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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Insertional Variations of Two Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs) in Korean Native Pigs and Asian Wild Boars
Jung, K.C. ; Yu, S.L. ; Kim, T.H. ; Jeon, J.T. ; Rogel-Gaillard, C. ; Park, C.S. ; Jin, D.I. ; Moran, C. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 461~465
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.461
Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses (PERVs) are a major concern in relation to xenotransplantation. Previous research indicated that PERVs are present at about 50 copies in the pig genome and their chromosomal insertion sites are different among pig breeds. We examined nine Korean native pigs and seven Asian Wild Boars for the presence of a PERV-A at SSC 1q2.4 and a PERV-B at SSC 7p1.1-2 previously reported in a Large White pig. The PERV-B at locus 7p1.1-2 displayed insertional variability in Korean native pigs and Asian Wild Boars. Using the primers for the PERV-A at 1q2.4 from Large White pig, we only can amplify an unclassified 798 bp sequence, which showed insertional variability only in Korean native pigs. This study indicates that there are differences within and between Asian and European pigs in PERV insertions and suggests that selection could generate PERV-free lines of pigs more suitable for xenotransplantation.
Identification of a Novel SNP Associated with Meat Quality in C/EBP
Gene of Korean Cattle
Shin, S.C. ; Kang, M.J. ; Chung, E.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 466~470
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.466
CCAAT/enhancer binding protein
) plays an important role in lipid deposition and adipocyte differentiation. In order to find genetic markers to improve the meat quality of Korean cattle, the bovine
gene was chosen as a candidate gene to investigate its association with carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle. A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was identified at position 271 (A/C substitution) of coding region in the
gene. A PCR-RFLP procedure with restriction enzyme SmaI was developed for determining the marker genotypes. The frequencies of alleles C and A and were 0.374 and 0.626, respectively. The genotype frequencies for CC, AC and AA were 12.9, 49.0 and 38.1%, respectively, in Korean cattle population. The frequencies of genotype were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Association analysis indicated that the gene-specific SNP marker of
showed a significant association with marbling score (p<0.05). The animals with AA genotype had higher marbling score than those with the AC or CC genotype. Although further studies are needed to validate our results, the
gene could be useful as a genetic marker for carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle.
Two Maternal Lineages Revealed by Mitochondrial DNA D-loop Sequences in Chinese Native Water Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis)
Lei, Chu-Zhao ; Zhang, Wei ; Chen, Hong ; Lu, Fan ; Ge, Qing-Lan ; Liu, Ruo-Yu ; Dang, Rui-Hua ; Yao, Yun-Yi ; Yao, Li-Bo ; Lu, Zi-Fan ; Zhao, Zhong-liang ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 471~476
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.471
Little is known about the origin and genetic diversity of swamp buffaloes in China. To obtain more knowledge on genetics of the water buffalo in China, the complete mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 30 samples from 6 native types were investigated. The results revealed 12 mitochondrial haplotypes with 50 polymorphic sites. Among these polymorphic sites, there were 49 transitions and 1 transversion. The average nucleotide diversity and haplotype diversity estimated from mtDNA D-loop region in 6 Chinese water buffalo types were 0.00684 and 0.798, respectively, showing rather abundant mitochondrial genetic diversity. The Neighbor-Joining (NJ) tree of mtDNA of Chinese water buffaloes was constructed according to the 12 haplotypes. The NJ tree indicated two lineages being designated lineage A and lineage B, in which lineage A was predominant, and lineage B was at low frequency. The new lineage B was first discovered and defined in 6 Chinese water buffalo types. These results showed that two different maternal lineages were involved in the origin of domestic swamp buffaloes in China and the lineage B was probably an introgression from Southeast Asian buffaloes.
Mitochondrial DNA Diversity of Korean Ogol Chicken
Lee, Y.J. ; Bhuiyan, M.S.A. ; Chung, H.J. ; Jung, W.Y. ; Choi, K.D. ; Jang, B.G. ; Paek, W.K. ; Jeon, J.T. ; Park, C.S. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 477~481
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.477
Korean Ogol chicken has been registered as a natural monument in Korea and regarded as a valuable genetic resource for the world. As an initial step to investigate the genetic structures of this breed, phylogenetic analysis and calculation of genetic diversities have been performed using mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequence variations. A total of 31 Korean Ogol chicken was grouped into four haplotypes and the large haplotype was represented in 12 individuals. The unrooted neighbor-joining tree indicates that the Korean Ogol chicken shared three (A to C) major chicken lineages representing the high genetic variability of this breed. These results can be used for making the breeding and conservation strategies for the Korean Ogol chicken.
The Yield and Composition of Milk from Transgenic Rabbits
Chrenek, P. ; Chrastinova, L. ; Kirchnerova, K. ; Makarevich, A.V. ; Foltys, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 482~486
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.482
Basic objective of this research was to compare the milk yield and composition of New Zealand White transgenic rabbit females expressing recombinant human factor VIII (hFVIII) in mammary gland during lactation with that of non-transgenic rabbit females of the same age during 30 days of lactation. Transgenic founders were generated by the microinjection of foreign DNA (mWAP-hFVIII gene construct) into the egg. F1, F2 and F3 generations of transgenic rabbits were obtained after mating of transgenic founder rabbits with non-transgenic rabbits. The amount of milk rejected was measured by weight-suckle-weight method at
day of lactation. Quality of milk (content of fat, protein, lactose, dry ash, and some minerals) from transgenic and non-transgenic rabbit was also determined. Comparison of milk yield, determined by weight-suckle-weight method, showed significantly higher (p<0.05) milk production at day 20 of first lactation in non-transgenic females, but on the same day of second lactation higher milk yield was measured in transgenic ones. Significantly higher (p<0.05) content of milk fat and protein was determined in transgenic milk whilst higher content of lactose was found in non-transgenic milk. The content of minerals (calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and sodium) did not differ in both experimental and control groups. Our results showed that milk yield and composition of transgenic rabbit females (mammary specific transgenic over-expression of hFVIII) over several generations is only slightly and transiently different from milk yield of non-transgenic females, which had no significant consequence on the litter size and viability.
Production of Cloned Korean Native Goat (Capra hircus) by Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer
Park, H.S. ; Jung, S.Y. ; Kim, T.S. ; Park, J.K. ; Moon, T.S. ; Hong, S.P. ; Jin, J.I. ; Lee, J.S. ; Lee, J.H. ; Sohn, S.H. ; Lee, C.Y. ; Moon, Y.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 487~495
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.487
The objectives of the present study were to initiate cloning of Korean native goat by somatic cell nuclear transfer (NT) and to examine whether unovulated (follicular) oocytes can support the same developmental ability of NT embryos as ovulated (oviductal) oocytes after hCG injection in stimulated cycles of the goat. The in vivo-matured and immature oocytes were collected from the oviducts and follicles of superovulated does, respectively, and the immature oocytes were maturated in vitro. Ear skin fibroblasts derived from a 3-yr-old female Korean native goat were used as the donors of nuclei or karyoplasts. Following fusion, activation and in vitro culture to a 2- to 4-cell stage, 49 in vitro-derived and 105 in vivo-derived embryos were transferred to 6 and 17 recipient does, respectively. One doe and three does of the respective groups were identified as pregnant by ultrasonography on day 30 after embryo transfer. However, only one doe, which had received in vivo-derived embryos, delivered a normal female kid of 1.9 kg on d 149. The cloned kid gained more weight than her age-matched females as much as 87% during the first 4 mo after birth (17.7 vs.
kg) and reached puberty at 6-mo age a few months earlier than normal female does. The telomere length of the kid, which was similar to that of the donor fibroblast at 2-mo age, decreased 8% between 2- and 7-mo ages. Moreover, at 7-mo age, she had 21% shorter telomere than her age-matched goats. To our knowledge, this is the first case in which a cloned animal born with a normal weight exhibited accelerated growth and development. The unusually rapid growth and development of the cloned goat may have resulted from SCNT-associated epigenetic reprogramming involving telomere shortening.
Effects of Collection Methods on Recovery Efficiency, Maturation Rate and Subsequent Embryonic Developmental Competence of Oocytes in Holstein Cow
Wang, Zheng-guang ; Yu, Song-dong ; Xu, Zi-rong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 496~500
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.496
Holstein cow ovaries obtained at a slaughterhouse were used to study the influence of the oocyte collection methods (slicing, puncture, aspiration I and II) on recovery efficiency and subsequent in vitro maturation and embryonic development competence of immature oocytes recovered. In the slicing method, the whole ovarian was chopped into small pieces with a surgical blade. In the puncture method, the whole ovarian surface was punctured by 18-g needle. In other 2 aspiration methods, collected oocytes by aspirating from the visible follicles using an 18-g needle attached to a 5 ml syringe (aspiration I) or using a constant negetive pressure (-80 mmHg) with a vacuum pump (aspiration II). The oocytes were classified into 4 classes on the basis of the morphology of cumulus cells and cytoplasmic appearance of oocyte. Slicing (
) and puncture (
)yielded a larger number of oocytes per ovary than other two aspiration methods (aspiration I and II were
, respectively) (p<0.05). The number of the highest quality oocytes (grade A) per ovary was significantly higher in slicing (
) and puncture (
) methods than in other methods (aspiration I and II were
, respectively) (p<0.05). The rate of nuclear maturation of the highest and higher quality oocytes (grade A and grade B, respectively) was not affected by the oocytes collection methods. The oocytes collection methods also did not influence subsequent embryonic developmental competence after in vitro fertilization with M II stage oocytes. It is concluded that slicing and puncture methods of the ovaries can be used as an alternative techniques to aspiration by the syringe or vacuum pump.
Steroid Effects on Cell Proliferation, Differentiation and Steroid Receptor Gene Expression in Adult Bovine Satellite Cells
Lee, Eun Ju ; Choi, Jinho ; Hyun, Jin Hee ; Cho, Kyung-Hyun ; Hwang, Inho ; Lee, Hyun-Jeong ; Chang, Jongsoo ; Choi, Inho ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 501~510
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.501
The present study was conducted to establish primary bovine muscle satellite cell (MSC) culture conditions and to investigate the effects of various steroid hormones on transcription of the genes involved in muscle cell proliferation and differentiation. Of three different types of proteases (type II collagenase, pronase and trypsin-EDTA) used to hydrolyze the myogenic satellite cells from muscle tissues, trypsin-EDTA treatment yielded the highest number of cells. The cells separated by hydrolysis with type II collagenase and incubated on gelatin-coated plates showed an enhanced cell attachment onto the culture plate and cell proliferation at an initial stage of cell growth. In this study, the bovine MSCs were maintained in vitro up to passage 16 without revealing any significant morphological change, and even to when the cells died at passage 21 with decreased or almost no cell growth or deformities. When the cells were incubated in a steroid-depleted environment (DMEM(-)/10% CDFBS (charcoal-dextran stripped FBS)), they grew slowly initially, and were widened and deformed. In addition, when the cells were transferred to an incubation medium containing steroid (DMEM(+)/10% FBS), the deformed cells resumed their growth and returned to a normal morphology, suggesting that steroid hormones are crucial in maintaining normal MSC morphology and growth. The results demonstrated that treatments with 19-nortestosterone and testosterone significantly increased AR gene expression (p<0.05), implying that both testosterone and 19-nortestosterone bind with AR and that the hormone bound-AR complex up-regulates the genes of its own receptor (AR) plus other genes involved in satellite cell growth and differentiation in bovine muscle.
Effects of Maturing Stage of Corn Hybrids on Silage Yield, Feeding Value for Dairy Cows and Milk Production in a Cold Region of Japan
Oshita, Tomoko ; Takayama, Hideki ; Otsuka, Hiroshi ; Igarashi, Hiroaki ; Nonaka, Kazuhisa ; Kume, Shinichi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 511~516
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.511
This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of differently maturing corn hybrids on silage production and milk production per unit area in the northern part of Japan, where grain development occurs under decreasing ambient temperature. Both hybrids were harvested at the same time. The stages of maturity for the early-maturing hybrids (EH; 80 d relative maturity) and the mid-maturing hybrids (MH; 93 d relative day) were early dent and late dough stage, respectively. The plant yields for MH were higher than those for EH. The dry matter (DM) content of MH was lower than that for EH, and the effluent loss for MH silage was greater than that for EH silage. Therefore, the DM yields of prepared silage per area were similar for both treatments. Twelve multiparous mid-lactation Holstein cows (
days in milk) were fed diets based on EH or MH silage in a crossover design with two 3-week periods. Cows were fed 3 kg of hay crop silage (DM basis) and either EH or MH silage ad libitum, and concentrates were supplied to meet NRC requirement for dairy cows. Silage DM intake for EH was found to be higher (p<0.05) than that for MH (10.0 vs. 9.1 kg/day). Milk production and milk composition for EH were similar to those for MH. Feed efficiency per total feed intake was similar in both treatments, although the feed efficiency per concentrate intake tended to be higher for the EH than that for the MH diet. These results indicate that differences in maturation in corn hybrids affect the effluent production of silage and the silage intake of dairy cows. It may be advantageous to plant early hybrid corn with a reduction in effluent production of silage as well as a reduction in purchased feed costs for dairy cows under the climatic conditions of the northern part of Japan.
Comparison of In vitro Gas Production, Metabolizable Energy, Organic Matter Digestibility and Microbial Protein Production of Some Legume Hays
Karabulut, Ali ; Canbolat, Onder ; Kalkan, Hatice ; Gurbuzol, Fatmagul ; Sucu, Ekin ; Filya, Ismail ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 517~522
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.517
The aim of this study was to compare in vitro gas production kinetics, metabolizable energy (ME), organic matter digestibility (OMD) and microbial protein (MP) production of widely used legume hays in ruminant nutrition in Turkey. Gas production were determined at 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h and their kinetics were described using the equation p = a+b (
). There were significant differences among legume hays in terms of chemical composition. The crude protein content of legume hays ranged from 11.7 to 18.6% of dry matter (DM); crude fat from 2.1 to 3.5% DM; neutral detergent fiber from 35.6 to 52.0% DM; acid detergent fiber from 32.0 to 35.5% DM and acid detergent lignin 1.7 to 11.0% DM. Total gas production after 96 h incubation ranged between 61.67 and 76.00 ml/0.200 g of substrate. At 24, 72 and 96 h incubation the total gas production for common vetch were significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of the other legume hays. The ME, OMD and MP of legume hays ranged from 9.09 to 11.12 MJ/kg DM, 61.30 to 75.54% and 90.35 to 138.05 g/kg DM, respectively. The ME, OMD and MP of common vetch was significantly (p<0.01) higher than those of the other hays due to low cell-wall contents and high crude protein. At the end of the experiment, differences in chemical composition of legume hays resulted in the differences in the in vitro gas production, gas production kinetics and the estimated parameters such as ME, OMD and MP. Common vetch can be recommended to hay producers and ruminant breeders, due to high ME, OMD and MP production.
Feeding Value of Jambo Grass Silage and Mott Grass Silage for Lactating Nili Buffaloes
Touqir, N.A. ; Khan, M. Ajmal ; Sarwar, M. ; Mahr-un-Nisa, Mahr-un-Nisa ; Ali, C.S. ; Lee, W.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 523~528
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.523
This study was conducted to evaluate the feeding value of jambo grass (Sorghum
sudanefe) silage and mott grass (Pennisetum purpureum) silage as a replacement of conventional fodder (jambo grass) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Thirty early-lactating (
days), multi-parous Nili buffaloes, ten in each group, were allotted to three experimental diets. Jambo grass and mott grass were ensiled with molasses (at 2% of fodder DM) in two trench silos for 30 days. The control diet (JG) contained 75% jambo grass while the other two diets contained 75% jambo grass silage (JGS) and 75% mott grass silage (MGS). The remaining 25% DM in each diet was supplied by concentrates. Diets were mixed daily and fed twice a day ad libitum for 120 days. Dry matter intake (DMI) was higher with the JG diet compared with JGS and MGS diets. However, DMI as % body weight did not differ significantly in buffaloes fed either fodder or silage based diets. Crude protein (CP), digestible CP and NDF intakes were significantly higher on JG compared with silage-based diets. Apparent total tract digestibilities of DM, CP and NDF were similar in buffaloes fed JG, JGS and MGS diets. Milk yield (4% FCM) was similar in buffaloes fed JG and silage based diets. Fat, total solids, solid not fat, CP, true protein and non-protein nitrogen content of milk were similar in buffaloes fed fodder or silage based diets. The present results indicated that jambo grass and mott grass ensiled with 2% molasses for 30 days could safely replace the conventional fresh grass fodder (75% DM) in the diet of lactating Nili buffaloes without affecting their milk yield.
Determination of Nutritive Value of Citrus Tree Leaves for Sheep Using In vitro Gas Production Technique
Karabulut, Ali ; Canbolat, Onder ; Ozkan, Cagri O. ; Kamalak, Adem ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 529~535
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.529
The nutritive values of leaves of Citrus grandis, Citrus aurantium, Citrus oranges, Citrus limon, and Citrus deliciosa were evaluated by chemical composition and in vitro gas production techniques. There were significant (p<0.001) differences among citrus species in terms of chemical composition. Crude protein (CP) contents ranged from 123.0 to 148.3 g/kg DM. Neutral detergent fibre (NDF) and acid detergent fibre (ADF) contents were varied with species in the range 219.4-355.4 and 215.0-278.8 g/kg DM respectively. Condensed tannin (CT) contents were ranged from 5.9 to 10.2 g/kg DM. The PEG addition significantly (p<0.001) increased the gas production and some estimated parameters of citrus tree leaves. However, species showed variable responses to polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment. There were also significant (p<0.001) differences among species in terms of gas production and estimated parameters. The OMD and ME contents of citrus leaves without PEG supplementation were ranged from 66.5 to 73.3% and 9.8 to 10.9 MJ/kg DM respectively. The improvement in gas production, organic matter digestibility (OMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) with PEG emphasized the negative effect of tannins on digestibility. The increase (%) in the estimated OMD and ME contents ranged from 5.5 to 9.8% and 5.7 to 10.2% respectively. All citrus tree leaves studied in this experiment have potential nutritive values indicated by high crude protein content, OMD, ME and low fiber values.
Effects of Non-protein Energy Intake on Whole Body Protein Synthesis, Nitrogen Retention and Glucose Turnover in Goats
Fujita, Tadahisa ; Kajita, Masahiro ; Sano, Hiroaki ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 536~542
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.536
The responses of whole body protein and glucose kinetics and of nitrogen (N) metabolism to non-protein energy intake (NPEI) were determined using an isotope dilution approach and measurement of N balance in three adult male goats. The diets containing 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 times ME maintenance requirement, with fixed intake of CP (1.5 times maintenance) and percentage of hay (33%), were fed twice daily for each 21 d experimental period. After an adaptation period of 11 d, N balance was determined over 3 d. On day 17, whole body protein synthesis (WBPS) and glucose irreversible loss rate (ILR) were determined during the absorptive state by a primed-continuous infusion of [
]tyrosine and [
]glucose, with simultaneous measurements of plasma concentrations of metabolites and insulin. Ruminal characteristics were also measured at 6 h after feeding over 3 d. Nitrogen retention tended to increase (p<0.10) with increasing NPEI, although digestible N decreased linearly (p<0.05). Increasing NPEI decreased (p<0.01) ammonia N concentration, but increased acetate (p<0.05) and propionate (p<0.05) concentrations in the rumen. Despite decreased plasma urea N concentration (p<0.01), increased plasma tyrosine concentration (p<0.05), and trends toward increased plasma total amino N (p<0.10) and phenylalanine concentrations (p<0.10) were found in response to increasing NPEI. Increasing NPEI increased ILR of both glucose (p<0.01) and phenylalanine (p<0.05), but did not affect (
) that of tyrosine. Whole body protein synthesis increased (p<0.05) in response to increasing NPEI, resulting from increased utilization rate for protein synthesis (p<0.05) and unchanged hydroxylation rate of phenylalanine (
). These results suggest that increasing NPEI may enhance WBPS and glucose turnover at the absorptive state and improve the efficiency of digestible N retention in goats, with possibly decreased ammonia and increased amino acid absorption. In addition, simultaneous increases in WBPS and glucose ILR suggest stimulatory effect of glucose availability on WBPS, especially when sufficient amino acid is supplied.
Effect of Disodium Fumarate on In vitro Rumen Fermentation of Different Substrates and Rumen Bacterial Communities as Revealed by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis Analysis of 16S Ribosomal DNA
Mao, S.Y. ; Zhang, G. ; Zhu, W.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 543~549
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.543
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of disodium fumarate on the in vitro rumen fermentation profiles of different substrates and microbial communities. In experiment 1, nine diets (high-forage diet (forage:concentrate, e.g. F:C = 7:3, DM basis), medium-forage diet (F:C = 5:5, DM basis), low-forage diet(F:C = 1:9, DM basis), cracked corn, cracked wheat, soluble starch, tall elata (Festuca elata), perennial ryegrass and rice straw) were fermented in vitro by rumen microorganisms from local goats. The results showed that during 24 h incubations, for all substrates, disodium fumarate increased (p<0.05) the gas production, and tended to increase (p<0.10) the acetate, propionate and total VFA concentration and decrease the ratio of acetate to propionate, whereas no treatment effect was observed for the lactate concentration. The apparent DM loss for tall elata, perennial ryegrass and rice straw increased (p<0.05) with the addition of disodium fumarate. With the exception of tall elata, perennial ryegrass and rice straw, disodium fumarate addition increased the final pH (p<0.05) for all substrates. In experiment 2, three substrates (a high-forage diet, a medium-forage diet and a high concentrate diet) were fermented by mixed rumen microbes in vitro. A polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) technique was applied to compare microbial DNA fingerprints between substrates at the end of 24 h incubation. The results showed that when Festuca elata was used as substrate, the control and disodium fumarate treatments had similar DGGE profiles, with their similarities higher than 96%. As the ratio of concentrate increased, however, the similarities in DGGE profiles decreased between the control and disodium fumarate treatment. Overall, these results suggest that disodium fumarate is effective in increasing the pH and gas production for the diets differing in forage: concentrate ratio, grain cereals and soluble starch, and in increasing dry matter loss for the forages (tall elata, perennial ryegrass and rice straw) in vitro, whereas its effect on changes of ruminal microbial community may largely depend on the general nature of the substrate.
Influence of Intermittent Lighting on Broiler Performance, Incidence of Tibial Dyschondroplasia, Tonic Immobility, Some Blood Parameters and Antibody Production
Onbasilar, E.E. ; Erol, H. ; Cantekin, Z. ; Kaya, U. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 550~555
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.550
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of two lighting programs (continuous lighting (CL) 24L:0D and intermittent lighting (IL) 1L:3D) on the broiler performance, carcass traits, incidence of tibial dyschondroplasia (TD), relative asymmetry (RA), duration of induced tonic immobility (TI), heterophils-lymphocytes ratio (H/L), serum glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The chicks were randomly divided into 2 treatment groups consisting of 100 chicks per treatment, continuous lighting (CL) 24L:0D or intermittent lighting (IL) 1L:3D. Each treatment consists of 5 replicates of 20 chicks. The experimental period was 6 weeks. Use of IL decreased feed to gain ratio, improved immune response and reduced fearful. Body weight, carcass traits, TD and stress parameters (organ weights, RA, H/L, glucose, cholesterol and triglyceride levels) were not significant in different lighting groups. As a result IL was beneficial for producers and chickens than CL.
Chito-oligosaccharides as an Alternative to Antimicrobials in Improving Performance, Digestibility and Microbial Ecology of the Gut in Weanling Pigs
Han, K.N. ; Kwon, I.K. ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Heo, S. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 556~562
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.556
A total of 126 crossbred weanling pigs (average body weight of
kg) were used to investigate the effect of chito-oligosaccharide (COS) on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, pH of gastro-intestinal tract (GI), intestinal and fecal microflora of young piglets. Pigs were allocated to three dietary treatments based on body weight and gender in a single factorial arrangement. Treatments were control (No COS), T1 (0.2% COS during starter (6-13 kg) and 0.1% COS during grower (13-30 kg) phases, and T2 (0.4% COS during starter (6-13 kg) and 0.3% COS during grower (13-30 kg) phases, respectively. Each treatment had 3 replicates and 14 pigs were raised in each pen. COS is a low molecular weight water-soluble chitosan that can be obtained from chitin of the crab shell after deacetylation with concentrated sodium hydroxide at high temperature and then further decomposition by chitosanase enzyme in the presence of ascorbic acid. For the starter and grower periods, there were no significant differences (p>0.05) in average daily gain (ADG) and feed to gain ratio among treatments. However, during the overall period (6-30 kg), T2 showed better (p<0.05) feed to gain ratio than other treatments. A digestibility study was conducted at the end of grower phase which showed improvement (p<0.05) in DM and crude fat digestibility in T2 over the control. At 25 kg body weight, 6 pigs per treatment (2 per replicate) were sacrificed to determine the effect of diets on pH and microbial count at different sections of the GI tract. The pH of the cecal contents in pigs fed 0.1% COS was higher (p<0.05) than in the other treatments. Total anaerobic bacterial number increased from cecum to rectum in all treatments. The weekly total bacterial counts showed higher (p<0.05) in feces of pigs fed COS than that of untreated pigs at the
week. The number of fecal E. coli in untreated pigs at
wk was 7.35 log CFU/g compared to 6.71 and 6.54 log CFU/g in 0.1 and 0.3% COS-treated pigs, respectively. Similarly, at
wk, fecal clostridium spp. were lower in pigs fed 0.3% COS (5.43 log CFU/g) than in untreated pigs (6.26 log CFU/g). In conclusion, these results indicated that chito-oligosaccharide could improve feed efficiency in young pigs and inhibited the growth of harmful bacteria.
Role of Berberis lycium in Reducing Serum Cholesterol in Broilers
Chand, N. ; Durrani, F.R. ; Qureshi, M.S. ; Durrani, Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 563~568
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.563
This study was planned to investigate the role of Berberis lycium in reducing serum cholesterol in broilers. Six experimental rations designated as A, B, C, D, E and F having 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5% Berberis lycium were fed to 240 broiler chicks, randomly distributed into 24 replicates, so as to have 4 replicates per group and 10 chicks per replicate. The experiment lasted for 35 days. Average serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and low density lipoprotein (LDL) were used as criteria of response. Average total serum cholesterol per chick was 129.33, 120.50, 116.50, 113.00, 101.67 and 114.00 mg/dl for group A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Total serum cholesterol showed decreasing trend with the increasing level of Berberis lycium unto 2% (p<0.05). Mean serum triglyceride level per chick was 60.00, 58.17, 58.00, 55.33, 50.17 and 48.50 mg/dl for group A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. Mean serum triglyceride showed decreasing trend with the increasing level of Berberis lycium (p<0.05). Serum triglyceride was significantly lower in group F than other groups. Mean HDL per chick for the six experimental groups A, B, C, D, E and F was 52.08, 53.42, 60.42, 62.25, 62.92 and 54.50 mg/dl respectively. HDL showed increasing trend with the increase in the level of Berberis lycium unto 2%. The average serum LDL per chick was 65.25, 55.45, 44.48, 39.68, 28.72 and 49.80 mg/dl for group A, B, C, D, E and F respectively. LDL also showed decreasing trend with the increase in the level of Berberis lycium unto 2% (p<0.05). It was concluded that Berberis lycium added to feed at the rate of 2.0% can be used in broiler feed for reducing serum total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL and increasing HDL.
Anti-adherence of Antibacterial Peptides and Oligosaccharides and Promotion of Growth and Disease Resistance in Tilapia
Peng, K.S. ; She, R.P. ; Yang, Y.R. ; Zhou, X.M. ; Liu, W. ; Wu, J. ; Bao, H.H. ; Liu, T.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 569~576
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.569
Four hundred and fifty tilapias (
g) were assigned randomly to six groups to evaluate the feasibility of the tested antibacterial peptides (ABPs) and oligosaccharides as substitutes for antibiotics. The control group was fed with a commercial tilapia diet; other five groups were fed with the same commercial diet supplemented with konjac glucomannan (KGLM), cluster bean galactomannan (CBGAM), and three animal intestinal ABPs derived from chicken, pig and rabbit at 100 mg/kg respectively. After 21 days of feeding, growth, disease resistance, and in vivo anti-adherence were determined. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of tested agents on adhesion of Aeromonas veronii biovar sobria (A.vbs) strain BJCP-5 to tilapia enteric epithelia in vitro was assessed by cell-ELISA system. As a result, the tested agents supplemented at 100 mg/kg show significant benefit to tilapia growth and disease resistance (p<0.05), and the benefit may be correlated with their interfering in the contact of bacteria with host mucosal surface. Although none of the tested agents did inhibit the growth of BJCP-5 in tryptic soy broth at
, all of them did inhibit the adhesion of A.vbs to tilapia enteric epithelia in vivo and in vitro. In vitro mimic assays show that three ABPs at low concentrations of
have the reciprocal dose-dependent anti-adherence effect. The inhibition of ABPs may be correlated with a cation bridging and/or receptor-ligand binding, but not with hydrophobicity. The KGLM and CBGAM inhibited the adherence of BJCP-5 to tilapia enteric epithelia with dose-dependent manner in vitro, and this may be through altering bacterial hydrophobicity and interfering with receptor-ligand binding. Our results indicate that the anti-adherence of the tested ABPs and oligosaccharides may be one of the mechanisms in promoting tilapia growth and resistance to A.vbs.
Effects of Intramuscular Fat on the Sensory Characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi in Japanese Black Steers as Judged by a Trained Analytical Panel
Okumura, Toshiaki ; Saito, Kaoru ; Nade, Toshihiro ; Misumi, Satsuki ; Masuda, Yasuhisa ; Sakuma, Hironori ; Nakayama, Sachio ; Fujita, Kazuhisa ; Kawamura, Tadashi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 577~581
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.577
The effects of intramuscular fat on the sensory characteristics of M. longissimus dorsi in Japanese Black steers were investigated by a trained analytical panel (average 13.4 panelists). Five sets (10 head) of artificial identical twins were divided into 2 groups, high level of intramuscular fat group (HG) which utilized the fattening method of increasing intramuscular fat and low level of intramuscular fat group (LG) which did not use the above method. Regarding M. longissmus dorsi which was produced for use in the sensory evaluation, crude fat contents of HG and LG was 25.8% and 23.2% respectively (p<0.05). Warner-Bratzler shear force, water holding capacity, cooking loss and fatty acid composition of HG and LG were similar between the two groups. M. Longissimus dorsi taken from HG and LG were tested for their sensory characteristics by a trained panel. HG was given higher points for juiciness than LG (p<0.05). There were no significant differences for tenderness and flavor between the two groups. Overall acceptability which synthesized each of the sensory characteristics of HG and LG were 5.04 and 4.69 points respectively (p = 0.05). These results suggested that juiciness increased with the increase of intramuscular fat, and this raised the overall acceptability of M. longissimus dorsi.
Meat Quality and Storage Characteristics Depending on PSE Status of Broiler Breast Meat
Chae, H.S. ; Singh, N.K. ; Yoo, Y.M. ; Ahn, C.N. ; Jeong, S.G. ; Ham, J.S. ; Kim, D.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 582~587
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.582
The pale, soft, exudative (PSE) syndrome lowers storage quality and consumers acceptability in the particular meat. With the increase in the consumption of parted chickens in Korean meat consumption trade, a parallel increase in the concern over the PSE status of chickens have been noticed. The present study focused on the PSE status of broiler's breast to investigate the effects of different degrees of PSE on its quality and storage characteristics. A total of 46 broiler chickens of 35 days old averaging 1,251-1,350 g were selected for the study. Breast separated and skin was removed. The breast meat was stored at
for 3 days and were analysed for pH, lightness, yellowness, redness, shear force, water-holding capacity (WHC), cooking loss, Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and Volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) on day 1 and 3 during the storage. Increase in the degree of broilers breast PSE during storage caused fall in pH and shear force and increase in lightness, cooking loss, TBARS, VBN. Broilers breast PSE status confirms the actual pale soft and exudative nature of meat.
Evaluation of Sodium Alignate as a Fat Replacer on Processing and Shelf-life of Low-fat Ground Pork Patties
Kumar, Manish ; Sharma, B.D. ; Kumar, R.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 588~597
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.588
Low-fat ground pork patties, LFGPP (<10% total fat) formulated with 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 percent sodium alginate (SA) were processed and compositional, processing and sensory characteristics were compared with control patties containing 20% fat. The moisture content of raw and cooked LFGPP were significantly (p<0.05) higher than control patties because of greater amount of added water in the formulation. The cooking yield, moisture and fat retention also increased linearly in different treatments of LFGPP. The dimensional parameters such as gain in height, decrease in diameter and shrinkage were significantly (p<0.05) lower in LFGPP in comparison to control. Amongst the sensory attributes, flavour showed a declining trend with the increase in concentration of SA in LFGPP. However, low-fat patties with 0.1% SA rated similar to high-fat control. The lipid profile revealed 49.78 and 43.22% decrease in total lipids and cholesterol content respectively, compared to control. The calorie content was reduced significantly (p<0.05) in LFGPP. The texture profile of LFGPP with 0.1% SA was similar to that of high-fat control. The LFGPP remained stable without any appreciable loss of physico-chemical, microbiological and organoleptic quality during refrigerated storage (
) for 21 and 35 days in aerobic and vacuum packaging respectively.
Effect of Postmortem Metabolic Rate on Meat Color
Park, B.Y. ; Lee, J.M. ; Hwang, I.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 598~604
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.598
The current study was conducted to evaluate carcass characteristics, objectives and sensory meat qualities of Hanwoo longissimus muscle as affected by ultimate pH. Twenty-four steers and bulls (
cm for live weight and backfat thickness, respectively) were used. As there was a linear relationship (r = 0.77) between lean meat color and ultimate pH, cattles were thus segregated into normal
, Normal, n = 13) and DFD (pH>5.8, n = 11) groups. Normal pH group had significantly (p<0.05) higher carcass weight, marbling score and backfat thickness than those for high pH group, while fat color and lean meat color were inverse. In principle component analysis for co-ordinates of DFD and normal meats, fat color, lean meat color, texture, time to pH 6.2 and pH at 24 h postmortem were associated with the positive range of the first factor (67.5%) while backfat thickness marbling score and temperature at 24 h were placed in negative values. The rate constant of decline in pH (pH k) did not differ between the two groups, implying that initial pH (i.e., pH at slaughtering) differed between two groups. Contour mapping of pH k between pH at 1 and 24 h postmortem indicated that high pH k was related to lower pHs at 1 and 24 h postmortem. This suggested that the high pH cattles (i.e., DFD cattle) resulted from their own potential. Although the time to reach pH 6.2 was significantly (p<0.05) shorter for normal meat (i.e., 3.2 h) than that for DFD one (i.e., 19.8 h), there were no significantly differences in both WB-shear force and sensory attributes. Given that the experimental animals were sampled from a similar group, which implies a similar myoglobin pigment content, the current data suggested that pre- and post-slaughter animal handling likely had a significant effect on ultimate pH and consequently meat color of Hanwoo longissimus muscle, and also small animals with lower marbling score and backfat thickness had a higher risk for DFD meat.
Environmental Sustainability and Social Desirability Issues in Pig Feeding
Yang, T.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 4, 2007, Pages 605~614
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.605
Feeding pigs used to be a means of managing domestic resources that may otherwise have been wasted into valuable animal protein. Feeding pigs thus was a form of husbandry. Following recent rapid industrial development, pig rearing has changed from extensive to intensive, but this transformation has been associated with major concerns. The concentration of large amounts of pig manure in small arrears is environmentally hazardous. Moreover, high densities of animals in intensive production systems also impose a health threat for both animals and humans. Furthermore, the use of growth promoters and preventive medicines for higher production efficiencies, such as in-feed antibiotics, also induces microbial resistance thus affects human therapeutics. In addition, consumers are questioning the ethics of treating animals in intensive production systems. Animal welfare, environmental and bio-safe issues are re-shaping the nature of pig production systems. Feeding pigs thus involves not only the consideration of economic traits, but also welfare traits and environmental traits. Thus, a focus on technological feasibility, environmental sustainability and social desirability is essential for successful feeding operations. Feeding pigs now involves multiple projects with different sustainability goals, but goal conflicts exist since no pattern or scenario can fulfill all sustainability goals and the disagreements are complicated by reduced or even no use of in-feed antibiotics. Thus it is difficult to feed pigs in a manner that meets all goals of high quality, safe product, eco- and bio-sustainability, animal welfare and profit. A sustainable pig production system thus requires a prioritization of goals based on understanding among consumers, society and producers and needs to view from both a local and global perspective.