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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 19, Issue 12 - Dec 2006
Volume 19, Issue 11 - Nov 2006
Volume 19, Issue 10 - Oct 2006
Volume 19, Issue 9 - Sep 2006
Volume 19, Issue 8 - Aug 2006
Volume 19, Issue 7 - Jul 2006
Volume 19, Issue 6 - Jun 2006
Volume 19, Issue 5 - May 2006
Volume 19, Issue 4 - Apr 2006
Volume 19, Issue 3 - Mar 2006
Volume 19, Issue 2 - Feb 2006
Volume 19, Issue 1 - Jan 2006
Selecting the target year
Identification of Novel SNPs with Effect on Economic Traits in Uncoupling Protein Gene of Korean Native Chicken
Oh, J.D. ; Kong, H.S. ; Lee, J.H. ; Choi, I.S. ; Lee, S.J. ; Lee, S.G. ; Sang, B.D. ; Choi, C.H. ; Cho, B.W. ; Jeon, G.J. ; Lee, H.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1065~1070
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1065
The avian uncoupling protein (avUCP) is a member of the mitochondrial transporter superfamily that uncouples proton entry in the mitochondrial matrix from ATP synthesis. The sequencing analysis method was used to identify nucleotide polymorphisms within the avUCP gene in Korean native chicken (KNC). This study identified ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the avUCP gene. We analyzed the SNPs of the avUCP gene to investigate whether polymorphism in the gene might be responsible for quantitative variations in economic traits in KNC. Three significant polymorphic sites for economic traits were avUCP C+282T (mean body weight, p<0.05), avUCP C+433T (daily percent lay, p<0.05), and avUCP T+1316C (daily percent lay, p<0.05). The frequency of each SNP was 0.125 (C+282T in avUCP gene exon 1 region), 0.150 (C+433T in avUCP gene intron 1 region), and 0.15 (T+1316C in avUCP gene exon 3 region), respectively. Among the identified SNPs, one pair of SNPs (genotype CC, C+282T and TT, avUCP C+433T) showed the highest daily percent lay (p<0.05) and mean body weight (p<0.05) and the frequency was 0.067. This study of the avUCP gene could be useful for genetic studies of this gene and selection on economic traits for KNC.
Multilocus Genotyping to Study Population Structure in Three Buffalo Populations of India
Tantia, M.S. ; Vijh, R.K. ; Mishra, Bina ; Kumar, S.T. Bharani ; Arora, Reena ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1071~1078
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1071
Three buffalo populations viz. Bhadawari, Tarai and local buffaloes of Kerala were genotyped using 24 heterologous polymorphic microsatellite loci. A total of 140 alleles were observed with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.63. All the loci were neutral and 18 out of the 24 loci were in Hardy Weinberg Equilibrium. The
values (estimate of inbreeding) for 16 loci in all the three populations were negative. This indicated lack of population structure in the three populations. The effective number of immigrants was 5.88 per generation between the Tarai and Bhadawari populations which was quite high suggesting substantial gene flow. The genetic distances revealed closeness between the Tarai and Bhadawari populations which was expected from geographical contiguity. The FST values were not significantly different from zero showing no population differentiation. The Correspondence Analysis based on the allelic frequency data clustered the majority of the Tarai and Bhadawari individuals as an admixture.
Association between Melatonin Receptor 1A Gene and Expression of Reproductive Seasonality in Sheep
Chu, M.X. ; Cheng, D.X. ; Liu, W.Z. ; Fang, L. ; Ye, S.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1079~1084
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1079
To determine whether a link exists between reproductive seasonality and the structure of the melatonin receptor 1A (MTNR1A) gene, the latter was studied in nonseasonal estrous breeds (Small Tail Han and Hu ewes) and seasonal estrous breeds (Dorset, Suffolk and German Mutton Merino ewes). A large fragment of the exon 2 of the MTNR1A gene was amplified and a uniform fragment of 824 bp was obtained in 239 ewes of five breeds. The 824 bp PCR product was digested with restriction endonucleases Mnl I and Rsa I, and checked for the presence of restriction sites. The presence (allele M) or absence (allele m) of an Mnl I site at base position 605 led to three genotypes MM (236 bp/236 bp), Mm (236 bp/303 bp) and mm (303 bp/303 bp) in five sheep breeds. The presence (allele R) or absence (allele r) of a Rsa I site at base position 604 led to three genotypes RR (267 bp/267 bp), Rr (267 bp/290 bp) and rr (290 bp/290 bp) in five sheep breeds. Frequencies of MM and RR genotypes were obviously higher, and frequencies of mm and rr genotypes were obviously lower in nonseasonal estrous sheep breeds than in seasonal estrous sheep breeds. Sequencing revealed four mutations (G453T, G612A, G706A, C891T) in mm genotype compared to MM genotype and one mutation (C606T) in rr genotype compared to RR genotype. For polymorphic Mnl I and Rsa I cleavage sites, the differences of genotype distributions were very highly significant (p<0.01) between Small Tail Han ewes and seasonal estrous sheep breeds. In each group, no significant difference (p>0.05) was detected. These results preliminarily showed an association between MM, RR genotypes and nonseasonal estrus in ewes and an association between mm, rr genotypes and seasonal estrus in ewes.
Mapping of the Porcine Calpastatin Gene and Association Study of Its Variance with Economic Traits in Pigs
Choi, B.H. ; Lee, J.S. ; Jang, G.W. ; Lee, H.Y. ; Lee, J.W. ; Lee, K.T. ; Chung, H.Y. ; Park, H.S. ; Oh, S.J. ; Sun, S.S. ; Myung, K.H. ; Cheong, I.C. ; Kim, T.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1085~1089
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1085
The objectives of this study were to confirm a location of the calpastatin (CAST) gene in chromosome 2 and to detect associations of genetic variations with economic traits in the porcine CAST gene as a candidate gene for growth and meat quality traits in pigs. Calpastatin is a specific endogenous inhibitor of calpains. The calpain protease system is ubiquitous, and is involved in numerous growth and metabolic processes. Three single nucleotide variations were identified within a 1.6 kb fragment of the porcine CAST gene and these polymorphisms were used for genetic linkage mapping. Linkage and QTL mapping were performed with the National Livestock Research Institute (NLRI) reference families using eight microsatellites and SNP makers in the CAST gene. The porcine CAST gene was mapped adjacent to the markers, SW395 and SW1695 on SSC2 with LOD scores of 15.32 and 8.50, respectively. According to the QTL mapping, a significant association was detected at 82 cM between SW395 and CAST-Hinf I for weight at the age of 30 weeks. In addition, an association study was performed with the
animals of NLRI reference families for Hinf I, Msp I and Rsa I polymorphisms in the CAST gene. Two polymorphisms, CAST-Rsa I and CAST-Hinf I, showed significant correlation for growth traits at p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively.
Global Histone H4 Acetylation of IGF1 and GH Genes in Lungs of Somatic Cell Cloned Calves
Zhang, L. ; Wang, S.H. ; Fan, B.L. ; Dai, Y.P. ; Fei, J. ; Li, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1090~1094
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1090
Histone acetylation modification is one key mechanism in the regulation of gene activation. In this study, we investigated the global levels of histone H4 acetylation of insulin like growth factor I (IGF1) and growth hormone (GH) genes in the lungs of two somatic cell cloned calves. Data showed the levels of histone H4 acetylation of IGF1 and GH genes vary widely within different gene regions, and, in almost all regions of the two genes, acetylation levels are lower in the aberrant clone than in the normal clone. Thus we suggest that inefficient epigenetic reprogramming in the clone may affect the balance between acetylation and deacetylation, which will affect normal growth and development. These findings will also have implications for improvement of cloning success rates.
Effect of Leptin and IGFBP-3 Gene Polymorphisms on Serum IgG Level of Cattle Calves
Choudhary, Vivek ; Kumar, Pushpendra ; Saxena, V.K. ; Bhattacharya, T.K. ; Bhushan, Bharat ; Sharma, Arjava ; Ahmed, K.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1095~1099
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1095
Leptin and IGFBP-3 are two proteins that play an important role in growth and metabolism of the animals. They are also involved in the immune function of animals and, thus, are candidate genes for the study of association with immune functions. Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) of these two genes was done to screen 64 crossbred (Holstein Friesian
Hariana) female calves of one year of age. From each RFLPs (fragments) three genotypes were observed. In all the RFLPs the mutant homozygotes were very less in numbers and, hence, were excluded from the least squares analysis. The serum IgG level was estimated using SRID assay. The mean level of serum IgG was
. The effect of these identified genotypes on serum IgG level of calves at one year of age was analysed using least squares analysis. The HaeIII RFLP-AB genotype had significantly (p<0.05) higher serum IgG level (
) than the HaeIII RFLP-AA (
) genotype. There was no significant effect of leptin genotypes on the IgG level. The present results indicated a role of the IGFBP-3 gene on serum IgG level of cattle calves.
Involvement of Cathepsin D in Apoptosis of Mammary Epithelial Cells
Seol, M.B. ; Bong, J.J. ; Baik, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1100~1105
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1100
During involution of the mammary gland after the lactation period, the gland undergoes an extensive epithelial cell death. In our previous study, overexpression of an extracellular proteinase inhibitor (Expi) gene accelerated apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells. Here we found that expression of the cathepsin D gene was induced in the Expi-overexpressed apoptotic cells. To understand the role of cathepsin D in apoptosis, we transfected cathepsin D gene into mammary epithelial HC11 cells and established the stable cell lines overexpressing the cathepsin D gene. We found that overexpression of the cathepsin D gene partially induced apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells. Expression patterns of the cathepsin D gene were examined in mouse mammary gland at various reproductive stages. Expression of the cathepsin D gene was increased during involution stages compared to lactation stages, and highest expression levels were shown at involution on day 4. We also examined expression of the cathepsin D gene in various mouse tissues. Mammary gland at involution on day 2 showed highest levels of cathepsin D mRNA of the mouse tissues that we examined. Liver tissues showed high levels of cathepsin D expression. These results demonstrate that cathepsin D may contribute to the apoptotic process of mammary epithelial cells.
Breed Discrimination Using DNA Markers Derived from AFLP in Japanese Beef Cattle
Sasazaki, S. ; Imada, T. ; Mutoh, H. ; Yoshizawa, K. ; Mannen, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1106~1110
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1106
In the meat industry, correct breed information in food labeling is required to assure meat quality. Genetic markers provide corroborating evidence to identify breed. This paper describes the development of DNA markers to discriminate between Japanese Black and F1 (Japanese Black
Holstein) breeds. The amplified fragment length polymorphism method was employed to detect candidate markers absent in Japanese Black but present in Holstein. The 1,754 primer combinations yielded eleven markers that were converted into single nucleotide polymorphism markers for high-throughput genotyping. The allele frequencies in both breeds were investigated for discrimination ability using PCR-RFLP. The probability of identifying F1 was 0.9168 and probability of misjudgment was 0.0066 using four selected markers. The markers could be useful for discriminating between Japanese Black and F1 and would contribute to the prevention of falsified breed labeling of meat.
Effect of Season, Parity and Lactation on Reproductive Performance of Sows in a Tropical Humid Climate
Gourdine, J.L. ; Quesnel, H. ; Bidanel, J.-P. ; Renaudeau, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1111~1119
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1111
The aim of this study was to analyze post-weaning reproductive performance of Large White sows in relation to season, parity and their lactation performance under tropical conditions in Guadeloupe (French West Indies,
Long. W.). This work was based on data recorded in the experimental unit of INRA from January 1993 to December 2003. Two seasons were determined a posteriori from climatic parameters recorded continuously in a station close to the experimental unit. Mean ambient temperature was higher during the hot season than the warm season (
) but relative humidity was comparable for both seasons (i.e. 87% on average). Season had a significant effect on all reproductive parameters analyzed. Primiparous sows weaned in the hot season had a higher probability of a prolonged weaning to estrus interval, WEI (odds ratio was 4.1; p<0.01) but multiparous sows were not affected. A higher probability of a prolonged weaning to conception interval, WCI (odds ratio >2.5, p<0.01) and a lower subsequent farrowing rate (-10%, p<0.01) were found for sows weaned in the hot season. A higher daily feed intake during lactation reduced the probability of a prolonged WEI (p<0.05). Body weight and average back-fat thickness at farrowing affected WEI and WCI (p<0.05), whereas body weight and average backfat thickness change in lactation did not. This study confirms the negative effects of the hot season on primiparous reproductive performance. It also indicates that lactation performance influences sow non-productive period.
Comparison of In situ Dry Matter Degradation with In vitro Gas Production of Oak Leaves Supplemented with or without Polyethylene Glycol (PEG)
Ozkan, C. Ozgur ; Sahin, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1120~1126
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1120
Dry matter (DM) degradation of leaves from Quercus cercis, Quercus libari, Quercus branti, and Quercus coccifera was determined using two different techniques: (i) in vitro gas production and (ii) the nylon bag degradability technique. In vitro gas production in the presence or absence of PEG and in situ DM disappearance were measured at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h. In situ and in vitro DM degradation kinetics were described using the equation y = a+b (
). At all incubation times leaves from Quercus branti incubated with or without PEG gave significantly higher gas production than the other oak leaves except for 3 and 6 h incubation when leaves from Quercus branti without PEG supplementation only gave higher gas production than Quercus cercis and Quercus coccifera. At all incubation times except at 3, 6 and 12 h the DM disappearance from Quercus branti was significantly higher than the other species. Generally, PEG supplementation considerably increased the gas production at all incubation times and estimated parameters such as gas production rate (
), gas production (ml) from the quickly soluble fraction (
), gas production (b) from the insoluble fraction, potential gas production (a+b). However, all oak leaves did not give the same response to the PEG supplementation. Although the increase in gas production at 96 h incubation time was 8.9 ml for Quercus libari the increase was 5.5 ml for Quercus coccifera. It was concluded that except at early incubation times the relationships between the two methodologies seem to be sufficiently strong to predict degradability parameters from gas production parameters obtained in the presence or absence of PEG.
Chemical Composition, In situ Digestion Kinetics and Feeding Value of Oat Grass (Avena sativa) Ensiled with Molasses for Nili-Ravi Buffaloes
Khan, Muhammad Ajmal ; Sarwar, M. ; Nisa, M. ; Iqbal, Z. ; Khan, M.S. ; Lee, W.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1127~1133
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1127
This study examined the effect of cane molasses and fermentation time on chemical composition and characteristics of oat grass silage (OGS) and its in situ digestion kinetics, intake, digestibility, milk yield and composition in buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Oat grass (OG) harvested at 50-days of age was ensiled in laboratory silos with cane molasses at the rate of 0, 2, 4 and 6% of OG dry matter (DM) for 30, 35 and 40 days. Silage pH was decreased while lactic acid content increased with increasing level of cane molasses and fermentation time. Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and true protein (TP) content of OGS were (p<0.05) significantly higher with higher cane molasses levels. However, they were not affected by the fermentation time. Similar trends were observed for neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF), cellulose, acid detergent lignin and ash content of OGS. The OG ensiled for 30-days with 2% molasses was screened from laboratory study and used to determine comparative in situ DM and NDF digestion kinetics of OG and its silage. In situ DM and NDF digestibilities of OG were significantly (p<0.05) higher than OGS. Ruminal DM and NDF lag time, rate and extent of digestion of OG and its silage were similar. Two experimental diets of OG and OGS were formulated using 75:25 forage to concentrate ratio on a DM basis. Dry matter and CP intakes were similar in lactating buffaloes fed either OG- or OGS-based diets. However, NDF intake was higher in buffaloes fed the OG-compared with OGS-based diet. Apparent DM, CP and NDF digestibilities were similar in lactating buffaloes fed either OG- or OGS-based diets. Milk yield (4% FCM) was similar in buffaloes fed either OG-(10.3 kg/d) or OGS-(9.95 kg/d) based diets. Milk fat, total solids and true protein content were higher with OG compared with the OGS diet. Solids not fat and CP content were similar in milk of buffalo fed either OG or OGS. The results of this study indicate that OG ensiled with 2% molasses could safely replace 75% DM of green oat fodder in the diets of lactating buffaloes without negatively affecting intake, digestibility, milk yield and composition.
Seasonal Variations in Tannin Profile of Tree Leaves
Rana, K.K. ; Wadhwa, M. ; Bakshi, M.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1134~1138
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1134
Forest tree leaves (12 different species) of semi hilly arid region of Punjab State were collected at 30-day interval throughout the year to assess the seasonal variations in tannin profile. Tannins were extracted and fractionated from fat free samples and data were analyzed statistically by
factorial design. The leaves of Anogeissus latifolia had the highest (p<0.05) concentration of total phenols (17.4%), net (15.9%) and hydrolysable (16.9%) tannins, followed by leaves of Acacia nilotica. Majority of the tree leaves selected had moderate levels (2-5%) of net tannins. Leaves of Carrisa had the highest (p<0.05) concentration of condensed tannins (CT), whereas the leaves of Anogeissus had the lowest (p<0.05) concentration of condensed tannins. The protein precipitable phenols (PPP) corresponded well with the net tannin content present in different tree leaves. Seasonal variation data revealed that in summer, net tannins and PPP decline in leaves of Bauhinia and Zizyphus whereas the net tannin content of Anogeissus and that of Carrisa increased during summer. The CT and PPP content in the leaves of Pheonix, Leucaena, Zizyphus and Ougenia increased in winter till spring season. Tree leaves generally had higher concentration of HT during summer months. It was concluded that leaves of leaves of A. nilotica, A. latifolia and L. leucocephala could serve as an excellent alternate feed stuffs for ruminants. However, leaves of Phoenix, Carrisa, Bauhinia and Dodonea should be avoided.
Mineral Status of Soils and Forages in Southwestern Punjab-Pakistan: Micro-minerals
Khan, Zafar Iqbal ; Hussain, A. ; Ashraf, M. ; McDowell, L.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1139~1147
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1139
This study was conducted to evaluate the trace elemental nutritive values of soil and forages collected from southwestern part of the province of Punjab, Pakistan. Soil and forage samples were collected fortnightly for two seasons. The concentrations of some trace minerals varied greatly among seasons and sampling periods. Seasonal effects were found in all soil micro-minerals except zinc, while forage iron, zinc, and selenium were affected by seasonal changes. Sampling periods effects were observed in all soil minerals and in forage copper, iron, zinc, and manganese only. All soil mineral levels except cobalt and selenium were sufficiently high to meet the requirements of plants for normal growth during both seasons. In contrast, soil Co and Se levels were severely deficient during both seasons and considered inadequate for plant growth. Soil Fe, Zn, Co, and Se levels were higher, and Cu and Mn lower during winter than those during summer. Forage Zn levels during summer were at marginal deficient levels, and in contrast, all other forage micro-minerals were within the required range for ruminants during both seasons. Although forage mico-minerals were within the range required by the ruminants, they were not sufficiently high to prevent the predisposition to various diseases caused by nutrient deficiency. Consequently, grazing animals at this location need continued mineral supplementation of these elements with a mixtures of high bio-availability rather than of high micro-mineral contents to support optimum ruminant productivity.
Effect of Some Factors on the Concentration of Linolenic Acid of Forages
Lee, Soo-Won ; Chouinard, Yvan ; Van, Binh Nguyen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1148~1158
Milk Protein Production and Plasma 3-Methylhistidine Concentration in Lactating Holstein Cows Exposed to High Ambient Temperatures
Kamiya, Mitsuru ; Kamiya, Yuko ; Tanaka, Masahito ; Shioya, Shigeru ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1159~1163
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1159
This experiment was performed to examine the influences of high ambient temperature on milk production, nutrient digestibility, energy and protein sufficiency ratio, and plasma metabolites concentration in lactating cows. In a
crossover design, four multiparous lactating Holstein cows were maintained in a chamber under treatment of constant moderate (
) ambient temperature (MT) or high (
) ambient temperatures (HT). The DMI and milk protein yield were significantly lower in HT (p<0.05). The milk yield, milk lactose yield, and milk SNF yield tended to be lower in HT (p<0.10). No statistical differences for 4% fat-corrected milk and milk fat yield were observed. Rectal temperatures were significantly higher in HT than MT (p<0.05). The apparent DM, OM, ether extract, CF, and ash digestibility did not differ between treatments. On the other hand, the apparent CP digestibility was increased significantly (p<0.05) and nitrogen free extract tended to increase (p<0.10) in HT. The sufficiency ratio of ME and DCP intake for each requirement tended to be lower in HT than in MT (p<0.10). Concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin, and urea nitrogen in plasma did not differ between treatments. Plasma 3-methylhistidine (3MH) concentration as a marker of myofibrillar protein degradation tended to be higher in HT (p<0.15). In conclusion, high ambient temperature was associated with a lower energy and protein sufficiency ratio, and decreased milk protein production, even though the body protein mobilization tended to be higher.
Usage of Enzyme Substrate to Protect the Activities of Cellulase, Protease and α-Amylase in Simulations of Monogastric Animal and Avian Sequential Total Tract Digestion
Wang, H.T. ; Hsu, J.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1164~1173
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1164
Cellulase from Aspergillus niger, (
-amylase from Bacillus sp. and protease from Bacillus globigii were used as enzyme sources in this study to examine how their respective substrates protect them in two kinds of simulated gastrointestinal tract digesting processes. Avian total digest tract simulation test showed that filter paper, Avicel and cellulose resulted in 7.7, 6.4 and 7.4 times more activity than of unprotected cellulose, respectively. Protease with addition of casein, gelatin or soybean protein showed no significant protection response. Starch protected amylase to be 2.5 times activity of the unprotected one. Monogastric animal total tract digestion simulation test showed that filter paper, Avicel and cellulose resulted in 5.9, 9.0 and 8.8 times activity of unprotected cellulase, respectively. Casein, gelatin and soybean protein resulted in 1.2, 1.3 and 2.0 times activity of unprotected protease, respectively. Starch did not protect amylase activity in monogastric animal total tract simulation. Protection of mixed enzymes by substrates in two animal total tract simulation tests showed that filter paper in combination with soybean protein resulted in 1.5 times activity of unprotected cellulose, but all substrates tested showed no significant protection effect to protease. Soybean protein and starch added at the same time protected the amylase activity to be two times of the unprotected one. Test of non-purified substrate protection in two animal total digest tract simulation showed that cellulase activity increased as BSA (bovine serum albumin) concentration increased, with the highest activity to be 1.3 times of unprotected enzyme. However, BSA showed no significant protection effect to protease. Amylase activity increased to 1.5 times as BSA added more than 1.5% (w/v). Cellulase activity increased to 1.5 times as soybean hull was added higher than 1.5%. Amylase had a significant protection response only when soybean hull added up to 2%. Protease activity was not protected by soybean hull to any significant extent.
Effects of Dietary Supplementation of Copper Chelates in the Form of Methionine, Chitosan and Yeast in Laying Hens
Lim, H.S. ; Paik, I.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1174~1178
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1174
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation of copper chelates in the form of methionine, chitosan and yeast on the performance of laying hens. Four hundred ISA Brown layers, 84 wks old, were assigned to 4 treatments: control, 100 ppm Cu in methionine chelate (Met-Cu), 100 ppm Cu as chitosan chelate (Chitosan-Cu) and 100 ppm Cu as yeast chelate (Yeast-Cu). Each treatment had five replicates of 20 hens. Hen-day and hen-housed egg production and egg weight were significantly (p<0.05) increased by Met-Cu supplementation. The increase by Chitosan-Cu and Yeast-Cu supplementation was not significant. Contrast of the control vs. Cu chelates showed egg weight was significantly (p<0.05) increased by Cu chelate supplementation. Soft-shell egg production was significantly (p<0.05) reduced by supplementation of Cu chelates. Met-Cu treatment showed the lowest incidence of soft egg production. Gizzard erosion index was increased by Cu chelate supplementation. Crude fat in liver, total cholesterol in yolk and Cu content in liver and yolk were not significantly influenced by Cu chelate supplementation. It was concluded that dietary supplementation of 100 ppm Cu as Met-Cu significantly increased egg production and egg weight. Cu-Met chelate was also effective in reducing soft-shell egg production but increased gizzard erosion index.
The Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation to Peak-producing Hens Fed Diets Differing in Fat Source and Level on Laying Performance, Metabolic Profile, and Egg Quality
Turgut, L. ; Hayirl, Armagan ; Celebi, S. ; Yoruk, M.A. ; Gul, M. ; Karaoglu, M. ; Macit, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1179~1189
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1179
This experiment was designed to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin D on laying performance, metabolic profile and egg quality of hens fed diets containing different fat sources and levels. Lohman strains (n = 480) were assigned to one of 10 diets: basal diet (BD), BD plus 2.5 and 5.0% sunflower oil (SO) or tallow (T) at vitamin D provided
of the current recommendation. The experiment lasted from week 30 to 44 of age. Each diet was tested in 12 replicate cages of 4 hens. Production, metabolism, and egg quality data were subjected to three-way ANOVA. Both fats decreased feed intake (FI) as compared to BD. Increasing SO and T levels linearly decreased and quadratically increased FI, respectively. The dietary factors did not affect egg production (EP) and egg weight. Vitamin D supplementation increased and decreased EP when diets contained SO and T, respectively. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) for hens fed SO was lower than for hens fed T. However, increasing T level improved FCE, whereas increasing SO level worsened FCR. Vitamin D supplementation increased serum vitamin D and glucose concentrations. Vitamin D supplementation also caused a decrease and an increase in serum vitamin D concentration when diets contained SO and T, respectively. Serum glucose concentration for hens fed SO was lower than hens fed T. Increasing fat level linearly increased serum triglyceride and VLDL concentrations, regardless of the fat type. Increasing SO level linearly decreased serum cholesterol concentration. Vitamin D supplementation did not alter lipid metabolites. The dietary factors did not affect serum total protein, Ca, and P concentrations. As compared with BD, feeding SO decreased dry tibia and ash weights more than feeding T. Vitamin D supplementation tended to increase dry tibia weight and decrease tibia ash weight. Eggshell strength and thickness, yolk and albumen indexes, and Haugh unit were not responsive to the dietary factors. Eggshell strength quadratically increased with increasing T level. Yolk color for hens fed SO was lower than for hens fed T. The dietary factors did not affect most of yolk fatty acids. Increasing SO level quadratically decreased yolk
concentration. Vitamin D supplementation increased and decreased yolk
concentration when diets contained SO and T, respectively. In conclusion, increasing fat level improved laying performance without altering metabolic profile and egg quality. Vitamin D supplementation had minor alteration effects on laying performance, metabolic profile, and egg quality in response to fat feeding.
Comparative Performance of Hens Fed Diets Containing Korean, Japanese and Chinese Green Tea
Uuganbayar, D. ; Shin, I.S. ; Yang, C.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1190~1196
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1190
This experiment was carried out to investigate the effects of Korean, Japanese and Chinese green tea on laying performance and egg quality in hens. A total of 168 "Tetran Brown" hens aged 40 weeks were assigned to 7 treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment had 4 replicates accommodating 6 layers per replication. The seven dietary treatments were: 1) control diet with no green tea added, 2) diet containing 1.0% Korean green tea (1.0% KGT), 3) diet containing 2.0% Korean green tea (2.0% KGT), 4) diet containing 1.0% Japanese green tea (1.0% JGT), 5) diet containing 2.0% Japanese green tea (2.0% JGT), 6) diet containing 1.0% Chinese green tea (1.0% CGT), and 7) diet containing 2.0% Chinese green tea (2.0% CGT). Egg production rate of the layers fed diets containing 1.0 or 2.0% green tea powders were significantly increased compared to that of the control (p<0.05). The egg weight of layers was significantly reduced in layers fed 1.0% CGT (p<0.05). The feed intake was significantly decreased in KGT and CGT groups at 2.0% inclusion levels (p<0.05). The egg shell thickness and shape index of JGT treatment was significantly lower than that of the control (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in albumen index, yolk index and Haugh unit of eggs for layers fed diets containing green tea powders regardless of origin (p>0.05). Green tea feeding to layers tended to reduce the overall cholesterol content of egg yolk. Particularly, 1.0 or 2.0% CGT significantly depressed the total cholesterol content of egg yolk (p<0.05). In conclusion, incorporation of 1.0 or 2.0% Korean, Japanese and Chinese green tea into layer diets regardless of origin had favorable effects on laying performance and egg quality profiles. Among the three green tea sources, the Chinese green tea powder had the highest reducing effect on cholesterol content in egg yolk.
Effect of Supplementing 2-Hydroxy-4-(Methylthio) Butanoic Acid and DL-methionine in Corn-soybean-cottonseed Meal Diets on Growth Performance and Carcass Quality of Broilers
Liu, Y.L. ; Song, G.L. ; Yi, G.F. ; Hou, Y.Q. ; Huang, J.W. ; Vazquez-Anon, M. ; Knight, C.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1197~1205
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1197
This experiment was conducted to compare the effects of feeding DL-2-hydroxy-4-(methylthio)butanoic acid (HMTBA) and DL-methionine (DLM) supplemented corn-soybean-cottonseed meal diets on growth performance, carcass composition, and muscle color of broilers. The trial was designed as a
factorial experiment, including two methionine (Met) sources (HMTBA and DLM), three equimolar graded levels of Met supplementation (i.e., 0.08, 0.16, and 0.24% in the starter diet and 0.07, 0.14, and 0.21% in the grower and finisher diets, respectively), and two sexes (male and female). Additionally, one basal diet for each sex was formulated to be limiting in Met to test the dosage response of increasing supplemental Met levels. Four hundred and twenty 10-d-old broilers were randomly allotted to 14 treatments (seven each for males and females), with five replicate pens per treatment and six chicks per pen. There was no difference (p>0.05) between the two Met sources in growth performance and muscle deposition of broilers throughout the whole experimental period (d 10 to 49). With the increasing Met supplementation levels, average daily gain was increased (quadratic; p<0.01) during the starter, grower, and overall phases, average daily feed intake was increased (quadratic; p<0.01) during the starter phase, and feed:gain ratio was decreased (quadratic; p<0.05) during the grower and overall phases. At the end of finisher phase, Met supplementation increased breast muscle content (quadratic; p<0.01) and thigh muscle content (linear; p<0.05), and decreased abdominal fat content (quadratic; p<0.02). Compared to the broiler fed DLM, broilers fed HMTBA had superior breast and thigh muscle coloration (p<0.01). Male broilers had higher weight gain and feed intake and better feed conversion than female broilers (p<0.01). The fat content of thigh muscle in female broilers was higher than that of male broilers (p<0.03). The best fit comparison of HMTBA vs. DLM was determined by Schwarz Bayesian Criteria index, which indicated that the average relative bioefficacy of HMTBA vs. DLM was 120% with 95% confidence limit 67 to 172%. These results indicated that Met supplementation improved growth performance and carcass quality of broilers fed corn-soybean-cottonseed meal diets irrespective of Met sources. Compared to DLM, HMTBA has the same molar bioefficacy on improving the growth performance and carcass quality of broilers; however, HMTBA fed birds had superior meat color to DLM fed birds.
Lipid Metabolism and Peroxidation in Broiler Chicks under Chronic Heat Stress
Shim, K.S. ; Hwang, K.T. ; Son, M.W. ; Park, Garng H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1206~1211
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1206
The effects of taurine supplementation on growth performance, serum and liver concentrations of lipid, fatty acid composition and lipid peroxidation in the livers of broilers under chronic heat exposure conditions were investigated. The chicks with a similar body weight were equally assigned to one of three controlled-environment chambers. The brolier chicks, which were kept at
were fed either with a control diet or the control diet supplemented with 0.8% taurine, whereas broiler chicks kept at
were fed a control diet. Both of the BW and BW gains of broilers maintained at a temperature of
were significantly lower than those of the control group, which was maintained at a temperature of
(p<0.05). However, taurine addition in the diet of birds submitted to heat stress siginficantly improved BW gain (p<0.05). The feed intake of chicks declined with increases in temperature. The relative liver and gall bladder weights of chicks fed the control diet and maintained at
were significantly lower than those measured in the control birds (p<0.05). However, dietary taurine was found to compensate for these reductions in liver and gall bladder weights. Relative weights of abdominal fat did not differ significantly among the three groups. Serum triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in the chicks fed the control diet and maintained at
compare to those measured in the chicks fed the control diet at
(p<0.05). Heat stress resulted in a significant reduction in total lipid and triglyceride levels, but also increased the levels of total cholesterol in the liver (p<0.05). However, dietary taurine supplementation under the heat stress condition resulted in the recovery, to control levels, of serum triglyceride concentrations, as well as the amounts of total lipids, triglycerides, and cholesterol in the liver. The livers of chicks fed on taurine diets at
showed significantly higher proportions of C14:0, C16:1, C18:1, C18:2, and 20:3, and lower C18:0 and C20:4 proportions than those of chicks fed on control diets at the same temperature (p<0.05). The total levels of saturated fatty acids decreased, but monounsaturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acid levels increased in chicks fed the taurine diet, as compared to chicks fed the control diet at
(p<0.05). Peroxidizability indices were significantly lower in the heat-exposed chicks fed the taurine diet than in the non-taurine heat-exposed groups (p<0.05). In conclusion, dietary taurine results in an increase in the growth performances of chicks under heat stress conditions via improvements in lipid absorption and metabolism, as well as an induced reduction in lipid peroxidation.
Effect of Sex on Carcass and Meat Characteristics of New Zealand White Rabbits Aged 11 Weeks
Yalcin, S. ; Onbasilar, E.E. ; Onbasilar, I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 19, issue 8, 2006, Pages 1212~1216
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2006.1212
This experiment was conducted to determine and compare some characteristics of the meat and carcass of rabbits aged 11 weeks according to sex. In the experiment thirty male and thirty female New Zealand White rabbits were slaughtered. The weights and percentages of cold carcasses, skin with head and limbs, liver, kidney, heart, lung, fore legs, hind legs, breast and ribs, loin and abdominal wall were recorded. The values for carcass length, lumbar circumference, pH in the muscles of Biceps femoris and Longissimus dorsi, meat to bone ratio and cooking loss were also determined. The mean values for cold carcass weight and cold dressing percentage were 832 g and 48.77% in male and 849 g and 48.69% in female, respectively. In this study no significant differences were shown between male and female rabbits in the characteristics of carcass and meat except the value of pH of Longissimus dorsi muscle which was markedly higher in males than that in females meat. Slaughter weight was positively correlated with the weights of carcass, skin with head and limbs, lung, liver, kidney, heart and weights of joints (p<0.01) and dressing percentage (p<0.05).