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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
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Isolation and Cloning of Porcine SLC27A2 Gene and Detection of Its Polymorphism Associated with Growth and Carcass Traits
Wang, Tao ; Liu, Chang ; Xiong, Yuan-Zhu ; Deng, Chang-Yan ; Zuo, Bo ; Xie, Hong-Tao ; Xu, De-Quan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1169~1173
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1169
The protein encoded by SLC27A2 gene is an isozyme of long-chain fatty-acid-coenzyme A ligase family, and it converts free long-chain fatty acids into fatty acyl-CoA esters, and thereby plays a key role in lipid biosynthesis and fatty acid degradation. In the present study, SLC27A2 located on human chromosome 15 was selected as candidate gene and we isolated and cloned partial fragments of mRNA sequence and genomic fragments of porcine SLC27A2 gene. The coding region of the gene as determined by alignments shared 90% and 82% identity with human and mouse cDNAs, respectively. Detection in LargeWhite and Meishan breeds showed that a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (
) existed in exon 7, which caused corresponding amino acid changed for encoding. In LargeWhite pigs it encoded for Val while in Meishan pigs it encoded for Ile, so we developed the PCR-RFLP genotype method for detection of this polymorphism. Association study in 135
reference family indicated that significant correlation existed between the polymorphism and growth and carcass traits.
Immunity of the Buffalo Mammary Gland during Different Physiological Stages
Dang, A.K. ; Kapila, Suman ; Tomar, Parveen ; Singh, Charan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1174~1181
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1174
To study the immunity of the buffalo mammary gland during involution and around parturition and compare it with the mastitic mammary gland, milk samples were collected from 9 Murrah buffaloes during the above critical periods. SCC of buffalo milk increased significantly (p<0.01) by day 21 of involution and one week prepartum. SCC was significantly higher around parturition but became normal at 14 days postpartum. Phagocytic activity (PA) and phagocytic index (PI) of the buffalo milk neutrophils decreased as the duration of the dry period increased. Elevated levels of immunoglobulins at calving improved the PA and PI, but the lowest PA of 18.8% and PI of 1.75 were recorded at 7 days postpartum. Buffaloes suffering from clinical mastitis had PA of 12.3% and PI of 1.46 that increased significantly (p<0.01) on the third day of treatment. Distance of teat from ground level was found to be minimum at one week before parturition. The investigation showed that in vitro phagocytic activity of buffalo neutrophils was weakest at one week postpartum.
Mechanisms Controlling Feed Intake in Large-type Goats Fed on Dry Forage
Sunagawa, K. ; Ooshiro, T. ; Murase, Y. ; Hazama, R. ; Nagamine, I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1182~1189
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1182
An intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of somatostatin 1-28 (SRIF) was used as a thirst-controlling peptide antagonist to investigate whether or not thirst-controlling peptides are involved in the significant decrease in feed intake during the initial stages of feeding large-type goats on dry forage. A continuous ICV infusion of SRIF was conducted at a small dose of
ml/h for 27 h from day 1 to day 2. Goats (n = 5) were fed roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes for 2 h twice daily and water was given ad libitum. Feed intake was measured during ICV infusion of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF) and SRIF. The feed intake during SRIF infusion increased significantly compared to that during ACSF infusion. In comparison to the ACSF treatment, plasma osmolality during the SRIF treatment significantly decreased during the first half of the 2 h feeding period. The factor causing the decrease in plasma osmolality during the ICV infusion of SRIF was a decrease in plasma Na, K, Cl, and Mg concentrations. In comparison to the ACSF infusion treatment, parotid saliva secretion volumes during the 2 h feeding period in the SRIF infusion treatment were significantly larger. While there was no significant difference in cumulative water intake (thirst levels) between the SRIF and the ACSF treatments upon conclusion of the 2 h feeding period, based on the plasma osmolality results it is thought that thirst level increases brought about by alfalfa hay cube feeding in the first half of the feeding period were reduced. It is thought that the somatostatin-induced increases in feed intake during the 2 h feeding period in the present experiment were caused by decreases in plasma osmolality brought about by the somatostatin infusion. As a result, it is suggested that the significant decrease in feed intake during the initial stages of feeding in large-type goats given roughly crushed alfalfa hay cubes, was due to the actions of thirst-controlling peptides.
Developmental Competence of Intrafollicular Oocytes Derived from Preantral Follicle Culture with Different Protocols after Parthenogenetic Activation
Choi, Jung Kyu ; Lee, Jae Hee ; Lee, Seung Tae ; Choi, Mun Hwan ; Gong, Seung Pyo ; Lee, Eun Ju ; Lim, Jeong Mook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1190~1195
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1190
This study was conducted to improve efficiency of a follicle culture system without reducing developmental competence of intrafollicular oocytes. Preantral follicles (100 to
in diameter) of F1 hybrid (B6CBAF1) mice were cultured singly for 216 h in modified
-MEM-glutamax medium, to which 2.5 IU/ml hCG and epidermal growth factor was added 16 h prior to the end of culture. Medium change was either performed three times (54 h interval), twice (72 h interval), once (108 h interval), or not at all (216 h interval). Maturation (progression to the metaphase II stage) of intrafollicular oocytes was detected from 4 days after culture in the three-times change treatment, while all treatments yielded mature oocytes from day 5 of culture. Compared with the three-times change, decreasing the change frequency to once did not reduce the capacity to begin maturation (germinal vesicle breakdown of 82 to 86%), to mature (78 to 79%) and to develop into blastocysts after parthenogenetic activation (29 to 32%). Morphological parameters were similar among these treatments. Except for the no medium change treatment, similar colony-forming activity of inner cell mass cells after culturing of blastocysts in leukemia inhibitory factor-containing medium was detected, while the morphology of the colony-forming cells deteriorated in the change-once treatment compared with the change twice or three-times. In conclusion, the efficiency of the preantral follicle culture system could be improved by reducing frequency of medium change up to a 72 h interval (three times in total 216 h culture) without decreasing developmental competence of oocytes.
In vitro Methanogenesis and Fermentation of Feeds Containing Oil Seed Cakes with Rumen Liquor of Buffalo
Kumar, Ravindra ; Kamra, D.N. ; Agarwal, Neeta ; Chaudhary, L.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1196~1200
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1196
Eight feeds (mixture of wheat straw and oil seed cakes in 3:1 ratio) were evaluated for methane emission and fermentation pattern with buffalo rumen liquor as inoculum in an in vitro gas production test. The cakes tested were groundnut cake (GNC), soybean cake (SBC), mustard seed cake (MSC), cotton seed cake (CSC), karanj seed cake expeller extracted (KCEE), karanj seed cake solvent extracted (KCSE), caster bean cake expeller extracted (CBCEE) and caster bean cake solvent extracted (CBCSE). The gas production (ml/g dry matter) was significantly higher with SBC and MSC followed by CSC, GNC, KCSE, KCEE, CBCSE and was the lowest with CBCEE. Methane emission was significantly lower with KCEE, KCSE, CBCEE, CBCSE (20.32- 22.43 ml/g DM) than that with SBC, GNC, CSC (27.34-31.14 ml/g DM). Mustard seed cake was in-between the two groups of oil cakes in methane production. In vitro true digestibility was highest with SBC followed by GNC, CSC, MSC, KCSE, KCEE, CBCSE and CECEE. Ammonia nitrogen level was positively correlated with the amount of protein present in the cake. Total holotrich protozoa were significantly higher with SBC, whereas, large spirotrich protozoa tended to be lower than with other cakes. The counts of small spirotrich and total protozoa were similar with all the cakes. Total volatile fatty acid production and acetate to propionate ratio were significantly higher with SBC and significantly lower with KCEE as compared to the other cakes. Among the conventional oil cakes tested in the present experiment (GNC, SBC, MSC and CSC), mustard seed cake-based feed produced the minimum methane without affecting other fermentation characteristics adversely.
Renal and Salivary Excretions of Plasma Purine Derivatives in Swamp Buffaloes and Zebu Cattle
Pimpa, O. ; Liang, J.B. ; Balcells, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1201~1207
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1201
This study compared the recovery rate of intrajugular-administered allantoin in the urine and saliva between swamp buffaloes and zebu cattle to examine whether it could explain the lower excretion rate of urinary purine derivatives (PD) in the buffaloes. Three male swamp buffalo yearlings, with an average body weight of
kg, and three Thai native cattle (
kg) of similar age and sex were used in the study. Animals were kept in individual pens and fed at a maintenance energy level with a diet containing 65% monk bean husk (Vigna radiata) as roughage and 35% concentrates. Allantoin solution was infused into the jugular vein in four incremental rates equivalent to 0, 5, 10 and 15 mmol/d and urine was collected daily in acidified form. Daily PD excretion was linearly correlated with intrajugular allantoin infusion in both species. The relationship between daily urinary PD excretion (Y, mmol/d) and intrajugular allantoin infused (X, mmol/d) was
= 0.36, n = 12, MSE = 38.02, CV = 21.9, p<0.01) for swamp buffaloes and
= 0.91, n = 12, MSE = 3.60, CV = 8.27, p<0.01) for zebu cattle. The salivary PD concentration was not correlated with intrajugular allantoin infusion in both species, with values for buffaloes numerically lower than those for cattle. The present study reconfirmed previous studies that buffaloes have a lower plasma PD excretion rate via the renal route and a significant proportion (22%) of the plasma PD loss is via the saliva. However, results of our present and previous studies suggest that differences in purine base (PB) metabolism between buffaloes and zebu cattle occur before the purine compounds reach the plasma pool.
Comparison of Gayal (Bos frontalis) and Yunnan Yellow Cattle (Bos taurus): In vitro Dry Matter Digestibility and Gas Production for a Range of Forages
Xi, Dongmei ; Wanapat, Metha ; Deng, Weidong ; He, Tianbao ; Yang, Zhifang ; Mao, Huaming ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1208~1214
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1208
Three male Gayal, two years of age and with a mean live weight of
kg, and three adult Yunnan Yellow Cattle, with a mean live weight of
kg were fed a ration of pelleted lucerne hay and used to collect rumen fluid for in vitro measurements of digestibilities and gas production from fermentation of a range of forages. The forages were: bamboo stems, bamboo twigs, bamboo leaves, rice straw, barley straw, annual ryegrass hay, smooth vetch hay and pelleted lucerne hay. There were significant (p<0.05) effects of the source of rumen fluid on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and gas production during fermentation of forage. For the roughage of lowest quality (bamboo stems and rice straw), gas production during fermentation was higher (p<0.05) in the presence of rumen fluid from Gayal than Yunnan Yellow Cattle. Differences for these parameters were found for the better quality roughages with gas production being enhanced in the presence of rumen fluid from Yunnan Yellow Cattle. Moreover, the IVDMD of investigated roughages was significantly higher (p<0.05) in Gayal than Yunnan Yellow Cattle. The results offer an explanation for the positive live weight gains recorded for Gayal foraging in their natural environment where the normal diet consists of poor quality roughages.
Effect of Replacing Rolled Corn with Potato Pulp Silage in Grass Silage-based Diets on Nitrogen Utilization by Steers
Aibibula, Y. ; Okine, A. ; Hanada, M. ; Murata, S. ; Okamoto, M. ; Goto, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1215~1221
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1215
Three Holstein steers fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae were fed grass silage-based diets supplemented with potato pulp silage as a substitute for rolled corn at levels of 0%, 50% and 100% on a DM basis in a
Latin square design to investigate the effect of potato pulp silage on nitrogen (N) utilization in ruminants. Organic matter (OM) intake, and rumen and total tract digestibilities did not differ among treatment diets. Rumen and post-rumen starch digestibilities were similar among treatments, although starch intake decreased (p<0.01) with potato pulp supplementation. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in ruminal N utilization and non-ammonia N supply to the duodenum of steers fed grass silage supplemented with potato pulp silage as a substitute for rolled corn. There were no treatment differences (p>0.05) in rumen pH, volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration or the molar percentages of acetate and propionate. The ammonia-N concentration in rumen fluid tended to decrease (p<0.1) when rolled corn was substituted with potato pulp silage. Ether extract intake and post-ruminal digestibility significantly (p<0.01) decreased in steers fed diets containing potato pulp silage. Concentrations of total cholesterol and phospholipids in serum markedly decreased (p<0.01) with potato pulp silage supplementation without adversely affecting liver function. These data suggested that potato pulp silage has a similar value as rolled corn as an energy source for rumen microorganisms.
Characterization of Fatty Acid Digestion of Beijing Fatty and Arbor Acres Chickens
Yuan, J.M. ; Guo, Y.M. ; Yang, Y. ; Wang, Z.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1222~1228
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1222
The aim of this experiment was to compare the characterization of fatty acid digestion of Beijing Fatty (BF) and Arbor Acres (AA) chickens. One-day-old male AA and BF chickens were raised in the same house, and fed with the same diet. We first evaluated utilization of dietary fatty acids in chickens by the total collection procedure, and chickens were then killed to compare the abundance of intestinal mRNA expression of liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) and intestinal-fatty acid binding protein (I-FABP) by Real-time PCR, and also the pH of intestinal mucosa at 3 and 6 weeks of age. Another group of chickens were sampled at 6 weeks of age to compare the total bile acid concentration in serum, and lipase activity in contents of the small intestine. Results showed that compared to AA chickens, BF chickens had higher lipase activity in the content of the small intestine (p<0.05), greater total bile acid content in portal vein blood (p<0.05) at 6 weeks of age, lower intestinal mucosal pH at both 3 weeks (p<0.05) and 6 weeks (p<0.05) of age, and higher abundance of liver-fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) mRNA expression in intestine tissues at 6 weeks of age (p<0.05), and higher digestibility of fatty acids at both 3 and 6 weeks (p<0.05) of age. There was no difference in I-FABP mRNA expression between AA and BF chickens at either age. Thus, BF chickens had greater fatty acids utilization than AA chickens that was associated with L-FABP, lipase activity, bile acid content and intestinal mucosal pH.
Effects of Processing Method on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-finishing Pigs Fed Lupine Seeds
Yang, Y.X. ; Kim, Y.G. ; Heo, S. ; Ohh, S.J. ; Chae, B.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1229~1235
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1229
Three trials were conducted to study the effect of processing method on performance, apparent nutrient and amino acid digestibilities in growing-finishing pigs fed lupine seeds. Ground, expanded or flaked lupine seed was prepared for the trials. In trial 1, a total of 72 growing barrows (
, initial BW of
kg) were allocated to three treatment diets containing 15% percent of differently processed lupine seed for 28 days. Each treatment had four replicates comprising 6 pigs each. In trial 2, a total of 48 finishing barrows (
, initial BW of
kg) were subjected to three treatments for 21 days. The experimental design was the same as trial 1 except for supplementation with 20% of lupine seed. Each treatment had four replicates comprising 4 pigs each. To evaluate the ileal digestibility of amino acids, a total of 9 barrows (
), with an average initial BW of
kg, were fed with ground, expanded or flaked lupine for 7 days. Each pig was surgically equipped with a simple T-cannula fitted in the distal ileum. Amino acid composition and presence of anti-nutritional factors (ANFs) in processed lupine sources were also evaluated. The results showed that there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in lupine amino acid composition due to the different processing methods. Expanded and flaked lupine significantly decreased (p<0.05) the concentration of ANFs compared with ground lupine. There was no effect (p>0.05) on the growth performance in growing pigs. However, processing method had a significant effect (p<0.05) on average daily gain (ADG), average daily feed intake (ADFI) and feed conversion ratio (FCR) in finishing pigs. There was no effect (p>0.05) of the different processing methods on the digestibility of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), ether extract (EE), Calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P), but expanded lupine could significantly increase (p<0.05) the apparent digestibility of CP in finishing pigs. Furthermore, expanded lupine had a higher (p<0.05) apparent ileal digestibility for most indispensable and dispensable amino acids compared with ground and flaked lupine. It was concluded that expanded lupine could be beneficial in improving lupine's quality and improve performance and nutrient utilization in growing-finishing pigs.
Dietary Requirement of True Digestible Phosphorus and Total Calcium for Growing Pigs
Ruan, Z. ; Zhang, Y.-G. ; Yin, Y.-L. ; Li, T.-J. ; Huang, R.-L. ; Kim, S.W. ; Wu, G.Y. ; Deng, Z.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1236~1242
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1236
Sixty healthy growing pigs (
with an average BW of 21.4 kg) were used to determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs on the basis of growth performance and serum biochemical indices. Pigs were assigned randomly to one of five dietary treatments (12 pigs/diet), representing five levels of TDP (0.16%, 0.20%, 0.23%, 0.26% and 0.39%). There were three replications per treatment, with four pigs (2 barrows and 2 gilts) in each replication (2 pigs/pen) A randomized-block design was used, with pen as the experimental unit. Experimental diets were formulated to provide the 5 TDP levels with a total calcium (Ca) to TDP ratio of 2:1, and offered to pigs at 5% BW for 28 d. The total Ca contents of the five diets were 0.33, 0.38, 0.45, 0.51 and 0.79%, respectively. During the 28-d experimental period, the ADG of pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Equation 1: y =
= 0.99; p<0.01; y = ADG, g/d; x = dietary TDP, %). The feed:gain ratio for pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Equation 2: y =
= 0.99; p<0.01; y = feed:gain ratio; x = dietary TDP, %). Total P concentrations in serum were affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Equation 3: y =
= 0.99; p<0.01; y = total serum P concentration and x = dietary TDP, %). The highest ADG (782 g/d), the lowest feed:gain ratio (1.07), and the highest total serum P concentration (3.1 mmol/L) were obtained when dietary TDP level was 0.34%. Collectively, these results indicate that the optimal TDP requirement of growing pigs is 0.34% of the diet (e.g., 5.1 g/day for a 30-kg pig that consumed 1.5 kg feed daily) at a total Ca to TDP ratio of 2:1.
The Effects of Probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri Pg4 Strain on Intestinal Characteristics and Performance in Broilers
Yu, B. ; Liu, J.R. ; Chiou, M.Y. ; Hsu, Y.R. ; Chiou, W.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1243~1251
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1243
This study was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using L. reuteri Pg4, a strain isolated from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract of healthy broilers, as a probiotic. In preliminary in vitro studies the Pg4 strain was proven capable of tolerating acid and bile salts, inhibiting pathogenic bacteria and can adhere to intestinal epithelial cells. The probiotic properties were then evaluated on the basis of the broiler's growth performance, intestinal microbial population and cecal volatile fatty acid and lactic acid concentrations under conventional feeding. Dietary supplementation of dried L. reuteri Pg4 decreased significantly feed intake in grower chickens and improved significantly the feed conversion by 5% in a 0-6 weeks feeding period compared with the control group. The Lactobacillus counts in the crop, ileum, and cecum of the probiotic group were higher than in the control group. The L. reuteri Pg4 strain was traceable in the GI tract of probiotic supplemented chicks and showed capability of survival in the intestine for a protracted period. The probiotic group had a higher lactic acid concentration and lower pH value in the cecum than the control chicks. Probiotic supplement also affected the histology of the intestinal mucosa of chicks. The present findings demonstrated that L. reuteri Pg4 possesses probiotic characteristics and it is suggested, therefore, that the organism could be a candidate for a new probiotic strain.
Effects of Soy Isoflavone on Performance, Meat Quality and Antioxidative Property of Male Broilers Fed Oxidized Fish Oil
Jiang, S.Q. ; Jiang, Z.Y. ; Lin, Y.C. ; Xi, P.B. ; Ma, X.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1252~1257
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1252
This study was conducted to determine the effect of dietary soy isoflavone (ISF, 0 and 20 mg/kg) on performance, meat quality and antioxidative property in male broilers. Six replicates of 45 birds (42 d old) were used for each treatment. The birds were fed soybean meal-free diets containing 3% oxidized fish oil (acid value, 6.76 mg potassium hydroxide/g; and peroxide value, 6.18 meq/kg) for 3 wk. The results showed that average daily gain, feed intake, feed conversion and carcass traits were not affected by soy ISF. Compared with the control group, breast muscle color redness value and water holding capacity were increased (p<0.05) by ISF supplementation. The activity of plasma catalase was increased by supplementing with 20 mg ISF/kg diet. In breast muscle, Broilers fed 20 mg ISF/kg had decreased production of malondialdehyde and lactic acid. The ISF supplementation elevated total antioxidative capacity and activities of total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The results indicated that dietary ISF could increase redness and water holding capacity of meat, and antioxidative property of meat in male broilers fed oxidized fish oil diet.
Restriction of Metabolizable Energy in Broiler Growers and Its Impact on Grower and Breeder Performance
Sunder, G. Skyam ; Kumar, Ch. Vijaya ; Panda, A.K. ; Raju, M.V.L.N. ; Rao, S.V. Rama ; Gopinath, N.C.S. ; Reddy, M.R. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1258~1265
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1258
Metabolizable energy (ME) required for basal metabolism, activity and growth was considered as the criterion for targeting specific increases in body weight (100 g/week) of broiler chicks during the grower phase (5-20 weeks) and its impact was evaluated on breeder performance. Broiler female chicks (460) from a synthetic dam line were randomly distributed to 4 test groups with 23 replicates of 5 birds each and housed in cages. The first group (ME-100) was offered a calculated amount of ME by providing a measured quantity of grower diet (160 g protein and 2,600 kcal ME/kg) which increased with age and weight gain (133-294 kcal/bird/day). The other three groups were offered 10 or 20% less ME (ME-90 and ME-80, respectively) and 10% excess ME (ME-110) over the control group (ME-100). From 21 weeks of age, a single breeder diet (170 g protein and 2,600 kcal ME/kg) was uniformly fed to all groups and the impact of grower ME restriction on breeder performance evaluated up to 58 weeks. The targeted body weight gain of 1,600 g in a 16-week period was achieved by pullets of the ME-100 group almost one week earlier by gaining 8.7 g more weight per week. However, pullets in the ME-90 group gained 1,571 g during the same period, which was closer to the targeted weight. At 20 weeks of age, the conversion efficiency of feed (5.21-5.37), ME (13.9-14.1 kcal/g weight gain) and protein (0.847-0.871 g/g weight gain), eviscerated meat yield, giblet and tibia weights were not influenced by ME restriction, but the weights of abdominal fat and liver were higher with increased ME intake. Reduction of ME by 10% in the grower period significantly delayed sexual maturity (169.3 d), but increased egg production (152.5 /bird) with better persistency. Improved conversion efficiency of feed, ME and protein per g egg content were also observed in this group up to 56 weeks. The fertility and hatchability at 58 weeks of age were higher in the ME-90 group compared to the control and 10% excess ME feeding. In conclusion, the present study revealed the possibility of achieving targeted weight gain in broiler growers by feeding measured quantities of ME during the rearing period with consequential benefits in breeder performance.
Effects of Nanocalcium Supplemented Milk on Bone Calcium Metabolism in Ovariectomized Rats
Park, H.S. ; Jeon, B.J. ; Ahn, J. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1266~1271
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1266
This study examined effects of calcium supplemented milk on bone loss in ovariectomized rats. Twenty four Sprague-Dawley female rats, 7 weeks-old, were divided into 4 groups, ovariectomized and fed diets containing: 1) control, no Ca supplemented milk, 2) ovx 1, Ca carbonate supplemented milk, 3) ovx 2, ionized Ca supplemented milk, and 4) ovx 3, nano Ca supplemented milk. All rats were fed 1 ml of milk containing 20 mg supplemented Ca. After 18 wk feeding, body weight gain and food efficiency ratio were significantly different between ovx 1 and ovx 3. Serum concentration of calcium and phosphorus were not different among groups. However, there was a significant difference in calcium content of dry femoral weight in ovx 3 compared with the control and ovx 2. In addition, femoral bone mineral density (
) was significantly greater in ovx 3 than in other groups (p<0.05). The ovx 3 group showed the highest stiffness (N/mm), maximum energy (N) in femur and trabecular bone area (%). The present study indicated that nano Ca supplementation in milk may be an effective way to enhance bone calcium metabolism for ovariectomized rats.
Comparison of Sensory Traits and Preferences between Food Co-product Fermented Liquid (FCFL)-fed and Formula-fed Pork Loin
Sasaki, Keisuke ; Nishioka, Terumi ; Ishizuka, Yuzuru ; Saeki, Mao ; Kawashima, Tomoyuki ; Irie, Masakazu ; Mitsumoto, Mitsuru ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1272~1277
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1272
Sensory traits and preferences regarding food co-product fermented liquid (FCFL)-fed pork loin were compared with those of formula-fed pork. The FCFL-fed pork was expected to have improved fat meltability. Thirty-nine laboratory panelists took part in a sensory test. The fat meat and the lean meat of FCFL-fed pig were judged more meltable and tender, respectively, than the corresponding meat from the formula-fed pig. These sensory traits agreed closely with the results of a mechanical investigation of fat melting patterns and with Warner-Bratzlar shear force values. However, the overall preference was not significantly associated with sensory fat meltability and meat tenderness, as assessed by chi-square and correspondence analyses, but it was significantly related to the whole fat preference and the fat texture preference. The fat texture preference, however, did not correlate with sensory fat meltability. These results indicated that FCFL feeding altered sensory fat meltability in pork loin, but the preference for such meltable fat differed among individual panelists.
Relationship between the Concentration of Biogenic Amines and Volatile Basic Nitrogen in Fresh Beef, Pork, and Chicken Meat
Min, J.S. ; Lee, S.O. ; Jang, A. ; Jo, C. ; Park, C.S. ; Lee, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1278~1284
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1278
Changes in the concentrations of biogenic amines (BAs) in fresh beef, pork, and chicken breast and leg were investigated during storage, and the relationship between the content of volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) and BAs was evaluated. As the storage period increased, the levels of putrescine (PUT), cadaverine (CAD) and tyramine (TYM) increased in all the meat samples, except for TYM in beef (p<0.001). The level of BAs in beef, pork and chicken changed but the extent of these changes was different among the kinds of BAs and meats. Measurement of the VBN content was confirmed as a good index for interpreting the specific BAs content in general, such as PUT, CAD, and TYM, as well as evaluating a meat's freshness during storage. However, the kinds of BAs which can be predicted from the VBN content varied in different meats (p<0.05).
Inconsistency in the Improvements of Gel Strength in Chicken and Pork Sausages Induced by Microbial Transglutaminase
Kawahara, S. ; Ahhmed, A.M. ; Ohta, K. ; Nakade, K. ; Muguruma, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1285~1291
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1285
This research investigated variation in the improvement of the texture of chicken and pork sausages induced by microbial transglutaminase (MTG). The extractability of myofibrillar proteins from these sausages as well as the
lysine (G-L) content were also investigated. MTG treatment of sausages significantly increased the breaking strength values in both meat types, especially for samples incubated at
. However, values of the breaking strength in both meat types were increased differently. The variation in protein extractability of samples incubated at
for both meat types could lead to some consideration of the mechanisms and the high accessions of myosin heavy chain (MHC) to MTG. SDS-PAGE analysis showed significant changes in the density of the bands after adding MTG, especially for the pork samples in which the bands disappeared totally. The G-L content in the presence of MTG was double that in control samples of both meat types. This study suggests that the binding ability of myofibrillar proteins with MTG is strong. This leads us to suggest that MTG functions positively with different improvements in the texture of chicken and pork products that are treated mechanically, such as sausages. Variability in gel improvement level between chicken and pork sausages was observed; this resulted from the variation in meat proteins in response to MTG, as well as to the original glutamyl and lysine content.
Gel Properties of Surimi-like Materials from Cardiac and Skeletal Muscle of Pigs
Kang, Geun-Ho ; Yang, Han-Sul ; Jeong, Jin-Yeon ; Moon, Sang-Hoon ; Joo, Seon-Tea ; Park, Gu-Boo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1292~1296
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1292
To investigate the gel properties of surimi-like materials (SLM) made from pig heart (PH), psoas major muscle (PM) and semimembranosus muscle (SM) of pigs, the three muscles were diced, chopped and washed with 25 mM sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0) to extract myofibrillar protein. SLM from SM had significantly (p<0.05) higher moisture content and lower crude protein content compared with PH and PM samples. The cooked SLM from PH was darker than that from PM and SM. Gel from PH had significantly (p<0.05) lower L* and hue values, and higher b* and chroma values compared to gels from PM and SM. The cooked SLM from PH had poor water-holding capacity (WHC) resulting in higher cooking loss. SDS-PAGE showed that the bands of myosin and tropomyosin/troponin had reduced staining intensity in the PH sample, and some unidentified bands that were not in PM and SM samples were observed in PH samples.
Nutritional Regulation of GLUT Expression, Glucose Metabolism, and Intramuscular Fat Content in Porcine Muscle
Katsumata, M. ; Kaji, Y. ; Takada, R. ; Dauncey, M.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1297~1304
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1297
We conducted a series of investigations in order to elucidate role of nutritional status in regulating GLUT expression and energy metabolism in porcine muscle. Firstly, the role of mild undernutrition in regulating muscle GLUT gene expression and function was studied in growing pigs (3 wk of age) on a high (H) or low (L) food intake (H = 2L) at
. Low food intake selectively upregulates GLUT1 and GLUT4 gene expression; mRNA levels were elevated in longissimus dorsi (L. dorsi) and rhomboideus muscles but not in diaphragm or cardiac muscles. Our next step was to determine whether dietary lysine, a major primary limiting amino acid in diets for pigs, affects muscle GLUT4 expression. Pigs of 6 wk of age were pair-fed a control or low lysine (LL) diet. The control diet contained optimal amounts of all essential amino acids, including 1.15% lysine. The LL diet was similar but contained only 0.70% lysine. GLUT4 mRNA expression was upregulated by the LL diet in L. dorsi and rhomboideus muscles, whereas that in cardiac muscle was unaffected. GLUT4 protein abundance was also higher in rhomboideus muscle of animals on the LL diet. We conducted another investigation in order to elucidate effects of the LL diet on post-GLUT4 glucose metabolism. Activity of hexokinase was unaffected by dietary lysine levels while that of citrate synthase was higher both in L. dorsi and rhomboideus muscles of pigs fed on the LL diet. Glucose 6-phosphate content was higher in L. dorsi msucle in the LL group. Glycogen content was higher both in L. dorsi and rhomboideus muscles in the LL group. Further, we determined the effects of dietary lysine levels on accumulation of intramuscular fat (IMF) in L. dorsi muscle of finishing pigs. A low lysine diet (lysine content was 0.40%) meeting approximately 70% of the requirement of lysine was given to finishing pigs for two months. IMF contents in L. dorsi of the pigs given the low lysine diet were twice higher than those of the pigs fed on a control diet (lysine content was 0.65%). Finally, we proved that a well known effect of breadcrumbs feeding to enhance IMF of finishing pigs could be attributed to shortage of amino acids in diets including breadcrumbs.
Measurement of Methane Production from Ruminants
Bhatta, Raghavendra ; Enishi, Osamu ; Kurihara, Mitsunori ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 8, 2007, Pages 1305~1318
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1305
On a global scale agriculture and in particular enteric fermentation in ruminants is reported to produce about one fourth (21 to 25%) of the total anthropogenic emissions of methane (
). Methane is produced during the anaerobic fermentation of hydrolyzed dietary carbohydrates in the rumen and represents an energy loss to the host besides contributing to emissions of greenhouse gases into the environment. However, there appears to be uncertainty in the
estimation from livestock due to the limited availability of data to document the variability at the farm level and also due to the significant impact of diet on the enteric
production. The methane mitigation strategies require robust prediction of emissions from rumen. There are many methods available which would be suitable for measuring
produced from the various stages of animal production. However, several factors need to be considered in order to select the most appropriate technique like the cost, level of accuracy required and the scale and design of the experiments to be undertaken. Selection of any technique depends on the accuracy as each one has its advantages and disadvantages. Screening of mitigation strategies may be evaluated using individual animal before large-scale trials on groups of animals are carried out. In this review various methods for the estimation of methane production from ruminants as well as for the determination of methane production potential of ruminant feeds are discussed. The advantages and disadvantages of the methods starting from respiration chamber, ventilated hood, facemask, sulphur hexafluoride (
) tracer technique, prediction equations and meteorological methods to in vitro methods are detailed.