeds from Asia, five breeds from Europe and one breed from Africa, were included in order to study any relationships or influences they may have with the Caucasian sheep analyzed. A Karakul population from Uzbekistan was included in the study to see whether there was any Central Asian influence. All the 14 loci were found to be polymorphic in all the breeds, with the exception of ILST0056, which was monomorphic in Imeretian. A total of 231 alleles were generated from all the 688 individuals of the sheep analyzed. The mean number of alleles (MNA) at each locus was 16.5. The total number of alleles detected in all samples ranged from 13 in several loci to 23 in OarJMP029. Out of total 308 Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) tests, 85 gave significant results. After Bonferroni correction for multiple tests, 30 comparisons still remained significant to the experimental levels. The Gala population was the most diverse and Imeretian the least diverse with a MNA of 8.50 and 5.51, respectively. Gene diversity estimates exhibited the same trend and ranged from 0.803 in Gala and 0.623 in Imeretian, but generally there is higher diversity among the Caucasian breeds in comparison to other eference breeds. The closest breeds were Tushin and Bozakh with Da of 0.113 and most distant breeds were
and North Rondalsy with Da of 0.445. Principal Component (PC) analyses were done. PC1 described 14% of the differences. PC2, which described 13% of the differences, further separated the Caucasian breeds from Asian breeds except Karakul and Awasi, and the two British breeds. PC3 described 10% of the differences, allowing better differentiation of the Caucasian breeds. A moderate degree of reliability was observed for individual-breed assignment from the 14 loci using different approaches among which the Bayesian method proved to be the most efficient. About 72% of individuals analyzed were correctly assigned to their respective breeds.
Molecular Characterization and Expression Patterns of Porcine Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 1 A
Wang, H.L. ; Wang, H. ; Zhu, Z.M. ; Yang, S.L. ; Fen, S.T. ; Li, Kui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 953~957
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.953
The eukaryotic elongation factor 1 A (EEF1A) participates in protein synthesis by forming the eEF1A GTP tRNA complex to deliver aminoacyl-tRNA to the A site of ribosomes. This study described cDNA sequences and partial genomic structure of porcine EEF1A1. The porcine EEF1A1 gene encoded a protein with 462 amino acids, which shared complete homology with human, chimpanzee and dog. The temporal expression pattern showed the diversity of EEF1A1 level in mRNA was relatively minor in prenatal embryo skeletal muscle, however, the expression decreased during aging after birth in skeletal muscle of the Chinese Tongcheng pig. The spatial expression patterns indicated that the gene expressed in skeletal muscle, heart, lung, liver, kidney, fat and spleen. In addition, we assigned the gene to porcine chromosome 1 using a radiation hybrid panel.
Ginsenosides Promote Proliferation of Cultured Ovarian Germ Cells Involving Protein Kinase C-mediated System in Embryonic Chickens
Liu, Hongyun ; Zhang, Caiqiao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 958~963
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.958
The effect of ginsenosides (GS) on germ cell proliferation was evaluated with a chicken ovarian germ-somatic cell coculture model and the mechanism involving protein kinase C (PKC) pathway was investigated. Ovarian cells were cultured in serum-free McCoy's 5A medium and challenged with GS alone or in combinations with PKC activator (phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, PMA) or inhibitor (
) for 48 h. The number of germ cells was counted and the proliferating cells were identified by immunocytochemistry of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Results showed that GS significantly increased germ cell proliferation and this stimulating effect was further increased by PMA, but inhibited by H7, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, GS-elevated PCNA expression and the PCNA -labeling index of germ cells displayed similar changes with the increased numbers of germ cells. These results indicated that GS stimulated proliferation of ovarian germ cells with involvement of the PKC-mediated system.
Effect of Administration of Garlic Extract and PGF
α on Hormonal Changes and Recovery in Endometritis Cows
Sarkar, P. ; Kumar, H. ; Rawat, M. ; Varshney, V.P. ; Goswami, T.K. ; Yadav, M.C. ; Srivastava, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 964~969
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.964
The efficacy of garlic extract and
in the treatment of endometritis in cows was evaluated. A total of 26 parous cows affected with endometritis were randomly allocated into three groups. Group I (n = 10) animals were infused (IU) with 10 ml garlic extract mixed with 90 ml normal saline, three times at 12 h interval starting from the day of estrum, whereas the animals of Group II (n = 10) were treated with a single injection of
(25 mg Lutalyse) on the
day after estrus, and group III (n = 6) remained as control. Cervico-vaginal mucus (CVM) was collected from each animal at pre- and post-treatment estrus and subjected to white side test, pH determination and total bacterial load. The clinical recovery of cows was assessed by negative white side test reaction, pH value and total bacterial count of CVM at subsequent estrus. The recovered animals were inseminated with frozen-thawed semen twice at 12 h intervals and pregnancy was confirmed at 45-60 days following insemination. A significant decline (p<0.05) in pH of CVM was observed in both the treatment groups at subsequent estrus. After treatment there was a significant (p<0.05) reduction in bacterial load, whereas, it was increased in control group. A total number of 65 isolates were identified in CVM samples comprising mostly of facultative anaerobic bacteria. Plasma
concentrations were increased in all the treated animals, whereas, a decline was observed in cortisol levels following treatment. The overall conception rate was 50% in treated groups as compared to nil pregnancy in the control.
Effect of Location, Season, and Variety on Yield and Quality of Forage Oat
Kim, J.D. ; Kim, S.G. ; Abue, S.J. ; Kwon, C.H. ; Shin, C.N. ; Ko, K.H. ; Park, B.G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 970~977
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.970
Forage oat (Avena sativa L.) is grown extensively in a double-cropping system on dairy farms. Four oat varieties ('Swan', 'Targa', 'Foothill', and 'Nugene') were evaluated for forage production and forage quality during two growing seasons (spring and autumn) at two locations (central and southern region) in South Korea. The heading stage of four oat varieties was observed during spring, but the autumn season did not produce heading until harvest time except for the 'Swan' variety (early-maturing variety). The heading stage of 'Swan' in both locations was earlier compared to other varieties. The four varieties were resistant to both foliar disease and insects. Lodging resistance was higher during autumn except in 2002 at the central region, and late-maturing varieties ('Foothill' and 'Nugene') have lower lodging resistance. Dry matter (DM) content was significantly different between varieties (p<0.001). Comparing different varieties, 'Swan', an early-maturing variety, was highest in DM content. In DM, total digestible nutrients (TDN) and crude protein (CP) yield, the yield of oat varieties in the southern region was higher than in the central region, and forage yield of the oat varieties in the spring season was higher than during the autumn season. The DM and TDN yield showed significant differences between oat varieties. The CP content of oats grown in the central region (Cheonan) was lower than oats grown in the southern region (Daegu), and the spring season produced oats with lower CP compared to the autumn season. Among the four oat varieties, the CP content of late-maturing varieties was higher than the Swan variety (early-maturing variety). The acid detergent fiber (ADF) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) contents were higher for the varieties grown in Cheonan and during the spring season. The ADF and NDF contents of late-maturing varieties were lower than the early-maturing variety. TDN and relative feed value (RFV) were higher for the varieties grown in Daegu and during the autumn season. Late-maturing variety had higher TDN and RFV than early-maturing variety. Our study showed differences in forage production and forage quality of oats grown in different locations, seasons and varieties. Forage quality as well as forage production was better in the southern region than in the central region. Forage quality was better during autumn, but forage production was better during spring. Late-maturing variety had better forage quality than the early-maturing variety. Therefore, late-maturing varieties are more suitable for use in the southern region.
Biomass Production and Nutritive Potential of Conserved Forages in Silvopastoral Traditional Fodder Banks (Ngitiri) of Meatu District of Tanzania
Rubanza, C.D.K. ; Shem, M.N. ; Ichinohe, T. ; Fujihara, T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 978~983
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.978
Forages from grazing lands comprise conventional feed resources for ruminants in the tropical region. A study was conducted to assess fodder productivity and nutritive potential of deferred forages of six silvopastoral traditional fodder banks in central northwest Tanzania, traditionally known as Ngitiri. The grazing lands were dominated by low quality increaser grass species: Eragrostis spp., Aristida spp., Urochloa spp., Rottboellia exaltata, Cenchrus spp., Cynodon spp. and Chloris spp., and forbs species. The grazing lands had low vegetative basal cover that varied (p<0.05) from 34.7 to 75%, and low forage biomass productivity that varied (p<0.05) from 0.76 to 3.69 tones (t) dry matter (DM)/ha. The forages contained low crude protein (CP) that varied (p<0.05) from 16 to 27 g/kg DM; and had high fibre contents, which varied (p<0.05) from 702-725, 497-573 and 119-225 g/kg DM for neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and acid detergent lignin (ADL), respectively. The forages were poorly degraded in sacco, and showed low DM degradability (DMD) characteristics of 74, 473 and 576 g/kg DM for DM washing losses (a), slowly degradable feed fraction (b) and potential degradability, (a+b), respectively; and low DMD at 48 h incubation, which varied from 317-345 g/kg DM, and contained low metabolizable energy (ME), (4.2-4.36 MJ/kg DM). The herbage forages would not meet protein and energy requirements for maintenance and production, which could be reflected through low animal productivity. Further work is needed to assess animal productivity (growth, milk, draft force) from conserved forages in traditional fodder banks in the dry season.
Effects of Spent Composts of Selenium-enriched Mushroom and Sodium Selenite on Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Selenium Deposition in Finishing Hanwoo Steers
Lee, S.H. ; Park, B.Y. ; Lee, Sung S. ; Choi, N.J. ; Lee, J.H. ; Yeo, J.M. ; Ha, J.K. ; Maeng, W.J. ; Kim, W.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 984~991
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.984
Effects of spent composts of selenium-enriched mushroom (Se-SMC) on plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity and selenium (Se) deposition in finishing Hanwoo (Bos taurus coreanae) steers were investigated. Twenty-five Hanwoo steers (average body weight = 613 kg, average age = 22 months) were allotted to treatments in five groups of five steers per pen for 12 weeks preceding slaughter. Treatments were SMC alone (CON; 0.1 ppm Se), 0.3 ppm (0.3 Se-SMC), 0.6 ppm (0.6 Se-SMC), 0.9 ppm (0.9 Se-SMC), and 0.9 ppm (sodium selenite; SENI) Se. During the experimental period, blood samples were taken to analyze Se concentrations and GSH-Px activities. Muscle and liver samples were collected for analyses of Se contents after slaughter. Dry matter intake and body weight gain were not affected by Se-SMC or sodium selenite supplementation. Selenium concentration in the whole blood and GSH-Px activity in plasma were linearly increased (p<0.01) with increasing levels of Se-SMC. The whole blood Se concentration of SENI treatment was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that of CON treatment from 4 weeks, whereas there was no significant difference in GSH-Px activities between both treatments at 8 and 12 weeks. Selenium content in the hind leg and liver increased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing levels of Se-SMC, but those of SENI treatments were not significantly different from CON treatments. These results suggested that Se in the Se-SMC was highly bioavailable to blood and tissues of ruminants, especially compared with Se in the sodium selenite. Therefore, Se-SMC might be used not only as an inexpensive way of providing Se for ruminants but also as another way of producing Se-fortified beef.
Performance of Growing Goats Fed Urea Sprayed Maize Stover and Supplemented with Graded Levels of Tithonia Diversifolia
Wambui, C.C. ; Abdulrazak, S.A. ; Noordin, Q. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 992~996
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.992
A study was carried out to examine the effect of supplementing urea-sprayed maize stover with incremental levels of Tithonia diversifolia (Tithonia) forage on dry matter (DM) intake, digestibility and live weight changes. Fifteen crossbred bucks were used in a completely randomised design for a duration of 7 weeks. The treatments comprised of a control: the basal diet (maize stover sprayed with 1% urea) plus 100 g maize germ offered alone or supplemented with: 10 (T1), 20 (T2), 30 (T3) or 40% (T4) Tithonia on a dry matter basis. All animals were allowed ad libitum access to water and mineral lick. Supplementing maize stover with Tithonia resulted in increased total DM intake (p<0.05) from 376.7 (control), to 444.1 (T1), 533.1 (T2), 519.7 (T3) and 578.9 g/day (T4) but did not significantly (p>0.05) influence the intake of stover. Diet DM digestibility increased with supplementation with T3 recording the highest value of 66.5% which was 10.6% higher than the control. Supplementation significantly increased daily weight gains (p<0.05). T4 had the highest ADG (43.7 g/day), even though there was no difference between T4 and T3 (35.7 g/day). In goats, Tithonia should be included up to 30% of ration on a DM basis for optimum production. The higher level of inclusion (40%) may be used for higher total output in terms of meat and milk but with few animals.
Effect of Formaldehyde Treated Rape Seed Oil Cake Based Diet Supplemented with Molasses on Growth Rate and Histopathological Changes in Goats
Sahoo, B. ; Walli, T.K. ; Sharma, A.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 997~1003
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.997
An experiment with twenty crossbred goat kids (male) of 2-3 months old, weighing about 12 kg was conducted to study the effect of feeding formaldehyde treated rape seed oil cake based diet supplemented with molasses on growth rate and histopathological changes of different organs. Goats were randomly divided into four groups of 5 animals each and were individually fed for a period of 120 days. The animals in group I (URC) and II (URCM) were fed concentrate mixture (CM-I) containing untreated rape seed oil cake (30%) while, the animals in group III (TRC) and IV (TRCM) were offered concentrate mixture (CM-II) containing formaldehyde treated rape seed oil cake. Further, molasses as energy source was additionally supplemented with the concentrate mixture at the rate of 8% of concentrate mixture on dry matter basis to animals in group II and IV. All the animals were maintained on roughage (Berseem hay:wheat straw = 2:1) and concentrate in 50:50 ratio. Average daily gain (g/d) of animals in group IV was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that in group I., but at par with group II and III. Feed conversion efficiency was also significantly (p<0.05) higher in group IV (10.14) than group I and II but at par with group III. The growth rate however increased by 50.2% in group IV showing more consistency in maintaining highest growth rate due to better balance of nutrients. At the end of four months of feeding trial, two animals from each group were sacrificed for histopathological study of different organs. Significant histopathological changes in liver, heart, lungs tissue of animals fed untreated rape seed oil cake diet were recorded which were totally absent in the organ of animals fed formaldehyde treated cake. The liver tissue of goats receiving control diet (containing untreated rape seed oil cake) were found to be associated with engorged central vein and blood vessels. Hepatocytes were swollen, pale and degenerated with cellular infiltration and fibrosis of portal areas. The muscles of heart were found to have intermyofibral edema. Emphysema accompanied by dilated and ruptured alveoli was also recorded in lung tissue. However, histopathological examination of various tissues of goats fed formaldehyde treated cake diet did not exhibit any degenerative changes. Additional supplementation of molasses with or without treated cake diet, apparently did not have any significant effect on ameliorating the above degenerative changes.
Effect of Cassoy-urea Pellet as a Protein Source in Concentrate on Ruminal Fementation and Digestibility in Cattle
Wanapat, Metha ; Promkot, C. ; Wanapat, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1004~1009
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1004
Four male crossbred native beef cattle (average body weight of 427.7 kg) were randomly allocated to four types of cassoy-urea pellet as a source of protein in concentrate according to a
Latin square design to determine effect of diets on ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility. The four types of cassoy-urea pellets contained cassava hay, soybean meal, urea and binding agent at 79.2:19.8:0:1 (27.9% CP dry matter), 78.4:19.6:1:1 (30.4% CP), 77.6:19.4:2:1 (33.0% CP) and 99:0:0:1 (23.8% CP) for dietary treatments; 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. All four concentrate mixtures contained similar crude protein levels (11% CP) and were fed to animals in two equal parts (0.5% of body weight per day) while urea-treated rice straw (5% urea) was given ad libitum. The experiment revealed that dietary concentrate treatments had no effect on dry matter intake while digestibilities of neutral-detergent fiber and crude protein were higher (p<0.05) in cattle fed dietary treatments 1, 2 and 3 than in cattle fed dietary treatment 4. Ruminal ammonia-nitrogen (
-N), was higher and acetic acid concentration (C2) and ratio of C2 to propionic acid (C3) were lower (p<0.05) in cattle fed dietary treatments 1, 2 and 3 than in those on treatment 4. It is concluded that use of cassoy-urea pellet as a protein source in concentrates for cattle resulted in improvement of digestibility, ruminal fermentation and rumen ecology. Further research using cassoy-urea pellet in feeding trials with milking cows and fattening beef should be undertaken.
Effects of Non-protein Energy Intake on the Concentrations of Plasma Metabolites and Insulin, and Tissue Responsiveness and Sensitivity to Insulin in Goats
Fujita, Tadahisa ; Kajita, Masahiro ; Sano, Hiroaki ; Shiga, Akio ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1010~1018
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1010
A glucose clamp technique was used to investigate the effects of non-protein energy intake on tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin for glucose metabolism in intact adults male goats. Three goats were fed diets at 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times of ME for maintenance, each for 21 d. Crude protein intake was 1.5 times of maintenance requirement in each treatment. Tissue responsiveness and sensitivity to insulin were evaluated using a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp technique with four levels of insulin infusion, beginning at 13 h after feeding. Concentrations of plasma metabolites and insulin were also measured at 3, 6 and 13 h after feeding, for evaluating effects of non-protein energy intake on the metabolic status of the animals. Increasing non-protein energy intake prevented an increase in plasma NEFA concentration at 13 h after feeding (p = 0.03). Plasma urea-nitrogen and total amino-nitrogen concentrations decreased (p<0.01) and increased (p = 0.03), respectively, with increasing non-protein energy intake across time relating to feeding. Plasma insulin concentration was unaffected (p = 0.43) by non-protein energy intake regardless of time relating to feeding. In the glucose clamp experiment, increasing non-protein energy intake decreased numerically (p = 0.12) the plasma insulin concentration at half-maximal glucose infusion rate (insulin sensitivity), but did not affect (p = 0.60) maximal glucose infusion rate (tissue responsiveness to insulin). The present results suggest that an increase in non-protein energy intake may enhance insulin sensitivity for glucose metabolism, unlike responsiveness to insulin, in adult male goats. The possible enhancement in insulin sensitivity may play a role in establishing anabolic status in the body, when excess energy is supplied to the body.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Astaxanthin on Production Performance, Egg Quality in Layers and Meat Quality in Finishing Pigs
Yang, Y.X. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Jin, Z. ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Kim, C.H. ; Ohh, S.H. ; Lee, S.H. ; Choi, J.Y. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1019~1025
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1019
Two experiments were conducted separately to study the effect of astaxanthin on production performance and egg quality in laying hens and meat quality in finishing pigs. In Experiment 1, four hundred Brown Hy-Line layers, 26 weeks of age, were randomly divided into five treatments according to a single factorial arrangement. Each treatment had four replicates comprising 20 birds each. The dietary treatments were: 0, 0.7, 0.9, 1.1 and 1.3 ppm of astaxanthin fed for 14 days. Then all the birds were fed an astaxanthin-free diet (0 ppm astaxanthin) for an additional 7 days. The results showed that dietary astaxanthin had no significant effect on layer production performance. There was no significant effect (p>0.05) on egg weight, yolk height and Haugh unit (HU) with increasing dietary astaxanthin level and increased storage time. Yolk color was linearly increased (p<0.01) with the increasing dietary astaxanthin level and significantly decreased with the increasing storage time (p<0.05). The TBARS value in yolk decreased linearly (p<0.05) with increasing amount of dietary astaxanthin and storage time. When the diets were replaced with the astaxanthin-free feeds, all parameters concerning egg quality decreased with increasing days of measurement, especially the yolk color, and HU significantly decreased (p<0.05). In experiment 2, thirty-six barrows (
BW, were randomly divided into three treatments according to a single factorial arrangement. Each treatment had three replicates comprising 4 pigs each. The dietary treatments were: 0, 1.5 and 3.0 ppm of astaxanthin fed for 14 days. The results showed that dietary astaxanthin had no significant effects on production performance. There was a linear effect (p<0.05) on dressing percentage, backf.at thickness and loin muscle area with increasing dietary astaxanthin level. There were no significant effects (p>0.05) on the TBARS value, drip loss, meat color, marbling and
values. Cholesterol concentration in meat was not affected by dietary addition of astaxanthin. It could be concluded that astaxanthin supplementation was beneficial to improve egg yolk color; egg quality during storage and it also could improve the meat quality of finishing pigs.
The Relative Effectiveness of Liquid Methionine Hydroxy Analogue Compared to DL-methionine in Broilers
Yao, J.H. ; Li, S.Q. ; Zhong, L.L. ; Huang, S.X. ; Zhang, W.J. ; Xi, H.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1026~1032
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1026
The present experiment was conducted to assess the efficacy of liquid methionine hydroxy analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) in comparison to DL-methionine (DL-Met) in broilers. 567 day-old Avian chicks were divided into 7 treatments with 5 replicates of 16 birds each. During the 35d (7-42 d) experimental periods chicks were given two basal diets. From 7 to 21d of age, a starting basal diet containing 19.5% protein and 0.33% methionine was supplemented with two graded levels of DL-Met (0.070 and 0.160%) or four levels of MHA-FA (0.118, 0.143, 0.221 and 0.268%). From 22 to 42d of age DL-Met (0.050 and 0.080%) or MHA-FA (0.071, 0.074, 0.112 and 0.140%) were added to a finishing basal diet with 18.0% protein and 0.28% methionine. Chicks fed on supplemental DL-Met or MHA-FA had significantly higher (p<0.05) body weight gain and feed conversion ratio (FCR) than the control group from 7-21d of age. During the finishing phase (22-42 d), body weight and weight gain of chicks in DL-Met or MHA-FA treatments were similar to those in the control, but FCR was improved (p<0.05) with supplementation of DL-Met or MHA-FA. Breast yield was higher (p<0.05) on DL-Met or MHA-FA supplemented than un-supplemented diets. The thigh meat yields emanating from diets with DL-Met or MHA-FA were lower (p<0.05) than that in control. Abdominal fat was also higher in broilers fed the control diet than in DL-Met or MHA-FA supplemented treatments. Methionine requirement of broilers was calculated to be 0.44 and 0.35% and cystine requirement was 0.35 and 0.31% for the starting (7-21 d) and finishing phase (22-42 d), respectively. The efficacy of MHA-FA in comparison to DL-Met for weight gain was 64 and 85% and for FCR was 55 and 60% at 7-21 and 22-42 d of age, respectively, while it was 74, 72, 52 and 48% for breast yield, thigh meat production, body energy content and energy deposition ratio at 42 d of age, respectively. In conclusion, in practical diet formulation for broiler chicks the average bioavailability of MHA-FA relative to DL-Met could be considered as 60 and 73% for 7 to 21d and 22 to 42 d of age, respectively.
Metabolic Elasticity and Induction of Heat Shock Protein 70 in Labeo rohita Acclimated to Three Temperatures
Das, T. ; Pal, A.K. ; Chakraborty, S.K. ; Manush, S.M. ; Chatterjee, N. ; Apte, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1033~1039
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1033
The metabolic response of Labeo rohita to thermal acclimation was assessed. Advanced fingerlings of L. rohita (average weight
) were acclimated to 31, 33 and
compared with ambient temperatures (
) for 30 days and different enzymes associated with stress response were estimated. Glycolytic enzyme-Lactate dehydrogenase, (LDH, E.C.22.214.171.124), TCA cycle enzyme-Malate dehydrogenase (MDH, E.C.126.96.36.199), Protein metabolizing enzymes-Aspartate amino transferase (AST, E.C.188.8.131.52) and Alanine amino transferase (ALT, E.C.184.108.40.206) of liver, gill and muscle, Gluconeogenic enzymes-Fructose 1,6 Bi phosphatase (FBPase, E.C. 220.127.116.11) and Glucose 6 phosphatase (G6Pase, E.C. 18.104.22.168) of liver and kidney were significantly (p<0.05) different with increasing acclimation temperatures. Heat Shock Protein-70 (HSP-70) was expressed in increasing intensity at 31, 33 and
but was not expressed at
. Results suggest that higher acclimation temperatures enhance metabolism and L. rohita maintains homeostasis between
via an acclimation episode. Such adaptation appears to be facilitated by resorting to gluconeogenic and glycogenolytic pathways for energy mobilization and induction of HSPs.
The Effect of Source of Dietary Fiber and Starch on Ileal and Fecal Amino Acid Digestibility in Growing Pigs
Wang, J.F. ; Wang, M. ; Lin, D.G. ; Jensen, B.B. ; Zhu, Yaohong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1040~1046
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1040
Studies were carried out with a repeated
Latin square design with eight cannulated pigs fed four experimental diets to investigate the effect of dietary fiber and starch sources on apparent ileal and fecal amino acid digestibility. Each period lasted 15 d, with diet acclimation from d 1 to 7, feces collection for 48 h on d 8 to 9 and ileal sample collection for 12 h on d 13 to 15. The four experimental diets consisted mainly of cooked rice with the addition of protein sources (CON), partial replacement of cooked rice with either potato starch (PS), sugar beet pulp (SBP) or wheat bran (WB). Chromic oxide was used as an indigestible marker. With the exception of histidine, lysine and tryptophan, no differences were observed in the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids between diets. The inclusion of potato starch did not affect the ileal and fecal amino acid digestibility. In comparison with diet CON, a decreased (p<0.05) ileal digestibility of histidine was found in pigs fed diet SBP, while the ileal digestibilities of histidine, lysine and tryptophan were decreased (p<0.05) by the inclusion of wheat bran. Inclusion of fiber sources (sugar beet pulp and wheat bran) caused a reduction (p<0.05) in the fecal amino acid digestibility and the net disappearance of amino acids in the large intestine. Of the indispensable amino acids, there was a 'net synthesis' for methionine in the large intestine of pigs when diets were supplemented with dietary fiber. The decrease in fecal amino acid digestibility with the addition of dietary fiber indicates an increase in the synthesis of bacterial protein in the large intestine.
Effects of Dietary Algal Docosahexaenoic Acid Oil Supplementation on Fatty Acid Deposition and Gene Expression in Laying Tsaiya Ducks
Cheng, C.H. ; Ou, B.R. ; Shen, T.F. ; Ding, Shih-Torng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1047~1053
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1047
The current study was designed to determine the effects of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on fatty acid deposition in egg yolk and various tissues of laying Tsaiya ducks, and on the mRNA concentrations of hepatic lipogenesis-related transcription factors. Thirty laying ducks were randomly assigned to three treatments with diets based on corn-soybean meal (ME: 2803 kcal/kg; CP: 17.1%; Ca: 3.4%) supplemented with 0% (control diet), 0.5% or 2% algal DHA oil. The DHA content in egg yolks of the ducks was elevated significantly (p<0.01) with the supplementation of dietary DHA. The DHA percentage of the total fatty acids in the egg yolk of laying ducks was 0.5%, 1.3% and 3.4% for 0%, 0.5% and 2% algal DHA oil treatments, respectively, for the
week, and 0.5%, 1.5% and 3.3% for the
week. Therefore, algal DHA oil can be utilized by laying Tsaiya ducks to enhance the egg-yolk DHA content. The concentrations of triacylglycerol (TG) and cholesterol in plasma of laying Tsaiya ducks were not affected by dietary DHA treatments (p>0.05). The DHA concentration in plasma, liver, and skeletal muscle was increased with the addition of dietary algal DHA oil (p<0.05). The mRNA abundance of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and SREBP2 in the livers of laying Tsaiya ducks was not affected by dietary DHA, suggesting that the expression of these transcription factors is tightly controlled and not sensitive to DHA treatments.
Porcine Blood Plasma Transgluataminase Combined with Thrombin and Fibrinogen as a Binder in Restructured Meat
Tseng, Tsai-Fuh ; Tsai, Chong-Ming ; Yang, Jeng-Huh ; Chen, Ming-Tsao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1054~1058
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1054
The purpose of this study was to use pig blood plasma transglutaminase (TGase) combined with thrombin and fibrinogen as a binder, which was applied to restructured meat, and to investigate its effect on the restructured meat quality. Pig meat was obtained 10 h post mortem from a traditional market was ground using a 10 mm aperture plate. A binder admixture was added (TGase:thrombin:fibrinogen mixed as 0.5:1:20 (v/v/v) to which was added 12% of its volume of 0.25 M calcium chloride) at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% of meat weight. Measurements included cooking loss, shrinkage rate, shear value, total plate count, pH value, TBA value, color difference, tension strength and sensory evaluation. The results showed that ground meat containing 20% w/w of binder admixture had higher cooking loss, shrinkage rate and shear value (p<0.05). Addition of different percentages of binder admixture did not affect total plate count, pH value, TBA value, and sensory evaluation of restructured meat (p>0.05). Tension strength was increased with increased level of binder admixture. Addition up to 15% binder admixture to restructured meat showed better scores of sensory texture, flavor and total acceptability (p<0.05).
The Effect of Quality Grade and Muscle on Collagen Contents and Tenderness of Intramuscular Connective Tissue and Myofibrillar Protein for Hanwoo Beef
Moon, S.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 7, 2006, Pages 1059~1064
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1059
Six muscles were seamed out randomly from Hanwoo carcasses (n = 12) of each quality grade (quality grades 1, 2 and 3). Samples were analysed for their total and soluble collagen contents, IMCT (intramuscular connective tissue) and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). Simple correlation (n = 21) was determined for WBSF among major muscles. For LT (longissimus thoracis), total collagen content was significantly higher (p<0.05) for quality grade 3 than those for quality grades 1 and 2. For semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), psoas major (PM) and serratus ventralis (SV), total collagen content of quality grade 1 was lowest (p<0.05) of all quality grades. IMCT shear force for gluteus medius (GM) decreased (p<0.05) with better quality grade, and those for other muscles, with the exception of GM, were higher (p<0.05) for quality grade 3 than for quality grades 1 and 2. WBSF values showed GM and LT to be decreased (p<0.05) with better quality grade, and PM to be higher (p<0.05) for quality grade 3 than those for quality grades 1 and 2. SM, ST and SV from quality grade 1 had lower (p<0.05) WBSF value than those from quality grades 2 and 3. Total collagen content of ST was highest (p<0.05) of all muscles, whereas that of PM was lowest (p<0.05). Soluble collagen contents of LT and SV from quality grades 1 and 2 were, in general, higher (p<0.05) than other muscles, but that of SM was lowest (p<0.05). ST and SM had higher (p<0.05) WBSF values for three quality grades when compared to other muscles, whereas PM was lowest (p<0.05). LT had the strongest simple correlation with SV (r = 0.78) and GM (r = 0.77), and SM had the strongest correlation with ST (r = 0.73) and LT (r = 0.73). Also, PM had the strongest correlation with SV (r = 0.62).