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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 20, Issue 12 - Dec 2007
Volume 20, Issue 11 - Nov 2007
Volume 20, Issue 10 - Oct 2007
Volume 20, Issue 9 - Sep 2007
Volume 20, Issue 8 - Aug 2007
Volume 20, Issue 7 - Jul 2007
Volume 20, Issue 6 - Jun 2007
Volume 20, Issue 5 - May 2007
Volume 20, Issue 4 - Apr 2007
Volume 20, Issue 3 - Mar 2007
Volume 20, Issue 2 - Feb 2007
Volume 20, Issue 1 - Jan 2007
Selecting the target year
Characterization and Mapping of the Bovine FBP1 Gene
Guo, H. ; Liu, W-S. ; Takasuga, A. ; Eyer, K. ; Landrito, E. ; Xu, Shang-zhong ; Gao, X. ; Ren, H-Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1319~1326
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1319
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBP1) is a key regulatory enzyme of gluconeogenesis that catalyzes the hydrolysis of fructose-1,6-bisphosphate to generate fructose-6-phosphate and inorganic phosphate. Deficiency of fructose-1, 6-bisphosphatase is associated with fasting hypoglycemia and metabolic acidosis. The enzyme has been shown to occur in bacteria, fungi, plants and animals. The bovine FBP1 gene was cloned and characterized in this study. The full length (1,241 bp) FBP1 mRNA contained an open reading frame (ORF) encoding a protein of 338 amino acids, a 63 bp 5' untranslated region (UTR) and a 131 bp 3' UTR. The bovine FBP1 gene was 89%, 85%, 82%, 82% and 74% identical to the orthologs of pig, human, mouse, rat and zebra fish at mRNA level, and 97%, 96%, 94%, 93% and 91% identical at the protein level, respectively. This gene was broadly expressed in cattle with the highest level in testis, and the lowest level in heart. An intronic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (A/G) was identified in the
intron of the bovine FBP1 gene. Genotyping of 133 animals from four beef breeds revealed that the average frequency for allele A (A-base) was 0.7897 (0.7069-0.9107), while 0.2103 (0.0893-0.2931) for allele B (G-base). Our preliminary association study indicated that this SNP is significantly associated with traits of Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI) and Carcass Length (CL) (p<0.01). In addition, the FBP1 gene was assigned on BTA8 by a hybrid radiation (RH) mapping method.
Polymorphism Identification, RH Mapping and Association of
-Lactalbumin Gene with Milk Performance Traits in Chinese Holstein
Zhang, Jian ; Sun, Dongxiao ; Womack, J.E. ; Zhang, Yi ; Wang, Yachun ; Zhang, Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1327~1333
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1327
Lactose synthase catalyses the formation of lactose which is the major osmole of bovine milk and regulates the milk volume. Alpha-lactalbumin (
-LA) is involved in the synthesis of lactose synthase in the mammary gland. Therefore
-LA is regarded as a plausible candidate gene for the milk yield trait. To determine whether
-LA is associated with milk performance traits, 1,028 Chinese Holstein cows were used to detect polymorphisms in the
-LA by means of single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP). Two nucleotide transitions were identified in the 5'flanking region and intron 3 of
-LA. Associations of such polymorphisms with five milk performance traits were analyzed using a general linear model procedure. No significant associations were observed between these polymorphisms and the five milk performance traits (p>0.05). RH mapping placed
-LA on BTA5q21, linked most closely to markers U63110, CC537786 and L10347 (LOD>8.3), which is far distant from the region of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) on bovine chromosome 5 for variation in the milk yield trait. In summary, based on our findings, we eliminated these SNPs from having an effect on milk performance traits.
Identification of Functional and In silico Positional Differentially Expressed Genes in the Livers of High- and Low-marbled Hanwoo Steers
Lee, Seung-Hwan ; Park, Eung-Woo ; Cho, Yong-Min ; Yoon, Duhak ; Park, Jun-Hyung ; Hong, Seong-Koo ; Im, Seok-Ki ; Thompson, J.M. ; Oh, Sung-Jong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1334~1341
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1334
This study identified hepatic differentially expressed genes (DEGs) affecting the marbling of muscle. Most dietary nutrients bypass the liver and produce plasma lipoproteins. These plasma lipoproteins transport free fatty acids to the target tissue, adipose tissue and muscle. We examined hepatic genes differentially expressed in a differential-display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (ddRT-PCR) analysis comparing high- and low-marbled Hanwoo steers. Using 60 arbitrary primers, we found 13 candidate genes that were upregulated and five candidate genes that were downregulated in the livers of high-marbled Hanwoo steers compared to low-marbled individuals. A BLAST search for the 18 DEGs revealed that 14 were well characterized, while four were not annotated. We examined four DEGs: ATP synthase F0, complement component CD, insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 (IGFBP3) and phosphatidylethanolamine binding protein (PEBP). Of these, only two genes (complement component CD and IGFBP3) were differentially expressed at p<0.05 between the livers of high- and low-marbled individuals. The mean mRNA levels of the PEBP and ATP synthase F0 genes did not differ significantly between the livers of high- and low-marbled individuals. Moreover, these DEGs showed very high inter-individual variation in expression. These informative DEGs were assigned to the bovine chromosome in a BLAST search of MS marker subsets and the bovine genome sequence. Genes related to energy metabolism (ATP synthase F0, ketohexokinase, electron-transfer flavoprotein-ubiquinone oxidoreductase and NADH hydrogenase) were assigned to BTA 1, 11, 17, and 22, respectively. Syntaxin, IGFBP3, decorin, the bax inhibitor gene and the PEBP gene were assigned to BTA 3, 4, 5, 5, and 17, respectively. In this study, the in silico physical maps provided information on the specific location of candidate genes associated with economic traits in cattle.
DdeI Polymorphism in Coding Region of Goat POU1F1 Gene and Its Association with Production Traits
Lan, X.Y. ; Pan, C.Y. ; Chen, H. ; Lei, C.Z. ; Hua, L.S. ; Yang, X.B. ; Qiu, G.Y. ; Zhang, R.F. ; Lun, Y.Z. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1342~1348
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1342
POU1F1 is a positive regulator for GH, PRL and TSH
and its mutations associate with production traits in ruminant animals. We described a DdeI PCR-RFLP method for detecting a silent allele in the goat POU1F1 gene: TCT (241Ser)>TCG (241Ser). Frequencies of
allele varied from 0.600 to 1.000 in Chinese 801 goats. Significant associations of DdeI polymorphism with production traits were found in milk yield (*p<0.05), litter size (*p<0.05) and one-year-old weight (*p<0.05) between different genotypes. Individuals with genotype
had a superior performances when compared to those with genotype
(*p<0.05). Hence, the POU1F1 gene was suggested to the potential candidate gene for superior milk performance, reproduction trait and weight trait. Genotype
, characterized by a DdeI PCR-RFLP detection, was recommended to geneticists and breeders as a molecular marker for better performance in the goat industry.
Expression Characterization, Polymorphism and Chromosomal Location of the Porcine Calsarcin-3 Gene
Wang, Heng ; Yang, Shulin ; Tang, Zhonglin ; Mu, Yulian ; Cui, Wentao ; Li, Kui ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1349~1353
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1349
Calcineurin is a calmodulin dependent protein that functions as a regulator of muscle cell growth and function. Agents capable of interacting with calcineurin could have important applications in muscle disease treatment as well as in the improvement of livestock production. Calsarcins comprise a family of muscle-specific calcineurin binding proteins which play an important role in modulating the function of calcineurin in muscle cells. Recently, we described the first two members of the calsarcin family (calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2) in the pig. Here, we characterized the third member of the calsarcin family, calsarcin-3, which is also expressed specifically in skeletal muscle. However, unlike calsarcin-1 and calsarcin-2, the calsarcin-3 mRNA expression in skeletal muscle kept rising throughout the prenatal and postnatal development periods. In addition, radiation hybrid mapping indicated that porcine calsarcin-3 mapped to the distal end of the q arm of pig chromosome 2 (SSC2). A C/T single nucleotide polymorphism site in exon 5 was genotyped using the denaturing high performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC) method and the allele frequencies at this locus were significantly different among breeds.
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer of Oocytes Aspirated from Postovulatory Ovarian Follicles of Superovulated Rabbits
Shang, Jiang-Hua ; Xu, Ru-Xiang ; Jiang, Xiao-Dan ; Zou, Yu-Xi ; Qin, Ling-Sha ; Cai, Ying-Qian ; Yang, Zhi-Jun ; Zheng, Xing ; Cui, Sheng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1354~1360
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1354
The aim of this study was to evaluate if oocytes, aspirated from postovulatory ovarian follicles of superovulated rabbits 14 h post-hCG administration, could be efficiently used as ooplasm recipients for somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). Within a common SCNT protocol, a comparison between oocytes recovered by direct aspiration (aspirated) from available ovarian follicles and oocytes flushed out from oviducts (flushed) was carried out. The results showed that maturation and enucleation rates of aspirated oocytes were 70.7% and 69.2%, significantly lower than 95.3% (p<0.01) and 83.6% (p<0.05), respectively, from flushed oocytes. However, following enucleation of matured oocytes as ooplasm recipients for SCNT, no difference was recorded in fusion and cleavage rates, as well as blastocyst development from cleaved embryos or hatching of blastocysts between aspirated and flushed groups. Additionally, some matured aspirated and flushed oocytes were also used for immediate parthenogenetic activation and the resulting embryo development was not significantly different. Results from this study show the following: i) the majority of oocytes aspirated from postovulatory ovarian follicles of superovulated rabbits 14 h post-hCG administration are matured and can be used directly as ooplasm recipients for SCNT; ii) the reconstructed embryos derived from these oocytes have similar in vitro developmental ability to those flushed from the oviducts.
Effect of Season and Age on the Ovarian Size and Activity of One-Humped Camel (Camelus dromedarius)
Ali, Shujait ; Ahmad, Nazir ; Akhtar, Nafees ; Rahman, Zia-ur ; Sarwar, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1361~1366
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1361
In this project, ovarian size and activity during the peak (November-April) and the low (May-October) breeding seasons in young and adult camels were studied. Ovaries of 92 camels (Camelus dromedarius), with clinically normal reproductive tracts, aged 3-15 years and slaughtered at Faisalabad or Lahore abattoirs over a period of 24 months, were collected. Jugular blood was collected from each animal before slaughter; the serum was separated and analyzed for oestradiol concentration. The size (length, width and thickness) and weight of each ovary were measured. Grossly observable Graafian follicles were counted and their diameter was measured using Vernier Calipers. The camels having ovaries presenting follicles more than 5 mm in diameter were taken as having active ovaries. The results showed that ovarian length, width and weight were significantly higher (p<0.05) during the peak than the low breeding season. The percentage of active ovaries was also significantly higher (p<0.01) during the peak than the low breeding season. However, the effect of season on ovarian thickness was non-significant. Similarly, the ovarian length, width, thickness, weight and activity did not vary significantly between young (3-7 years old) and adult (8-15 years old) animals. Serum oestradiol concentrations were significantly higher (p<0.05) during the peak (
pg/ml) than the low breeding season (
pg/ml). It was concluded that in Pakistani camels ovarian size and activity were higher during the peak than the low breeding season. However, age of the camel (from 3 to 15 years) had no effect on these parameters.
The Effects of Feeding Acacia saligna on Feed Intake, Nitrogen Balance and Rumen Metabolism in Sheep
Krebs, G.L. ; Howard, D.M. ; Dods, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1367~1373
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1367
The aim of this study was to determine the feeding value to sheep of Acacia saligna grown under temperate conditions. Pen trials were undertaken to determine the effects of feeding A. saligna, which had been grown in a Mediterranean environment, on feed intake, nitrogen balance and rumen metabolism in sheep. Sheep were given ad libitum access to A. saligna with or without supplementation with PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000. PEG 4000 appears to be the major detannification agent used in trials involving high tannin feed despite the fact that PEG 6000 has been shown to be more effective, in vitro. For this reason it was of interest to compare the two, in vivo. Dry matter intake was greater (p<0.05) in sheep supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000 compared to the control. There was no difference, however, in intake between those supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or 6,000. Although animals were not weighed throughout the trial, a loss in body condition was obvious, in particular in the control group. Intake of N was greater (p<0.05) in sheep supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000 than in the control. There was no difference in N intake between those supplemented with either PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000. There were no significant differences in either the faecal or urinary N output between any of the treatment groups and all treatment groups were in negative N balance. Neither the average nor maximum pH of ruminal fluid of the control group was different to those supplemented with PEG. The minimum pH for the control group, however, was significantly higher (p<0.05) than for either of the PEG treatments. The average and the maximum ammonia levels were lower (p<0.05) in the control group compared with those in either of the PEG treatment groups. For all dietary treatments ruminal ammonia levels were well below the threshold for maximal microbial growth. Feeding A. saligna, without PEG, had a definite defaunating effect on the rumen. For all dietary treatments ruminal ammonia levels were well below the threshold for maximal microbial growth. It was concluded that A. saligna was inadequate as the sole source of nutrients for sheep, even with the addition of PEG 4,000 or PEG 6,000. The anti-nutritional effects on the animals were largely attributed to the excessive biological activity of the phenolics in the A. saligna leaves. There is a need to determine other supplements that may be complimentary with PEG to enhance the nutritive value of A. saligna to maintain a minimum of animal maintenance.
Influence of Supplementing Dairy Cows Grazing on Pasture with Feeds Rich in Linoleic Acid on Milk Fat Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) Content
Khanal, R.C. ; Dhiman, T.R. ; Boman, R.L. ; McMahon, D.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1374~1388
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1374
Three experiments were conducted to investigate the hypothesis that cows grazing on pasture produce the highest proportion of c-9 t-11 CLA in milk fat and no further increase can be achieved through supplementation of diets rich in linoleic acid, such as full-fat extruded soybeans or soybean oil. In experiment 1, 18 lactating Holstein cows were used in a randomized complete block design with measurements made from wk 4 to 6 of the experiment. In experiment 2, three cannulated lactating Holstein cows were used in a
Latin square design. Each period was 4 wk with measurements made in the final wk of each period. Cows in both experiments were assigned at random to treatments: a, conventional total mixed ration (TMR); b, pasture (PS); or c, PS supplemented with 2.5 kg/cow per day of full-fat extruded soybeans (PES). In both experiments, feed intake, milk yield, milk composition, and fatty acid profile of milk and blood serum were measured, along with fatty acid composition of bacteria harvested from rumen digesta in experiment 2. In experiment 3, 10 cows which had continuously grazed a pasture for six weeks were assigned to two groups, with one group (n = 5) on pasture diet alone (PS) and the other group (n = 5) supplemented with 452 g of soy oil/cow per day for 7 d (OIL). In experiment 1, cows in PS treatment produced 350% more c-9, t-11 CLA compared with cows in TMR treatment (1.70 vs. 0.5% of fat), with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (1.50% of fat). Serum c-9, t-11 CLA increased by 233% in PS treatment compared with TMR treatment (0.21 vs. 0.09% of fat) with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (0.18% of fat). In experiment 2, cows in PS treatment produced 300% more c-9 t-11 CLA in their milk fat compared with cows in TMR treatment (1.77 vs. 0.59% of fat), but no further increase for cows in PES treatment (1.84% of fat) was observed. Serum c-9, t-11 CLA increased by 250% for cows in PS treatment compared with cows in TMR treatment (0.27 vs. 0.11% of fat), with no further increase for cows in PES treatment (0.31% of fat). The c-9, t-11 CLA content of ruminal bacteria for cows in PS treatment was 200% or more of TMR treatment, but no further increase in bacterial c-9, t-11 CLA for cows in PES treatment was observed. Supplementation of soy oil in experiment 3 also did not increase the c-9 t-11 CLA content of milk fat compared with cows fed a full pasture diet (1.60 vs. 1.54% of fat). Based on these findings, it was concluded that supplementing with feeds rich in linoleic acid, such as full-fat extruded soybeans or an equivalent amount of soy oil, to cows grazing perennial ryegrass pasture may not increase milk fat c-9 t-11 CLA contents.
A Comparative Study on the Effect of Cassava Hay Supplementation in Swamp Buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and Cattle (Bos indicus)
Granum, G. ; Wanapat, Metha ; Pakdee, P. ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Toburan, W. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1389~1396
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1389
Twelve swamp buffaloes and Brahman cattle heifers (6 animals each) were randomly assigned to two treatments, control (grazing only) and supplementation of cassava hay (CH) at 1-kg dry matter per head per day (DM/hd/d), in a
factorial arrangement according to a cross-over design. The cassava hay contained a high level of protein (19.5% of DM) and a strategic amount of condensed tannins (4.0% of DM). As a result it was revealed that supplementation of CH at 1-kg DM/hd/d significantly (p<0.05) improved the nutrition of both swamp buffaloes and Brahman cattle in terms of DM, organic matter (OM), protein and energy intake and digestibility, ruminal NH3-N and rumen ecology. Supplementation significantly (p<0.05) reduced weight losses in both species and improved the health, in terms of reduced number of parasite eggs in feces (p<0.05), of both buffaloes and cattle. There tended to be a difference in term of response to CH between the two species. The DM, OM, protein intake and digestibility and total digestible energy intake tended to be higher for buffaloes as compared to cattle. Moreover, the percentage reduction of parasite eggs tended to be higher for buffaloes as compared to cattle (57.6 and 45.0%, respectively). However, there were no significant interactions between species and treatments.
Effects of Tween 80 Pretreatment on Dry Matter Disappearance of Rice Straw and Cellulolytic Bacterial Adhesion
Lee, Chan Hee ; Sung, Ha Guyn ; Eslami, Moosa ; Lee, Se Young ; Song, Jae Y. ; Lee, Sung Sill ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1397~1401
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1397
An in situ experiment was conducted to find out whether Tween 80 improves rice straw digestion through increased adhesion of major fibrolytic bacteria. Rice straw was sprayed with various levels of Tween 80 non-ionic surfactant or SDS ionic surfactant 24 h before incubation in the rumen of Holstein steers. Dry matter (DM) disappearance and adhesion of F. succinogenes, R. flavefaciens and R. albus on rice straw after in situ incubation were measured by real-time PCR. Application of Tween 80 increased DM disappearance, which was more noticeable at an application level of 1% compared to lower application levels. Application of SDS resulted in an opposite response in DM disappearance with highest reduction in DM disappearance at 1% level. In a subsequent in situ experiment, higher Tween 80 was applied to rice straw in an attempt to find the optimum application level. Tween 80 at 2.5% gave better DM disappearance than 1% with a similar result at 5%. Therefore, an adhesion study was carried out using rice straw treated with 2.5% Tween 80. Our results indicated that Tween 80 reduced adhesion of all three major rumen fibrolytic bacteria to rice straw. Present data clearly show that improved DM disappearance by Tween 80 is not due to increased bacterial adhesion onto substrates.
Feeding Behavior of Pregnant Dairy Heifers during Last Trimester under Loose Housing System
Das, Kalyan Sundar ; Das, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1402~1406
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1402
Thirty pregnant heifers (Jersey, Holstein Friesian and Hariana) were divided into three groups (10 animals/group) according to their stage of pregnancy viz. seven-month (181-210 days) pregnancy (SMP), eight-month (211-240 days) pregnancy (EMP) and nine-month (241-280 days) pregnancy (NMP) group. Time spent in various feeding activities (eating fodder, eating concentrate, standing rumination, sitting rumination and drinking) by each animal in the three pregnant groups was recorded in four different sessions (each session of 24 h per week). The time spent eating concentrate, eating fodder, standing rumination, sitting rumination and drinking was 61.4, 271.3, 84.6, 367.6 and 10.6 min/day, respectively in the SMP group; 52.7, 289.5, 103.3, 345.8 and 9.2 min/day, respectively in the EMP group and 65.0, 277.7, 138.1, 291.0 and 9.8 min/day, respectively in the NMP group. The animals in the EMP group spent significantly (p<0.01) more time on eating fodder and concentrate compared to the animals in SMP and NMP groups. The pregnant heifers preferred rumination in standing posture in comparison to sitting posture. The time spent on standing rumination was significantly higher in the NMP group whereas the time spent on sitting rumination was significantly lower in this group. Except for the sitting rumination activity, all the other activities were predominant in daytime compared to night time; the diurnal variation was significant (p<0.01) for all the activities.
Effects of Long Term Exogenous Bovine Somatotropin on Nutrients Uptake by the Mammary Gland of Crossbred Holstein Cattle in the Tropics
Chaiyabutr, Narongsak ; Thammacharoen, S. ; Komolvanich, S. ; Chanpongsang, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1407~1416
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1407
Ten, first lactation, 87.5%HF dairy cattle were used to investigate effects of long-term administration of recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) on nutrient uptake by the mammary gland at different stages of lactation. Measurements of arterial plasma concentrations and arterial-venous differences of metabolites across the mammary gland were performed in combination with measurment of mammary blood flow to estimate the mammary uptake. Animals in experimental groups were injected subcutaneously every 14 days from day 60 of lactation with a prolonged-release formulation of 500 mg of rbST (POSILAC, Monsanto, USA) or with sterile sesame oil without rbST in the control group. During early lactation, the milk yield of rbST-treated animals was higher than that of the control animals (p<0.05). The peak milk yield in both groups of animals declined from the early period of lactation with progression to mid- and late-lactation. No significant changes were observed in the concentration of milk lactose, while the concentrations of milk protein significantly increased as lactation advanced to mid- and late-lactation in both groups. Milk fat concentrations were significantly higher in rbST-treated animals than in control animals, particularly in early lactation (p<0.05). Mammary blood flow (MBF) markedly increased during rbST administration and was maintained at a high level throughout lactation. The mean arterial plasma concentrations for glucose and acetate of rbST-treated animals were unchanged. The net mammary glucose uptake of rbST-treated animals increased approximately 20% during early lactation, while it significantly decreased (p<0.05), including the arteriovenous differences (A-V differences) and extraction ratio across the mammary gland, as lactation advanced to mid- and late-lactation. A-V differences, mammary extraction and mammary uptake for acetate increased during rbST administration and were significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the control animals in early and mid-lactation. Mean arterial plasma concentrations for
-hydroxybutyrate and free glycerol were unchanged throughout the experimental periods in both groups. A-V differences and extraction ratio of
-hydroxybutyrate across the mammary gland did not alter during rbST administration. Mean arterial plasma concentrations for free fatty acids (
), but not for triacylglycerol, increased in rbST-treated animals and were significantly higher than in control animals during early lactation (p<0.01). These findings suggest that an increase in MBF during rbST administration would not be a major determinant in the mediation of nutrient delivery and uptake by the mammary gland for increased milk production. Local changes in biosynthetic capacity within the mammary gland would be a factor in the utilization of substrates resulting in the rate of decline in milk yield with advancing lactation.
Supplementation Effects of
Rich-oils on Formations of CLA and TVA, and Lipogenesis in Adipose Tissues of Sheep
Choi, S.H. ; Lim, K.W. ; Lee, H.G. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Song, Man K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1417~1423
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1417
The present study was conducted to investigate the supplementation effects of
rich-soybean oil or
rich-perilla oil (7% of total diet, DM basis) for 12 weeks on plasma metabolites, fatty acid profile, in vitro lipogenesis, and activities of LPL and FAS in adipose tissue of sheep. The treatments were basal diet (Control),
rich-soybean oil supplemented diet (SO-D) and
rich-perilla oil supplemented diet (PO-D). All the sheep were fed the diets consisting of roughage to concentrate in the ratio of 40:60 (DM basis). Oil supplemented diets (SO-D and PO-D) slightly increased contents of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC), proportions of both cis-9 trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 CLA and TVA, but lowered (p<0.01) those of
compared to the control diet. No differences were observed in the contents of TG and TC and proportions of fatty acids in plasma between supplemented oils. Oil supplemented diets slightly increased the proportions of cis-9 trans-11 and trans-10 cis-12 types of CLA in subcutaneous adipose tissue of sheep compared to the control diet. The rate of lipogenesis with acetate was higher (p<0.01) for intermuscular- and subcutaneous adipose tissues than that for intramuscular adipose tissue, while that with glucose did not differ among fat locations in sheep fed SO-D. No differences were observed in the rate of lipogenesis between substrates in all fat locations. The rates of lipogenesis with glucose increased only in the intermuscular- (p<0.01) and subcutaneous adipose tissue (p<0.005) compared to those with acetate. The rates of lipogenesis with acetate were the highest in the intermuscular and intramuscular adipose tissue of the sheep fed PO-D. Oil supplemented diets slightly increased the rate of lipogenesis with glucose for all fat locations. Supplementation of oils to the diet numerically increased the fatty acid synthase activity but did not affect the lipoprotein lipase activity in subcutaneous adipose tissue.
Influence of Sulfur on Fresh Cassava Foliage and Cassava Hay Incubated in Rumen Fluid of Beef Cattle
Promkot, C. ; Wanapat, M. ; Wachirapakorn, C. ; Navanukraw, C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1424~1432
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1424
Two male, rumen fistulated crossbred Brahman-Thai native beef cattle (body weight =
kg), fed on rice straw as a source of roughage, were used as rumen fluid sources. The treatments were
factorial arrangements; two roughages (fresh cassava foliage and cassava hay) and three sulfur levels (elemental sulfur) at 0.2 (control), 0.5 and 1% of DM, respectively. The experiment revealed that the rates (c) of gas production, ammonia-nitrogen concentration, true digestibility, total concentration or molar proportions of VFA and microbial biomass were not significantly different between cassava hay and fresh cassava foliage. However, all parameters for cassava hay were higher than for fresh cassava foliage. The supplementation of 0.5% sulfur to fresh cassava foliage resulted in a significant increase in the rate of gas production, true digestibility, total concentration of VFA, microbial biomass, rate of HCN disappearance, thiocyanate appearance and cyanide percentage conversion into thiocyanate. However, there were no effects of sulfur supplementation at 0.2, 0.5 and 1% to cassava hay. The finding suggests the utilization of cassava foliage for rumen microorganisms in terms of fermentation and HCN detoxification could be improved by sulfur supplementation of 0.5% of DM.
Effect of a Copper, Selenium and Cobalt Soluble Glass Bolus Given to Grazing Yaks
Liu, Zongping ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1433~1437
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1433
Two field trials were carried out to evaluate the performance of a soluble glass copper, cobalt and selenium bolus for maintaining adequate levels of the three trace elements in yaks. Forty yaks were used in trial 1 and 60 yaks were used in trial 2. In each trial two commercial soluble glass boluses were administered to half of the yaks. Blood samples were taken from the jugular vein at day 0, 30, 60, 90 in trial 1 and at day 0, 45, 75 and 105 in trial 2. The samples were analysed for copper status (serum caeruloplasmin activity and copper concentration), cobalt status (serum vitamin
concentration and cobalt concentration), selenium status (erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activity and selenium concentration) and serum zinc concentration. The erythrocyte glutathione peroxidase activities, serum caeruloplasmin activities and serum vitamin
concentrations for trial 1 and 2 were all significantly increased for the bolused yaks (p<0.001 or p<0.01) on all sampling days. The bolused yaks had a significantly higher selenium and copper status in serum than the control yaks on all sampling days in trial 1 and 2 (p<0.05 or p<0.01). There were no significant differences in zinc and cobalt concentrations between the bolused yaks and the controls.
Influence of Ligustrum lucidum and Schisandra chinensis Fruits on Antioxidative Metabolism and Immunological Parameters of Layer Chicks
Ma, Deying ; Liu, Yuqin ; Liu, Shengwang ; Li, Qundao ; Shan, Anshan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1438~1443
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1438
The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of Ligustrum lucidum (LL) and Schisandra chinensis (SC) on the growth, antioxidative metabolism and immunity of laying strain male chicks. The results showed that diets supplemented with 1% of either LL or SC had no effects on the growth performance of chicks compared with the control. Furthermore, both LL and SC significantly reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of serum and heart of chicks (p<0.05). In addition, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity of serum of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation with SC (p<0.05). Glutathione reductase (GR) activity of heart and serum of the birds was significantly elevated by supplementation with LL or SC (p<0.05). LL supplementation significantly elevated antibody values against Newcastle Disease virus (NDV)(p<0.05) and lymphoblastogenesis (p<0.05) of the birds. The results suggest that diets supplemented with 1% of either LL or SC may improve immune function and antioxidant status of chicks.
Differences in Microbial Activities of Faeces from Weaned and Unweaned Pigs in Relation to In vitro Fermentation of Different Sources of Inulin-type Oligofructose and Pig Feed Ingredients
Shim, S.B. ; Verdonk, J.M.A.J. ; Pellikaan, W.F. ; Verstegen, W.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1444~1452
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1444
An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the differences in microbial activity of five faecal inocula from weaned pigs and one faecal inoculum from unweaned pigs in combination with 6 substrates. The substrates tested were negative control diet, corn, soybean meal, oligofructose (OF), ground chicory roots and a mixture (60% chicory pulp and 40% OF). The inocula used were derived from pigs fed either a corn-soy based diet without antibiotics (NCON), the NCON diet supplemented with oligofructose (OF), a mixture of chicory pulp (40%) and OF (60%) (MIX), ground chicory roots (CHR) or the NCON diet supplemented with antibiotics (PCON). The cumulative gas production measured fermentation kinetics and end products, such as total gas production, ammonia and volatile fatty acids, were also determined. Both the substrate and the inoculum significantly affected the fermentation characteristics. The cumulative gas production curve showed that different substrates caused more differences in traits of fermentation kinetics than the different inocula. Inocula of weaned pigs gave a significantly higher VFA production compared to the inoculum from unweaned animals, whilst the rate of fermentation and the total gas produced did not differ. OF showed the highest fermentation kinetics and the lowest
, pH and OM loss compared to other substrates. It was concluded that the microbial activity was significantly affected by substrate and inoculum. Inoculum from weaned pigs had more potential for microbial fermentation of the carbohydrate ingredients and oligofructose than that of unweaned pigs. A combination of high and low polymer inulin may be more beneficial to the gut ecosystem than using high- or low-polymer inulin alone.
Dietary Supplementation with Acanthopanax senticosus Extract Modulates Cellular and Humoral Immunity in Weaned Piglets
Kong, Xiangfeng ; Yin, Yulong ; Wu, Guoyao ; Liu, Hejun ; Yin, Fugui ; Li, Tiejun ; Huang, Ruilin ; Ruan, Zheng ; Xiong, Hua ; Deng, Zeyuan ; Xie, Mingyong ; Liao, Yiping ; Kim, Sungwoo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1453~1461
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1453
This study was conducted to test the hypothesis that dietary supplementation with an herbal extract of Acanthopanax senticosus (AS) enhances the immune response in weaned piglets. Sixty piglets weaned at 21 days of age were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups representing the addition of 0 or 1 g/kg of the AS extract or 0.2 g/kg of colistin (an antibiotic) to maize- and soybean meal-based diets (n = 20 per group). On days 7, 14 and 28 after initiation of the addition, total and differential counts of leucocytes, proliferating activity of peripheral lymphocytes, serum levels of immunoglobulins (Ig) and cytokines and the spleen index were determined. The AS extract decreased (p<0.05) the number of neutrophils on days 7 and 28 in comparison with the control group and reduced (p<0.05) serum interleukin-
level on day 28 compared with the other 2 groups. Dietary supplementation with the AS extract increased (p<0.05) the lymphocyte/leukocyte ratio on day 28 compared with the control group and increased the proliferating activity of lymphocytes on days 14 and 28 compared with the other 2 groups. The AS extract increased (p<0.05) the serum content of IgG on day 7 and of IgG and IgM on day 28 compared with the other 2 groups, as well as increasing the serum content of tumor necrosis factor on day 7 and spleen index on days 7 and 28 compared with the control group. Collectively, these findings suggest that the AS extract as a dietary additive enhances the cellular and humoral immune responses of weaned piglets by modulating the production of immunocytes, cytokines and antibodies.
Use of Chemical Treatments to Reduce Tannins and Trypsin Inhibitor Contents in Salseed (Shorea robusta) Meal
Mahmood, S. ; Khan, Ajmal M. ; Sarwar, M. ; Nisa, M. ; Lee, W.S. ; Kim, S.B. ; Hur, T.Y. ; Lee, H.J. ; Kim, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1462~1467
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1462
This study investigated the effect of chemical treatments on tannins (condensed and hydrolysable) and on the trypsin inhibitor (TI) activity in salseed meal. Triplicate samples of ground salseed meal (1 kg) were mixed with 820 ml of either distilled water (pH 5.3), 0.67 M acetic acid (pH 2.4), 0.67 M sodium bicarbonate (pH 8.2) or 2% polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) solution. The material was placed in airtight plastic containers and incubated at
for 0, 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. Samples of untreated salseed meal which had not been subjected to soaking or incubation were run through the analysis to serve as control. Addition of water, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate and PVP solutions to salseed meal and subsequent anaerobic incubation at
significantly reduced chemically detectable tannins. At each incubation time, alkali solution was more effective than its counterparts. The effect of acidic solution on hydrolysable tannin was least among the treatments. All the treatments reduced TI activity of salseed meal. The reduction in TI activity by these treatments was similar and ranged between 80-84%. Treatment time effected a decrease in the contents of antinutritional substances. However, the effect of the treatment with the reagents, even for zero incubation time, was quite pronounced. It may be concluded from the present results that the treatment of salseed meal with sodium bicarbonate (0.67 M) is more effective in reducing hydrolysable and condensed tannin contents than PVP, water and acid solutions. Treatment with sodium bicarbonate solution is more economical and easier to handle than acid and PVP treatments. Incubation of the treated material for 12 h is reasonably effective, economical and safe from any mould growth.
Cholesterol Removal from Lard with Crosslinked
Kim, S.H. ; Kim, H.Y. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 20, issue 9, 2007, Pages 1468~1472
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2007.1468
The present study was carried out to determine the optimum conditions of different factors (ratio of lard to water,
-CD concentrations, mixing temperature, mixing time and mixing speed) on cholesterol reduction from lard by using crosslinked
-CD was prepared with adipic acid. When the lard was treated under different conditions, the range of cholesterol removal was 91.2 to 93.0% with 5% crosslinked
-CD, which was not significantly different among treatments. In a recycling study, cholesterol removal with crosslinked
-CD in the first trial was 92.1%, which was similar to that with new crosslinked
-CD. In up to eight time trials, over 90% of cholesterol removal was found. The present study indicated that the optimum conditions for cholesterol removal using crosslinked
-CD were a 1:3 ratio of lard to water, 5% crosslinked
mixing temperature, 1 h mixing time and 150 rpm mixing speed. In addition, crosslinked
-CD made by adipic acid resulted in an effective recycling efficiency.