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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Association of SNP Marker in the Leptin Gene with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Cattle
Shin, S.C. ; Chung, E.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 1~6
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1
Leptin is the hormone product of the obese gene and is synthesized and secreted predominantly by white adipocytes and relates to the feedback system that regulates long-term body fat weight and composition. Therefore, the leptin gene could be an excellent candidate gene controlling fat deposition, carcass traits and meat quality in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of 3 SNPs (A1127T and C1180T in exon 2 and C3100T in exon 3) in the bovine leptin gene with carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle. The C1180T SNP was associated with backfat thickness (BF) and marbling score (MS) (p<0.05). Animals with the genotype CC had higher BF than animals with TT genotype and higher MS compared with CT and TT genotypes. No significant associations were observed between the C3100T SNP and any carcass and meat quality traits analyzed. The effect of the A1127T SNP was not analyzed because the TT genotype was not detected and the AT genotype showed only 1.0% frequency. These results suggest that the C1180T SNP of the leptin gene may be useful as a genetic marker for carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle.
Diagnosis of Benzimidazole Resistance in Haemonchus contortus of Sheep by Allele Specific PCR
Tiwari, J. ; Kolte, A.P. ; Kumar, S. ; Swarnkar, C.P. ; Singh, D. ; Pathak, K.M.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 7~11
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.7
The study was conducted on 162 adult male Haemonchus contortus of sheep collected from Avikanagar, Jaipur and Bikaner regions to diagnose the benzimidazole (BZ) resistance in H. contortus. The BZ resistance is primarily linked with the mutation in
-tubulin isotype 1 gene which substitute phenylalanine (Phe) into tyrosine (Tyr) at the 200 codon of the gene. An allele specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) technique was used for diagnosis of BZ resistance in H. contortus. In AS-PCR, one reverse primer (TGG 312) was used in two separate reactions with each of 2 forward primers (resistant TGG 331 and susceptible CAW 106 primer) that differed only at 3' nucleotide position. Therefore, the amplified products from resistant and susceptible parasites were produced 267 and 266 bp, respectively. A total of 162 parasites were genotyped, of which 130 parasites found homozygous resistant 'rr', 22 heterozygous 'rS' and 10 homozygous susceptible 'SS' type. The prevalence of 'rr' individuals was higher in Jaipur (98%) followed by Avikanagar (93%) and Bikaner (50%) regions. Overall, the prevalence of BZ resistant allele (r) was higher (87%) as compared to 13% of BZ susceptible allele (S).
Selection of Sahiwal Cattle Bulls on Pedigree and Progeny
Bhatti, A.A. ; Khan, M.S. ; Rehman, Z. ; Hyder, A.U. ; Hassan, F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 12~18
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.12
The objective of the study was to compare ranking of Sahiwal bulls selected on the basis of highest lactation milk yield of their dams with their estimated breeding values (EBVs) using an animal model. Data on 23,761 lactation milk yield records of 5,936 cows from five main Livestock Experiment Stations in Punjab province of Pakistan (1964-2004) were used for the study. At present the young A.I bulls are required to be from A-category bull-dams. Dams were categorized as A, B, C and D if they had highest lactation milk yield of
2,700, 2,250-2,699, 1,800-2,249 and <1,800 litres, respectively. The EBVs for lactation milk yield were estimated for all the animals using an individual animal model having fixed effect of herd-year and season of calving and random effect of animal. Fixed effect of parity and random effect of permanent environment were incorporated when multiple lactation were used. There were 396 young bulls used for semen collection and A.I during 1973-2004. However, progeny with lactation yields recorded, were available only for 91 bulls and dams could be traced for only 63 bulls. Overall lactation milk yield averaged 1,440.8 kg. Milk yield was 10% heritable with repeatability of 39%. Ranking bulls on highest lactation milk yield of their dams, the in-vogue criteria of selecting bulls, had a rank correlation of 0.167 (p<0.190) with ranking based on EBVs from animal model analysis. Bulls' EBVs for all lactations had rank correlation of 0.716 (p<0.001) with EBVs based on first lactation milk yield and 0.766 (p<0.001) with average EBVs of dam and sire (pedigree index). Ranking of bulls on highest lactation yield of their dams has no association with their ranking based on animal model evaluation. Young Sahiwal bulls should be selected on the basis of pedigree index instead of highest lactation yield of dams. This can help improve the genetic potential of the breed accruing to conservation and development efforts.
Genetic Parameters Estimated for Sexual Maturity and Weekly Live Weights of Japanese Quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica)
Sezer, Metin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 19~24
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.19
Covariance components and genetic parameters of weekly live body weight from hatching to six weeks of age and age of sexual maturation were estimated in a laying type Japanese quail line. The univariate and bivariate animal model analysis included hatching group and sex as fixed effects. Each trait was analysed with animal as random effect to fit the additive direct effect. Additional random effects incorporated in the models were changed according to the trait examined. The best model for a trait was chosen based on a likelihood ratio test, comparing the models with and without maternal additive genetic and maternal permanent environmental effects. Heritability estimates of live-weight at hatch and one to six weeks of age with their standard errors were 0.22
0.059, and 0.56
0.062, respectively. Direct heritability value of age of sexual maturation was moderate (0.24
0.055). The variances due to permanent environmental effect of dam after one week of age and maternal genetic effect after two weeks of age were not important sources of variation. The correlations between direct and maternal genetic effects were negative and ranged from high to moderate values (-0.21 to -0.83). Among the weekly live weights, genetic correlations were generally high between not only successive but also early and late weightings. It suggests that selection for final weight may be based on early weight records. Genetic correlations between age of sexual maturation and live weights were low, favourable but had high standard errors. These results indicate that selection for high weight will potentially result in lower age of sexual maturation only with accurate determination of breeding values.
Individual Identification and Breed Allocation with Microsatellite Markers: An Evaluation in Indian Horses
Behl, Rahul ; Behl, Jyotsna ; Gupta, Neelam ; Gupta, S.C. ; Ahlawat, S.P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 25~30
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.25
The capability of microsatellite markers for individual identification and their potential for breed assignment of individuals was evaluated in two Indian horse breeds. The strength of these individual assignment methods was also evaluated by increasing the number of loci in increments of five. The probability of identity of two random horses from the two breeds at all twenty five studied loci was as low as
showing their suitability to distinguish between individual horses and their products. In the phylogenetic approach for individual assignment using Nei's genetic distances, 10.81% of horses associated with breed other than the major cluster of the source breed horses when all twenty five microsatellite loci were implemented. Similar results were obtained when the maximum likelihood approach for individual assignment was used. Based on these results it is proposed that, although microsatellite markers may prove very useful for individual identification, their utility for breed assignment of horses needs further evaluation.
Effects of Ovarian Morphology and Culture Vessel on In vitro Development and Cell Number in Embryos of Korean Native Cows
Park, Yong-Soo ; Kim, Jae-Myeoung ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 31~35
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.31
The main purpose of this study was to improve the efficiency and quality of in vitro embryo production in Korean Native Cows (KNC). We examined the effects of ovarian morphologies (Experiment 1) and the culture vessel (Experiment 2) on in vitro maturation (IVM). We measured the subsequent development rates and cell numbers of blastocysts. In Experiment 1, the ovaries of KNC were divided into six groups, based on follicle and corpus luteum (CL) morphology. The development rates to the 2- and 8-cell stages were similar among the six groups. The development rates to blastocyst stages were significantly higher in the group without a CL or follicle (WOCL/F) than in the groups with follicular cysts (FCs), regressive CLs (RCLs) or cystic CLs (CCLs) (p<0.05). The cell number of the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocysts in the FCs and RCLs groups, and the number of cells in the trophectoderm (TE) in the WOCL/F group, FCs, growing CLs (GCLs) and RCLs were significantly higher than in other groups (p<0.05). The total cell number (TCN) in the WOCL/F, FC and RCL groups was also significantly higher than in other groups (p<0.05). The ICM cell number/TCN ratio was significantly higher in the FC and RCL groups than in the GCL and DF groups (p<0.05). In Experiment 2, oocyte IVM was carried out in culture dishes, in 0.25- or 0.5-ml straws used for freezing sperm. The development rate to the 2-cell stage was significantly higher in the 0.5-ml straw group than in the 0.25-ml straw group. The development rates to the blastocyst stage were similar in the dish and the two straw groups. There were no differences in the cell numbers of ICM, TE or TCN or ICM cell number/TCN ratios between groups.
Seasonal Changes in Concentrations of Proteins and Lipids in Growing Goat Oocytes
Sangha, G.K. ; Bhatia, H. ; Khera, K.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 36~40
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.36
Proteins and lipids not only provide a source of energy to the cell, but also play vital roles in modifying the physical properties and function of the biological membranes. In the present study, we investigated the biochemical constituents, viz. proteins and lipids, in growing oocytes of goat antral follicles during summer and winter seasons. Goat genitalia in phosphate buffered saline (pH 7.4) were brought to the laboratory within one hour of slaughter under aseptic conditions at
. Oocytes were aspirated from normal small (<3 mm in diameter) and large (>3 mm) follicles and pooled for biochemical estimations. A significant increase in the amount of protein and lipid was observed with the growth of the oocyte. The amount of protein varied non-significantly with the season, while the amount of lipid varied significantly. The amounts of phospholipid, cholesterol, free fatty acid, and triglyceride increased with the growth of the oocyte, but no significant effect of season in these constituents was observed. Lysolecithin, sphingomyelin, and sterols were the polar lipids identified in both oocytes prepared from small follicles (small oocytes) as well as large follicles (large oocytes). In addition, the small oocytes also contained phosphatidyl serine, while large oocytes contained phosphatidyl glycerol phosphate and phosphatidyl inositol. Among non-polar lipids, triglycerides and long chain alcohols appear only in small oocytes and not in large oocytes. Monoglycerides, 1,2-diglycerides, 1,3-diglycerides and o-dialkyl glycerol ethers, fatty acids, fatty acid methyl esters, and wax esters were identified in both small and large oocytes. Information on biochemical composition of growing oocytes is relevant to oocyte and embryo competence, culture and cryopreservation.
Characterization of Leptin Levels in Gestating Callipyge Ewes
Fleming-Waddell, J.N. ; Keisler, D.H. ; Jackson, S.P. ; Blanton, J.R. Jr. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 41~44
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.41
The callipyge mutation in sheep is a polar overdominant mutation that results in post-natal muscle hypertrophy in the loin and hindquarters of paternal heterozygotes (+/CLPG). Sheep that are homozygous for the callipyge allele (CLPG/CLPG) do not express the muscle hypertrophy phenotype, but serve as carriers for the mutation. Callipyge sheep are characterized by improved feed efficiencies and leaner carcasses. Leptin is a protein hormone secreted from adipose tissue and has been found to affect appetite and serve as an indicator of body fat mass. To date, very little knowledge is available as to the effect of the callipyge mutation on circulating leptin levels. Due to the interaction of leptin with feed intake and energy availability, and the fact that the majority of fetal growth occurs in late gestation, it is important to understand if the callipyge mutation interacts with leptin production in late gestational ewes. Therefore, our objective was to characterize serum concentrations of leptin in late gestational callipyge ewes vs. non-callipyge ewes. We evaluated genetically verified callipyge (n=6), homozygous (n=8) and normal (n=8) ewes weekly during the last eight wks of gestation through one wk post-partum. Weights were taken and body condition scores were assigned by trained personnel weekly. Blood was collected via jugular venipuncture on each sampling date and subjected to an ovine-specific leptin RIA. Genotype influences on peripheral concentrations of leptin were found to be highly significant (p=0.0005). Total leptin means for +/CLPG were 5.41
0.40 ng/ml, CLPG/CLPG 8.11
0.70 ng/ml, and +/+ 9.13
0.93 ng/ml. Sampling date was also significant (p=0.0098) with all ewes showing a decrease in leptin levels throughout gestation and parturition. Using repeated measures, we were able to detect lower levels of plasma leptin in callipyge ewes, which may be indicative of their lower overall body fat content. These results indicate that the callipyge phenotype decreases the levels of adipose tissue and leptin production in gestating ewes.
Response of Growth Performance, Cecal Fermentation Traits and In vitro Gas Production to Substitution of Soyhulls for Lignified Fiber in Rabbit Diets
Chang, Ying ; Qin, Yinghe ; Xiong, Yiqiang ; Du, Yuchuan ; Meng, Qingxiang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 45~51
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.45
A growth trial (Expt. 1) and an in vitro fermentation experiment (Expt. 2) were conducted to determine the response of growth performance, cecal fermentation characteristics and in vitro gas production to incremental levels of substitution of digestible fiber for lignified fiber in the diet of weaned rabbits. Three diets, formulated by substituting soyhulls (SH; used as digestible fiber source) for soybean straw (used as lignified fiber source) at substitution levels of 0, 25 and 50%, were used in a factorial design. In the growth trial (Expt. 1), increasing levels of SH substitution resulted in a quadratic increase in daily body weight gain rate (p<0.04) and feed conversion efficiency (p<0.02), but in a numerical decrease in dietary DM intake (p=0.15). When SH were included in the diet at 25% substitution level, rabbits had the highest rate of liveweight gain and feed conversion efficiency. As SH substitution level increased, pH values and ammonia-N of cecal contents linearly (p<0.001) decreased, but total VFA concentration linearly (p<0.03) increased. With incremental levels of SH substitution, the percentage of acetate and butyrate linearly (p<0.05) reduced, but the percentage of propionate and minor acids linearly (p<0.03) increased. Increasing the SH substitution levels tended to increase incidence of diarrhea. In the in vitro fermentation experiment (Expt. 2), regardless of origin of substrates fermented, increasing SH substitution level resulted in increased maximal gas production (p<0.001) and shortened gas production lag time, but had no effect on gas production rate (p>0.2). These observations suggest that incrementally feeding SH to rabbits could stimulate their cecal microbial activity, allowing cecal fermentation to shift towards favoring fiber digestion. In conclusion, digestible fiber from soyhulls may partially substitute for more lignified fiber, soybean straw, without having an adverse effect on cecal fermentative and microbial activity and growth performance. For growing rabbits, about 73% of total dietary NDF should be supplied by effective NDF, the remainder could come from digestible NDF, such as soyhulls.
Effects of Dietary Supplemented Inorganic and Organic Selenium on Antioxidant Defense Systems in the Intestine, Serum, Liver and Muscle of Korean Native Goats
Chung, J.Y. ; Kim, J.H. ; Ko, Y.H. ; Jang, I.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 52~59
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.52
The present study was designed to assess whether dietary inorganic and organic selenium (Se) could affect antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), a marker of lipid peroxidation, in the intestine, serum, liver, and gastrocnemius muscle of Korean native goats. A total of eighteen Korean native goats was allotted into three dietary groups, consisting of basal diet (CON), or basal diet with either 0.25 ppm inorganic (IOSEL) or 0.25 ppm organic Se (ORSEL), and fed the corresponding diets for 5 wks. Growth performance, including body weight and total gain, and blood biochemical profiles, including GSH-Px, were not significantly different between the three dietary groups. Also, the specific activities of SOD, GSH-Px, and GST, and the level of MDA in the intestinal mucosa and liver from goats were not substantially affected by either inorganic Se or organic Se. However, goats fed the diet containing organic Se showed a significant increase in GSH-Px and GST activities in the gastrocnemius muscle compared with those fed the basal diet. In conclusion, increased muscle GSH-Px and GST activities suggest that dietary organic Se may affect, at least in part, the antioxidant defense system in muscle of Korean native goats under the conditions of our feeding regimen.
Physiological Factors Depressing Feed Intake and Saliva Secretion in Goats Fed on Dry Forage
Sunagawa, K. ; Ooshiro, T. ; Nakamura, N. ; Ishii, Y. ; Nagamine, I. ; Shinjo, A ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 60~69
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.60
Ruminants eating dry forage secrete large volumes of saliva which results in decreased plasma volume (hypovolemia) and the loss of
from the blood. The present research investigated whether or not hypovolemia and the loss of
from the blood in goats brought about by dry forage feeding actually depresses feed intake and saliva secretion, respectively. The present experiment consisted of three treatments (NI, ASI, MI). In the control treatment (NI), a solution was not infused. In the ASI treatment, i.v. infusion of artificial parotid saliva was initiated 1 h before feeding and continued for the entire 2 h feeding period. In the MI treatment, iso-osmotic mannitol solution was infused. The NI treatment showed that hematocrit and plasma total protein concentration were increased due to decreased circulating plasma volume brought about by feeding. In the ASI treatment, the fluid and
that were lost from the blood because of a feeding-induced acceleration of saliva secretion was replenished with an intravenous infusion of artificial parotid saliva. This replenishment lessened the levels of suppression on both feeding and parotid saliva secretion. When only the lost fluid was replenished with an intravenous infusion of iso-osmotic mannitol solution in the MI treatment, the degree of feeding suppression was lessened but the level of saliva secretion suppression was not affected. These results indicate that the marked suppression of feed intake during the initial stages of dry forage feeding was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia while the suppression of saliva secretion was brought about by the loss of
from the blood due to increased saliva secretion during the initial stages of feeding.
Effect of Fungal Elimination on Bacteria and Protozoa Populations and Degradation of Straw Dry Matter in the Rumen of Sheep and Goats
Li, D.B. ; Hou, X.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 70~74
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.70
An in vitro study was carried out to investigate the differences in rumen microbes and fiber degradation capacity between sheep and goats. Three local male sheep and three Inner Mongolia male cashmere goats (aged 1.5 to 2 years; weight 25.0 to 32.0 kg) were each fitted with a permanent rumen cannula used to provide rumen fluid. Cycloheximide was used to eliminate rumen anaerobic fungi. The results showed that the quantities of fungal zoospores in the culture fluid of the control group were significantly greater in the sheep than in the goats; however, bacteria and protozoa counts were significantly higher in goats than in sheep. The digestibility of straw dry matter did not differ significantly between the two species before elimination of fungi, but tended to be higher for sheep (55.4%) than for goats (53.3%). The results also indicated that bacteria counts increased significantly after elimination of anaerobic fungi; however, the digestibility of straw dry matter significantly decreased by 12.1% and 8.6% for sheep and goats respectively. This indicated that the anaerobic fungi of the rumen played an important role in degradation of fiber.
Effect of Levels of Supplementation of Concentrate Containing High Levels of Cassava Chip on Rumen Ecology, Microbial N Supply and Digestibility of Nutrients in Beef Cattle
Wanapat, M. ; Khampa, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 75~81
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.75
The object of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation of concentrate containing high levels of cassava chip on rumen ecology, microbial protein and digestibility of nutrients. Four, rumen fistulated crossbred beef steers with initial body weight of 400
10 kg were randomly assigned according to a 4
4 Latin square design. The dietary treatments were concentrate cassava chip based offering at 0, 1, 2 and 3% BW with urea-treated rice straw fed ad libitum. It was found that ruminal pH was significantly decreased with increase of concentrate. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration in the rumen was significantly different among treatments. In addition, a molar proportion of propionate was higher in supplemented groups at 2 and 3% BW (p<0.05), leading to significantly decreased acetate:propionate ratio. Furthermore, microbial N supply was significantly improved and was highest at 2% BW supplementation. The efficiency of rumen microbial-N synthesis based on organic matter (OM) truly digested in the rumen was highest in level of concentrate supplementation at 2% BW (80% of cassava chip in diets). Moreover, bacterial populations such as amylolytic bacteria was linearly increased, while cellulolytic bacteria was linearly decreased (p<0.01) when cattle received concentrate supplementation in all levels. The total protozoal counts were significantly increased, while fungal zoospores were dramatically decreased in cattle receiving increased levels of concentrate. In conclusion, cassava chip can be use as energy source at 80% in concentrate and supplementation of concentrate at 2% BW with urea-treated rice straw as roughage could improve rumen fermentation efficiency in beef cattle.
Effects of Lacquer (Rhus verniciflua) Meal Supplementation on Layer Performance
Yang, Y.X. ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 82~88
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.82
Two experiments were conducted to see the effects of lacquer meal (Rhus verniciflua) on layer performance. In Exp. 1, seventy-two Hy-Line brown layers, 46 wk of age were fed 0, 1.5% and 3.0% lacquer added diets for 6 weeks. Diets contained 2,650 kcal/kg ME and 16.50% CP. In Exp. 2, high-energy diets were fed to 72 Hy-line brown layers of 46 wk age for 6 wk. The diets were: control (3,000 kcal/kg ME and 16.50% CP); T1 and T2 contained 1.5 and 3.0% lacquer respectively, in addition to high energy levels. Each treatment had four replicates with 6 birds each in both the experiments. During Exp.1, there was no effect on average daily feed intake, egg production and feed efficiency, however, egg weight was linearly (p=0.0128) decreased with the addition of lacquer in diets. The egg quality parameters measured at bi-weekly intervals did not reveal any particular trend. In Exp 2., high-energy diets have decreased the feed intake and egg production in all groups. However, feeding lacquer at 1.5% increased the egg production by 9% than control. The yolk fat content was increased due to treatments showing quadratic trend (p=0.0683). The liver fat content was decreased by 40-43% than control in lacquer added diets. Except palmitic, oleic and arachidonic acids, some yolk fatty acids showed a linear decreasing trend in lacquer diets. The serum triglycerides and total cholesterol levels were not influenced with lacquer in the diets; however, the serum glucose level was linearly decreased with the addition of lacquer. In conclusion, lacquer meal supplementation significantly affected the performance of layers fed high-energy diets.
Gelatinized Carbohydrates in the Diet of Catla catla Fingerlings: Effect of Levels and Sources on Nutrient Utilization, Body Composition and Tissue Enzyme Activities
Yengkokpam, Sona ; Sahu, N.P. ; Pal, A.K. ; Mukherjee, S.C. ; Debnath, Dipesh ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 89~99
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.89
A Feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of three different sources and two levels of dietary gelatinized carbohydrate (GC) on nutrient utilization, growth, tissue composition and tissue enzyme activities of fingerlings of Catla catla (15.1-15.3 g). Six isocaloric (17.1-17.5 kJ/g) semi-purified diets were prepared either with rice, corn or tapioca at 40 or 50% GC each. The crude protein (CP) level used in the diet was 35% and 25% for 40% and 50% GC level, respectively to study the protein sparing effect of GC. The degree of gelatinization was higher for corn and tapioca than rice under similar cooking conditions. After a 60-d feeding trial, dry matter, carbohydrate, protein and lipid digestibility were higher in tapioca fed groups at both the levels of GC. However, the highest specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were observed in the corn fed groups at 50% GC level indicating better utilization of nutrients from gelatinized corn. Feed conversion ratio (FCR) was almost similar in corn and tapioca fed groups between two levels of GC but in rice fed groups, FCR was lower in 40% GC than 50% GC level. The results indicated higher protein-sparing effect in corn and tapioca fed groups than rice fed groups. The order of gelatinized carbohydrate utilization in Catla catla fingerlings at 50% GC level was corn>tapioca>rice. At 40% GC level, corn and tapioca were comparable and more efficiently utilized than rice. In the corn fed groups, 50% GC was comparable with 40% GC level, whereas in rice and tapioca fed groups the 40% GC was better in terms of nutrient utilization. Liver glycogen content and hepatosomatic index were significantly (p<0.05) higher in those groups fed high GC (50%) irrespective of carbohydrate sources. Higher intestinal amylase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activities were observed in higher GC fed groups than the lower GC groups. No mortality was found in any groups at any levels of GC.
Effects of Dietary
-Cyclodextrin on Plasma Lipid and Tissue Cholesterol Content in Swine
Park, B.S. ; Jang, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 100~105
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.100
This study examined the effects of dietary
) on the cholesterol of blood and tissues of swine. Thirty six male castrated swine (
) weighing 50 kg were randomly assigned to one of four dietary groups until their weight reached 110 kg. The groups were: basal diet without
(control) and basal diets containing 1.5%, 3.0%, or 5.0%
. Diets and water were offered ad libitum. No significant difference was found between treatments in terms of feeding performance measured by daily intake, daily weight gain, and feed efficiency. Addition of
to the diets significantly reduced total lipid, triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in swine blood, particularly in the group receiving 5.0%
, which showed decreases (p<0.05) of 21.9%, 55.6% and 27.7%, respectively. Cholesterol levels in back fat, loin, belly and ham portions of swine fed
significantly differed (p<0.05) from controls, especially in the 5.0%
-fed group, with reductions of 26.0%, 27.5%, 17.9% and 18.3%, respectively. These results suggested that the addition of
to the diet of swine could reduce their body cholesterol by decreasing the migration of cholesterol through the blood.
Effect of the Length of Feed Withdrawal on Weight Loss, Yield and Meat Color of Broiler
Kim, D.H. ; Yoo, Y.M. ; Kim, S.H. ; Jang, B.G. ; Park, B.Y. ; Cho, S.H. ; Seong, P.N. ; Hah, K.H. ; Lee, J.M. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Hwang, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 106~111
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.106
The current study was conducted to determine the optimum length of feed withdrawal for pre-harvest broilers. A total of three hundred broilers were sampled from an industrial population, and 30 chicks for each weight group (e.g., 1.5 and 2.5 kg) were randomly assigned to feed withdrawal treatments for 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 h. Weight loss, yield, muscle pH, objective meat color and weights of gastro intestinal contents, crop, gizzard, provenriculus, small intestine, caecum, and rectum were determined. Live weight loss was significantly (p<0.05) increased as length of feed withdrawal extended. A significant (p<0.05) carcass yield for both 1.5 and 2.5 kg groups coincided after 9 and 6 h feed withdrawal, respectively. Net weights of intestinal contents for crop and gizzard were significantly (p<0.05) reduced by 6 h, and the reduction for proventriculus and small intestine occurred from 3 h. A noticeable effect of feed withdrawal on pH for breast muscle at 3 h postmortem occurred only when chicks were fasted for 3 h of which pH (6.05) was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that for other groups including the control (5.74). There was a linear tendency of higher lightness (Hunter L* value) numerically for chicks fasted for longer periods. The highest coefficient of determinations of regression models to estimate weight loss as a function of fasting period and body weights were achieved, when the models included both linear and quadratic terms for fasting period, and linear term for both 1.5 (
) and 2.5 kg (
) body weight groups. Given the practical aspect, approximately 1.5 kg of body weight is dominant, weight loss could be predicted by the following function; live weight
. Current data implied that the optimum fasting time for pre-slaughter chicks varied depending on slaughter weight; 6 and 9-h fasting were recommendable for 2.5 and 1.5 kg chicks, with little effect on objective meat color.
Ram Mating Behaviour under Different Social Conditions
Patel, M. ; Das, N. ; Pandey, H.N. ; Yadav, M.C. ; Girish, P.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 112~118
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.112
The present study was conducted to investigate the attributes of ram sexual behaviour under different social conditions. Six intact rams and eight overiectomized ewes were used in this experiment. Ewes were artificially brought into oestrus. All mating traits were recorded every 10 sec during a 1 h mating session under five social conditions viz., ram exposed to single oestrus ewe, ram exposed to single oestrus ewe and audience ram, ram exposed to multiple oestrus ewes, ram exposed to single oestrus ewe with competitor ram and ram exposed to multiple oestrus ewes with competitor ram. Mean intensity of the mating activities during the 1 h mating session under five social conditions was compared. Either vocalization or leg kicking was found to be the predominant teasing activity under all five conditions. Sniffing differed significantly (p<0.05) between different social conditions. Vocalization, leg kicking, and leg kicking with vocalization did not differ significantly (p<0.05) between different social conditions. Mounts/h in the multiple oestrus ewe condition was higher and differed significantly (p<0.05) from other social conditions. Ejaculations/h for the experimental ram was higher when exposed to multiple oestrus ewes in comparison to other social conditions. Mounts/ejaculation was low in the audience ram condition in comparison to the other four social conditions.
Changes in the Levels of Insulin-like Growth Factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) in Bovine Milk According to the Lactation Period and Parity
Kang, S.H. ; Kim, J.U. ; Kim, Y. ; Han, K.S. ; Lee, W.J. ; Imm, J.Y. ; Oh, S. ; Park, D.J. ; Moon, Y.I. ; Kim, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 119~123
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.119
The objectives of this study were to characterize the changes occurring in the levels of insulin-like growth factors (IGF-I and IGF-II) in bovine milk during a one-year lactation period, and to determine the parameters affecting IGF content in bovine milk. Milk was collected individually from lactating Holstein cows (n=70), and IGF-I and -II levels were determined via radioimmunoassay, using 125I after acid-ethanol treatment. The proximate compositions of the milk samples were determined using a near-infrared milk analyzer. The data were analyzed by the GLM and CORR procedures using SAS software to determine significant differences (p<0.05) occurring within groups (dairy farms, lactation periods, season, and parity). We noted an approximately six-fold reduction in the IGF-I concentration (from 2,462.7 to 353.0 ng/ml) and a three-fold drop in the IGF-II concentration (from 929.1 to 365.7 ng/ml) in the bovine colostrum, between 6 h after parturition and 18 h after parturition. IGF-I and -II content, measured at the early, middle, and late stages of lactation did not change significantly throughout the entirety of the lactation period. Interestingly, parity did not significantly affect IGF-I content, but did significantly affect IGF-II content between the primiparous and multiparous cows. We also found there were no significant relationships between IGF-I and total protein content or somatic cell counts (p<0.05).
Endocrine Aspects of Oestrous Cycle in Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis): An Overview
Mondal, S. ; Prakash, B.S. ; Palta, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 1, 2007, Pages 124~131
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.124
There is worldwide interest in buffalo as an animal for meeting the growing demands of meat, milk and work in the developing countries. One of the major constraints to full exploitation of the productive potential of buffalo has been its inherently low reproductive efficiency as reflected by late maturity, poor expression of oestrus, silent oestrus, irregular oestrous cyclicity, seasonality in breeding, anoestrus, low conception rate, long postpartum interval, repeat breeding etc. Ovarian cyclicity is regulated by endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms namely hypothalamic hormones, gonadotropins and ovarian steroids. Detailed endocrine investigations are suggested with special reference to the hypothalamo-hypophysial-ovarian axis to gain a better understanding of reproduction in buffalo and to modify it to derive the maximum benefit from this animal.