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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Postnatal Expression Pattern of Adipose Type Fatty Acid Binding Protein in Different Adipose Tissues of Porcine
Xu, C.L. ; Wang, Y.H. ; Huang, Y.H. ; Liu, J.X. ; Feng, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 811~816
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.811
Adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), which belongs to the FABP family, plays an essential role in long-chain fatty acid uptake and metabolic homeostasis, especially in adipose tissue. The pattern of A-FABP gene mRNA expression in different growth stages and its relation to intramuscular fat (IMF) accretion in pigs was studied. Fifteen female
pigs in five groups of three pigs each, weighing 1, 30, 50, 70 and 90 kg were used to study developmental gene mRNA expression of A-FABP in various adipose tissues by means of semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Results showed that A-FABP mRNA levels in subcutaneous and ventral adipose tissues first increased from 1 to 50 kg, then gradually declined from 50 to 90 kg. Moreover, the rank order of A-FABP mRNA levels determined in three adipose tissues was as follows: subcutaneous adipose>ventral adipose>mesenteric adipose. A-FABP mRNA expression in mesenteric adipose tissue was constant during development. In addition, a positive correlation from 1 to 50 kg BW pigs and a negative correlation from 50 to 90 kg BW between A-FABP mRNA levels in subcutaneous and ventral adipose and IMF content were found.
Association of Sequence Variations in DGAT 1 Gene with Economic Traits in Hanwoo (Korea Cattle)
Kong, H.S. ; Oh, J.D. ; Lee, J.H. ; Yoon, D.H. ; Choi, Y.H. ; Cho, B.W. ; Lee, H.K. ; Jeon, G.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 817~820
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.817
The effects of diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) candidate gene polymorphism on the economic traits of Hanwoo were studied. Through sequencing analysis, two polymorphism sites at K232A and T11993C were established and were analyzed by PCR-RFLP. The PCR-RFLP analysis for K232A showed that the frequencies of alleles K and A were 0.75 and 0.25, respectively, and the frequencies of genotypes for K/K, K/A and A/A were estimated as 0.509, 0.491 and 0, respectively. In the PCR-RFLP analysis for T11993C, we found allele frequencies of 0.773 and 0.227 for T and A, respectively, and 0.546, 0.454 and 0 for the T/T, T/C and C/C genotype frequencies, respectively. No significant effects on economic traits in Hanwoo were found in the separate analysis of K232A and T11993C polymorphisms, but the interaction between K232A and T11993C showed a significant effect (p<0.005) on marbling score. The DGAT1 candidate gene was found to have a significant effect not only on milk yield and component traits but also on the metabolism of intramuscular fat.
Effect of the Polymorphisms of Keratin Associated Protein 8.2 Gene on Fibre Traits in Inner Mongolia Cashmere Goats
Liu, Haiying ; Li, Ning ; Jia, Cunling ; Zhu, Xiaoping ; Jia, Zhihai ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 821~826
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.821
The aim of the experiment was to detect polymorphisms in the keratin-associated protein 8.2 (KAP8.2) gene to determine associations between the genotype and fibre traits in Chinese Inner Mongolia cashmere goats. The fibre traits data investigated were cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length. Five hundred and forty-two animals were used to detect polymorphisms in the complete coding sequence of the hircine KAP8.2 gene by means of PCR-SSCP. The results identified six genotypes, AA, BB, DD, AB, AD and BD, coded for by three different alleles A, B and D. Two SNPs in the coding region were confirmed by sequencing, which were A214G and T218C respectively. The relationships between the genotypes and cashmere fibre diameter, combed cashmere weight, cashmere fibre length and guard hair length were analyzed. There were significant differences (p<0.01) between the associations of the different genotypes with cashmere fibre diameter, cashmere weight and hair length. Cashmere length was the only trait that was not associated with the genotypes. The genotype AA (0.73) was found to be predominant in Inner Mongolia cashmere goats and the animals with this genotype had the thinnest cashmere fibre diameter compared with the other genotypes. These results suggested that polymorphisms in the hircine KAP8.2 gene may be a potential molecular marker for cashmere fibre diameter in cashmere goats.
Cloning and Prokaryotic Expression of the Mature Fragment of the Chinese Yellow Bovine Myostatin Gene
Lu, Wenfa ; Zhao, Jing ; Wei, Guojian ; Shan, Wuesong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 827~831
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.827
Myostatin is a member of the transforming growth factor-
super-family. It acts as a negative regulator for skeletal muscle growth. Myostatin mutations are characterized by a visible, generalized increase in muscle mass in double muscled cattle breeds. To understand the biochemistry and physiology of the Chinese Yellow bovine myostatin gene, we report here for the first time expression of the gene in Escherichia coli (E. coli). Primers of the myostatin gene of Chinese Yellow Cattle were designed on the basis of the reported bovine myostatin mRNA sequence (Gen-Bank Accession No. NM005259) and optimized for E. coli codon usage. XhoI and EcoRI restriction enzyme sites were incorporated in the primers, and then cloning vector and expression vector were constructed in a different host bacterium. The expressed protein had a molecule mass of about 16 kDa as determined by SDS-PAGE under reducing conditions. The expressed protein reacted specifically with myostatin monoclonal antibody on immunoblots. Our studies should lead to the investigation of the differences in myostatin genes of various cattle and could benefit human health and food animal agriculture.
Rectal Temperature of Lactating Sows in a Tropical Humid Climate according to Breed, Parity and Season
Gourdine, J.L. ; Bidanel, J.P. ; Noblet, J. ; Renaudeau, D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 832~841
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.832
Rectal Temperature;Thermoregulation;Sows;Breed;The effects of season (hot vs. warm) in a tropical humid climate, parity (primiparous vs. multiparous) and breed (Creole: CR, Large White: LW) on rectal temperature (RT) were studied for a total of 222 lactations obtained in 85 sows (43 CR and 42 LW; 56 primiparous and 166 multiparous) over a 28-d lactation, between June 2002 and April 2005. Mean daily ambient temperature was higher during the hot season than during the warm season (26.0 vs.
) and relative humidity was high and similar in both seasons (89% on average). At farrowing, BW was lower (172 vs. 233 kg) and backfat thickness was higher (37 vs. 21 mm) in CR than in LW sows (p<0.01). During the hot season, the reduction of average daily feed intake (ADFI) was more pronounced in LW than in CR sows (-920 vs. -480 g/d, p<0.05). Rectal temperature was higher at 1200 than at 0700hr, which coincides with the maximum and the minimum values of daily ambient temperature. The daily RT increased (
; p<0.01) between d -3 and d 7 (d 0: farrowing day), remained constant between d 7 and d 25 and decreased (p<0.01) thereafter (i.e.
between d 25 and d 32). The average daily RT was significantly higher during the hot than during the warm season (38.9 vs.
; p<0.01). It was not affected by breed, but the difference in RT between the hot and warm seasons was more pronounced in LW than in CR sows (+0.4 vs.
; p<0.05). Parity influenced the RT response; it was greater in primiparous than in multiparous sows (38.9 vs.
; p<0.01). This study suggests that thermoregulatory responses to heat stress can differ between breeds and between parities.
Production of Kids from In vitro Fertilized Goat Embryos and Their Parentage Assessment Using Microsatellite Markers
Malakar, D. ; Das, S.K. ; Mukesh, M. ; Sodhi, M. ; Goswami, S.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 842~849
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.842
The purpose of the present study was to produce live offspring from in vitro fertilized goat embryos. Oocytes were collected from abattoir ovaries and kept in oocyte collection medium. Oocytes were washed 4-5 times with maturation medium containing medium-199 with 5
gentamycin, 10% inactivated estrus goat serum, and 3% BSA (fatty acid free). Oocytes were placed in 100
drops of maturation medium containing granulosa cell monolayer and incubated in a 5%
for 27 h. For capacitation of spermatozoa fresh semen was processed and mixed in 3 ml fertilization TALP medium containing 50
heparin and kept in the above incubator for 2 h. The capacitated spermatozoa were coincubated with matured oocytes for fertilization. Cleaved embryos were separated and cultured in embryo development medium with oviductal cells and 494 embryos were produced. Recipient goats were synchronized with two injections of 15 mg
/goat 10 days apart. Eighty early stage embryos were transferred into the uterotubal junction of 14 surrogate mothers using laparoscopy techniques. One recipient delivered twin kids, whereas another two recipients each.delivered a single kid The parentage of these kids was evaluated using highly polymorphic co-dominant microsatellites markers. From the present study, it was concluded that live goat kids can be produced from in vitro matured and fertilized goat embryos, to the best of our knowledge for the first time in India.
Cloning and Expression of the Duck Leptin Gene and the Effect of Leptin on Food Intake and Fatty Deposition in Mice
Dai, Han Chuan ; Long, Liang Qi ; Zhang, Xiao Wei ; Zhang, Wei Min ; Wu, Xiao Xiong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 850~855
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.850
Leptin is the adipocyte-specific product of the obese gene and plays a major role in food intake and energy metabolism. Leptin research was mainly focused on mammalian species, but understanding of leptin and its function in poultry is very poor. In this study, the duck leptin gene was amplified using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) from duck liver RNA. The cDNA fragment was inserted into the pET-28a expression vector, and the resulting plasmid was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). Experimental mice were given an intraperitoneal injection of 10 mg/kg leptin dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), while the control mice were injected with PBS. The effect of leptin on food intake, body weight and fatty deposition in mice was detected. Sequence analysis revealed that duck leptin had a length of 438 nucleotides which encoded a peptide with 146 amino acid residues. The sequence shares highly homology to other animals. The coding sequence of duck leptin was 84 and 86% identical to human and pig leptin nucleotides sequence. Highest identity was with the rat coding sequence (95%). The identity of the amino acid sequence was 84, 82 and 96% respectively compared to that of the human, pig and rat. Results of SDS-PAGE analysis indicated that a fusion protein was specifically expressed in E. coli BL21 (DE3). The purified product was found to be biologically active during tests. Continuous administration of recombinant duck leptin inhibited food intake. Despite the decrease of food intake, leptin significantly induced body weight and fatty deposition. These changes were accompanied by a significant down-secretion of plasma glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride and insulin levels in mice. The observations provide evidence for an inhibitory effect of leptin in the regulation of food intake and for a potential role of duck leptin in the regulation of lipogenesis.
Development and Characterization of a Specific Anti-Caveolin-1 Antibody for Caveolin-1 Functional Study in Human, Goat and Mouse
Ke, Meng-Wei ; Jiang, Yan-Nian ; Li, Yi-Hung ; Tseng, Ting-Yu ; Kung, Ming-Shung ; Huang, Chiun-Sheng ; Cheng, Winston Teng-Kuei ; Hsu, Jih-Tay ; Ju, Yu-Ten ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 856~865
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.856
Caveolin-1 of the caveolin family of proteins regulates mammary gland development and has been shown to play a contradictory role in breast tumor progression. A specific anti-Caveolin-1 antibody will be useful for functional study of Caveolin-1 in different tissues. In this study, we generated a rabbit polyclonal antibody that specifically recognizes the N-terminal amino acids 50-65 of Caveolin-1. This polyclonal antibody specifically reacted with Caveolin-1 extracted from cells of different species, including human epithelial A431 cells, goat primary mammary epithelial cells and mice fibroblast NIH 3T3 cells, by Western blotting. Endogenous Caveolin-1 protein expressing in cells and normal human tissues was detected by this polyclonal antibody using immunocytofluorescent and immunohistochemical staining, respectively. Furthermore, an apparent decrease in Caveolin-1 expression in tumorous breast and colon tissues was detected by this polyclonal antibody. In conclusion, we have identified amino acids 50-65 of Caveolin-1, which contains an epitope that is specific to Caveolin-1 and is conserved in the human, goat and mouse. In future, this anti-Caveolin-1 antibody can be used to examine the progression of breast and colon cancers and to study functions of Caveolin-1 in human, goat and mouse cells.
Use of the Non-electrophoretic Method to Detect Testis Specific Protein Gene for Sexing in Preimplantation Bovine Embryos
Huang, Jinming ; You, Wei ; Wu, Naike ; Tan, Xiuwen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 866~871
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.866
Testis-specific protein (TSPY) is a Y-specific gene, with up to 200 copy numbers in bulls. In order to make bovine embryo sexing under farm condition more feasible, the possibility of using a non-electrophoretic method to detect the TSPY gene for sexing bovine early embryos was examined. Primers were designed to amplify a portion of the TSPY gene and a common gene as an internal control primer. PCR optimization was carried out using a DNA template from bovine whole blood. Furthermore, embryo samples were diagnosed by this method and the sexing results were contrasted with those of the Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) method. The results showed that TSPY was as reliable a sexing method as LAMP. Forty-three morula and blastocyst embryos collected from superovulated donor dairy cattle were sexed by this method, and twenty-one embryos judged to be female embryos were transferred non-surgically to recipients 6 to 8 days after natural estrus. Out of 21 recipients, 9 were pregnant (42.86%) and all delivered female calves. The results showed that the sex predicted by this protocol was 100% accurate. In conclusion, the TSPY gene was a good male specific marker and indicated that a non-electrophoretic method was feasible and accurate to detect the TSPY gene for sexing preimplantation bovine embryos.
Seasonal Changes in Voluntary Intake and Digestibility by Sheep Grazing Introduced Leymus chinensis Pasture
Sun, H.X. ; Zhou, D.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 872~879
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.872
A study was conducted to investigate the seasonal changes in nutrient composition of pasture, voluntary intake and digestibility of sheep grazing an introduced Leymus chinensis pasture located in western Jilin Province, China. The whole-plant of L. chinensis and the samples simulating ingestion by sheep (simulating sample) were collected in spring (May, 2004), summer (July, 2004), autumn (September, 2004) and the end of winter (April, 2005). The contents of gross energy (GE), organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and alkanes were determined. Voluntary intake and apparent digestibility of the nutrients in each season were also examined using 6 mature Chinese Northeast Merino ewes (differed among the seasons) grazing on a paddock of 1 ha size. The apparent digestibilities of GE, dry matter (DM), OM, CP, NDF and ADF of L. chinensis were significantly greater (p<0.05) in spring and summer than in autumn and winter. Metabolizable energy (ME) content was 12.13, 11.62, 8.66 and 10.40 MJ/kg DM for L. chinensis in spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively, and the corresponding voluntary feed intakes were 91, 119, 59 and 58 g/d per kg metabolic weight (
). The ME contents and DM intakes in autumn and winter were significantly lower than in spring and summer (p<0.05). The intake of L. chinensis pasture was sufficient to provide ME requirements for maintenance by the dry ewes in all the seasons, but inadequate for maintenance protein requirement in winter. (Supported by funds from National Basic Research Program of China, Grant No. 2007CB106800).
Ensiled or Oven-dried Green Tea By-product as Protein Feedstuffs: Effects of Tannin on Nutritive Value in Goats
Kondo, Makoto ; Kita, Kazumi ; Yokota, Hiro-omi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 880~886
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.880
Ensiled or oven-dried green tea by-products (GTB) were evaluated in goats for their nutritive potential as protein feedstuffs based on in vitro and in vivo digestibility. To elucidate the effects of tea tannin on in vitro digestibility, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used as a tannin binding agent. Both ensiled and dried GTB contained 31.9 to 32.6% of crude protein (CP) on a dry matter (DM) basis. Phenolics and tannins in soybean meal and alfalfa hay were low or not detected, but they were high in both ensiled and dried GTB (7.3-10.1% DM as total extractable tannins). In vitro protein digestibility in the rumen ranked: soybean meal>alfalfa hay cube>ensiled GTB = dried GTB. The protein digestibility post-ruminally of these feedstuffs showed a similar trend to that in the rumen, but the digestibility of ensiled GTB was significantly higher than that of dried GTB. Addition of PEG improved the in vitro protein digestibility of both kinds of GTB in the rumen and post-ruminally, indicating that tannins suppressed the potential protein digestibility of GTB. The increased protein digestibility by PEG addition was not significantly different between ensiled and dried GTB in the rumen, but the percentage increment of ensiled GTB was higher than dried GTB post-ruminally. In the in vivo digestibility trial, ensiled and dried GTB were offered to goats as partial substitutes for soybean meal and alfalfa hay cubes. Offering both GTB to goats as 5-10% on a DM basis did not affect nutrient digestibility, ruminal pH, volatile fatty acids, and ammonia concentration. However, the eating time of the GTB-incorporated diet was longer than that of the basal diet. It took 1.4 and 1.6 times longer than the control diet, to eat the diet completely when GTB silage was offered at 5 and 10% levels, respectively, of the total diet. These results show that ensiled and dried GTB are useful as partial substitutes for soybean meal and alfalfa hay cubes for goats with respect to nutritive value. Because of lessened palatability, it is recommended that GTB be incorporated into the diet at 5% on a DM basis.
Influence of Varying Dry Matter and Molasses Levels on Berseem and Lucerne Silage Characteristics and Their In situ Digestion Kinetics in Nili Buffalo Bulls
Touqir, N.A. ; Khan, M. Ajmal ; Sarwar, M. ; Nisa, M. ; Lee, W.S. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 887~893
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.887
Influences of forage DM and addition of cane molasses on silage characteristics of berseem (Trifolium alexandrium) and lucerne (Medicago sativa) and their ruminal digestion kinetics in Nili buffaloes were studied. Berseem and lucerne fodders (at one tenth bloom) were ensiled with wheat straw in laboratory silos to achieve 20, 30, 40% forage DM and without wheat straw (control); each forage DM level was supplemented with 2, 4 and 6% of cane molasses at ensiling. The pH and lactic acid contents of berseem and lucerne silages were affected by both forage DM and addition of molasses. Dry matter, CP and true protein (TP) of berseem and lucerne silages were affected by forage DM at ensiling but were not affected by the addition of cane molasses. Higher DM, CP and TP losses were observed when berseem and lucerne fodders were ensiled either without wheat straw or with wheat straw to achieve 20% and 40% forage DM at ensiling compared with 30% DM at ensiling. Fiber fractions (NDF, ADF, hemicellulose and cellulose) of berseem silage and lucerne silage were significantly increased with increasing forage DM at ensiling. Addition of cane molasses did not affect the DM, CP, TP and fiber fractions of both berseem and lucerne silages. Berseem and lucerne ensiled at 30% DM with 2% cane molasses were screened for comparative ruminal digestion kinetics with their respective fodders. Addition of wheat straw to berseem or lucerne fodder at ensiling depressed DM and NDF ruminal degradability. However, ruminal lag time, rate of degradation and extent of digestion of silages were similar to their respective fodders. In conclusion, berseem and lucerne could be ensiled with wheat straw to increase their DM to 30% along with 2% molasses for buffaloes.
Effects of Plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) Herb and Heat Exposure on Plasma Glucose Metabolism in Sheep
Al-Mamun, M. ; Tanaka, C. ; Hanai, Y. ; Tamura, Y. ; Sano, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 894~899
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.894
An experiment was conducted using a [6, 6-
]glucose isotope dilution method to determine the effects of plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) on plasma glucose metabolism in sheep taken from a thermoneutral environment and exposed to a hot environment. The sheep were fed either mixed hay (MH) of orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) at a 60:40 ratio or MH and plantain (PL) at a 9:1 ratio in a crossover design for each 23-day period. In both dietary treatments the metabolizable energy (ME) and crude protein intake were designed to be isoenergetic and isoproteinous at around maintenance level. The sheep were taken from a thermoneutral environment (
, 70% RH) and exposed to a hot environment (
, 70% RH) for 5 days. The isotope dilution method using a single injection of [6, 6-
]glucose was performed on the
day of the thermoneutral environment and on the
day of heat exposure. Plasma glucose pool size was numerically lower (p = 0.26) during heat exposure on both dietary treatments, and numerically higher (p = 0.13) on the MH diet irrespective of environmental temperature. Plasma NEFA concentration (p = 0.01) and glucose turnover rate (p = 0.03) were decreased during heat exposure, but remained similar between diets. It could be concluded that, although no positive impact of plantain on glucose metabolism was found under the present experimental conditions (plantain constituted only 10% of basal diet), plantain herb is an alternative to MH for rearing sheep in both thermoneutral and hot environments.
Comparison of Gayal (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus): Rumen Function, Digestibilities and Nitrogen Balance during Feeding of Pelleted Lucerne (Medicago sativum)
Deng, Weidong ; Wang, Liping ; Ma, Songcheng ; Jin, Bo ; He, Tianbao ; Yang, Zhifang ; Mao, Huaming ; Wanapat, Metha ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 900~907
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.900
Three male Gayal (Bos frontalis) and three male Yunnan Yellow cattle (Bos taurus) were fed pelleted lucerne and measurements made of digestibility, nitrogen utilisation, rumen fermentation and microbial population and key plasma metabolites. Total actual dry matter intake was similar but when expressed in terms of live weight or metabolic live weight feed intakes were significantly higher (p<0.05) for Gayal than cattle. Apparent digestibilities of dry matter, organic matter, fibre and dietary nitrogen were similar for both Gayal and cattle. Rumen ammonia nitrogen and total volatile fatty acids were significantly higher (p<0.05) for Gayal than cattle and total numbers of viable rumen bacteria, cellulolytic and amylolytic bacteria, but not proteolytic bacteria nor protozoa, were significantly greater (p<0.05) for Gayal than cattle. Although Gayal have a different rumen ecology to cattle, similar digestive parameters were exhibited. Further research is required to establish relationship between rumen ecology and digestive parameters.
Evaluation of Macro Mineral Contents of Forages: Influence of Pasture and Seasonal Variation
Khan, Zafar Iqbal ; Ashraf, M. ; Hussian, Altaf ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 908~913
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.908
Concentrations of major elements in forages were determined in relation to ruminant requirements at a livestock experimental station in Leiah district, Punjab-Pakistan using mapping techniques. The study investigated the influence of sampling periods and pasture types on the concentrations of calcium, magnesium, potassium, and sodium in forages. The implications of these forages for nutrition of ruminants were assessed for the livestock population at that particular experimental station, which are supported by the farm pastures. Within the farm, variations in the element status of the forages were related to soil pasture types. A tentative assessment of the mineral status of available forages at this farm for different pastures using guidelines developed for domestic animals indicated deficiencies of only Na, but forages contained adequate Ca, Mg, and K levels required for grazing ruminants. The concentrations of Na in the forage reserves indicated that the potential supply of this element to plants was limited from the soil to plants and from plants to the animals grazing them. Soil minerals were not measured in this study. The potential use of fertilizers, as pasture amendment as well as supplementation of ruminants, with a specifically tailored mineral mixture is important to livestock producers and environmentalists as well, because their use may improve forage nutritive value and in turn meet requirements of animals.
Limits of Exogenous Fibrolytic Enzymes to Improve Digestion and Intake of a Tropical Grass
Assoumaya, C. ; Boval, M. ; Weisbecker, J.L. ; Saminadin, G. ; Archimede, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 914~919
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.914
The effect of the addition of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (mainly xylanase and cellulase activities, 15 ml/15 kg of fresh forage), on intake, total tract digestibility and nylon bag degradability of a chopped fresh Digitaria decumbens grass was studied at 2 stages of regrowth ( 21 and 56-day old grasses). Moreover, comparisons between ground and chopped grass were done using the nylon bag degradability method. DM intake (g/kg
) and organic matter total tract digestibility for control and enzyme treatments respectively were 69.1 vs. 65.9 (p>0.05) and 0.723 vs. 0.727 (p>0.05) with the 21-day old regrowth. Based on the same parameters, values for the 56-day old grass were 58.1 vs. 52.7 (p>0.05) and 0.621 vs. 0.591 (p>0.05). Nylon bag degradation at 24 h of the dry matter for control versus enzyme treatments were 0.653 vs. 0.70 (p<0.05) and 0.644 vs. 0.733 (p<0.0001) for the 21-day old chopped and ground forage respectively, whereas with the 56-day old grass, corresponding values were 0.321 vs. 0.392 (p<0.0001) and 0.463 vs. 0.481 (p>0.05). The positive impact of exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on degradability of the young and ground pangola grass may suggest that in some cases, enzyme accessibility to potentially digestible cell wall is a limiting factor in their digestion.
Additive Effects of Green Tea on Fermented Juice of Epiphytic Lactic Acid Bacteria (FJLB) and the Fermentative Quality of Rhodesgrass Silage
Burrenok, Smerjai ; Tamaki, Masanobu ; Kawamoto, Yasuhiro ; Nakada, Tadashi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 920~924
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.920
Two experiments were carried out on a laboratory scale. The first involved a study of the effect of green tea on characteristics of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB). FJLB was treated with 50 g/L of green tea products as follows: new shoot powder (FJLB+N), leaf powder (FJLB+L), commercial powder (FJLB+P), sterilized new shoot powder (FJLB+SN), sterilized leaf powder (FJLB+SL) or sterilized commercial powder (FJLB+SP). FJLB without any additive was also prepared (Untreated FJLB). After incubation, the number of microorganisms in FJLB were studied. Subsequently, these FJLB were applied at 10 ml/kg to chopped rhodesgrass to study their effects on fermentation. Compared with untreated FJLB, the addition of green tea increased (p<0.05) lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and also aerobic bacteria counts in FJLB. At 60 d of ensiling, all the FJLB treated silages were well preserved, pH and butyric acid content were lower (p<0.001) and lactic acid was higher (p<0.001) than that of the control. Lactic acid content was significantly higher (p<0.001) with treated FJLB than with untreated FJLB. FJLB treated with sterilized green tea decreased (p<0.001) the pH and the lactic acid content was higher (p<0.001) than that in the unsterilized green tea silages.
Intake and Digestive Processes in the Rumen of Rams Fed with Digitaria decumbens Harvested at Four Stages of Grass Regrowth Age
Assoumaya, C. ; Boval, M. ; Sauvant, D. ; Xande, A. ; Poncet, C. ; Archimede, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 925~932
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.925
This study was designed to measure the effect of regrowth age of Digitaria decumbens (D. decumbens) on the intake and dynamics of digesta in the rumen of rams. Six Black-belly rams (mean liveweight: 51.6 (s.d. 0.68) kg) fitted with rumen cannulae were fed twice daily a 14-, 28-, 42- and 56-day old fresh D. decumbens successively for 4 experimental periods. The daily dry matter intake decreased curvilineary from 75.2 to 48.5 (s.e. 2.0) g/kg
as the age of the D. decumbens grass increased from 14 to 56 days. Dry matter intake for the first 3 h after the morning meal was 863.6, 598.3, 576.4 and 401.5 (s.e. 55.6) g for the 14-, 28-, 42- and 56-day old grasses respectively. The pool of NDF in the rumen at the end of the 3-h feeding period did not vary significantly among the four diets. Twelve hours after the beginning of the morning meal, the pool of NDF increased with the forage regrowth age. Within the total pool of NDF, the pool of large particles tended to increase with the regrowth age. It was concluded that high intake was associated with fast evacuation of NDF from the rumen. Moreover, digestion (cellulolysis) rate and degree of particle reduction by rumination are highly correlated, though speed of physical degradation of forage seems to be the driving force behind intake.
Requirement of Non-phytate Phosphorus in Synthetic Broiler Breeder Diet
Bhanja, S.K. ; Reddy, V.R. ; Panda, A.K. ; Rama Rao, S.V. ; Sharma, R.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 933~938
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.933
An experiment was conducted to study the laying performance, shell quality, bone mineralization, hatchability of eggs and performance of progeny (weight at day one and 14 d of age, P content in day old chick, leg score and survivability of chicks) of synthetic broiler breeders fed different levels of non-phytate phosphorus (NPP). Six levels of NPP (1.2, 1.8, 2.4, 3.0, 3.6 and 4.2 g/kg diet) at a constant calcium (Ca) level (30 g/kg) in a maize-soya-deoiled rice bran based diet were tested. Levels of dicalcium phosphate, shell grit and deoiled rice bran were adjusted to achieve the desired levels of NPP and Ca. Each level of NPP was fed with a weighed quantity of feed (160 g/b/d) to 40 female broiler breeders from 25 to 40 weeks of age housed in individual cages. Each bird was considered as a replicate. Egg production, feed/egg mass, body weight, egg weight, shell weight, shell thickness, egg specific gravity, serum Ca content and tibia breaking strength were not influenced (p>0.05) by the variation in dietary NPP levels tested. Increasing the dietary levels of NPP did not influence the hatchability of eggs, phosphorus (P) contents both in egg yolk and day old chick, chick body weight at day one and 14 d of age, leg score and survivability of chicks up to 14 d of age. Maximum response (
) in shell breaking strength, tibia ash and serum inorganic P contents were observed at NPP levels of 2.09, 2.25 and 3.50 g per kg diet, respectively. The retention of Ca increased, while the P retention decreased (
) with increasing dietary levels of NPP. Though maximum responses in shell breaking strength, bone ash and serum inorganic P were observed at NPP higher than 1.2 g/kg diet, the broiler breeder performance in terms of egg production, shell quality, hatchability of eggs and progeny performance and their survivability was not influenced by dietary NPP concentrations. It is concluded that synthetic broiler breeders maintained in cages do not require more than 1.2 g NPP/kg diet with a daily intake of 192 mg NPP/b/d during 24 to 40 weeks of age.
Lysine Requirement of Broiler Chickens Fed Low-density Diets under Tropical Conditions
Aftab, Usama ; Ashraf, Muhammad ; Mumtaz, Abdul Samad ; Jiang, Zhirong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 939~943
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.939
Two experiments were conducted to determine the lysine requirement of straight-run broiler chickens (
) during the period 4-21 (Exp. 1) and 21-40 (Exp. 2) days of age. Experiments were conducted during the summer months (June-August) in open-sided houses, thus exposing chicks to chronic heat stress. Daily min-max temperature averaged
(Exp. 1) and
(Exp. 2). Lysine deficient basal diets were formulated to contain low-nutrient-density, i.e., 2,700 kcal per kg ME, 18.6% CP (Exp. 1), and 2,750 kcal per kg ME, 17.1% CP (Exp. 2), to mimic typical commercial broiler diets used in Pakistan. Diets were supplemented with L-lysine HCl to provide total lysine level ranging from 0.85 to 1.10% (six increments) and 0.72 to 1.02% (six increments), respectively in Exp. 1 and 2. Live performance data were subjected to quadratic analysis and requirement was defined as the level achieving 95% of maximum or minimum values. Lysine requirements were found to be 0.98 and 0.97% total lysine, respectively, for gain and feed efficiency during 4-21 days, and 0.87% total lysine for both gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age. Calculated on a digestible lysine basis, the estimates were 0.85 and 0.84%, respectively, for gain and feed efficiency during 4-21 days of age; and 0.75% for gain and feed efficiency during 21-40 days of age.
The Effects of Dietary Garlic Powder on the Performance, Egg Traits and Blood Serum Cholesterol of Laying Quails
Yalcin, Sakine ; Onbasilar, Ilyas ; Sehu, Adnan ; Yalcin, Suzan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 944~947
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.944
This study was conducted to study the effects of dietary garlic powder on laying performance, egg traits and blood serum cholesterol level of quails. A total of three hundred quails (Coturnix coturnix japonica) aged nine weeks were used. They were allocated to 3 dietary treatments. Each treatment comprised 5 replicates of 20 quails. The diets were supplemented with 0, 5 and 10 g/kg garlic powder. The experimental period lasted 21 weeks. The addition of garlic powder did not significantly affect body weight, egg production, feed consumption, feed efficiency, egg shell thickness, egg albumen index, egg yolk index and egg Haugh unit. Adding 5 and 10 g/kg garlic powder to the laying quail diets increased egg weight (p<0.01). Egg yolk cholesterol and blood serum cholesterol concentration were reduced with garlic powder supplementation. The results of this study demonstrated that garlic powder addition had a significant cholesterol-reducing effect in serum and egg yolk without adverse effects on performance and egg traits of laying quails.
Relative Performance and Immune Response in White Leghorn Layers Fed Liquid DL-methionine Hydroxy Analogue and DL-methionine
Panda, A.K. ; Rama Rao, S.V. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Bhanja, S.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 948~953
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.948
The relative performance and immune response was evaluated in White Leghorn layers fed liquid DL-methionine hydroxyl analogue-free acid (MHA-FA) relative to dry DL-methionine (DLM) in maize-soybean-sunflower based diets. Three graded levels of methionine (Met) from DLM or MHA-FA were added to the basal diet containing 0.27% Met on an equimolar basis to achieve 0.30, 0.36 and 0.42% Met in the diet. Each diet was fed ad libitum to 25 replicates of one bird (individual feeding) each, from 24 to 40 weeks of age. A regime of 16 h light was provided and all the layers were kept under uniform management throughout the experimental period. None of the parameters studied were influenced by the interaction between source and level of Met in diets. Similarly, the majority of parameters, except for daily feed consumption and immune response (influenced by level) and egg specific gravity and shell thickness (influenced by source), were not affected by either source or level of Met in the diets. Feed consumption was significantly lower in the birds fed a diet containing 0.42% Met compared to those fed lower levels of Met. The cutaneous basophilic hypersensitivity response to PHA-P and antibody titre (32 and 40 wk) to inoculation of sheep red blood cells increased significantly by increasing the concentration of Met in the diet from 0.30 to 0.36%. Thus, the Met requirement for immune competence was higher than for optimum production. The source of Met significantly influenced the egg specific gravity and shell thickness. The specific gravity and shell thickness of eggs increased significantly when MHA-FA was used as the source of Met in the diet compared to DLM. From the study it is concluded that Met requirement for immune competence (360 mg/b/d) is higher than for optimum production (300 mg/b/d). MHA-FA was comparable with DLM as a source of Met for production performance and immunity, when the bioavailability of MHA-FA was considered as 88% of DLM. Further, MHA-FA improved egg shell quality compared to DLM.
Effect of a Mixture of Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Isomers on T Cell Subpopulation and Responsiveness to Mitogen in Splenocytes of Male Broiler Chicks
Takahashi, Kazuaki ; Kawamata, Kenji ; Akiba, Yukio ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 954~961
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.954
The experiments were conducted to determine effects of a mixture of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers on T cell subpopulations and responsiveness to mitogen of splenocytes in male broiler chicks. In experiment 1, birds (8-d old) were fed basal, CLA-(CLA) and safflower oil-supplemented (SA) diets which were formulated by supplementary 10 g CLA or safflower oil/kg to the basal diet for 14 d. Broiler starter diet, which mainly consisted of corn and soybean meal, was served as the basal diet. Proliferative response and interleukin (IL)-2-like activity stimulated by concanavalin (Con) A at a concentration of
of splenocytes in chicks fed the CLA diet were greater than in chicks fed the SA diet, but not at
Con A/ml. Percentage of CD3-positive T cells in splenocytes did not differ between chicks fed the SA diet and CLA. Ratio of CD4-positive T cells to CD8- positive T cells was significantly affected by dietary fat source. In experiment 2, broiler chicks (1-d old) were fed the same diets as in experiment 1 for 14 d. Results of splenocyte proliferation to Con A were similar to those in experiment 1, but phytohemaggulutinin (PHA)- or pokeweed mitogen (PWM)- induced splenocyte proliferation did not differ between the CLA and SA fed groups. Supplementation with SA or CLA to the basal diet tended to have a depressive effect on the proliferation, with the greater effect being that of SA. In experiment 3, effect of an addition of CLA to splenocyte culture medium on splenocyte proliferation was determined. An addition of CLA to the culture medium resulted in reduction of the splenocyte proliferation to Con A, but an addition of linoleic acid. When PWM and PHA were used as mitogen, the inhibitory effect of CLA and linoleic acid on the proliferation did not differ. The results suggested that the effect of dietary CLA on splenocyte proliferation was similar to that of SA, although the effect of dietary CLA on sub-populations was slightly different from that of dietary SA. Further studies are needed to clarify whether use of CLA would be beneficial for maintaining or enhancing T cell immunity in chicks.
Effect of Methionine Source and Dietary Crude Protein Level on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Nutrient Retention in Chinese Color-feathered Chicks
Xi, P.B. ; Yi, G.F. ; Lin, Y.C. ; Zheng, C.T. ; Jiang, Z.Y. ; Vazquez-Anon, M. ; Song, G.L. ; Knight, C.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 962~970
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.962
A total of 1,200 LinNan Chinese color-feathered chicks were used to study the effects of methionine source [DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa) or DL-methionine (DLM)] and dietary crude protein (CP) level on growth performance, carcass traits, and whole-body nitrogen and fat retention. The trial was designed as a
factorial arrangement, including two CP levels (adequate and low) and two methionine sources (HMTBa and DL-methionine). Diets were formulated for three phases, starter (0-21 d), grower (21-42 d), and finisher (42-63 d). Chicks fed HMTBa had higher daily gain and improved feed efficiency than DLM during the grower phase (p<0.05). A significant two-way interaction was observed for growth performance during the finisher phase and overall (0-63 d). Growth performance was greater for chicks fed HMTBa than DLM on adequate-CP diets (p<0.05), but this was not observed at low-CP level (p>0.05). Chicks fed low-CP diets grew slower, used feed less efficiently during the grower, finisher phase and overall. On d 42, regardless of dietary CP levels, birds fed HMTBa had higher carcass weights, breast and thigh weights than DLM-fed birds (p<0.04). Birds fed low-CP diet had lighter carcass weights and less breast muscle, thigh muscle, and dressing percentage at the end of starter, grower and finisher phases (p<0.05). Whole body composition analyses found that birds fed HMTBa tended to contain more protein and less fat compared to those chicks fed DLM at the end of the starter phase (p<0.10). Low-CP diets increased CP concentration in the whole body at the end of the finisher phase (p = 0.05). HMTBa supplementation increased whole-body N retention rate during the finisher phase and overall (p<0.01), and low-CP diets reduced N intake and whole-body fat retention during the finisher phase and overall (p<0.05). In summary, HMTBa was better than DLM on an equimolar basis for growth performance, carcass traits, and N retention in Chinese color-feathered chicks. Low-CP diets lowered growth performance as well as carcass traits in color-feathered birds, probably due to imbalanced AA profiles.
Nutritional Values of Red Pepper Seed Oil Meal and Effects of Its Supplementation on Performances and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chicks
An, B.K. ; Im, H.J. ; Kang, C.W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 971~975
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.971
Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding values of red pepper seed oil meal (RPSOM) and to investigate its dietary supplementation on broiler performances. In Exp. 1, nutritional values of RPSOM were evaluated by analyzing chemical composition and determining true metabolizable energy (TME), nitrogen corrected TME (TMEn) and true available amino acid (TAAA). RPSOM contained 22.50% of CP, 4.75% of ether extract, 27.70% of crude fiber, 4.73% of crude ash and 49.97 ppm of xanthophylls. The contents of capsaicin and dihydrocapsaicin were 34 mg and 31 mg/100 g DM, respectively. The values of TME and TMEn determined by force-feeding 16 roosters were 1.73 kcal/g and 1.63 kcal/g DM, respectively. The average TAAA value of 17 amino acids was 85.22%. In Exp. 2, a total of 225 Ross male broiler chicks, 3 weeks old, were randomly divided into 9 groups of 25 birds each and assigned to three experimental diets containing 0 (control), 5 or 10% RPSOM fed ad libitum for 3 weeks. No significant differences were observed in growth performances and carcass characteristics. The level of serum cholesterol in the 10% RPSOM group was significantly lower than that of the control group (113.92 vs. 137.50 mg/dl). The dietary RPSOM at 5 and 10% levels increased the content of C18:2
in leg muscle compared with the control group. The results suggested that RPSOM can be included into broiler feed up to 10% without any negative effects on broiler performances and physiological responses and used as a non-conventional plant protein source, if its nutritional values are well evaluated.
Effects of Supplementing with Single or Multiple Trace Minerals on Growth Performance, Fecal Mineral Excretion and Nutrient Utilization in Pullets from 1 to 18 Weeks of Age
Zhong, L.L. ; Yao, J.H. ; Cheng, N. ; Sun, Y.J. ; Liu, Y.R. ; Wang, Y.J. ; Sun, X.Q. ; Xi, H.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 976~982
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.976
This study investigated whether supplemental Cu, Fe, Zn, and Mn are needed in a practical diet for pullets. Four hundred and twenty females of an egg-laying strain (1-d-old, Lohmann Brown Layer) were randomly distributed into 4 groups, consisting of 7 replicates of 15 birds each. During the 18-week experimental period, chicks were given three basal diets in sequence, each with single or multiple Mn, Zn and Cu supplementation to improve the mineral balance gradually. In the Control, no Mn, Zn, and Cu were added; in the single Mn supplemented group (sMn) Mn was added to 120, 60, and 60 mg/kg for 1-6, 7-12, and 13-18 weeks of age, respectively; in the multiple Mn and Zn supplemented group (mMnZn), Mn was added to 180, 90, and 90 mg/kg and Zn was added to 120, 105, and 105 mg/kg for 1-6, 7-12, and 13-18 weeks of age, respectively; in the multiple Mn, Zn, Cu supplemented group (mMnZnCu), Mn, Zn, and Cu were added to the same multiple of basal Fe concentration relative to NRC (1994) recommendations. Energy and protein metabolizability were determined by subtracting energy/protein intake by energy/protein excretion (from both feces and urine) and dividing by energy/protein intake. There were no statistically significant differences between groups in terms of feed intake, final body weight or tibia length throughout the experiment. Optimal growth performance was observed in the Control, while adding trace minerals to basal diets tended to result in decreased productive performance. Protein metabolizability was increased by mMnZn and mMnZnCu treatments, but energy metabolizability was not affected. Concentrations of Mn, Zn, Cu in excreta varied greatly related to dietary content, and the retentions of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn were all increased due to the improvement of mineral balance. Based on these results, it is suggested that the concentrations of Cu, Fe, Zn and Mn in typical basal diets used in this study were adequate for normal growth for pullets from 1 to 18 weeks of age.
The Expression Changes of Casein mRNAs in Mammary Epithelial Cells Recovered from Bovine Milk during the Lactation Period
Ishii, Hiroshi ; Nakamura, Tadashi ; Higuchi, Munenori ; Mamada, Aya ; Fukushima, Michihiro ; Urashima, Tadasu ; Arai, Ikichi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 983~988
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.983
The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between bovine casein (CN) mRNA expression levels in mammary epithelial cells and lactation period, the yields of milk proteins and other parameters. The cells were collected from each cow's milk, which contained somatic cell counts (SCC) of less than 100,000 cells/ml. The levels of
-CN mRNA expression were significantly correlated with each other in mammary epithelial cells (p<0.01). All cows produced either less than 30 kg/day/cow or a over 30 kg/day/cow level of milk yield (MY). It was shown that the CN mRNA expression levels decreased gradually from the calving period to late lactation, when MY was over 30 kg/day/cow. The SCC tended to increase gradually during the course of lactation, but it was negatively correlated with milk protein and CN yields (p<0.01) when MY was less than 30 kg/day/cow. Moreover, there was a tendency for a negative correlation between SCC and
-CN mRNA expression level, when MY was less than 30 kg/day/cow (p<0.05).
Development of Lactose-hydrolyzed Milk with Low Sweetness Using Nanofiltration
Choi, S.H. ; Lee, S.-B. ; Won, H.-R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 989~993
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.989
A lactose-hydrolyzed milk with low sweetness was developed using nanofiltration. Raw milk was treated with 0.03%
for 24 h to hydrolyze lactose partially. The resultant lactose-hydrolyzed milk containing 0.43% lactose was then concentrated using a nanofiltration membrane to reach concentration factor of 2.13. The concentration factors and coefficients of retention of milk components in nanofiltration were determined. The concentration factor of milk fat was 2.20 which was the highest of the milk components. The coefficient of retention of calcium and riboflavin was 0.96 and 0.76, respectively. However, the coefficient of retention of glucose, galactose, and sodium was 0.21, 0.15, and 0.22, respectively. Raw milk was treated with 0.1%
for 40 h to hydrolyze lactose fully and then concentrated to reach a concentration factor of 1.6 by using nanofiltration. The concentrated milk was reconstituted with water. The lactose-hydrolyzed milk had sweetness similar to milk. The compositional ratios of crude protein, calcium, sodium, and riboflavin of lactose-hydrolyzed nanofiltrated milk to those of raw milk were 99%, 97%, 77%, and 80%, respectively. This study showed that nanofiltration of lactose-hydrolyzed milk to remove galactose and glucose did not cause significant loss of calcium. The lactose-hydrolyzed nanofiltrated milk contained 0.06% lactose and had sweetness similar to milk.
Combined Effects of High Pressure and Heat on Shear Value and Histological Characteristics of Bovine Skeletal Muscle
Rusman, H. ; Gerelt, B. ; Yamamoto, S. ; Nishiumi, T. ; Suzuki, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 994~1001
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.994
Changes in shear force value, transverse sections, myofibrils and intramuscular connective tissue of bovine skeletal muscle exposed to the combination of high-pressure up to 400 MPa and heat (30 and
) were studied. The shear force value decreased by pressure-heat treatment up to 200 MPa at 30 and
, and then slightly increased over 200 MPa at
. Shear force values of treated muscles were lower than those of untreated ones. Gaps between muscle fibers in the untreated muscle were a little clear, and then they became very clear in the treated muscles up to 200 MPa at 30 and
. However, the gaps reduced significantly over 200 MPa at
. The remarkable rupture of I-band and loss of M-line materials progressed in the myofibrils with increasing pressure applied. However, degradation and loss of the Z-line in myofibrils observed in the muscle treated at
was not apparent in the muscle treated at
. The length of the sarcomere initially contracted by pressure-heat treatment of 100 MPa at
seemed to have recovered with increase of the pressure up to 400 MPa. In the muscle treated at
, the length of sarcomere gradually decreased with increase of the pressure up to 400 MPa. In the treated muscles, changes in the honeycomb-like structure of endomysium were observed and accelerated with increase of the pressure. A wavy appearance clearly observed at the inside surface of endomysium in the untreated muscles gradually decreased in the treated muscles with increase of the pressure. Tearing of the membrane was observed in the muscles treated over 150 MPa at
, as observed in the sample pressurized at 100 MPa at
. The roughening, disruption and fraying of the membrane were observed over 200 MPa at
. From the results obtained, the combination of high-pressure and heat treatments seems to be effective to tenderize tough meat. The shear force value may have some relationship with deformation of intramuscular connective tissue and myofibrils.
A Comparison of Meat Characteristics between Duck and Chicken Breast
Ali, Md. Shawkat ; Kang, Geun-Ho ; Yang, Han-Sul ; Jeong, Jin-Yeon ; Hwang, Young-Hwa ; Park, Gu-Boo ; Joo, Seon-Tea ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1002~1006
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1002
Twenty four broilers (Ross) and 24 ducklings (Cherry berry) aged 45days were stunned and killed by conventional neck cut to evaluate the meat characteristics and fatty acid composition of breast meat. Breast meats were removed from each carcass at different post-mortem times. After complete processing, the breast meats were then placed in a polythene bag and kept in a cold storage room at
for 7 days. The pH of meat samples at different post-mortem times, and meat characteristics and fatty composition at different storage times were evaluated. No significant differences were found in pH at different post-mortem times except at 30 min postmortem, where duck breast showed significantly lower pH than chicken breast. As expected, duck breast meat had significantly higher redness (a*), but lower lightness (L*) value compared to chicken breast. During whole storage time, the a* value remained constant in duck breast. Cooking loss (%) was higher in duck breast compared to chicken breast during the whole storage time. Shear force decreased with increasing storage time in both chicken and duck breast meat, moreover, it decreased rapidly in duck breast compared to chicken breast. The TBARS values increased with increasing storage time in both duck breast and chicken breast meat and was significantly higher in duck breast. The fatty acids (%) C14:0, C16:0, C16:1, C18:2 and C18:3 were significantly higher while C18:0 was significantly lower in duck breast compared to chicken. SFA was increased, while USFA and MUSFA decreased only in duck breast during the 7 day storage time.
Gut Development and Health in the Absence of Antibiotic Growth Promoters
Dibner, J.J. ; Knight, Chris ; Yi, G.F. ; Richards, J.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 6, 2007, Pages 1007~1014
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1007
Acceptance of antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) in agricultural animal production is rapidly disappearing. Both government regulations and consumer preference are driving this change. Producers in any country that seek export markets will be forced to give up AGP if they are to sell to the EU and many other markets. This report will first review the history of AGP use in the animal industry and the concerns about development of antimicrobial resistance. A description of the development and structure of the gut and how it is affected by AGP administration will conclude with results of studies to replace AGP with antimicrobial organic acids.