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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
Editor in Chief :
Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Evaluation of Reciprocal Cross Design on Detection and Characterization of Mendelian QTL in
Lee, Yun-Mi ; Kim, Eun-Hee ; Kim, Jong-Joo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1625~1630
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1625
A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the effect of reciprocal cross on the detection and characterization of Mendelian QTL in
QTL swine populations. Data were simulated under two different mating designs. In the one-way cross design, six
grand sires of one breed and 30
grand dams of another breed generated 10
offspring per dam. Sixteen
sires and 64
dams were randomly chosen to produce a total of 640
offspring. In the reciprocal design, three
grand sires of A breed and 15
grand dams of B breed were mated to generate 10
offspring per dam. Eight
sires and 32
dams were randomly chosen to produce 10
dam, for a total of 320
offspring. Another mating set comprised three
grand sires of B breed and 15
grand dams of A breed to produce the same number of
offspring. A chromosome of 100 cM was simulated with large, medium or small QTL with fixed, similar, or different allele frequencies in parental breeds. Tests between Mendelian models allowed QTL to be characterized as fixed (LC QTL), or segregating at similar (HS QTL) or different (CB QTL) frequencies in parental breeds. When alternate breed alleles segregated in parental breeds, a greater proportion of QTL were classified as CB QTL and estimates of QTL effects for the CB QTL were more unbiased and precise in the reciprocal cross than in the one-way cross. This result suggests that reciprocal cross design allows better characterization of Mendelian QTL in terms of allele frequencies in parental breeds.
Genetic Structure and Composition of Genetic Diversity in the Kouchi Sub-breed of the Japanese Brown Cattle Population
Honda, Takeshi ; Fujii, Toshihide ; Mukai, Fumio ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1631~1635
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1631
Japanese Brown cattle, one of the four domestic beef breeds in Japan, are suffering from numerical reduction due to economic pressure from profitable breeds. In this study, all the reproductive cows in the Kouchi sub-breed of the Japanese Brown cattle that were alive in July 2005 were investigated by pedigree analysis to clarify genetic structure and composition of genetic variability. In addition, genetically important individuals for the maintenance of genetic variability of the sub-breed were also identified through the core set method. The number of cows analyzed was 1,349. Their pedigrees were traced back to ancestors born around 1940, and pedigree records of 13,157 animals were used for the analysis. Principal component analysis was performed on the relationship matrix of the cows, and their factor loadings were plotted on a three-dimensional diagram. According to their spatial positions in the diagram, all the cows were subdivided into five genetically distinctive subpopulations of 131 to 437 animals. Genetic diversity of the whole sub-breed, which is estimated to be 0.901, was decomposed into 0.856 and 0.045 of within-subpopulation and between-subpopulation components. Recalculation of genetic diversity after removal of one or several subpopulations from the five subpopulations suggested that three of them were genetically important for the maintenance of genetic variability of the sub-breed. Applying the core set method to all the cows, maximum attainable genetic diversity was estimated to be 0.949, and optimal genetic contributions assigned to each cow supported the previous results indicating relative importance of the three subpopulations as useful genetic materials.
Localization of 5,105 Hanwoo (Korean Cattle) BAC Clones on Bovine Chromosomes by the Analysis of BAC End Sequences (BESs) Involving 21,024 Clones
Choi, Jae Min ; Chae, Sung-Hwa ; Kang, Se Won ; Choi, Dong-Sik ; Lee, Yong Seok ; Park, Hong-Seog ; Yeo, Jung-Sou ; Choi, Inho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1636~1650
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1636
As an initial step toward a better understanding of the genome structure of Korean cattle (Hanwoo breed) and initiation of the framework for genomic research in this bovine, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) end sequencing of 21,024 clones was recently completed. Among these clones, BAC End Sequences (BESs) of 20,158 clones with high quality sequences (Phred score
, average BES equaled 620 bp and totaled 23,585,814 bp), after editing sequencing results by eliminating vector sequences, were used initially to compare sequence homology with the known bovine chromosomal DNA sequence by using BLASTN analysis. Blast analysis of the BESs against the NCBI Genome database for Bos taurus (Build 2.1) indicated that the BESs from 13,201 clones matched bovine contig sequences with significant blast hits (E<
), including 7,075 single-end hits and 6,126 paired-end hits. Finally, a total of 5,105 clones of the Korean cattle BAC clones with paired-end hits, including 4,053 clones from the primary analysis and 1,052 clones from the secondary analysis, were mapped to the bovine chromosome with very high accuracy.
Associations of Polymorphisms in the Mx1 Gene with Immunity Traits in Large WhitexMeishan F
Li, X.L. ; He, W.L. ; Deng, C.Y. ; Xiong, Y.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1651~1654
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1651
The mouse myxovirus resistance protein 1 (Mx1) is known to be sufficient to confer resistance to influenza viruses, and the gene encoding Mx1 is, therefore, an interesting candidate gene for disease resistance in farm animals. The porcine Mx1 gene has already been identified and characterized based on its homology with mouse Mx1; the full-length coding region of the pig Mx1 gene spans 2,545 bp (M65087) and is organized into 17 exons compared with the human ortholog mRNA. In this study, the exons 9, 10 and 11 and introns 6 and 9 of the porcine Mx1 gene were cloned and sequenced. Two SNPs were identified in exons 9, 10 and 11 but none of the SNPs led to an amino acid exchange, and the other eleven variants were detected in introns 6 and 9, respectively. Differences in allele frequency between Meishan and other pig breeds were observed within intron 6, of which an
substitution at position 371 was detected as an SnaBI PCR-RFLP. The association analysis using the Large White
offspring suggested that the Mx1 genotype was associated with variation in several immunity traits that are of interest in pig breeding. However, further investigations in more populations are needed to confirm the above result.
Cloning and Expression Analysis of the
-Subunit of Porcine Prolyl 4-hydroxylase
Cho, Eun Seok ; Jung, Won Youg ; Kwon, Eun Jung ; Park, Da Hye ; Chung, Ki Hwa ; Cho, Kwang Keun ; Kim, Chul Wook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1655~1661
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1655
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) plays a central role in collagen synthesis by catalyzing the hydroxylation of the proline residue in the X-Pro-Gly amino acid sequence, and controls the biosynthesis of collagen that influences overall meat quality. In order to verify expression level of the catalytic
subunit of P4H, a 2.7 kb clone of the
subunit gene for P4H was selected from a cDNA library prepared from the muscular tissue of Sancheong berkshire pigs, and the whole gene sequence was determined. As expression level of the
subunit of P4H differed between tissues of pigs, we intended to assess more precisely the level of
-subunit expression between tissues of Sancheong Berkshire pigs by using RT-PCR. Muscular and adipose tissues were taken from each pig grouped by growth stage (weighing 60, 80, and 110 kg) of Yorkshire and Sancheong Berkshire pigs, and the expression levels of the
-subunit of P4H were examined. Since there were significant differences in the expression level with respect to variation in growth stage (p<0.01), an attempt was made to identify any influences of pig species and tissue variation. The muscular and adipose tissues of pigs weighing 110 kg showed higher expression levels than pigs weighing 60 kg and 80 kg. In general, significantly higher expression levels were found in muscular than in adipose tissue. The expression levels in Sancheong Berkshire were significantly higher than in Yorkshire pigs (p<0.01 or p<0.05). Since expression level of the
-subunit of P4H affects the activity of P4H and is connected to the biosynthesis of collagen and increased collagen can improve meat texture, this finding may explain why meat quality of the Sancheong Berkshire pig is acclaimed in Korea. Given the higher expression levels of the
-subunit gene in adipose than in muscular tissue, and also in the heavier pigs, more intensive studies are required to assess the correlation between expression level of the
subunit gene and overall meat quality.
Molecular Cloning and Characterization of Bovine HMGA1 Gene
Yu, S.L. ; Chung, H.J. ; Sang, B.C. ; Bhuiyan, M.S.A. ; Yoon, D. ; Kim, K.S. ; Jeon, J.T. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1662~1669
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1662
The high mobility group AT-hook1 (HMGA1) proteins are known to be related to the regulation of gene transcription, replication and promotion of metastatic progression in cancer cells. The loss of expression by disrupting the HMGA1 gene affects insulin signaling and causes diabetes in the mouse. Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of HMGA1 was significantly associated with fat deposition traits in the pig. In this study, we identified 3,935 bp nucleotide sequences from exon 5 to exon 8 of the bovine HMGA1 gene and its mRNA expression was observed by quantitative real-time PCR. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms in the bovine HMGA1 gene were detected and the allele frequencies of these SNPs were investigated using the PCR-RFLP method in nine cattle breeds including Limousin, Simmental, Brown Swiss, Hereford, Angus, Charolais, Hanwoo, Brahman and Red Chittagong cattle. The map location showed that the bovine HMGA1 gene was also closely located with a previously identified meat quality QTL region indicating this gene is the most likely positional candidate for meat quality traits in cattle.
Effect of Post Insemination Progesterone Supplement on Pregnancy Rates of Repeat Breeder Friesian Cows
Ababneh, Mohammed M. ; Alnimer, Mufeed A. ; Husein, Mustafa Q. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1670~1676
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1670
Fifty repeat breeder (RB) Friesian cows were allocated to five groups of 10 cows each, to determine the effect of progesterone (P4) supplement on P4 concentrations and pregnancy rates during the periods of corpus luteum (CL) formation and development between days 2-7 and 7-12 following a spontaneous or
-induced estrus. Cows were artificially inseminated during
-induced (PGF-P4-d2 and PGF-P4-d7 groups) or spontaneous (S-P4-d2, S-P4-d7, and control groups) estrus. Progesterone-releasing intravaginal device (PRID) devoid of estrogen capsule were inserted either on d 2 (PGF-P4-d2 and S-P4-d2 groups) or d 7 (PGF-P4-d7 and S-P4-d7 groups) post-insemination and left in place for 5 days. Control cows did not receive any treatment. Blood samples were collected for progesterone analysis from all cows once daily for 4 days starting on the day of estrus (d 0) and once every 3 days thereafter until d 22. Progesterone treatment by day interaction accounted for higher plasma P4 in treated than non-treated control cows. Progesterone concentrations differed significantly (p<0.05) during metestrus (d 2 to d 7) but not during diestrus (d 7 to d 12).
treatment, lactation number, service number or their interactions did not affect progesterone concentrations and pregnancy rates. Therefore, cows were grouped according to the day of P4 supplement irrespective of the
treatment. Progesterone supplement on d 7 but not d 2 significantly increased (p<0.03) pregnancy rates in repeat breeding cows with four or more previous services but not in cows in their third service. In conclusion, post-insemination P4 supplement to repeat breeding cows with four or more previous services improved pregnancy rates and should be advocated when no specific reason for infertility is diagnosed. Further studies with larger numbers of repeat breeding cows under field conditions are needed to ascertain the findings of this study.
Study on Changes in Racehorses' Metabolites and Exercise-related Hormones before and after a Race
Yoo, In-Sang ; Lee, Hong-Gu ; Yoon, Sei-Young ; Hong, Hee-Ok ; Lee, Sang-Rak ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1677~1683
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1677
Physiological changes in thoroughbred racehorses during the race were investigated by measuring concentrations of metabolites and exercise-related hormones before and after a race. The conversion point from anaerobic to aerobic exercise during the race was estimated subsequently. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein of 53 thoroughbreds at different times -three h before and 45 min after- for measuring the concentrations of glucose, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA), lactate, uric acid, ammonia, insulin, adrenocorticotrophin (ACTH) and cortisol according to the race distance. In accordance with the race distance, each metabolite increased in concentration compared with the level before the race. The level of glucose, in particular, increased from
mg/dl before the race to
mg/dl after the race for horses that raced 1,400 m, showing a significant increase of 165% (p<0.001). The concentration of NEFA rose from
uEq/L, up 337% (p<0.01) after a 1,400 m race. Exercise-related hormones also showed similar changes. The level of insulin dropped the most in horses that raced 1,400 m, by 42%, from
(p<0.5); however, ACTH and cortisol jumped significantly at 1,800 m, from
pg/ml (p<0.5) and
(p<0.01), respectively, representing the highest increase. Therefore, based on the changes in glucose, NEFA and insulin levels before and after the race, it was concluded that the race distance of 1,400 m represents the point where racehorses make a conversion from anaerobic to aerobic exercise.
The Effects of Caponization Age on Muscle Characteristics in Male Chicken
Chen, Kuo-Lung ; Chen, Tsai-Tzu ; Lin, Kou-Joong ; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1684~1688
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1684
This study examined the caponization effects on the muscle characteristics (quality and quantity) of caponized male chickens fed before or after sexual maturity. Healthy and uniform Single Comb White Leghorn chickens were caponized at 3-week-old. Feeding was conducted until 16-week-old in trial 1 or from 12-week-old to 26-week-old in trial 2. Ten sham operated male chickens (Sham) were also assigned to each trial as the control group. Chickens used in both trials were housed in individual cages with each chicken representing one replicate. The results showed that early caponization (3-week-old) significantly increased (p<0.05) body weight and pectoral major muscle weight and percentage at 16-week-old compared to the Sham in trial 1. Caponization significantly increased (p<0.05) the protein content of the pectoral major muscle, but decreased (p<0.05) the ash content. Late caponization (12-week-old) significantly decreased (p<0.05) the ash content, myofibrillar ATPase activity and emulsification capacity of the pectoral major muscle in mature capons (26-week-old) compared to the Sham in trial 2. Early caponization (3-week-old) only increased the weight and protein content of the pectoral major muscle with decreased ash content in 16-week-old capons. Late caponization (12-week-old) showed no affects on pectoral major muscle quantity, while it decreased the ATPase activity and enhanced the emulsification capacity in mature (26-week-old) capons. Hence, the muscle quality improvement was shown as capons were fed to sexual maturity.
Sexing Goat Embryos by PCR Amplification of X- and Y- chromosome Specific Sequence of the Amelogenin Gene
Chen, A-qin ; Xu, Zi-rong ; Yu, Song-dong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1689~1693
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1689
The objective of this study was to develop a simplified, efficient, and accurate protocol for sexing goat embryos. Based on the amelogenin gene located on the conservation region of X- and Y- chromosomes, a pair of primers was utilized and the system of PCR was established to amplify a 262 bp fragment from the X- chromosome in female goats, and a 262 bp fragment from X- chromosome and 202 bp fragment from the Y- chromosome in male goats, respectively. The accuracy and specificity of the primers were assessed using DNA template extracted from goat whole blood sample of known sex. 100% (10/10) concordance was obtained by using the PCR assay. Fifty-one biopsied embryos were transferred into 25 recipient goats on the same day that the embryos were collected and sex of the kid was confirmed after parturition. Eighteen kids of predicted sex were born. The biopsied samples from 51 goat embryos were amplified with 100% efficiency and 94.7% accuracy. In conclusion, our results indicated that PCR sexing protocols based on the amelogenin gene is highly reliable and suitable for sex determination of goats.
Biohydrogenation Pathways for Linoleic and Linolenic Acids by Orpinomyces Rumen Fungus
Nam, I.S. ; Garnsworthy, P.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1694~1698
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1694
The objective of this study was to identify biohydrogenation pathways for linoleic, linolenic, oleic and stearic acids by Orpinomyces species of rumen fungus during in vitro culture. Biohydrogenation of linoleic acid produced conjugated linoleic acid (cis-9, trans-11 C18:2), which was then converted to vaccenic acid (trans-11 C18:1) as the end product of biohydrogenation. Biohydrogenation of linolenic acid produced cis-9, trans-11, cis-15 C18:3 and trans-11, cis-15 C18:2 as intermediates and vaccenic acid as the end product of biohydrogenation. Oleic acid and stearic acid were not converted to any other fatty acid. It is concluded that pathways for biohydrogenation of linoleic and linolenic acids by Orpinomyces are the same as those for group A rumen bacteria.
Fermentation Quality of Italian Ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) Silages Treated with Encapsulated-glucose, Glucose, Sorbic Acid and Pre-fermented Juices
Shao, Tao ; Zhanga, L. ; Shimojo, M. ; Masuda, Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1699~1704
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1699
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the effects of adding encapsulated-glucose, glucose, sorbic acid or prefermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) on the fermentation quality and residual mono- and disaccharide composition of Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam) silages. The additive treatments were as follows: (1) control (no addition), (2) encapsulated-glucose addition at 0.5% for glucose, (3) glucose addition at 1%, (4) sorbic acid addition at 0.1%, (5) FJLB addition at a theoretical application rate of
CFU (colony forming unit)
, on a fresh weight basis of Italian ryegrass. Although control and encapsulated-glucose treatments had higher contents of butyric acid (33.45, 21.50 g
DM) and ammonia-N/Total nitrogen (114.91, 87.01 g
) as compared with the other treated silages, the fermentation in all silages was clearly dominated by lactic acid. This was well indicated by the low pH (4.38-3.59), and high lactic acid/acetic acid (4.39-22.97) and lactic acid content (46.85-121.76 g
DM). Encapsulated-0.5% glucose and glucose addition increased lactic acid/acetic acid, and significantly (p<0.05) decreased ammonia-N/total nitrogen, and the contents of butyric acid and total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) as compared with the control. However, there were higher butyric acid and lower residual mono-and di-saccharides on the two treatments as compared with sorbic acid and FJLB addition, and their utilization efficiency of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) was lower than that of both sorbic acid and FJLB additions. Sorbic acid addition showed the lowest content of ethanol and ammonia-N/total nitrogen, and the highest content of residual fructose and total mono-and disaccharides as well as the higher lactic acid/acetic acid value. Sorbic acid addition decreased the loss of mono-and disaccharides, and inhibited the activity of clostridial and other undesirable bacteria, and greatly increased the utilization efficiency of fermentable substrates by epiphytic LAB. FJLB addition had the lowest pH value and the highest lactic acid content among all additive treatments, with the most intensive lactic acid fermentation occurring in FJLB treated silage. This resulted in the faster accumulation of lactic acid and faster pH reduction. Sorbic acid and FJLB addition depressed clostridia or other undesirable bacterial fermentation which decreased the WSC loss and saved the fermentable substrate for lactic acid fermentation.
Effect of Roughage Sources on Cellulolytic Bacteria and Rumen Ecology of Beef Cattle
Wora-anu, S. ; Wanapat, Metha ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Nontaso, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1705~1712
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1705
The effect of different tropical feed sources on rumen ecology, cellulolytic bacteria, feed intake and digestibility of beef cattle was investigated. Four fistulated, castrated male crossbred cattle were randomly allocated to a
Latin square design. The treatments were: T1) urea-treated (5%) rice straw (UTS); T2) cassava hay (CH); T3) fresh cassava foliage (FCF); T4) UTS:FCF (1:1 dry matter basis). Animals were fed concentrates at 0.3% of body weight on a DM basis and their respective diets on an ad libitum basis. The experimental period was 21 days. The results revealed that the use of UTS, CH, FCF and UTS:FCF as roughage sources could provide effective fiber and maintain an optimal range of ruminal pH and
. Total viable and cellulolytic bacterial populations were enhanced (p<0.05) with UTS as the roughage source. Animals fed FCF had a higher rumen propionate production (p<0.05) with a lower cellulolytic bacteria count. Moreover, three predominant cellulolytic bacteria species, namely Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens, were found in all treatment groups. Roughage intake and total DM intake were highest with UTS (2.2 and 2.5% BW, respectively) as the roughage source (p<0.05). Nutrient intake in terms of organic matter intake (OMI) was similar in UTS, CH and UTS:FCF treatments (8.0, 6.8 and 8.7 kg/d, respectively), while crude protein intake (CPI) was enhanced in CH, FCF and UTS:FCF as compared to the UTS treatment (p<0.05). Digestion coefficients of DM and organic matter (OM) were similar among treatments, while the CP digestion coefficients were similar in CH, FCF and UTS:FCF treatments, but were higher (p<0.05) in CH than in UTS. CP and ADF digestible intakes (kg/d) were highest (p<0.05) on the CH and UTS treatments, respectively. It was also observed that feeding FCF as a full-feed resulted in ataxia as well as frequent urination; therefore, FCF should only be fed fresh as part of the feed or be fed wilted. Hence, combined use of FCF and UTS as well as CH and FCF were recommended.
Nutrient Intake, Acid Base Status and Growth Performance of Thalli Lambs Fed Varying Level of Dietary Cation-anion Difference
Sarwar, M. ; Shahzad, M. Aasif ; Nisa, Mahr-un ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1713~1720
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1713
Influence of -110, +110, +220 and +330 mEq/kg of dry matter (DM) dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) on growth performance of Thalli lambs were examined in a randomized complete block design. Four DCAD diets were randomly allotted to four groups, with ten lambs in each group. A linear increase in nutrient intake was recorded with increasing DCAD level. The digestibilities of nutrients were higher in lambs fed -110 DCAD diet than those fed +110, +220 and +330 DCAD diets. Lambs fed +330 DCAD diet had higher nitrogen balance than those fed -110 and +110 DCAD diets. Blood pH and serum
increased with increasing DCAD level. Serum chloride was higher in lambs fed -110 DCAD diet, while serum (Na+K)-(Cl+S) increased linearly with increasing DCAD level. Serum calcium increased with decreasing DCAD level while serum magnesium and phosphorus remained unaffected. Lambs fed -110 DCAD diet had higher Ca balance than those fed +110, +220 and +330 DCAD diets. Urine pH increased with increasing DCAD level. Lambs fed +220 and +330 DCAD diets gained more weight than those fed -110 and +110 DCAD diets. In conclusion, increased DCAD level not only increased the dry matter intake but also improved the weight gain of growing Thalli lambs.
Xylanase Supplementation Improved Digestibility and Performance of Growing Pigs Fed Chinese Double-low Rapeseed Meal Inclusion Diets: In vitro and In vivo Studies
Fang, Z.F. ; Peng, J. ; Tang, T.J. ; Liu, Z.L. ; Dai, J.J. ; Jin, L.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1721~1728
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1721
An in vitro and a feeding trial were conducted to investigate the effect of xylanase supplementation on the feeding value of growing pig diets containing high proportions of Chinese double-low rapeseed meals (DLRM). Seven diets were formulated to meet NRC (1998) nutrient requirements. Diet 1 based on corn-soybean meal was used as positive control 1, and diet 2, a practical diet which incorporated a conventional level of Chinese DLRM (60 g/kg diet), as positive control 2. Diet 3 contained a higher level of DLRM (100 g/kg diet) as the negative control. Diet 3 plus xylanase at 0.10, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.70 g/kg diet created diets 4, 5, 6 and 7, respectively. The seven diets were incubated in triplicate with the in vitro two-stage enzyme incubation method to predict responses of diets to xylanase in terms of digestibility of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF). In vitro, the negative control had the lowest CP and NDF digestibility. Both DM and CP digestibility were increased (p<0.05) owing to xylanase supplementation either at 0.50 or 0.70 g/kg diet, and NDF digestibility was improved following xylanase addition at all of the test levels. There was a high linear correlation ($r^2>90$, p<0.05) between the activity concentration of the enzyme when transformed into its logarithmic value and in vitro digestibility coefficients of DM, CP or NDF. In the feeding trial, 112 crossbred pigs were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments with 16 replicate pens of one pig each. An obvious dose effect on growth rate was observed (
, p<0.05) within the inclusion levels of xylanase. Compared with the negative control, xylanase addition at 0.70 g/kg diet resulted in significantly increased ADG (878 g/d vs. 828 g/d, p<0.05), and a tendency towards improved growth rate (868 g/d vs. 828 g/d, p = 0.10) was also observed following the inclusion of xylanase at 0.50 g/kg diet. It would appear that the nutrient utilization of corn and Chinese DLRM diets by pigs could be enhanced by an appropriate amount of xylanase addition. The in vitro and in vivo results suggested that the in vitro incubation method is feasible for predicting responses of pigs to exogenous enzymes and identifying those preparations that possess potential for improvement of the nutritive values of feedstuffs.
Can Exogenous Betaine Be an Effective Osmolyte in Broiler Chicks under Water Salinity Stress?
Honarbakhsh, Shirin ; Zaghari, Mojtaba ; Shivazad, Mahmood ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1729~1737
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1729
A CRD experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different exogenous betaine levels (0.000, 0.075, 0.150 and 0.225 percent) on 576 one-day-old male broiler chicks (Ross) under water salinity stress. Different levels of water salinity were made by adding 3 levels of NaCl (0, 1,000 and 2,000 mg/L) to drinking water. Feed and water were available ad libitum. Betaine increased body weight, improved feed conversion ratio, and decreased packed cell volume (p<0.05). Water salinity promoted body weight over the whole period, increased feed intake (11 to 21 and 29 to 42-d) and also improved feed conversion ratio in grower and finisher periods (p<0.01). Breast weight, water consumption (28-d and 42-d) and excreta moisture (28-d) were increased by elevating the level of water salinity (p<0.01). Interaction between dietary betaine and water salinity was significant on plasma osmolarity as well as epithelial osmolarity of the duodenum at 28-d. Epithelial osmolarity was decreased from duodenum to ileum. The data imply that betaine is involved in the protection of intestinal epithelia against osmotic disturbance which can be caused by saline water, but further research is needed to investigate the effects of betaine with higher levels of water salinity.
Effects of Particle Size of Barley on Intestinal Morphology, Growth Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Pigs
Morel, P.C.H. ; Cottam, Y.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1738~1745
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1738
A growth trial and a digestibility trial were conducted to examine the effect of feed particle size on the performance, nutrient digestibility, gastric ulceration and intestinal morphology in pigs fed barley-based diets. Barley was processed through a hammer mill to achieve four diets varying in particle size (average particle
deviation): coarse (
), medium (
), fine (
) and mixed (1/3 of coarse, medium and fine) (
). Sixty-four entire male pigs were used in the growth trial and the diets were fed ad libitum between 31 kg and 87 kg live weight. Following slaughter, stomach and ileal tissues were scored for integrity (ulceration or damage) and histological measurements taken. Twenty-four entire male pigs were used in the digestibility trial, which involved total faecal collection. Over the entire growth phase, there were no differences (p>0.05) in average daily gain and feed conversion ratio between pigs fed diets of different particle size. Pigs fed the coarse and medium diets had lower (p<0.05) stomach ulceration scores (0.20 and 0.25, respectively, on a scale from 0 to 3) than those fed the mixed (0.69) or the fine diets (1.87). The stomachs of all animals fed the fine diet had lesions and stomach ulcerations were present only in this group. Pigs fed the fine diet had thicker (p<0.001) ileal epithelial cell layer with no differences (p>0.05) being observed for villous height or crypt depth. Faecal digestibility coefficients of neutral and acid detergent fibre were the highest (p<0.05) for the mixed diet, intermediate for the fine and coarse diets and the lowest for the medium diet. A similar numerical trend (p = 0.103) was observed for the apparent faecal energy digestibility coefficient. It is concluded that, with barley based diets, a variation in average particle size between
had no effect on pig performance but the fine dietary particle size affected the integrity of the stomach, as well as the structure of the small intestine, thus compromising overall gut health. Our data also demonstrate that changes in particle size distribution during the digestion process, rather than average particle size or particle size variation, are related to apparent faecal digestibility.
Effect of Beef Growth Type on Cooking Loss, Tenderness, and Chemical Composition of Pasture- or Feedlot-developed Steers
Brown, A.H. ; Camfield, P.K. ; Rowe, C.W. ; Rakes, L.Y. ; Pohlman, F.W. ; Johnson, Z.B. ; Tabler, G.T. ; Sandelin, B.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1746~1753
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1746
Steers (n = 335) of known genetic background from four fundamentally different growth types were subjected to two production systems to study differences in cooking loss (CL), tenderness, and chemical composition. Growth types were animals with genetic potential for large mature weight-late maturing (LL), intermediate mature weight-late maturing (IL), intermediate mature weight -early maturing (IE), and small mature weight-early maturing (SE). Each year, in a nine-year study, calves of each growth type were weaned and five steers of each growth type were developed on pasture or feedlot and harvested at approximately 20 and 14 mo of age, respectively. Data collected were CL and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBS) for the Longissimus dorsi (LM), Psoas major (PS), and Quadriceps femoris (QF) muscles. Chemical composition was also determined from the right fore- and hindquarter. Data were analyzed using least squares analysis of variance for unequal subclass numbers. The beef growth
system interaction was significant for CL and WBS of the LM and ash in the lean trim of the forequarter. Growth types of LL and IL had greater (p<0.05) mean percentage CL in the PS and QF muscles than did IE and SE steers. Growth type LL had the highest (p<0.05) mean for both moisture and protein in the fore- and hindquarters; while SE had the lowest numerical mean value for moisture and protein in the fore- and hindquarters. Shear force of the PS did not differ (p>0.05) among steers of the four growth types. Increasing challenges to the cattle feeding industry may dictate that pasture development play a larger role in future production regimes. Producers should strive to match genetic growth type with available resources in order to remain viable and continue producing a quality product.
Effects of Dietary Glycine Betaine on Pork Quality in Different Muscle Types
Hur, Sun Jin ; Yang, Han Sul ; Park, Gu Boo ; Joo, Seon Tea ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1754~1760
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1754
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary glycine betaine on pork quality in different muscle types. A total of 80 female pigs (
) were randomly allotted into one of four experimental diet groups. Each group of pigs were fed a commercial diet (Control) with 0.2 g glycine betaine (T1), 0.4 g glycine betaine (T2) and 0.6 g% glycine betaine (T3)/kg for 40 days. pH of belly was significantly higher in the control than dietary glycine betaine groups at 13 days of storage, whereas pH of picnic shoulder and ham were significantly lower in control than glycine betaine groups. At 13 days of storage, redness (a*) of belly was significantly higher in control than dietary glycine betaine groups, whereas picnic shoulder and ham were significantly higher in glycine betaine groups than in the control. Water-holding capacities (WHC) of all muscle samples were significantly higher in the control than glycine betaine groups until 5 days of storage. Sarcomere length was significantly longer in the control than glycine betaine groups. The thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of belly was much higher than other muscle types at 13 days of storage. In fatty acid composition, dietary glycine betaine increased the ratio of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and decreased unsaturated fatty acids (USFA) in loins.
Fleece Phenotype Influences Susceptibility to Cortisol-induced Follicle Shutdown in Merino Sheep
Ansari-Renani, H.R. ; Hynd, P.I. ; Aghajanzadeh, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1761~1769
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1761
This experiment was conducted to determine the extent to which susceptibility to cortisol-induced follicle shutdown is influenced by fleece phentotype. Twenty Finewool (10 sheep low fibre diameter, low coefficient of fibre diameter-LL and 10 low fibre diameter, high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-LH) and twenty Strongwool (10 low fibre diameter, low coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HL and 10 high fibre diameter and high coefficient of variation of fibre diameter-HH) sheep of 9 months of age were individually penned in an animal house and were injected intramuscularly with an aqueous suspension of hydrocortisone acetate at a rate of 1.42 mg/kg body weight for a period of two weeks. Fibre diameter was measured from clipped tattooed patch wool samples. Follicle activity was measured by histological changes in skin biopsies taken weekly. Blood samples were collected at two-week intervals and plasma cortisol measured. Increased plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.05) reduced clean wool production and mean fibre diameter dropped to its lowest level four weeks after commencement and two weeks after the cessation of cortisol injection. Elevation of plasma cortisol concentration significantly (p<0.0001) increased the percentage of inactive follicles two weeks after injection started. High fibre diameter groups (Strongwool sheep; i.e. HL+HH) had significantly (p<0.0001) higher percentage of follicle shutdown than low fibre diameter groups (Finewool sheep; i.e. LL+LH). Average percentage of shutdown follicles for Finewool (LL+LH) and Strongwool (HL+HH) Merino sheep was
respectively. Shutdown of primary follicles was more pronounced in Finewool than Strongwool sheep. There was no significant effect of coefficient of variation of fibre diameter on propensity to follicle shutdown induced by exogenous cortisol. It is concluded that elevation in plasma cortisol concentration is inhibitory to the normal activity of follicles in Strongwool sheep but that variation in fibre diameter has little or no effect.
Effect of Spinal Cord Removal before or after Splitting and Washing on CNST Decontamination of Beef Carcasses
Lim, D.G. ; Kim, D.H. ; Lee, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1770~1776
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1770
Beef carcasses were examined to explore the effects of spinal cord removal and washing on central nervous system tissue (CNST) decontamination of the surface during the slaughtering process. A total of 15 carcasses were split by sawing centrally down the vertebral column and left sides of split carcasses were used for analysis. Samples were collected by swabbing the surface from 4 defined parts on the interior and 4 on the exterior of carcasses from the abattoir and analyzed using an ELISA-based test. The results showed that automatic and manual spray washing decreased CNST contamination, especially on the interior ventral parts of carcass surfaces (p<0.01), but did not decrease CNST on the interior dorsal parts. Increasing washing time to 60 s did not affect the reduction of CNST contamination. Samples following spinal cord removal prior to splitting showed lower calculated levels of "risk material" than the stated limit of detection (0.1%) of the ELISA kit on interior and exterior carcass parts (p<0.01). Therefore, spinal cord removal prior to splitting could be a very effective way to minimize CNST contamination of beef carcasses.
Is It Feasible Nutritionally to Improve Both Quality and Quantity of Meat Carcasses from Beef Steers?
Myung, Kyu Ho ; Sun, Sang Soo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 11, 2007, Pages 1777~1782
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1777
Beef producers are trying to produce not only better quality but also greater quantity of beef in order to meet the preferences of some consumers at a lower cost. This can be accomplished if we understand the factors regulating lipid deposition in intramuscular adipose tissue and the tenderness of meat. Propylene glycol (PG) might be used as a precursor of intramuscular fat synthesis especially in the late period of fattening because adipose tissue in ruminants is thought to mature sequentially in abdominal, intermuscular, subcutaneous and intramuscular depots. The action of cholecalciferol supplementation has been verified in producing more tender meat through the enhancement of calpain activity over the postmortem ageing period. A synergistic effect can be expected if the dietary cation and anion difference (DCAD) technique is used in combination with dietary supplementation of cholecalciferol. In another approach, the optimization of hormonal implant use also may provide similarly marbled beef at a much lower cost.