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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
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Molecular Characterization and Chromosomal Mapping of the Porcine AMP-activated Protein Kinase
Lee, Hae-Young ; Choi, Bong-Hwan ; Lee, Jung-Sim ; Jang, Gul-Won ; Lee, Kyung-Tai ; Chung, Ho-Young ; Jeon, Jin-Tea ; Cho, Byung-Wook ; Lee, Jun-Heon ; Kim, Tae-Hun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 615~621
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.615
AMP-activated protein kinase alpha 2 (PRKAA2) plays a key role in regulation of fatty acid and cholesterol metabolism. This study investigated the porcine PRKAA2 gene as a positional candidate for intramuscular fat and backfat thickness traits in pig chromosome 6. A partial fragment of the porcine PRKAA2 gene, amplified by PCR, contained a putative intron 3 including a part of exon 3 and 4, comparable with that of human PRKAA2 gene. Within the fragment, several single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified using multiple sequence alignments. Of these, TaqI restriction enzyme polymorphism was used for genotyping various pig breeds including Korean reference family. Using linkage and physical mapping, the porcine PRKAA2 gene was mapped in the region between microsatellite markers SW1881 and SW1680 on chromosome 6. Allele frequencies were quite different among pig breeds. The full length cDNA of the porcine PRKAA2 (2,145 bp) obtained by RACE containing 1,656 bp open reading frame of deduced 552 amino acids, had sequence identities with PRKAA2 of human (98.2%), rat (97.8%), and mouse (97.5%). These results suggested that the porcine PRKAA2 is a positional candidate gene for fat deposition trait at near telomeric region of the long arm of SSC 6.
Effects of Heart Fatty Acid-binding Protein Genotype on Intramuscular Fat Content in Duroc Pigs Selected for Meat Production and Meat Quality Traits
Uemoto, Yoshinobu ; Suzuki, Keiichi ; Kobayashi, Eiji ; Sato, Syushi ; Shibata, Tomoya ; Kadowaki, Hiroshi ; Nishida, Akira ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 622~626
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.622
Using multi-trait animal model BLUP, selection was conducted over seven generations for growth rate (DG), real-time ultrasound loin-eye muscle area (LEA), backfat thickness (BF), and intramuscular fat content (IMF) to develop a new line of purebred Duroc pigs with enhanced meat production and meat quality. This study was intended to investigate the relationship between restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of a heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP) gene and intramuscular fat content (IMF) of this Duroc purebred population. The present experiment examined the RFLP of 499 slaughtered pigs. The DNA was separated from the blood or ear tissue of the pigs, which were slaughtered at 105 kg of body weight. Intramuscular fat content of the longissimus muscle was measured using chemical analysis. A significant difference was detected in the breeding value of IMF among the H-FABP PCR RFLP genotypes. The AA genotype has a significantly larger positive effect on the IMF breeding value than do the Aa and aa genotypes for the MspI RFLP. In addition, the DD genotype has a significantly greater positive effect on IMF breeding value than the Dd and dd genotypes for the HaeIII RFLP. For the HinfI RFLP, the hh genotype has a significantly larger positive effect on IMF breeding value than the HH genotype. Multiple regression analysis was performed using the IMF breeding values as the dependent variable and the three H-FABP genotypes as independent variables. Results revealed that the contribution of the genotypes to variation in IMF breeding values was approximately 40%. These results demonstrated that H-FABP RFLPs affect IMF in this Duroc population.
The Porcine FoxO1, FoxO3a and FoxO4 Genes: Cloning, Mapping, Expression and Association Analysis with Meat Production Traits
Yu, Jing ; Zhou, Quan-Yong ; Zhu, Meng-Jin ; Li, Chang-Chun ; Liu, Bang ; Fan, Bin ; Zhao, Shu-Hong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 627~632
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.627
FoxO1, FoxO3a and FoxO4 belong to the FoxO gene family, which play important roles in the PI3K/PKB pathway. In this study, we cloned the porcine FoxO1, FoxO3a and FoxO4 sequences and assigned them to SSC11p11-15, SSC1p13 and SSC xq13 using somatic cell hybrid panel (SCHP) and radiation hybrid panel (IMpRH). RT-PCR results showed that these three genes are expressed in multiple tissues. Sequencing of PCR products from different breeds identified a synonymous T/C polymorphism in exon 2 of FoxO3a. This FoxO3a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) can be detected by AvaII restriction enzyme. The allele frequencies of this SNP were investigated in Dahuabai, Meishan, Tongcheng, Yushan, Large White, and Duroc pigs. Association of the genotypes with growth and carcass traits showed that different genotypes of FoxO3a were associated with carcass length and backfat thickness between 6th and 7th ribs (BTR) and drip loss (p<0.05).
Molecular Characterisation of Nilagiri Sheep (Ovis aries) of South India Based on Microsatellites
Girish, Haris ; Sivaselvam, S.N. ; Karthickeyan, S.M.K. ; Saravanan, R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 633~637
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.633
Genetic variation in Nilagiri sheep, the only apparel wool breed in South India was studied using 25 FAO recommended ovine-specific microsatellite markers. The number of observed alleles ranged from 3 to 8 with a mean of 5 across all loci. The size of alleles ranged from 72 to 228 bp. The frequency of alleles ranged from 0.0104 to 0.5781. In total, 125 alleles were observed at the 25 loci studied. The effective number of alleles ranged from 2.18 to 6.49. The mean number of effective alleles was 3.84 across all loci. All the 25 loci were found to be highly polymorphic. The PIC values ranged from 0.4587 to 0.8277 with a mean of 0.6485. Of 25 microsatellites studied, 17 were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium proportions. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.4222 to 1.000 with a mean value of 0.7610 whereas the expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.5415 to 0.8459 with a mean value of 0.7213. Except six loci, the other loci revealed negative within-population inbreeding estimates (FIS) indicating excess of heterozygotes in the population of Nilagiri sheep.
Proteomic Comparison between Japanese Black and Holstein Cattle by Two-dimensional Gel Electrophoresis and Identification of Proteins
Ohsaki, H. ; Okada, M. ; Sasazaki, S. ; Hinenoya, T. ; Sawa, T. ; Iwanaga, S. ; Tsuruta, H. ; Mukai, F. ; Mannen, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 638~644
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.638
Differences of meat qualities between Japanese Black and Holstein have been known in Japan, however, the causative proteins and/or the genetic background have been unclear. The aim of this study was to identify candidate proteins causing differences of the meat qualities between the two breeds. Using technique of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, protein profiling was compared from samples of the longissimus dorsi muscle and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Five protein spots were observed with different expression levels between breeds. By using LC-MS/MS analysis and Mascot program, three of them were identified as ankyrin repeat protein 2, phosphoylated myosin light chain 2 and mimecan protein. Subsequently, we compared the DNA coding sequences of three proteins between breeds to find any nucleotide substitution. However, there was no notable mutation which could affect pI or molecular mass of the proteins. The identified proteins may be responsible for different characteristics of the meat qualities between Japanese Black and Holstein cattle.
African Maternal Origin and Genetic Diversity of Chinese Domestic Donkeys
Lei, Chu-Zhao ; Ge, Qing-Lan ; Zhang, Hu-Cai ; Liu, Ruo-Yu ; Zhang, Wei ; Jiang, Yong-Qing ; Dang, Rui-Hua ; Zheng, Hui-Ling ; Hou, Wen-Tong ; Chen, Hong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 645~652
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.645
The origin of domestic donkeys in China has been controversial. To clarify the origin of Chinese domestic donkeys, we investigated the partial mitochondrial D-loop sequences of 126 samples from 12 native breeds. The results revealed two mitochondrial origins, lineage Somali and lineage Nubian of African wild ass detected in Chinese domestic donkeys. Lineage Somali was predominant in Chinese domestic donkey breeds. The pattern of genetic variation in ass mtDNA D-loop sequences indicated that the two lineages Somali and Nubian from China had undergone population expansion events. In a combined analysis of lineages Somali and Nubian between previously published sequences from other countries/regions and sequences of Chinese domestic donkeys, the results indicated that the two lineages of Chinese domestic donkeys were from Africa and supported the African maternal origins of Chinese domestic donkeys. There was no obvious geographical structure in Chinese domestic donkey breeds, but the population showed abundant mtDNA diversity. The spread routes of Chinese domestic donkeys were also discussed.
Genomic Sequence Variability of the Prion Gene (PRNP) in Korean Cattle
Choi, Sang-Haeng ; Chae, Sung-Hwa ; Choi, Han-Ho ; Kim, Jeong-Seon ; Kang, Bo-Ra ; Yeo, Jung-Sou ; Choi, Inho ; Lee, Yong-Seok ; Choy, Yun-Ho ; Park, Hong-Seog ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 653~660
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.653
In this study, we have investigated sequence variants in the PRNP gene of 20 individuals belonging to the Korean cattle, and have analyzed and compared genetic features between varieties of other cattle breeds. Of the 73 sequence variants identified in Korean cattle, 27 were identified for the first time in this study, whereas 46 of these polymorphisms had previously been isolated. We discovered a 2.6 kb SNP hot spot region localized on the putative promoter region of the PRNP gene. Furthermore, the copy numbers of the octapeptide repeat (24 bp indel) which is detected on the coding sequence (CDS) of the PRNP exhibited a completely homozygous 6/6 genotype which is dominant in other cattle breeds. We also characterized a new 19 bp/10 bp allele located on the putative promoter region of the PRNP gene, which represented 0.71 in allele frequency. To the best of our knowledge, this report is the first to address polymorphisms of the PRNP gene structure in Korean cattle in which BSE has yet to be discovered. Therefore, our findings may prove useful with regard to our current understanding of allelic diversity in bovine species, and may also provide new insights into the genetic factors associated with susceptibility or resistance to BSE.
Lifetime Performance of Nili-ravi Buffaloes in Pakistan
Bashir, M.K. ; Khan, M.S. ; Bhatti, S.A. ; Iqbal, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 661~668
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.661
Data on 1,037 Nili-Ravi buffaloes from four institutional herds were used to study lifetime milk yield, herd life, productive life and breeding efficiency. A general linear model was used to study the environmental effects while an animal model having herd, year of birth and age at first calving (as covariate) along with random animal effect was used to estimate breeding values. The lifetime milk yield, herd life, productive life and breeding efficiency averaged
days and 64 percent, respectively. All the traits were significantly (p<0.01) affected by the year of birth and herd of calving, while the herd life was also affected (p<0.01) by the age at first calving. The heritabilities for lifetime milk yield, herd life, productive life and breeding efficiency were
and 0.001, respectively. The definition for productive life, where each lactation gets credit upto 10 months had slightly better heritability and may be preferred over the definition where no limit is placed on lactation length. The genetic correlation between productive life and lifetime milk yield was low but high between productive life and herd life. The selection for productive life will increase herd life while lifetime milk yield will also improve. The overall phenotypic trend during the period under the study was negative for lifetime milk yield (-280 kg/year), herd life (-93 days), productive life (-42 days/year) and breeding efficiency (-0.36 percent/year), whereas the genetic trend was positive for lifetime milk yield (+15 kg/year) and productive life (+4 days/year).
Detection of Mendelian and Parent-of-origin Quantitative Trait Loci in a Cross between Korean Native Pig and Landrace I. Growth and Body Composition Traits
Kim, E.H. ; Choi, B.H. ; Kim, K.S. ; Lee, C.K. ; Cho, B.W. ; Kim, T.-H. ; Kim, J.-J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 669~676
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.669
This study was conducted to detect quantitative trait loci (QTL) affecting growth and body composition in an
reference population of Korean native pig and Landrace crossbreds. The three-generation mapping population was generated with 411 progeny from 38
full-sib families, and 133 genetic markers were used to produce a sex-average map of the 18 autosomes. The data set was analyzed using least squares Mendelian and parent-of-origin interval-mapping models. Lack-of-fit tests between the models were used to characterize QTL for mode of expressions. A total of 8 (39) QTL were detected at the 5% genome (chromosome)-wise level for the 17 analyzed traits. Of the 47 QTL detected, 21 QTL were classified as Mendelian expressed, 13 QTL as paternally expressed, 6 QTL as maternally expressed, and 7 QTL as partially expressed. Of the detected QTL at 5% genome-wise level, two QTL had Mendelian mode of inheritance on SSC6 and SSC9 for backfat thickness and bone weight, respectively, two QTL were maternally expressed for leather weight and front leg weight on SSC6 and SSC12, respectively, one QTL was paternally expressed for birth weight on SSC4, and three QTL were partially expressed for hot carcass weight and rear leg weight on SSC6, and bone weight on SSC13. Many of the Mendelian QTL had a dominant (complete or overdominant) mode of gene action, and only a few of the QTL were primarily additive, which reflects that heterosis for growth is appreciable in a cross between Korean native pig and Landrace. Our results indicate that alternate breed alleles of growth and body composition QTL are segregating between the two breeds, which could be utilized for genetic improvement of growth via marker-assisted selection.
Effect of Insemination Time and Method on Fertilization and Delivery Rate at the Onset of Estrus Cats
Yin, Xi-Jun ; Lee, Hyo-Sang ; Yang, Chul-Ju ; Bae, Inhyu ; Oh, Dong-Hwan ; Cho, Seong-Gyun ; Kong, Il-Keun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 677~681
This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of artificial insemination (AI) time and methods on fertilization and delivery rate at onset of estrus cats. Artificial insemination method was used by a transcervical insemination (TCI) or intra-vaginal insemination (IVI) using frozen epididymal sperm (FES) with Norwegian catheter. Semen was collected from epididymal spermatozoa after testis ectomization and frozen in Tris-buffered solution supplemented with 7% glycerol and 0.5% Orvus ES Paste. The concentration of frozen spermatozoa was adjusted to
sperm/ml. The CASA data on motility and progressive motility of FES after thawing was approximately
. The female cats were subcutaneously treated with 50 IU pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and ovulated with 100 IU human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) 4 days after PMSG injection. One treatment was inseminated at 36 h after hCG injection and the other treatment was inseminated immediately hCG injection. At 36 h after hCG injection group, 5 female cats were inseminated TCI or IVI method using
sperm/0.25 ml per AI. Three of 5 female cats could be inseminated by TCI method and then delivered the 10 kittens from 2 of 3 inseminated females. Immediately hCG injection group, 4 female cats were inseminated TCI or IVI method using same sperm concentration per AI. Two of 4 female cats could be inseminated by TCI method and then delivered the 4 kittens from 1 of 2 inseminated female cats. The results revealed that AI time and method could be affected the fertilization and delivery rates at onset of estrus cats.
Predicting Parturition Time through Ultrasonic Measurement of Posture Changing Rate in Crated Landrace Sows
Wang, J.S. ; Wu, M.C. ; Chang, H.L. ; Young, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 682~692
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.682
This study presents an automatic system to predict parturition time in the crated sows. The system relies on ultrasonic transducers mounted from above along the length of the crate. Using a 40 kHz time of flight (TOF) single envelope wave, the momentary distances between the sensors are measured. Therefore, the local momentary height of the sow and the momentary posture, i.e. standing posture (SDP), kneeling posture (KP), sitting posture (STP) and lateral lying posture (LLP) are determined. Crated sows change their postures from standing to lying and vice versa which follows a characteristic pattern. As parturition approaches, sows exhibit uneasiness, restlessness and the stand up sequence (SUS, the posture transition from LLP to SDP) rate increases because of labor pains. In time series, the SUS rate demonstrates a peak and it happens approximately 0-12 h before parturition. In this paper, the basic parturition threshold value method (BPTVM) and the same hour method (SHM) are proposed for predicting parturition, both of which are based on the SUS rate. The BPTVM mainly detects the peak of the SUS rate. As the SUS rate exceeds the threshold value, the parturition becomes predictable. Moreover, the SHM calculates the difference in the SUS rates between a particular time of day and the corresponding time of the preceding day. Compared to the BPTVM, the SHM can eliminate the circadian rhythm of the SUS rate influenced by feeding behavior. Using the SHM the parturition can be approximately predicted within hours. In an attempt to define the threshold parameters of predicting parturition, a data set with 32 sows of the SUS rate are used to estimate assumable predicting probability. The results show the assumable probability of the parturition prediction within 9 h is 96.9% for the SHM and 84.4% for the BPTVM. Moreover, the SHM can even reach a 75% probability of prediction within three hours of parturition. We conclude that the SHM is more accurate and is more useful for parturition time prediction. When parturition is detected, the proposed algorithm generates a warning signal which can inform human personnel to protect the mother and newborn piglets.
Effect of Essential and Nonessential Amino Acids in North Carolina State University (NCSU)-23 Medium on Development of Porcine In vitro Fertilized Embryos
Hashem, Md. Abul ; Bhandari, Dilip P. ; Hossein, Mohammad Shamim ; Jeong, Yeon Woo ; Kim, Sue ; Kim, Ji-Hye ; Koo, Ok-Jae ; Park, Seon Mi ; Lee, Eu Gine ; Park, Sun Woo ; Kang, Sung Keun ; Lee, Byeong Chun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 693~700
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.693
The present study was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of essential and nonessential amino acid in NCSU-23 medium on the in vitro-produced porcine embryo as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage. Four experiments were performed, each with a completely randomized design involving 5 to 8 replications of treatments. In order to know the effect of nonessential amino acids in NCSU-23 medium, 0, 5, 10 and
MEM were supplemented there to, (Exp. 1) and the medium was supplemented with same level of essential amino acids (Exp. 2). The combined effect of nonessential (0, 5, 10 and
MEM) and essential amino acids (0, 5, 10 and
MEM) in NCSU-23 medium (Exp. 3), first 72 h with non-essential amino acids (at 0, 5, 10 and
MEM), and last 4 d with essential amino acids with the same level as NEAA (Exp. 4) were examined. The embryo development was monitored and the quality of blastocysts was evaluated by counting the number of total cells and determining the ratio of inner cell mass (ICM) to trophoectoderm (TE) cells. When Eagle's nonessential amino acids (MEM) added to NCSU-23 medium, it significantly increased the likelihood of development to the 2- to 4-cell stage and subsequent blastocyst development. Supplementation of different levels of essential amino acids in the NCSU-23 medium decreased cleavage rate, rate of morula and blastocyst development and the number of ICMs. In the case of the combined effect of essential and nonessential amino acids, better and significant results were found for blastocysts, hatching blastocysts and for ICM numbers which were also dose dependent. With respect to the biphasic effect of nonessential and essential amino acids, nonessential amino acids increased cleavage whereas essential amino acids increased the total cell number. Neither the nonessential nor the essential group of amino acids, on their own, affected blastocyst cell number or the differentiation of cells in the blastocyst. In conclusion, this study determined the role of nonessential and essential amino acids in the culture of the porcine embryo and showed that the embryo requires different levels of amino acids as it develops from the zygote to the blastocyst stage.
Effect of rc Mutation on Semen Characteristics, Spermatogenic Tissues and Testosterone Profile in Blind Rhode Island Red Cockerels
Arshami, J. ; Cheng, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 701~705
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.701
Seven rc mutant and seven normal male birds (Rhode Island Red suie, RIR) were used in this study to determine the effects of rc mutation on semen characteristics, testosterone profile and spermatogenic tissues. All birds were randomly selected at week 12 of age and housed in individual cages and were fed and watered ad libitum. The birds were exposed to a 14L:10D light cycle during experiment. Semen were collected at weeks 22 to 23 from each bird twice a week and evaluated for semen volume (SV), sperm concentration (SC), total sperm count (TSC), percent of sperm motility (%SM), dead sperm (%DS), and sperm metabolic activity (SMA). To determine the testosterone concentration (TC) in plasma, blood was collected at weeks 12, 16 and 18. Testicular tissue were collected, processed and evaluated for semineferous tubule diameter (STD), round spermatid number (RSN), percent elongated sperm (%ES) and semineferous tubules length (STL). Body weight (BW), comb weight (CW) and testes weight (TW) were weighted at the end of experiment (week 23). The SV, TSC and %SM were significantly higher in normal birds but the %DS was higher in blind birds (p<0.05). The SC did not differ significantly between the two groups but its value was higher in normal birds. The sperm metabolic activity in the first h of collection did not differ significantly between the two groups but after 24 h, the level of SMA in normal group was significantly higher (p<0.05). The level of TC did not differ significantly between the two genotype groups but normal birds had higher TC in all collections except the last one. The STD, RSN, %ES and STL in normal birds were higher when compared to blind birds but the differences were insignificant except for ES percent. The BW, CW and TW between the two groups did not differ significantly but the weights were higher in normal group compared to blind birds. Statistical analysis of semen characteristics, testosterone profile and histological factors were indicated detrimental effects of rc mutation in prepubertal RIR blind male birds due to lack of light.
Effects of Caponization and Testosterone on Bone and Blood Parameters of SCWL Male Chickens
Chen, Kuo-Lung ; Tsay, Shiow-Min ; Lo, Dan-Yuan ; Kuo, Feng-Jui ; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung ; Chiou, Peter Wen-Shyg ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 706~710
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.706
This study was to investigate the caponization effects on bone characteristics in male chickens, and the optimum testosterone implantation dosage on bone characteristics improvement. Healthy Single Comb White Leghorn cockerels were caponized at 12-wk-old and selected at 16-wk-old for a 10-wk feeding experiment. Fifteen intact male and caponized male chickens (capon) respectively were assigned to trial 1. Ten sham-operated chickens and 40 capons (randomly allocated into four treatments) were implanted with cholesterol (1.62 mm i.d., 3.16 mm o.d.,
mg), low (1 mm i.d., 3 mm o.d.,
mg), medium (1.62 mm i.d., 3.16 mm o.d.,
mg) or high dose (2 mm i.d., 4 mm o.d.,
mg) of testosterone in trial 2. The results from trial 1 showed that the tibia length, relative tibia weight, breaking strength, bending moment and stress in intact males were higher than capons (p<0.05). The blood phosphorus concentration in capons was higher than the intact male chickens (p<0.05). Caponization also resulted in more antrums and osteoclasts within periosteum and cortical bone from histological observation. In trial 2, the adverse impact of caponization on the bone breaking strength, bending moment and stress could be alleviated through medium dose testosterone implantation. It appears that caponization reduced androgen secretion hence influenced the biomechanical characteristics of bone (tibia) and these adverse effects could be alleviated through appropriate dose of testosterone implantation.
Effect of Donor Cell Types and Passages on Preimplantation Development and Apoptosis in Porcine Cloned Embryos
Lee, Youn-Su ; Ock, Sun-A ; Cho, Seong-Keun ; Jeon, Byeong-Gyun ; Kang, Tae-Young ; Balasubramanian, S. ; Choe, Sang-Yong ; Rho, Gyu-Jin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 711~717
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.711
In this study, two cell types from porcine females, namely fetal fibroblasts (pFFs) and adult ear fibroblasts (pAEFs) and two passages (3-4 and 7-8) were investigated by evaluating the development rate, blastocyst cell number and the incidence of apoptosis. No significant differences were observed in the cleavage rates of cloned and IVF embryos. The blastocyst rates between the embryos cloned with pFFs (
) and pAEFs (
) did not differ significantly but was significantly (p<0.05) lower in pAEFs than that in IVF (
) embryos. Total cell number in pFFs (
) and pAEFs cloned blastocysts (
) was significantly (p<0.05) lesser than IVF control (
). Apoptosis rates between cloned blastocysts differed significantly (p<0.05) and were significantly (p<0.05) higher than IVF embryos. The blastocyst rates between the cloned embryos cloned with different cell passages did not differ significantly but in embryos cloned with 7-8 cell passage was significantly (p<0.05) lower than the IVF control. Apoptosis signals were detected in IVF and cloned embryos as early as day 3 and the rates of apoptosis increased concurrently with the embryo development. In conclusion, high apoptosis during in vitro preimplantation development resulted in low development rate and total cell number of cloned embryos. Moreover, based on the apoptotic incidence in cloned blastocysts, fetal fibroblasts are more suitable for production of cloned embryos in porcine.
Effect of Oocyte Activation Regimens on Ploidy of Nuclear Transfer Embryos Reconstructed with Fetal Fibroblasts in Rabbit
Yoo, Jae-Gyu ; Rho, Gyu-Jin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 718~724
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.718
Considerable attention has been focused on the cloning of mammalian embryos, as a consequence of poor development, in order to enhance the application of genetic engineering. Experiments were conducted to compare the developmental competence of parthenotes and reconstructed (NT) rabbit eggs with fetal fibroblasts (FFs) following various activation regimens. Oocytes and NT eggs were exposed to: electric stimulation (EST, Group 1) and EST followed by 6-dimethylaminopurine (DMAP, Group 2), cycloheximide (CHX, Group 3) or DMAP/CHX (Group 4). Pronuclear (PN) status, cleavage, blastocyst development and the ploidy were assessed. In parthenote groups 1, 2, 3 and 4, the PN formation differed significantly. And, the cleavage and blastocyst rates were 41.7 and 5%, 75.6 and 53.7%, 68 and 36%, 82.1 and 52.6%, respectively, among treatments. Polyploidy was observed in 17.2% of EST plus DMAP and 44.9% of EST plus DMAP/CHX groups. In SCNT groups (Group 1, 2, 3 and 4), the cleavage and blastocyst rates were 28.6 and 7.1%, 58.3 and 29.2%, 56.8 and 24.1%, 64.5 and 27.8%, respectively. The chromosomal composition differed significantly (p<0.05) among treatments. In Group 2 and 3, 53.8% and 81.8% of embryos revealed diploid chromosomal sets, respectively. However, in Group 4, 53.3% of embryos showed abnormal ploidy (mixoploid). Although DMAP or combination with DMAP/CHX resulted in higher in vitro development of rabbit SCNT embryos, higher incidence of chromosomal abnormality may induce problems related to fetal loss of at late stage of development.
Effects of Supplementing Gamba Grass (Andropogon gayanus) with Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) Hay and Cassava Root Chips on Feed Intake, Digestibility and Growth in Goats
Phengvichith, Vanthong ; Ledin, Inger ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 725~732
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.725
The effects of supplementing Gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus) with varying levels of hay from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) and dried cassava root chip on growth and diet digestibility were studied using local male goats with an average initial body weight of 14.0 kg. Thirty-two animals were allocated to a completely randomized
factorial design with eight animals per treatment. The factors were two levels of cassava hay (25% and 35% of an expected dry matter (DM) intake of 3% of body weight) and cassava root chips (0 or 1% of body weight) on an individual basis with grass offered ad libitum. Another four animals were assigned to a
Latin square design to study digestibility, and were given the same four diets as in the growth experiment. Total DM intake was significantly higher in the group fed diets with cassava hay and root while the DM intake of Gamba grass was not significantly different between treatments. The supplementation with cassava hay and root increased the apparent digestibility of DM, organic matter and N and resulted in a higher N-retention. The apparent digestibility of neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fiber was not affected significantly. The average daily gain of animals fed diets supplemented with both cassava hay and root was significantly higher than for the animals supplemented with cassava hay alone. The highest daily gain recorded was 70 g/day. In conclusion, supplementing a basal diet of Gamba grass with cassava hay and root chips improved DM intake, digestibility, N-retention and weight gain. In order to minimize the waste of cassava hay, the inclusion level of cassava hay can be recommended to be 25% of expected DM intake, which would give acceptable intake and growth performance when cassava root is included in the diet.
Effects of Intra-duodenal Infusion of Limiting Amino Acids on Plasma Insulin-like Growth Factor I, Growth Hormone, Insulin and Liver Insulin-like Growth Factor I mRNA in Growing Goat Fed a Maize Stover-based Diet
Sun, Z.H. ; Tan, Z.L. ; Yao, J.H. ; Tang, Z.R. ; Shan, J.G. ; Hu, J.P. ; Tang, S.X. ; Jiang, Y.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 733~741
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.733
The effects of intra-duodenal infusion of methionine (Met), lysine (Lys) and leucine (Leu) on dry matter intake (DMI), the concentrations of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), growth hormone (GH) and insulin in plasma, and liver IGF-I mRNA level were investigated in two experiments for Liuyang Black growing wether goats. In Experiment 1, three goats (
kg) were fitted with ruminal, proximal duodenal and terminal ileal fistulaes to determine the infusion amounts of Met, Lys and Leu at the duodenum according to essential amino acid flows into the duodenum and their apparent digestibility. The infusion amounts were 0.77 g/d, 0.91 g/d and 0.58 g/d respectively. In Experiment 2, 4 groups of goats ((
kg) for each group, were cannulated at the duodenum, and were infused with a mixture of Met, Lys and Leu (Control), or mixtures with 21% Met, Lys or Leu replaced with glutamate respectively on a nitrogenous basis. The replacement of 21% Met, Lys or Leu with glutamate did not affect intakes of maize stover, concentrate or both (p>0.05) when compared with the control. The replacement of 21% Met or Lys significantly (p<0.05) reduced plasma GH, insulin and IGF-I concentrations and liver IGF-I mRNA level. The replacement of 21% Leu with glutamate reduced (p<0.05) plasma IGF-I concentration only, but not plasma insulin and GH, as well as liver IGF-I mRNA level (p>0.05). The close relationships between supplying Met and Lys in the lumen of the duodenum and plasma IGF-I, GH and insulin concentrations, as well as liver IGF-I mRNA level in this study indicate that the effects of the limiting amino acids on nutrition of animals are likely intermediated via their effects on these hormones, and these hormone profiles could be used as intermediate markers for the limiting order of amino acids.
Effects of Long-term Heat Exposure on Adaptive Mechanism of Blood Acid-base in Buffalo Calves
Korde, J.P. ; Singh, G. ; Varshney, V.P. ; Shukla, D.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 742~747
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.742
In order to investigate the mechanism of adaptation to long-term heat stress, six female buffalo calves of about 7 to 8 months age, were exposed to the cool-comfort environment (THI 65) for 21 days to obtain normal values of blood acid-base. An adaptive response of acid-base regulation was determined to long term (21 days) exposure of buffalo calves to hot-dry (THI 80) and hot-humid (THI 84) conditions. Higher rectal temperature and respiratory rate was recorded under hot-humid exposure compared to hot-dry. Significant reduction in the rectal temperature and respiratory rate on day 21 of hot-dry exposure indicated early thermal adaptation compared to hot-humid. Decreasing rectal temperature and respiratory rate from day 1 to 21 was associated with concurrent decrease in blood pH and pCO2. Increased plasma chloride concentration with low base excess in blood and in extracellular fluid suggested compensatory response to respiratory alkalosis. Reduced fractional excretion of sodium with increased fractional excretion of potassium and urine flow rate indicated renal adaptive response to heat stress.
Serum Biochemical Values during Antler Growth in Sika Deer (Cervus nippon)
Jeon, B.T. ; Kang, S.K. ; Lee, S.M. ; Hong, S.K. ; Moon, S.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 748~753
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.748
Serum biochemical values were measured in blood samples collected from 8 fasted stags from both jugular and femoral veins at 18-day intervals during antler growth. Samples were analyzed for blood substrate, enzyme activity values, minerals and electrolyte. There were no significant differences in total protein, albumin, urea, creatinine, triglyceride, glucose or cholesterol concentration between veins or sampling dates. However, total-bilirubin concentration in the jugular vein on the casting date was three times higher than on the other sampling dates (p<0.05). There were no significant differences in alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, and alanine aminotransferase with progressing antler growth. The highest level of alkaline phosphatase concentration was on day 55 after casting. There were no significant differences in inorganic phosphorus, sodium and chloride concentration between jugular and femoral samples. Calcium concentration was significantly higher in the femoral vein on the cutting date (55 day) than in the jugular vein (p<0.05). There were few changes in serum biochemical values. However, some electrolytes and minerals had differences during antler growth. It is suggested that despite such a big event as antler growth, blood biochemical values are not variable if feeding conditions are consistently maintained as was the case in this study.
Effect of Dietary Inclusion of Dehydrated Food Waste Products on Taiwan Native Chicken (Taishi No. 13)
Chen, Kuo-Lung ; Chang, Hwang-Jen ; Yang, Ching-Ke ; You, Shanq-Huei ; Jenq, Horng-Der ; Yu, Bi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 754~760
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.754
The effect of dehydrated food waste product (DFWP) inclusion in diets of Taiwan native chickens on the growth performance, carcass traits, clinical blood chemistry and nutrient digestibility was investigated with 320 male Taishi Native Chickens (Taishi No. 13). They were randomly allocated into four levels of DFWP inclusion (0, 5, 10, or 20%) treatment. Each treatment had 80 chickens with four replicates. At 15 weeks of age, 8 chickens were selected from each group for the nutrient digestibility trial. The results showed that body weight gain during the 0 to 4 week period decreased as the feed intake and feed conversion rate (FCR) increased linearly with increasing level of DFWP inclusion. During the 4 to 8 week period, greater body weight gains were recorded for the birds on the 5% DFWP inclusion level than for the control (p<0.05). During 8 to16 weeks, the feed intake and FCR increased linearly (p<0.05). Interestingly too, results of the carcass analysis showed that DFWP inclusion up to 20% in the diet significantly decreased the relative abdominal fat weight but increased the relative proventriculus and gizzard weights of the birds. However, other carcass parameters, meat quality and sensory scores were not significantly influenced by the dietary DFWP inclusion levels (p>0.05). Higher serum aspartate aminotransferase,
-glutamyltransferase activity and crude protein digestibility, and lower gross energy digestibility were observed in the 20% DFWP group compared to the control (p<0.05). Dietary DFWP inclusion was inappropriate during the 0 to 4 week period. During 4 to 8 weeks, there was no adverse effect on chicken performance in the 20% group. There was no disadvantage on carcass properties and in the meat panel test. This result would not affect consumer determination.
Intramuscular Administration of Zinc Metallothionein to Preslaughter Stressed Pigs Improves Anti-oxidative Status and Pork Quality
Li, L.L. ; Hou, Z.P. ; Yin, Y.L. ; Liu, Y.H. ; Hou, D.X. ; Zhang, B. ; Wu, G.Y. ; Kim, S.W. ; Fan, M.Z. ; Yang, C.B. ; Kong, X.F. ; Tang, Z.R. ; Peng, H.Z. ; Deng, D. ; Deng, Z.Y. ; Xie, M.Y. ; Xiong, H. ; Kang, P. ; Wang, S.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 761~767
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.761
This study was conducted to determine the effects of exogenous zinc-metallothionein (Zn-MT) on anti-oxidative function and pork quality. After feeding a corn-soybean meal-based diet for two weeks, 48 pigs (
) were assigned randomly to four groups. Pigs in Group 1 were maintained under non-stress conditions, whereas pigs in Groups 2, 3 and 4 were aggressively handled for 25 min to produce stress. Pigs in Groups 1, 2, 3, and 4 received intramuscular administration of saline (control group; CON), 0 (negative control group; NCON), 0.8 (low dose group; LOW), and 1.6 (high dose group; HIGH) mg rabbit liver Zn-MT per kg body weight, respectively. Pigs were slaughtered at 3 and 6 h post-injection. Zn-MT treatment increased (p<0.05) the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) while decreasing the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in liver. These responses were greater (p<0.05) at 6 h than at 3 h post Zn-MT injection. Zn-MT treatment increased (p<0.05) hepatic SOD mRNA levels in a time and dose-dependent manner and decreased (p<0.05) serum glutamate-pyruvate transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase activities (indicators of tissue integrity). Zn-MT administration decreased (p<0.05) lactate concentration and increased (p<0.05) pH and water-holding capacity in the longissimus thorasis meat. Collectively, our results indicate that intramuscular administration of Zn-MT to pre-slaughter stressed pigs improved tissue anti-oxidative ability and meat quality.
The Effect of Dietary Docosahexaenoic Acid Enrichment on the Expression of Porcine Hepatic Genes
Chang, W.C. ; Chen, C.H. ; Cheng, W.T.K. ; Ding, S.T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 768~774
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.768
To study the effect of dietary docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) enrichment on the expression of hepatic genes in pigs, weaned, crossbred pigs (30 d old) were fed diets supplemented with either 2% tallow or DHA oil for 18 d. Hepatic mRNA was extracted. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to explore the hepatic genes that were specifically regulated by dietary DHA enrichment. After subtraction, we observed 288 cDNA fragments differentially expressed in livers from pigs fed either 2% DHA oil or 2% tallow for 18 d. After differential screening, 7 genes were found to be differentially expressed. Serum amyloid A protein 2 (SAA2) was further investigated because of its role in lipid metabolism. Northern analysis indicated that hepatic SAA2 was upregulated by dietary DHA enrichment (p<0.05). In a second experiment, feeding 10% DHA oil for 2d significantly increased the expression of SAA2 (compared to the 10% tallow group; p<0.05). The porcine SAA2 full length cDNA sequence was cloned and the sequence was compared to the human and mouse sequences. The homology of the SAA2 amino acid sequence between pig and human was 73% and between pig and mouse was 62%. There was a considerable difference in SAA2 sequences among these species. Of particular note was a deletion of 8 amino acids, in the pig compared to the human. This fragment is a specific characteristic for the SAA subtype that involved in acute inflammation reaction. Similar to human and mouse, porcine SAA2 was highly expressed in the liver of pigs. It was not detectable in the skeletal muscle, heart muscle, spleen, kidney, lung, and adipose tissue. These data suggest that SAA2 may be involved in mediation of the function of dietary DHA in the liver of the pig, however, the mechanism is not yet clear.
Comparative Efficacy of Different Soy Protein Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Intestinal Morphology in Weaned Pigs
Yang, Y.X. ; Kim, Y.G. ; Lohakare, J.D. ; Yun, J.H. ; Lee, J.K. ; Kwon, M.S. ; Park, J.I. ; Choi, J.Y. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 775~783
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.775
To elucidate the efficacy of different soy protein sources on piglet's performance, a total of 280 weaned piglets (
d of age,
kg initial BW) were allotted to 5 treatment diets comprising soybean meal (SBM), soy protein concentrate (SPC), Hamlet protein (HP300), fungal (Aspergillus oryzae) fermented soy protein (FSP-A), and fungal plus bacterial (A. oryzae+Bacillus subtilis) fermented soy protein (FSP-B), respectively. Experimental diets for feeding trial were formulated to contain each soy protein sources at 8% level to corn-whey powder basal diet. There were 14 pigs per pen and 4 pens per treatment. Experimental diets were fed from 0 to 14 d after weaning and then a common commercial diet was fed from 15 to 35 d. Also for ileal digestibility studies, 18 pigs were assigned to 6 dietary treatments as N-free, SBM, SPC, HP300, FSP-A and FSP-B with T-canulation at distal ileum for 6 days. At
d of experimental feeding, the ADG was significantly higher (p<0.05) in SPC fed diet as compared with others. Similar trend was noticed during the 15-35 d and overall study (0-35 d). All the processed soy protein sources tested in this experiment improved (p<0.05) growth than SBM during overall study. The nutrient digestibility of GE, DM, CP and Ca showed lower (p<0.05) values in SBM and FSP-A fed groups than SPC and FSP-B treatments. The apparent ileal digestibility of TEAA, non-TEAA and TAA showed lower (p<0.05) in SBM treatments compared with other soy protein sources. The true ileal digestibility of TEAA, non-TEAA and TAA were lower (p<0.05) in SBM fed group than SPC and HP300 treatments, and lower than FSP treatments though they didn't achieve significant difference (p>0.05). Villous height and crypt depth was not affected by dietary treatments. In conclusion, the growth and digestibility of nutrients in weaned pigs fed SPC was superior to others. Also FSP-A and FSP-B showed improved performance than those fed SBM.
Improved Expression of Muscle-derived Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone from
-Skeletal-muscle Actin Enhancer/Cytomegalovirus Hybrid Enhancer/Promoter
Gong, Xia ; Meng, Qingyong ; Jin, Weiwu ; Li, Ning ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 784~788
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.784
Growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH), a hypothalamic neuropeptide can stimulate the growth hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary. In this study, a porcine GHRH expression plasmid pHC-GHRH was used to enhance growth performance through ectopic expressions in muscle tissues of rats. Rats injected with the plasmid of pHC-GHRH and pCMV-GHRH exhibited cumulative weight gains 6.4% and 1% greater than controls. During a 5-day period, significant weight gain differences were observed as follows compared with that of control: during 5-10 days post-injection (DPI) period, the group pHC-GHRH on average 14.5% heavier than controls,
g (p = 0.0023); during 10-15 DPI period, the group pHC-GHRH on average 13.6% heavier than controls,
g (p = 0.0146); during 15-20 DPI period, the group pHC-GHRH on average 17.8% heavier than controls,
g (p<0.05). In addition, plasmids-treated rats maintained higher serum IGF-I than controls. Significant differences of IGF-I were observed on 13 DPI and on 40 DPI in pHC-GHRH group compared with that of controls. This was accomplished through the use of an improved expression cassette that included the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate early enhancer/promoter in combination with a 1.5-kilobase portion of porcine
-skeletal muscle actin promoter.
Year-round Monitoring of Verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli from Feces of Dairy Cattle
Kobayashi, Y. ; El-Sawy, H.B.I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 789~794
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.789
A PCR-aided monitoring of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli (VTEC) was performed over the period of 12 months by using fresh feces collected monthly from 5 dairy cows that had been identified as VTEC carriers. The PCR products were confirmed to be verotoxin genes by Southern hybridization using a gene fragment of verotoxin 2 as a probe. Although seasonal variation of VTEC shedding seemed to depend on each cow, several factors may have influenced the frequency of detection. Shedding of VTEC tended to be reduced during grazing from the middle of May up to the beginning of October. Only one cow was positive for VTEC in August. Dry-off was also suggested to have a depressive effect on VTEC shedding, i.e. 3 of 4 dry cows showed no shedding of VTEC. Contrary to these factors, winter or indoor rearing tended to increase VTEC with only 5/24 samples being negative during the period from November to April. Total VFA concentration was higher (p<0.05) in VTEC-positive feces than in VTEC-negative feces, while fecal pH and VFA proportions were not different. Partial sequences of verotoxin genes from feces of 4 VTEC-positive cows were nearly identical (99-100%), suggesting that gut bacteria sharing the same gene were distributed among the cows. The present results indicate that grazing and dry-off could be factors which reduce VTEC shedding, while winter/indoor rearing may be a factor which increases the shedding, possibly through on-farm interactions.
Viability and Functions of Alginate-microencapsulated Islets Isolated from Neonatal Pigs
Lin, Yi-Juain ; Wang, Jui-Ping ; Chung, Yu-Tung ; Sun, Yu-Ling ; Chou, Yu-Chi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 795~801
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.795
Patients with Type I diabetes mellitus have been treated with porcine insulin for several decades and pigs have recently been deemed an ideal source of microencapsulated islet cells for clinical xenotransplantation. In this study, neonatal pigs were anesthetized and sacrificed prior to a pancreatectomy. Islet cells were isolated from pancreas via collagenase digestion. Islet cells were separated and collected by hand under microscopic guidance. These cells were suspended in 1.4% sodium alginate solution and encapsulated by dropping them into 1.1% calcium chloride solution and in which the round gel in size was 250-400
in diameter. Viability of the microencapsulated islet cells cultured in medium at
was assessed by MTT assay. Furthermore, insulin released in response to glucose challenge was investigated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Secretion of insulin was low in response to the basal glucose solution (4.4 mM) in medium and was significantly higher in response to the high glucose solution (16.7 mM). The viability of microencapsulated islet cells did not differ significantly over a period of 7 days; that is, the increasing pattern of insulin concentration in the culture medium after glucose stimulation interval day was similar throughout the 7 days cultivation. In summary, experimental evidences indicated that the effects of alginate-microencapsulation prolonged survival of the neonatal porcine islets in vitro cultures and the insulin response to glucose of the islets was maintained.
Fibrobacter succinogenes, a Dominant Fibrolytic Ruminal Bacterium: Transition to the Post Genomic Era
Jun, H.S. ; Qi, M. ; Ha, J.K. ; Forsberg, C.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 5, 2007, Pages 802~810
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.802
Fibrobacter succinogenes, a Gram-negative, anaerobic ruminal bacterium is a major fibre digesting species in the rumen. It intensively degrades plant cell walls by an erosion type of mechanism, burrowing its way through the complex matrix of cellulose and hemicellulose with the release of digestible and undigested cell wall fragments. The enzymes involved in this process include a combination of glucanases, xylanases, arabinofuranosidase(s) and esterases. The genome of the bacterium has been sequenced and this has revealed in excess of 100 putative glycosyl hydrolase, pectate lyase and carbohydrate esterase genes, which is greater than the numbers reported present in other major cellulolytic organisms for which genomes have been sequenced. Modelling of the amino acid sequences of two glycanases, CedA and EGB, by reference to crystallized homologs has enabled prediction of the major features of their tertiary structures. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis in conjunction with mass spectroscopy has permitted the documentation of proteins over expressed in F. succinogenes grown on cellulose, and analysis of the cell surfaces of mutant strains unable to bind to cellulose has enabled the identification of candidate proteins with roles in adhesion to the plant cell wall substrate, the precursor to cellulose biodegradation.