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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
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Expression of B Cell Activating Factor Pathway Genes in Mouse Mammary Gland
Choi, S. ; Jung, D.J. ; Bong, J.J. ; Baik, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 153~159
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.153
In our previous study, overexpression of extracellular proteinase inhibitor (Expi) gene accelerated apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells, and induced expression of B cell activating factor (BAFF) gene. In this study, we found induction of BAFF-receptor (BAFF-R) gene expression in the Expi-transfected cells. A proliferation-inducing ligand (APRIL) gene is another TNF family member and the closest known relative of BAFF. We found induction of APRIL gene expression in the Expi-overexpressed apoptotic cells. NF-
B gene was also induced in the Expi-overexpressed cells. Expression patterns of BAFF and APRIL pathway-related genes were examined in in vivo mouse mammary gland at various reproductive stages. Expression levels of BAFF gene were very low at early pregnancy, increased from mid-pregnancy, and peaked at lactation, and thereafter decreased at involution stages of mammary gland. Expression of BAFF-R gene was highly induced in involution stages compared to lactation stages. Thus, expression patterns of BAFF-R gene were correlated to apoptotic status of mammary gland: active apoptosis of mammary epithelial cells occurs at involution stage of mammary gland. Expression levels of NF-
B gene were higher in involution stages compared to lactation stages. We analyzed mRNA levels of bcl-2 family genes from different stages of mammary development. Bcl-2 gene expression was relatively constant during lactation and involution stages. There was a slight increase in bcl-xL gene expression in involution stages compared to lactation state. Bax gene expression was highly induced in involution stage. Our results suggest that signaling pathways activated by both BAFF and ARRIL in mammary gland point towards NF-
B activation which causes upregulation of bax.
Genetic Parameters for Litter Size in Pigs Using a Random Regression Model
Lukovic, Z. ; Uremovic, M. ; Konjacic, M. ; Uremovic, Z. ; Vincek, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 160~165
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.160
Dispersion parameters for the number of piglets born alive were estimated using a repeatability and random regression model. Six sow breeds/lines were included in the analysis: Swedish Landrace, Large White and both crossbred lines between them, German Landrace and their cross with Large White. Fixed part of the model included sow genotype, mating season as month-year interaction, parity and weaning to conception interval as class effects. The age at farrowing was modelled as a quadratic regression nested within parity. The previous lactation length was fitted as a linear regression. Random regressions for parity on Legendre polynomials were included for direct additive genetic, permanent environmental, and common litter environmental effects. Orthogonal Legendre polynomials from the linear to the cubic power were fitted. In the repeatability model estimate of heritability was 0.07, permanent environmental effect as ratio was 0.04, and common litter environmental effect as ratio was 0.01. Estimates of genetic parameters with the random regression model were generally higher than in the repeatability model, except for the common litter environmental effect. Estimates of heritability ranged from 0.06 to 0.10. Permanent environmental effect as a ratio increased along a trajectory from 0.03 to 0.11. Magnitudes of common litter effect were small (around 0.01). The eigenvalues of covariance functions showed that between 7 and 8 % of genetic variability was explained by individual genetic curves of sows. This proportion was mainly covered by linear and quadratic coefficients. Results suggest that the random regression model could be used for genetic analysis of litter size.
Association between PCR-RFLP Polymorphisms of Five Gene Loci and Milk Traits in Chinese Holstein
Zhang, R.F. ; Chen, H. ; Lei, C.Z. ; Fang, X.T. ; Zhang, Y.D. ; Hu, S.R. ; Su, L.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 166~171
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.166
The objective of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms in
-lg 5′ flanking region, CSN1S2, and IGFBP-3 genes with milk production traits and mastitis-related traits in Chinese Holstein. Traits analyzed were 305 day standard milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, the ratio of fat percentage and protein percentage, pre-somatic cell count, somatic cell count, and somatic cell score, respectively. CSN1S2 locus was uninformative because only one genotype BB was found in Chinese Holstein. Allele frequencies of A and B in IGFBP-3 gene were 0.5738 and 0.4262 in Chinese Holstein population, which was different from reported Qinchuan cattle population. The genotypes of animals at IGFBP-3 locus significantly affected 305 day standard milk yield, protein percentage, and somatic cell score. The
-lg genotypes had a significant effect on protein percentage and the ratio of fat percentage and protein percentage. Polymorphism in
-lg 5′ flanking region was associated with 305 day standard milk yield, protein percentage, fat percentage, pre-somatic cell count, and somatic cell count. No significant associations of the polymorphism in
-cn gene were observed for any trait.
Association of SNP Marker in the Thyroglobulin Gene with Carcass and Meat Quality Traits in Korean Cattle
Shin, S.C. ; Chung, E.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 172~177
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.172
Thyroid hormones play an important role in regulating metabolism and can affect homeostasis of fat depots. The gene encoding thyroglobulin (TG), producing the precursor for thyroid hormones, has been proposed as a positional and functional candidate gene for a QTL with an effect on fat deposition. The SNP occurs in the 5' promoter region of the TG gene and is widely used in marker assisted selection (MAS) programs to improve the predictability of marbling level and eating quality in beef cattle. In this study, we identified three SNPs at the 5' promoter region of the TG gene in Korean cattle. Of the three SNPs identified in TG gene, the C257T and A335G were previously unreported new SNPs. The sequence data were submitted to GenBank (GenBank accession number: AY615525). The previously reported C422T SNP showed three genotypes, CC, CT and TT, by digestion with the restriction enzyme MflI using the PCR-RFLP method. A new allelic variant corresponding to the C
T and A
G mutations at positions 257 and 335, respectively, could be detected by the SSCP analysis. The gene-specific SNP marker association analysis indicated that the C422T SNP marker was significantly associated (p<0.05) with marbling score. Animals with the CC and CT genotypes had higher marbling score than those with the TT genotype. Results from this study suggest that TG gene-specific SNP may be a useful marker for meat quality traits in future MAS programs in Korean cattle.
Genetic Diversity and Origin of Chinese Domestic Goats Revealed by Complete mtDNA D-loop Sequence Variation
Liu, R.Y. ; Lei, C.Z. ; Liu, S.H. ; Yang, G.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 178~183
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.178
China has numerous native domestic goat breeds, but so far there has been no extensive study on genetic diversity, population demographic history, and origin of Chinese goats. To determine the origin and genetic diversity of Chinese goats, we analyzed the complete mtDNA D-loop sequences of 183 goats from 13 breeds. The haplotype diversity value found in each breed ranged from 0.9333 to 1.0000. The nucleotide diversity value ranged from 0.006337 to 0.025194. Our results showed that there were four mtDNA lineages (A, B, C and D), in which lineage A was predominant, lineage B was moderate, and lineages C and D were at low frequencies. Lineages C and D were observed only in the Tibetan breed. The results revealed multiple maternal origins of Chinese domestic goats. There was weaker geographical structuring in the 13 Chinese goat populations, which suggested that there existed high gene flow among goat populations caused by the extensive transportation of goats in the course of history.
Cloning, Expression and Hormonal Regulation of Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory Protein Gene in Buffalo Ovary
Malhotra, Nupur ; Singh, Dheer ; Sharma, M.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 184~193
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.184
In mammalian ovary, steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR) protein mediates the true rate-limiting step of transport of cholesterol from outer to inner mitochondrial membrane. Appropriate expression of StAR gene represents an indispensable component of steroidogenesis and its regulation has been found to be species specific. However, limited information is available regarding StAR gene expression during estrous cycle in buffalo ovary. In the present study, expression, localization and hormonal regulation of StAR mRNA were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR in buffalo ovary and partial cDNA was cloned. Total RNA was isolated from whole follicles of different sizes, granulosa cells from different size follicles and postovulatory structures like corpus luteum and Corpus albicans. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed StAR mRNA expression in the postovulatory structure, corpus luteum. No StAR mRNA was detected in total RNA isolated from whole follicles of different size including the preovulatory follicle (>9 mm in diameter). However, granulosa cells isolated from preovulatory follicles showed the moderate expression of StAR mRNA. To assess the hormonal regulation of StAR mRNA, primary culture of buffalo granulosa cells were treated with FSH (100 ng/ml) alone or along with IGF-I (100 ng/ml) for 12 to 18 h. The abundance of StAR mRNA increased in cells treated with FSH alone or FSH with IGF-I. However, effect of FSH with IGF-I on mRNA expression was found highly significant (p<0.01). In conclusion, differential expression of StAR messages was observed during estrous cycle in buffalo ovary. Also, there was a synergistic action of IGF-I on FSH stimulation of StAR gene.
Effects of Bovine Somatotropin (bST) Administration Combined with Controlled Internal Drug Release (CIDR) on Embryo Quality and Pregnancy of Hanwoo (Korean Native Beef Cattle) during Commercial Embryo Transfer Program
Lee, Ho-Jun ; Hwang, Seongsoo ; Yoon, Jong-Taek ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 194~199
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.194
Effects of recombinant bovine somatotropin (bST) on plasma hormonal concentration, embryo quality, and pregnancy rate were examined during the superovulation and synchronization treatment in donor and recipient cows. Hanwoos (Korean native beef cattle) were treated with controlled internal drug release (CIDR) combined with bST (CIDR+bST) or without bST (CIDR) as donor cows. The embryos recovered from donors were transferred into Holstein recipient heifers treated with bST (CIDR+bST) or without bST (CIDR) for synchronization. The correlation between IGF-I and P4 showed a positive pattern in the CIDR+bST group (r=0.44, p<0.01), but a negative pattern was shown in the CIDR group (r = -0.59, p<0.02) at day 7 of estrous cycles. Although the number of recovered, transferable, and degenerated embryos was not different, quantities of grade 1 (excellent) embryos in CIDR+bST group were significantly higher than those of the CIDR group (p<0.01). The pregnancy rate was higher in the CIDR+bST recipient group compared to CIDR group (p<0.05), when the embryos were recovered from the donors treated with CIDR. However, the pregnancy was maintained highly in both recipient groups, when the embryos were produced by CIDR+bST treated donors. It can be concluded that bST administration combined with CIDR is an effective method for superovulation and synchronization treatment to stabilize plasma hormonal levels, to obtain excellent quality of embryos, and to get higher pregnancy rate.
Low Ruminal pH Reduces Dietary Fiber Digestion via Reduced Microbial Attachment
Sung, Ha Guyn ; Kobayashi, Yasuo ; Chang, Jongsoo ; Ha, Ahnul ; Hwang, Il Hwan ; Ha, J.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 200~207
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.200
In vitro rumen incubation studies were conducted to determine effects of initial pH on bacterial attachment and fiber digestion. Ruminal fluid pH was adjusted to 5.7, 6.2 and 6.7, and three major fibrolytic bacteria attached to rice straw in the mixed culture were quantified with real-time PCR. The numbers of attached and unattached Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Ruminocococcus albus were lower (p<0.05) at initial pH of 5.7 without significant difference between those at higher initial pH. Lowering incubation media pH to 5.7 also increased bacterial numbers detached from substrate regardless of bacterial species. Dry matter digestibility, gas accumulation and total VFA production were pH-dependent. Unlike bacterial attachment, maintaining an initial pH of 6.7 increased digestion over initial pH of 6.2. After 48 h in vitro rumen fermentation, average increases in DM digestion, gas accumulation, and total VFA production at initial pH of 6.2 and 6.7 were 2.8 and 4.4, 2.0 and 3.0, and 1.2 and 1.6 times those at initial pH of 5.7, respectively. The lag time to reach above 2% DM digestibility at low initial pH was taken more times (8 h) than at high and middle initial pH (4 h). Current data clearly indicate that ruminal pH is one of the important determinants of fiber digestion, which is modulated via the effect on bacterial attachment to fiber substrates.
Optimization of Solid State Fermentation of Mustard (Brassica campestris) Straw for Production of Animal Feed by White Rot Fungi (Ganoderma lucidum)
Misra, A.K. ; Mishra, A.S. ; Tripathi, M.K. ; Prasad, R. ; Vaithiyanathan, S. ; Jakhmola, R.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 208~213
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.208
The objective of the experiment was to determine the optimum cultural [moisture levels (55, 60 and 70%), days of fermentation (7, 14 and 21), temperature (25 and
) of incubation)] and nutritional parameters (urea addition (0 and 2%) and variable levels of single super phosphate (0.25 and 0.50% SSP)) for bio-processing of the mustard (Brassica campestris) straw (MS) under solid-state fermentation (SSF) system. The performance of SSF was assessed in terms of favorable changes in cell wall constituents, protein content and in vitro DM digestibility of the MS. Sorghum based inoculum (seed culture) of Ganoderma lucidum to treat the MS was prepared. The 50 g DM of MS taken in autoclavable polypropylene bags was mixed with a pre-calculated amount of water and the particular nutrient in the straw to attained the desired levels of water and nutrient concentration in the substrate. A significant progressive increase in biodegradation of DM (p<0.001), NDF (p<0.01) and ADF (p<0.05) was observed with increasing levels of moisture. Among the cell wall constituents the loss of ADF fraction was greatest compared to that of NDF. The loss of DM increased progressively as the fermentation proceeded and maximum DM losses occurred at 28 days after incubation. The protein content of the treated MS samples increased linearly up to the day
of the incubation and thereafter declined at day
, whereas the improvement in in vitro DM digestibility were apparent only up to the day
of the incubation under SSF and there after it declined. The acid detergent lignin (ADL) degradation was slower during the first 7 days of SSF and thereafter increased progressively and maximum ADL losses were observed at the day
of the SSF. The biodegradation of DM and ADL was not affected by the variation in incubation temperature. Addition of urea was found to have inhibitory effect on fungal growth. The effect of both the levels (0.25 and 0.50) of SSP addition in the substrate, on DM, NDF, ADF, cellulose and ADL biodegradation was similar. Similarly, the protein content and the in vitro DM digestibility remain unaffected affected due to variable levels of the SSP inclusion in the substrate. From the results it may be concluded that the incubation of MS with 60 percent moisture for 21 days at
with 0.25 percent SSP was most suitable for MS treatment with Ganoderma lucidum. Maximum delignification, enrichment in the protein content and improvement in in vitro DM digestibility were achieved by adopting this protocol of bioprocessing of MS.
The Use of Fungal Inoculants in the Ensiling of Potato Pulp: Effect of Temperature and Duration of Storage on Silage Fermentation Characteristics
Okine, A ; Aibibula, Y. ; Hanada, M. ; Okamoto, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 214~219
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.214
factorial design experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of temperature and duration of storage on the fermentation quality of potato pulp ensiled with two fungal inoculants under laboratory conditions. The inoculants, Rhizopus oryzae (R) and Amylomyces rouxii (A) were each added to potato pulp material to contain at least
CFU/g fresh matter, and silages without additives served as controls. The silages were stored under three temperature regimes; 4, 12 and
. Three silos per treatment from every temperature regime were opened on days 7, 24 and 40 days after ensiling to investigate treatment effects on fermentation quality, starch and sugar concentrations. Increase in temperature and duration of storage had a positive significant effect (p<0.01) on the fermentation quality of potato pulp silage (PPS). The inoculants had little effect (p>0.05) on the fermentation quality of the silages. Sugar concentration in the silages decreased with increase in temperature (p<0.01) but increased (p<0.05) with progression of duration of storage. The fungal inoculants had no effect on starch degradation in PPS. The results suggest that storage temperature and duration of storage are more important in determining the rate of fermentation than addition of the fungal inoculants in PPS.
Effect of Tannins in Acacia nilotica, Albizia procera and Sesbania acculeata Foliage Determined In vitro, In sacco, and In vivo
Alam, M.R. ; Amin, M.R. ; Kabir, A.K.M.A. ; Moniruzzaman, M. ; McNeill, D.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 220~228
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.220
The nutritive value and the effect of tannins on the utilization of foliage from three commonly used legumes, Acacia nilotica, Albizia procera, and Sesbania acculeata, were determined. Three mature rumen-fistulated bullocks were used to study in sacco degradability and twelve adult sheep were randomly allocated on the basis of live weight to 4 groups of 3 in each to study the in vivo digestibility of the foliages. In all foliages, the contents of crude protein (17 to 24% of DM) were high. Fibre was especially high in Albizia (NDF 58.8% of DM vs. 21% in Sesbania and 15.4% in Acacia). Contents of both hydrolysable (4.4 to 0.05%) and condensed tannins (1.2 to 0.04%) varied from medium to low in the foliages. Acacia contained the highest level of total phenolics (20.1%), protein precipitable phenolics (13.2%) and had the highest capacity to precipitate protein (14.7%). Drying in shade reduced the tannin content in Acacia and Albizia by 48.6 and 69.3% respectively. The foliages ranked similarly for each of the different methods used to estimate tannin content and activity. Acacia and Sesbania foliage was highly degradable (85-87% potential degradability of DM in sacco), compared to Albizia (52%), indicating a minimal effect of tannins in Acacia and Sesbania. Yet, in vitro, the tannins in the Acacia inhibited microbial activity more than those in Albizia and Sesbania. Following the addition of polyethylene glycol to neutralise the tannins, gas production and microbial growth increased by 59% and 0.09 mg RNA equiv./dg microbial yield respectively in the Acacia, compared to 16-17% and 0.06 mg RNA equiv./dg microbial yield in the other foliages. There was a trend for low in vivo apparent digestibility of N in the Acacia (43.2%) and Albizia (44.2%) compared to the Sesbania (54.5%) supplemented groups. This was likely to be due to presence of tannins. Consistent with this was the low N retention (0.22 and 0.19 g N/g NI) in sheep supplemented with Acacia and Albizia compared to that for the Sesbania (0.32). Similarly, a trend for poor microbial N yield was observed in sheep fed these foliages. Across the foliages tested, an increase in tannin content was associated with a reduction in ruminal fermentation, N digestibility and N retention. For overall nutritive value, Sesbania proved to be the superior forage of the three tested.
Effects of Different Selenium Sources on Performance, Carcass Characteristics, Plasma Glutathione Peroxidase Activity and Selenium Deposition in Finishing Hanwoo Steers
Lee, S.H. ; Park, B.Y. ; Yeo, J.M. ; Lee, Sung S. ; Lee, J.H. ; Ha, J.K. ; Kim, W.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 229~236
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.229
This study was conducted to determine effects of different selenium (Se) sources on performance, carcass characteristics, blood measures (whole blood Se concentration and plasma glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activity), and Se concentrations in tissues of finishing Hanwoo steers (Korean native steers). Twenty finishing Hanwoo steers (average body weight=536
23.4 kg, average age=approximately 20 months) were allotted to treatments in four groups of five steers per pen for 16 weeks preceding slaughter. Treatments were control (CON), spent mushroom composts from Se-enriched mushrooms (Se-SMC), selenized yeast (Se-Y), and sodium selenite (SS). Dietary Se levels of all treatments except CON were 0.9 mg Se/kg on the dry matter basis. Body weight was measured at the first and final day of trial, and blood samples were collected to analyze whole blood Se concentration and plasma GSH-Px activity at 2, 4, 8, and 16 weeks. At the end of trial, steers were slaughtered to collect muscle and liver samples for their Se analyses, and carcass data were recorded. In terms of dry matter intake, body weight gain and carcass characteristics, no significant differences among treatments were observed. Whole blood Se concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) for Se-SMC and Se-Y treatments than for CON at each collection period, with no significant difference between SS and CON. For weeks 2 and 8, there was no significant difference for whole blood Se concentration between Se-SMC and Se-Y, but for weeks 4 and 16, Se-Y treatments were significantly higher (p<0.05) than Se-SMC. No differences were observed for plasma GSH-Px activity between Se-SMC and Se-Y. The Se concentrations in hind leg and liver were significantly different among treatments (p<0.05) and those in both tissues ranked the greatest in Se-Y, followed by Se-SMC, SS, and CON treatments. However, tissue Se concentration for SS was not different from that for CON. These results showed that feeding organic Se sources such as Se-SMC and Se-Y enhanced Se concentration in tissues, while SS, the most common supplement of inorganic Se, was inefficient in Se deposition. Even though Se-Y had a higher Se concentration in tissues than Se-SMC, replacing Se-Y with Se-SMC in diets of beef steers would be an inexpensive way to increase Se concentration in beef.
Growth, Bone Mineralization and Mineral Excretion in Broiler Starter Chicks Fed Varied Concentrations of Cholecalciferol
Rama Rao, S.V. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Shyam Sunder, G. ; Panda, A.K. ; Pavani, P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 237~244
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.237
An experiment was conducted to study the growth performance, bone mineralization and mineral excretion in broiler starter chicks fed high levels of cholecalciferol (CC) at sub-optimal levels of calcium (Ca) and non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Five hundred and sixty day-old Vencobb female broiler chicks were housed in raised wire floor stainless steel battery brooder pens (
) at the rate of five chicks per pen. A maize-soyabean meal basal diet was supplemented with dicalcium phosphate, oyster shell powder and synthetic CC to arrive at two levels each of Ca (0.50 and 0.60%), and NPP (0.25 and 0.30%) and four levels of CC (200, 1,200, 2,400 and 3,600 ICU/kg) in a
factorial design. Each diet was fed ad libitum to chicks in 7 pens from 2 to 21days of age. Body weight gain, feed intake and bone weight increased (p<0.05) with increase in level of CC at both the Ca and NPP levels tested. The CC levels required to obtain significant improvement in body weight gain and feed intake reduced (2,400 ICU/kg vs. 1,200 ICU/kg) with increase in levels of P in diet (0.25% vs. 0.3%, respectively). The feed conversion ratio was significantly improved (p<0.05) with increase in level of CC from 200 to 1,200 ICU/kg diet at 0.5% Ca, while at 0.6% Ca, the level of CC in diet did not influence the feed efficiency. Tibia mineralization (density, breaking strength and ash content) and Ca and P contents in serum increased significantly (p<0.05) with increase in levels of CC in diet. The CC effect on these parameters was more pronounced at lower levels of Ca and NPP (0.5 and 0.25%, respectively). The data on body weight gain and feed intake indicated that NPP level in diet can be reduced from 0.30 to 0.25% by increasing CC from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg. Similarly, the bone mineralization (tibia weight, density and ash content) increased non-linearly (p<0.01) with increase in CC levels in diet. Concentrations of P and Mn in excreta decreased (p<0.01), by increasing CC level from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg diet. It can be concluded that dietary levels of Ca and NPP could be reduced to 0.50 and 0.25%, respectively by enhancing the levels of cholecalciferol from 200 to 2,400 ICU/kg with out affecting body weight gain, feed efficiency and bone mineralization. Additionally, phosphorus and manganese excretion decreased with increase in levels of CC in broiler diet.
Dietary Selection of Fat by Heat-stressed Broiler Chickens
Zulkifli, I. ; Htin, Nwe Nwe ; Alimon, A.R. ; Loh, T.C. ; Hair-Bejo, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 245~251
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.245
A total of 160 d-old male broiler chicks (Cobb) were brooded for three weeks and then maintained at
. Commencing from d 21, chicks were assigned to one of four feeding regimens: (1) diet with 8% palm oil (PO), (2) diet with 8% soybean oil (SO), (3) diet without added fat (control), (4) a choice of PO, SO and control (CH). The diets were formulated to maintain a constant ratio of energy and protein. From d 28 to 41, all birds were exposed to
. The PO, SO and CH birds had greater body weight than controls on d 42. The PO but not SO diet reduced mortality rate, body temperature and serum creatine kinase level of broiler chickens during heat exposure. Although the total intake of control, PO and SO diets was not significantly different during heat exposure, the CH birds had lower creatine kinase activity and mortality rate than those provided SO diet but not significantly different from the birds fed control and PO diets. The relative abdominal fat weight and breast intramuscular fat content percentage were significantly lower in the control birds than those of PO, SO and CH groups. There were no significant differences in both parameters among the three latter groups. These findings suggest that the uncertainty of how much dietary fat to put into diets for heat stressed broilers can be overcome by allowing them to select their own consumption.
The Effect of Vitamin E and Vitamin C on the Performance of Japanese Quails (Coturnix Coturnix Japonica) Reared under Heat Stress during Growth and Egg Production Period
Ipek, A. ; Canbolat, O. ; Karabulut, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 252~256
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.252
This study was carried out to determine the effect of vitamin E and vitamin C on the performance of Japanese quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) reared under heat stress during the growth and egg production period. A total of 810 seven-day-old Japanese quails were used in the trial. The birds received a diet with either three levels of vitamin E (DL-
Tocopheryl acetate) (60, 120 and 240 mg/kg of diet) and vitamin C (ROVIMIX STAY-C 35) (60, 120 and 240 mg/kg of diet). Live weight on day 35 and weight gain were the lowest in the group of chicks on a combination of 60 mg of vitamin E and 60 mg of vitamin C, whereas the highest live weight was demonstrated in chicks on a combination of 240 mg of vitamin E and 240 mg of vitamin C (p<0.01). The effects of treatments on cumulative feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, age at 5% lay, sexual maturity weight, rate of lay and mean egg weight values were found to be significant (p<0.01). The highest feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, age at 5% lay, sexual maturity weight, rate of lay and mean egg weight values were found in the group on a combination of 240 mg of vitamin E and 240 mg of vitamin C. The effect of treatments on the mortality ratio was found to be insignificant (p>0.01). The cost of supplementing diets with vitamin E and vitamin C is very low. Therefore such a combination of supplement can offer a potential protective management practice in preventing heat stress related losses in performance of Japanese quails.
Evidence of Significant Effects of Stunning and Chilling Methods on PSE Incidences
Park, B.Y. ; Kim, J.H. ; Cho, S.H. ; Hah, K.H. ; Lee, S.H. ; Choi, C.H. ; Kim, D.H. ; Lee, J.M. ; Kim, Y.K. ; Ahn, J.N. ; Hwang, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 257~262
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.257
The current study was conducted to investigate the optimum stunning voltage and chilling regime with emphasis on reduction in pale, soft and exudative (PSE) pork. The experiments were conducted at seven Korean major pig abattoirs using a total of 91,082 industrial population. Frequencies of PSE meat was found to be significantly (p<0.05) increased as stunning voltage was elevated from 220-240 (13.14%), 250-280 (29.32%) to 430 volts (36.74%). Chilling methods after slaughter, either with cold water showing or rapid chilling reduced PSE meat by 22% compared to a classic chiller-based slow chilling regime. The current study also revealed that chiller temperature during the first 90 minutes had a significant (p<0.001) effect on PSE incidences. Pigs chilled between -5 to
resulted in the lowest PSE meat (17.8%), followed by higher than
(21.3%) and lower than
(37.5%). The current data implies that low voltage stunning method (eg., 220-240 volts), followed by rapid chilling regime, maintaining chiller temperature between approximately -5 to
could reduce PSE incidences.
Physiological Profile of Growing Rats: Effects of Cage Type and Cage Density
Yildiz, A. ; Hayirli, A. ; Okumus, Z. ; Kaynar, O. ; Kisa, F. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 263~272
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.263
This experiment was conducted to examine the effects of cage type (CT) and cage density (CD) on physiological variables in growing rats. Sprague Dawley rats (n=108) weighing an average of 46 g were housed in metallic cage with woodchip bedding (MCWB), metallic cage with wire mesh (MCWM), and plastic shoebox with woodchip bedding (PCWB) separately by sex at normal (
, ND) and high (
, HD) CD from 3 to 10 wks of age. All cages were in dimension of
). At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected and 6 rats from each cage were sacrificed. No death was observed among rats at ND, whereas mortality rate at HD was 22.3% for males and 13.9% for females. Heart weight was affected by CT. Doubling CD caused 23, 11.8, 17.9, 8.6, 6.9, and 16.4% decreases in BW and weights of heart, liver, kidney, testis, and ovary, respectively. Except for adrenal gland, other organs for males were heavier than for females. Liver weight of males and females responded differently to CT and CD. Comparing with females, males had 7.3 and 5.2% heavier and 9.9% lighter liver weights in MCWB, MCWM, and PCWB, respectively. As CD doubled, liver weight for males and females decreased by 22.4 and 13.1%, respectively. Mean adrenal gland weight increased by 8.4% and decreased by 9.7% for males and females, respectively, with doubling CD. CT affected glucose, TG, Ca, and ALP levels. However, CD did not alter blood chemistry. Rats housed in metallic cages had greater neutrophil count and neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio than rats housed in plastic cages. Doubling CD caused a 24.2% increase in lymphocyte count. There were CT by CD, CT by sex, and CD by sex interaction effects on lymphocyte count. Doubling CD caused 0.1% decrease and 49.8 and 26.7% increases in lymphocyte count for rats housed in MCWB, MCWM, and PCWB, respectively. Comparing with females, lymphocyte count for males housed in MCWB, MCWM, and PCWB had 8.9 and 12.9% greater and 30.3% less lymphocyte counts, respectively. Lymphocyte count decreased by 4.12% for males, whereas it increased by 61.0% for females as CD doubled. Doubling CD resulted in 2.5 and 2.3% increases in erythrocyte count and hematocrit value. These data suggest that animals perform better in metallic cages than in plastic cages and that cage density had pronounceable effects on physiological parameters in a cage type and sex dependent-manner.
Comparison of Physicochemical and Sensory Properties of Freeze-concentrated Milk with Evaporated Milk during Storage
Hwang, J.H. ; Lee, S.J. ; Park, H.S. ; Min, S.G. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 273~282
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.273
This study was carried out to compare the changes of nutrients, sensory and chemical properties of freeze-concentrated and evaporated milks during storage. For pasteurization, the freeze-concentrated milk containing 27% of total solid was treated with 150 rpm ozone for 5 min, and 99% of microflora was eliminated. Also, the activities of protease and lipase decreased 93.31% and 96.15%, respectively, and phosphatase showed negative activity. Total bacteria count was maintained below
CFU/ml. During storage, TBA absorbance was lower in freeze-concentrated milk than that in the evaporated milk. The production of short-chain free fatty acids and free amino acids increased proportionally to the storage period in both samples. While the short-chain free fatty acid production was lower in the freeze-concentrated milk compared with that in the evaporated milk, the production of individual free amino acid was similar in both samples. In sensory evaluation, cooked flavor and color were much lower in the freeze-concentrated milk than that in the evaporated milk. Overall acceptability score was higher in the freeze-concentrated than the evaporated milk. Based on above results, ozone treatment for the freeze-concentrated milk pasteurization was positive at the elimination of microflora and enzyme inactivation. During storage, the freeze-concentrated sample minimized the change of color and TBA absorbance, the production of short-chain free fatty acid and vitamins than the evaporated milk. Therefore, the freeze-concentrated milk process in the present study resulted in the positive effect in minimizing nutrient loss and keeping quality of milk during storage.
Application of Recent DNA/RNA-based Techniques in Rumen Ecology
McSweeney, C.S. ; Denman, S.E. ; Wright, A.-D.G. ; Yu, Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 283~294
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.283
Conventional culture-based methods of enumerating rumen microorganisms (bacteria, archaea, protozoa, and fungi) are being rapidly replaced by nucleic acid-based techniques which can be used to characterise complex microbial communities without incubation. The foundation of these techniques is 16S/18S rDNA sequence analysis which has provided a phylogenetically based classification scheme for enumeration and identification of microbial community members. While these analyses are very informative for determining the composition of the microbial community and monitoring changes in population size, they can only infer function based on these observations. The next step in functional analysis of the ecosystem is to measure how specific and, or, predominant members of the ecosystem are operating and interacting with other groups. It is also apparent that techniques which optimise the analysis of complex microbial communities rather than the detection of single organisms will need to address the issues of high throughput analysis using many primers/probes in a single sample. Nearly all the molecular ecological techniques are dependant upon the efficient extraction of high quality DNA/RNA representing the diversity of ruminal microbial communities. Recent reviews and technical manuals written on the subject of molecular microbial ecology of animals provide a broad perspective of the variety of techniques available and their potential application in the field of animal science which is beyond the scope of this treatise. This paper will focus on nucleic acid based molecular methods which have recently been developed for studying major functional groups (cellulolytic bacteria, protozoa, fungi and methanogens) of microorganisms that are important in nutritional studies, as well as, novel methods for studying microbial diversity and function from a genomics perspective.
Functional Amino Acids and Fatty Acids for Enhancing Production Performance of Sows and Piglets
Kim, Sung Woo ; Mateo, Ronald D. ; Yin, Yu-Long ; Wu, Guoyao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 2, 2007, Pages 295~306
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.295
The growth and health of the fetus and neonate are directly influenced by the nutritional and physiological status of sows. Sows are often under catabolic conditions due to restrict feeding program during pregnancy and low voluntary feed intake during lactation. The current restrict feeding program, which aims at controlling energy intake during gestation, results in an inadequate supply of dietary protein for fetal and mammary gland growth. Low voluntary feed intake during lactation also causes massive maternal tissue mobilization. Provision of amino acids and fatty acids with specific functions may enhance the performance of pregnant and lactating sows by modulating key metabolic pathways. These nutrients include arginine, branched-chain amino acids, glutamine, tryptophan, proline, conjugated linoleic acids, docosahexaenoic acid, and eicosapentaenoic acid, which can enhance conception rates, embryogenesis, blood flow, antioxidant activity, appetite, translation initiation for protein synthesis, immune cell proliferation, and intestinal development. The outcome is to improve sow reproductive performance as well as fetal and neonatal growth and health. Dietary supplementation with functional amino acids and fatty acids holds great promise in optimizing nutrition, health, and production performance of sows and piglets. (Supported by funds from Texas Tech, USDA, NLRI-RDA-Korea, and China NSF).