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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
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Polymorphism of Growth Hormone GH1-AluI in Jersey Cows and Its Effect on Milk Yield and Composition
Dario, C. ; Carnicella, D. ; Ciotola, F. ; Peretti, V. ; Bufano, G. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 1~5
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60586
To analyze genetic effects on milk production traits, 164 unrelated Italian Jersey cows reared in 15 farms located in Southern Italy were characterized at the growth hormone locus. Using a Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism protocol all three possible genotypes for the Leucine/Valine polymorphism were identified even if in the considered population the number of homozygous animals (Leucine/Leucine = 36; Valine/Valine = 28) was smaller than Leucine/Valine (n = 100) cows; the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium was verified. Statistical analysis showed that daily milk yield in the Leucine/Leucine genotype was higher (p<0.01) than in Leucine/Valine (22.76 kg vs. 16.96 kg ); cows with Leucine/Valine genotype differed significantly from Leucine/Leucine and Valine/Valine genotypes particularly in fat (4.95% vs. 4.13% and 4.82%, respectively) and protein content (4.00% vs. 3.47% and 3.79%, respectively). No significant effect on lactation length was observed.
Genetic Relationship in Chicken Breeds Using Molecular Co-ancestry Information
Ahlawat, S.P.S. ; Vijh, R.K. ; Mishra, Bina ; Kumar, S.T. Bharani ; Tantia, M.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 6~10
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60610
Five chicken populations viz. Chittagong, Ghagus, Kalasthi, Kadaknath, Tellichery were genotyped using 25 highly polymorphic microsatellite loci. White leg horn was taken as an outgroup. To reveal the relationship and distinctiveness among five indigenous breeds various genetic distances based on molecular co-ancestry were estimated and multidimensional scaling was performed. The Ghagus and Kalasthi breeds were closely related and their separation was recent, whereas Chittagong had a remote ancestry with other indigenous chicken populations.
Gene Microarray Analysis for Porcine Adipose Tissue: Comparison of Gene Expression between Chinese Xiang Pig and Large White
Guo, W. ; Wang, S.H. ; Cao, H.J. ; Xu, K. ; Zhang, J. ; Du, Z.L. ; Lu, W. ; Feng, J.D. ; Li, N. ; Wu, C.H. ; Zhang, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 11~18
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60256
We created a cDNA microarray representing approximately 3,500 pig genes for functional genomic studies. The array elements were selected from 6,494 cDNA clones identified in a large-scale expressed sequence tag (EST) project. These cDNA clones came from normalized and subtracted porcine adipose tissue cDNA libraries. Sequence similarity searches of the 3,426 ESTs represented on the array using BLASTN identified 2,790 (81.4%) as putative human orthologs, with the remainder consisting of "novel" genes or highly divergent orthologs. We used the gene microarray to profile transcripts expressed by adipose tissue of fatty Chinese Xiang pig (XP) and muscley Large White (LW). Microarray analysis of RNA extracted from adipose tissue of fatty XP and muscley LW identified 81 genes that were differently expressed two fold or more. Transcriptional differences of four of these genes, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (aP2), stearyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1 (SREBF1) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) were confirmed using SYBR Green quantitative RT-PCR technology. Our results showed that high expression of SCD and SREBF1 may be one of the reasons that larger fat deposits are observed in the XP. In addition, our findings also illustrate the potential power of microarrays for understanding the molecular mechanisms of porcine development, disease resistance, nutrition, fertility and production traits.
The Expression of Genes Related to Egg Production in the Liver of Taiwan Country Chickens
Ding, S.T. ; Ko, Y.H. ; Ou, B.R. ; Wang, P.H. ; Chen, C.L. ; Huang, M.C. ; Lee, Y.P. ; Lin, E.C. ; Chen, C.F. ; Lin, H.W. ; Cheng, Winston Teng Kuei ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 19~24
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70013
The purpose of this study was to detect expression of genes related to egg production in Taiwan Country chickens by suppression subtractive hybridization. Liver samples of mRNA extraction from two Taiwan Country chicken strains (L2 and B), originated from the same population but with very distinct egg production rates after long-term selection for egg and meat production respectively. Two-way subtraction was performed. The hepatic cDNA from the low egg production chickens (B) was subtracted from the hepatic cDNA from the high egg production strain (L2). The reversed subtraction (L2 from B) was also performed. The resulting differentially expressed gene fragments were cloned and sequenced. We sequenced 288 clones from the forward subtraction and 96 clones from the reverse subtraction. These genes were subjected to further screening to confirm the differential expression between the two genetic breeds of chickens. The apolipoprotein B (apoB) was expressed to a greater extent in the liver of the L2 than in the B line chickens. The 5-aminoimidazole- 4-carboxamide ribonucleotide formyltransferase/IMP cyclohydrolase (PURH) was expressed to a greater extent in the liver of the B than in the L2 strain chickens. We demonstrated that both apoB and PURH were more highly expressed in the liver than that in other tissues (muscle, ovary, and oviduct) in laying Taiwan Country chickens. Taken together, these data suggest that after the selection for egg production, expression of apoB and PURH genes were also changed. Whether the changed expression of these genes is directly related to egg production is not known, but these two genes may be useful markers for egg laying performance in Taiwan Country chickens.
Discrimination of Korean Cattle (Hanwoo) Using DNA Markers Derived from SNPs in Bovine Mitochondrial and SRY Genes
Yoon, D. ; Kwon, Y.S. ; Lee, K.Y. ; Jung, W.Y. ; Sasazaki, S. ; Mannen, H. ; Jeon, J.T. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 25~28
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70209
In order to distinguish Korean cattle (Hanwoo) beef from the imported beef from Australia in Korean markets, DNA markers based on PCR-RFLP from mitochondrial genes and SRY gene were applied. A total of 2,826 beef samples comprising 1,495 Hanwoo and 1,331 foreign cattle breeds were obtained in Korea. An 801 bp fragment of the SRY gene on the bovine Y chromosome, a 343 bp fragment of ND4 gene and a 528 bp fragment of ND5 gene in the bovine mtDNA were amplified by PCR and digested with three restriction enzymes, MseI, HpyCH4III and Tsp509I, respectively. The results showed that Bos taurus (T) type was the majority in Hanwoo by combining three markers (99.5%). However, 78.2% of Bos indicus (I) type was observed in the imported beef samples. These results indicated that three markers used in this study will be used as valuable markers for discriminating imported beef against Hanwoo.
Effects of Dietary Fish Oil on Semen Quality of Goats
Dolatpanah, M.B. ; Towhidi, A. ; Farshad, A. ; Rashidi, A. ; Rezayazdi, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 29~34
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70035
The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of dietary fish oil supplementation on the semen characteristics of the Markhoz buck. Sixteen bucks were randomly allocated into 4 groups and received four different diets: unsupplemented control diet, supplemented with fish oil at 2.50% dry matter (DM), supplemented with fish oil (2.50% DM) and vitamin E (0.30 g/kg DM), and supplemented with vitamin E (0.30 g/kg DM). All experimental diets were formulated according to AFRC (1998). Semen was collected at 14 d intervals from June 17, 2006 to September 2, 2006. Semen characteristics were evaluated. Significant effects (p<0.05) of the week (sampling time) were observed for all parameters except semen volume. Also a significant effect (p<0.05) of dietary treatment was observed for all parameters except for percent sperm with normal morphologies and semen volume. Fish oil supplementation with excess vitamin E had a significant effect (p<0.05) on total number and sperm density, motility and progressive motility, percentage viability and dead sperm. The interaction between fish oil feeding and sampling time was significant (p<0.05) for all of the parameters. The bucks that received fish oil in association with vitamin E, effect fish oil showed the greatest improvement in semen characteristics compared with the other groups (p<0.05). This study showed that fish oil supplementation with vitamin E may have a beneficial effect on the semen quality and fertility of Markhoz bucks.
MHC Class II+ (HLA-DP-like) Cells in the Cow Reproductive Tract: I. Immunolocalization and Distribution of MHC Class II+ Cells in Uterus at Different Phases of the Estrous Cycle
Eren, U. ; Sandikci, M. ; Kum, S. ; Eren, V. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 35~41
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70224
This study was undertaken to investigate the distribution of major histocompatibility complex class II positive (MHC II+) (HLA-DP-like) cells in the cow uterus (cervix, corpus and cornu uteri) and to compare these cells between the estrus and diestrus phases of the estrous cycle. Twenty-nine multiparous cows were used. Tissue samples from the middle of the cervix, the corpus and the right cornu were taken immediately after slaughter at the estrus or diestrus phase. Streptavidin-biotin peroxidase complex staining was used to detect MHC II+ cells. The number of MHC II+ cells per unit area of tissue was counted using image analysis software under a light microscope. Numerous MHC II+ cells were found in the endometrium (cervix, corpus and cornu uteri) in both estrus and diestrus. MHC II+ cells were found in the surface epithelium of the cervix uteri in diestrus, but in the corpus uteri in both estrus and diestrus and in the cornu uteri in estrus. MHC II+ cells were also found freely in the lumen of the glands and between the gland epithelia of the corpus and cornu uteri in both estrus and diestrus. There were also MHC II+ cells in the connective tissue of the myometrium and perimetrium (outside the endometrium) and around the blood vessels. Endothelial cells were frequently positive for MHC II staining. More MHC II+ cells were found in the endometrium than outside the endometrium in both estrus and diestrus (p<0.001). However, there was no difference in the numbers of positive cells between estrus and diestrus either in the endometrium or outside it. These results are the first evidence for HLA-DP-like MHC II+ cells in the bovine uterus. They indicate that antigen presentation by HLA-DP-like MHC II+ cells of the uterus is not influenced by hormonal status.
Effects of Sunflower Oil Supplementation in Cassava Hay Based-diets for Lactating Dairy Cows
Chantaprasarn, N. ; Wanapat, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 42~50
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60421
Twenty-four, lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned according to a Rrandomized complete block design (RCBD) to investigate the effect of sunflower oil supplementation (SFOS) with cassava hay based-diets on feed intake, digestibility of nutrients, rumen fermentation efficiency and milk production. The treatments were as follows: T1 = Control, using commercial concentrate as a supplement (CON); T2 = Concentrate with cassava hay (CHSO-0); T3 = Concentrate with cassava hay and 2.5% sunflower oil (CHSO-2.5); T4 = Concentrate with cassava hay and 5% sunflower oil (CHSO-5). The cows were offered concentrate feed at a ratio of concentrate to milk production of 1:2 and urea-treated rice straw was fed ad libitum. The results revealed that feed intake, digestibility of nutrients and ruminal pH were similar among all treatments, while ruminal NH3-N was lower (p<0.05) with SFOS. Blood urea-N (BUN) and milk urea-N (MUN) were not significantly affected by SFOS. The ruminal concentrations of volatile fatty acids were significantly different among the treatments. Sunflower oil supplementation significantly increased concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids, and ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids in the milk, particularly the conjugated fatty acids, was significantly enhanced. Furthermore, production costs of treatments with sunflower oil supplementation were lower than for the control. Based on this study, SFOS in cassava hay based-diets improves rumen ecology, milk yield and milk quality, especially in terms of conjugated linoleic acids.
Ruminal Characteristics, Blood pH, Blood Urea Nitrogen and Nitrogen Balance in Nili-ravi Buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) Bulls Fed Diets Containing Various Levels of Ruminally Degradable Protein
Javaid, A. ; Nisa, Mahr-un ; Sarwar, M. ; Aasif Shahzad, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 51~58
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70025
Four ruminally cannulated Nili-ravi buffalo bulls were used in a
Latin Square design to determine the influence of varying levels of ruminally degradable protein (RDP) on ruminal characteristics, digestibility, blood pH, blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and nitrogen (N) balance. Four isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated (NRC, 2001). The control diet contained 50% RDP. The medium (MRDP), high (HRDP) and very high (VHRDP) ruminally degradable protein diets had 66, 82 and 100% RDP, respectively. Increasing the level of dietary RDP resulted in a linear decrease in ruminal pH. A quadratic effect of RDP on ruminal pH was also observed with quadratic maxima at the 66% RDP diet. Dietary RDP had a quadratic effect on total bacterial and protozoal count with maximum microbial count at the 82% RDP diet. Increased microbial count was due to increasing level of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (
). Increasing dietary RDP resulted in a linear increase in dry matter digestibility. Provision of an adequate amount of RDP caused optimum microbial activity, which resulted in improvement in DM digestibility. Increasing the level of dietary RDP resulted in a linear decrease in crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fiber digestibility. Blood pH remained unaltered across all diets. A linear increase in ruminal
and BUN was noted with increasing level of dietary RDP. The increase in BUN was due to increased ruminal
concentrations. A positive N balance was noted across all diets. The results are interpreted to suggest that buffalo bulls can utilize up to 82% RDP of total CP (16%) with optimum results.
In vitro Nutrient Digestibility, Gas Production and Tannin Metabolites of Acacia nilotica Pods in Goats
Barman, K. ; Rai, S.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 59~65
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60161
Six total mixed rations (TMR) containing 0, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12% tannin (TMR I-VI), using Accacia nilotica pods as a source of tannin, were used to study the effect of Acacia tannin on in vitro nutrient digestibility and gas production in goats. This study also investigated the degraded products of Acacia nilotica tannin in goat rumen liquor. Degraded products of tannins were identified using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) at different hours of incubation. In vitro digestibility of dry matter (IVDMD) and organic matter (IVOMD) were similar in TMR II, and I, but declined (p<0.05) thereafter to a stable pattern until the concentration of tannin was raised to 10%. In vitro crude protein digestibility (IVCPD) decreased (p<0.05) with increased levels of tannins in the total mixed rations. Crude protein digestibility was much more affected than digestibility of dry matter and organic matter. In vitro gas production (IVGP) was also reduced (p<0.05) with increased levels of tannins in the TMR during the first 24 h of incubation and tended to increase (p>0.05) during 24-48 h of incubation. Gallic acid, phloroglucinol, resorcinol and catechin were identified at different hours of incubation. Phloroglucinol and catechin were the major end products of tannin degradation while gallate and resorcinol were produced in traces. It is inferred that in vitro nutrient digestibility was reduced by metabolites of Acacia nilotica tannins and ruminal microbes of goat were capable of withstanding up to 4% tannin of Acacia nilotica pods in the TMR without affecting in vitro nutrient digestibility.
Effects of Supplementation of Mixed Cassava (Manihot esculenta) and Legume (Phaseolus calcaratus) Fodder on the Rumen Degradability and Performance of Growing Cattle
Thang, C.M. ; Sanh, M.V. ; Wiktorsson, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 66~74
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60487
Two experiments were conducted to assess the effect of replacing a conventional concentrate with mixed cassava (Manihot esculenta) foliage and legume (Phaseolus calcaratus) foliage. In Exp. 1, three rumen fistulated crossbred cows were used for in sacco rumen degradability studies. In vitro gas production was also studied. In Exp. 2, 11 crossbred F2 heifers (Red Sindhi
Holstein Friesian), with initial live weight of
and aged six months, were allocated in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) to evaluate a mixture (ratio 3:1) of cassava and legume foliage (CA-LE feed) as a protein source compared to a traditional concentrate feed (Control) in diets based on fresh elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) and urea treated rice straw ad libitum. The Control feed was replaced by the CA-LE feed at levels of 0% (Control), 40% (CA-LE40), and 60% (CA-LE60) based on dry matter (DM). The in sacco degradation of CA-LE feed was higher than Control feed (p<0.05). After 48 h incubation the degradation of CA-LE feed and Control feed was 73% vs. 58% of DM and 83% vs. 65% of CP, respectively. The gas production of CA-LE feed was also significantly higher than of Control feed during the first 12 h of incubation. The results of the performance study (Exp. 2) showed that the level of CA-LE feed in the concentrate had no effect on total dry matter intake (p>0.05), but live weight gains (LWG) in CA-LE40 and CA-LE60 were significantly higher (551 and 609 g/d, respectively) than in the Control group (281 g/d). The intake of CP was higher (p<0.05) for the treatments CA-LE40 and CA-LE60 (556 and 590 g/d, respectively) compared to that of Control (458 g/d), while there was no significant difference in ME intake. The feed conversion ratio was 16.8, 9.0 and 7.9 kg DM/kg LWG in Control, CA-LE40 and CA-LE60, respectively. The feed cost of CA-LE40 and CA-LE60 corresponded to 43% and 35%, respectively, of the feed cost of Control feed. The best results were found when CA-LE feed replaced 60% of DM in Control feed and considerably decreased feed cost. It is concluded that feeding cassava foliage in combination with Phaseolus calcaratus legume as a protein supplement could be a potentially valuable strategy which leads to reduced feed costs and a more sustainable system in smallholder dairy production in Vietnam.
Diets with Different Forage/Concentrate Ratios for the Mediterranean Italian Buffalo: In vivo and In vitro Digestibility
Fabio, Zicarelli ; Calabro, Serena ; Piccolo, Vincenzo ; D'Urso, Simona ; Tudisco, Raffaella ; Bovera, Fulvia ; Cutrignelli, Monica I. ; Infascelli, Federico ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 75~82
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60668
In vivo and in vitro digestibility of 6 diets with a forage to concentrate ratio (F/C) ranging from 100 to 50:50 (diet 1: all hay, diet 2: 90:10, diet 3: 80:20, diet 4: 70:30, diet 5: 60:40, diet 6: 50:50) were investigated using 6 buffaloes in a
Latin square design. For the in vivo trial, the individual faeces of buffaloes were collected 3 times per day for 7 days. Individual pooled faeces and samples of each diet were analysed for chemical composition and insoluble acid ash (AIA) contents in order to estimate the coefficient of apparent digestibility (ADC). On the last day of the in vivo trial a sample of faeces was collected from each animal and used as inoculum for the in vitro test, using the gas production technique (IVGPT). The in vivo organic matter digestibility (ADC) rose as the percentage of concentrate increased up to the 70:30 (F/C) diet (67.01, 73.03, 78.06 and 79.05, respectively for diets 1, 2, 3 and 4); the other two diets (60:40 and 50:50 F/C) unexpectedly did not follow this trend (75.11 and 79.06, respectively for diet 5 and 6). However, these data agree with the results of the in vitro trial. The ADC was positively correlated with the dOM (p<0.001), but not with the gas production at different times; cumulative gas production recorded at the end of incubation (OMCV) showed an irregular trend and was not closely correlated to degraded OM. Estimation of in vivo digestibility from in vitro fermentation data was acceptable, despite leaving room for improvement.
Prepartum Feeding of Cationic or Anionic Diets to Holstein Cows Given 30 or 60 Day Dry Periods: Comparison of Dry Matter Intake, Physiological Measures and Milk Production
Gulay, M.S. ; Hayen, M.J. ; Bachman, K.C. ; Head, H.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 83~89
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70324
Eighty-four Holstein cows were used to evaluate effects of feeding two diets that differed in dietary cation-anion difference (cationic; +28 or anionic; -138 mEq/kg DM) on prepartum and postpartum dry matter intake (DMI), body weight (BW), body condition score (BCS), serum Ca concentrations and on subsequent milk production and composition. Treatments were in a
factorial arrangement that included prepartum diet, dry period length (30 d dry, 30 d dry+estradiol cypionate (ECP), and 60 d dry), and prepartum and postpartum bST (
10.2 mg/d). No interaction of prepartum diet with dry period length or bST supplementation was detected for any measure evaluated either prepartum or postpartum. No significant effects of prepartum diet on prepartum DMI, BW or BCS were observed. Mean DMI during the first 28 d postpartum were similar for cows fed the cationic or anionic diets prepartum (25.5 vs. 26.1 kg/d). During postpartum wk 1 to 14, no differences in mean BW or BCS were detected due to prepartum diet fed but decreases for both groups were observed during the first 6 wk postpartum. No differences due to prepartum diet were observed for mean milk or 3.5% FCM yields or for milk composition during the first 10 wk of lactation. Similarly, mean milk yield of cows during the first 21 wk did not differ significantly due to prepartum diet fed (38.5 vs. 38.6 kg/d). Overall, cows fed the prepartum cationic or anionic diets had similar mean postpartum serum concentrations of Ca (9.34 vs. 9.35 mg/dl). Subsequent milk production, milk composition and concentrations of Ca did not differ. Importantly, the two prepartum diets were equally satisfactory in minimizing incidence of milk fever and in supporting initiation of lactation, irrespective of dry period length and supplemental ECP and bST.
Comparison of Synthetic Lysine Sources on Growth Performance, Nutrient Digestibility and Nitrogen Retention in Weaning Pigs
Ju, W.S. ; Yun, M.S. ; Jang, Y.D. ; Choi, H.B. ; Chang, J.S. ; Lee, H.B. ; Oh, H.K. ; Kim, Y.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 90~96
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60320
We compared the effects of supplementing
to L-lysine HCl on growth performance, nutrient digestibility and nitrogen retention in weaning pigs. A total of 96 crossbred pigs, weaned at
days of age and with an average initial body weight (BW)
, were given one of 4 treatments, which translated into 6 replicates of 4 pigs in each pen. The animals were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments according to a randomized completely block design (RCBD) as follows: 1) control-no synthetic lysine, lysine deficient (0.80% total lysine); 2) L-C (= 0.2% L-lysine HCl); 3) K-L-S (= 0.332%
, A company); 4) C-L-S (= 0.332%
, B company). Diets were formulated with corn, soy bean meal, and corn gluten meal as the major ingredients, and all nutrients except the lysine met or exceeded NRC requirements (1998). The lysine content of supplemented synthetic lysine was the same in all treatment groups except the control. No clinical health problems associated with the dietary treatments were observed. During the entire experimental period, body weight, average daily gain (ADG) and feed efficiency (G:F ratio) increased (p<0.01) in pigs fed the experimental diets supplemented with L-lysine??HCl or
produced by A company, irrespective of the two synthetic lysine sources. Although the supplementation of
produced by B company tended to improve the ADG and G:F ratio, significant differences were not seen among all treatments and tended to be lower than the L-C (L-lysine HCl) and K-L-S (
groups using the product from A company). The digestibility of crude protein (CP) was increased by the supplementation of synthetic lysine (p<0.05), irrespective of the L-lysine source (L-C, K-L-S, C-L-S). The results of this study showed that ADG, G:F ratio, and CP digestibility improved when
or L-lysine HCl was supplemented into the weaning pigs' diet. There was a clear difference in efficacy between the two
products based upon the growth performance of weaning pigs. Consequently, the bioavailability of
products should be evaluated before supplementation of synthetic lysine in swine diets.
Effects of Different Levels of Supplementary Alpha-amylase on Digestive Enzyme Activities and Pancreatic Amylase mRNA Expression of Young Broilers
Jiang, Zhengyu ; Zhou, Yanmin ; Lu, Fuzeng ; Han, Zhaoyu ; Wang, Tian ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 97~102
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70110
Four hundred and forty 1-day-old Arbor Acre broilers were fed commercial starter diets with 0, 250, 750 and 2,250 mg/kg of an alpha-amylase preparation from 1 to 21 days of age to investigate the effects of an exogenous enzyme on growth performance, activities of digestive enzymes in the pancreas and anterior intestinal contents and pancreatic amylase mRNA expression. Body weight gain (BWG) and average daily gain (ADG) increased linearly (p<0.01) with increasing levels of supplementary amylase but feed conversion ratio (FCR) was not affected. There was a negative quadratic change of protease and amylase in the small intestinal contents with the increase of supplementary amylase level. The activity of intestinal trypsin was also increased (p<0.05). Lipase was unaffected by amylase supplementation (p>0.05). The pancreatic protease, trypsin, and lipase were not affected by exogenous amylase levels. Consistent with the tendency for a linear depression of amylase activity, pancreatic
-amylase mRNA was down-regulated by dietary amylase supplementation. The present study suggested that oral administration of exogenous amylase affected activities of intestinal enzymes and the production of pancreatic digestive enzymes in a dose-dependent manner.
The Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Fe-methionine Chelate and FeSO
on the Iron Content of Broiler Meat
Seo, S.H. ; Lee, H.K. ; Ahn, H.J. ; Paik, I.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 103~106
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70160
A broiler experiment was conducted to compare the effects of supplementary iron sources and levels on the iron content of broiler meat. Two hundred and fifty hatched Ross broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates of 10 birds (5 males and 5 females). Birds were housed in raised floor batteries and fed traditional broiler diets ad libitum for 5 weeks. Dietary treatments were as follows: Control, Fe-Met 100 (100 ppm iron as Fe-methionine), Fe-Met 200,
100 (100 ppm iron as
. There were no significant differences among treatments in parameters related to production performance. Liver contained approximately 10 times more iron than the leg muscle which contained approximately 3 times more iron than either breast muscle or wing muscle. Significant differences in iron content in the broiler meat were observed. In the breast meat, Fe-Met treatments were significantly (p<0.05) higher than other treatments in iron content. In the leg meat, Fe-Met treatments and
treatment were significantly higher than the control in iron content. In the wing muscle, Fe-Met 200 treatment was significantly higher than other treatments in iron content. Iron content in the liver was significantly influenced by source and supplementation level of iron. Fe-Met treatments were higher than
treatments and 200 ppm treatments were higher than 100 ppm treatments in iron content in the liver. It is concluded that iron-methionine chelate is more efficient than iron sulfate and 200 ppm iron supplementation as Fe-Met is recommended for maximum iron enrichment in broiler meat.
True Digestibility of Phosphorus in Different Resources of Feed Ingredients in Growing Pigs
Wu, X. ; Ruan, Z. ; Zhang, Y.G. ; Hou, Y.Q. ; Yin, Y.L. ; Li, T.J. ; Huang, R.L. ; Chu, W.Y. ; Kong, X.F. ; Gao, B. ; Chen, L.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 107~119
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70143
To determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs, two experiments were designed with the experimental diets containing five true digestible P levels (0.16%, 0.20%, 0.23%, 0.26% and 0.39%) and the ratio of total calcium to true digestible P (TDP) kept at 2:1. In Experiment 1, five barrows (Duroc
Yorkshire) with an average initial body weight of 27.9 kg were used in a
Latin-square design to evaluate the effect of different dietary P levels on the digestibility and output of P and nitrogen. In Experiment 2, sixty healthy growing pigs (Duroc
Yorkshire) with an average body weight (BW) of 21.4 kg were assigned randomly to one of the five dietary treatments (12 pigs/diet), and were used to determine the true digestible phosphorus (TDP) requirement of growing pigs on the basis of growth performance and serum biochemical indices. The results indicated that the true digestibility of P increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing dietary TDP level below 0.26%. The true P digestibility was highest (56.6%) when dietary TDP was 0.34%. Expressed as g/kg dry matter intake (DMI), fecal P output increased (p<0.05) linearly with increasing P input. On the basis of g/kg fecal dry matter (DM), fecal P output was lowest for Diet 4 and highest (p<0.05) for Diet 5. The apparent digestibility of crude protein (CP) did not differ (p>0.05) among the five diets, with the average nitrogen output of 12.14 g/d and nitrogen retention of 66% to 74% (p>0.05), which suggested that there was no interaction between dietary P and CP protein levels. During the 28-d experimental period of Experiment 2, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs was affected by dietary TDP levels as described by Eq. (1):
; p<0.01; y = ADG, g/d; x = dietary TDP, %), F/G for pigs by Eq. (2):
; p<0.01; y = F/G; x = dietary TDP, %), and Total P concentrations in serum by Eq. (3):
(R2 = 0.99; p<0.01; y = total serum P concentration and x = dietary TDP, %). The highest ADG (782 g/d), the lowest F/G (1.07) and the highest total serum P concentration (3.1 mmol/L) were obtained when dietary TDP level was 0.34%. Collectively, these results indicate that the optimal TDP requirement of growing pigs is 0.34% of the diet at a total Ca to TDP ratio of 2:1.
Effect of Nipple Angle on Water Disappearance by Pigs
Yun, M.S. ; Ju, W.S. ; Piao, L.G. ; Long, H.F. ; Kil, D.Y. ; Oh, H.K. ; Kim, Y.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 120~123
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60318
This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different nipple angles on water disappearance in growing pigs, which is defined as the water which leaves the watering device but is not consumed by the pig. This water adds to the volume of the total waste slurry. Four crossbred pigs averaging
kg were assigned into 1 of 4 treatments using a
Latin-square design. Treatments were distinguished by the angle between nipple terminal and the perpendicular wall. These angles were: 1) NA-30 (= Nipple Angle
), 2) NA-45 (= Nipple Angle
), 3) NA-60 (= Nipple Angle
) and 4) NA-90 (= Nipple Angle
). All of the nipples were fixed at shoulder height of each pig. After a 7-day adaptation period, samples were collected from each pig for 4 days, followed by a day for change-over. Pigs were fed a 0.8 kg diet twice daily at 08:00 and 20:00 and supplied water ad libitum. Throughout the experimental period, pigs in the NA-30 treatment group showed greater water disappearance than other treatments. Water disappearance was the lowest for the NA-60 treatment group (p<0.01). The percentage of water disappearance to the water supply was significantly reduced in the NA-60 treatment group (p<0.01). Water intake was the same for all the treatment groups. The rate of water disappearance per unit of water intake was significantly decreased in pigs in the NA-60 treatment group compared to other groups (p<0.01). These results suggested that the nipple angle for growing pigs should be
to reduce water disappearance and, subsequently, the amount of waste generated.
Development of a Rapid PCR Test for Identification of Streptococcus agalactiae in Milk Samples Collected on Filter Paper Disks
Wu, Jiusheng ; Liu, Yuehuan ; Hu, Songhua ; Zhou, Jiyong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 124~130
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70076
Streptococcus (Strep.) agalactiae is one of the major pathogens of bovine mastitis and is the main cause of subclinical infection. This study attempted to develop a rapid PCR diagnosis procedure using milk samples collected on filter paper disks. Chromatographic filter paper was employed as the preservation media and kept at room temperature for one to four weeks. The revival rate of Strep. agalactiae kept on dried filter paper disks was affected by the pretreatment preservation time. The revival test suggested that not all the bacteria in artificially contaminated milk samples on the filter paper disks could be recovered. After that, a PCR based on the 16-23S intergenic spacer region of Strep agalactiae was performed. The results distinguished the strep. agalactiae from major pathogens of bovine mastitis at a
colony forming units (CFU)/ml level, which showed similar sensitivity to the results from liquid milk samples. The results also showed that milk samples collected on filter paper disks could be kept at room temperature for one to four weeks with little negative effect on sensitivity and specificity. The field test showed that the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity was 96.15% and 98.60%, respectively. In conclusion, the protocol will provide a rapid and economic procedure for the detection of bovine mastitis.
Comparison of Cholesterol-reduced Cream Cheese Manufactured Using Crosslinked β-Cyclodextrin to Regular Cream Cheese
Han, E.M. ; Kim, S.H. ; Ahn, J. ; Kwak, H.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 131~137
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70189
The objective of the present study was to compare the chemical and sensory properties of regular cream cheese (control) and cholesterol-reduced cream cheese manufactured using crosslinked
-CD) or powdered
-CD was made using adipic acid. The composition of cream cheese treated by the crosslinked
-CD was similar to the regular cream cheese. Approximately 91% of cholesterol-reduction was observed in the cheeses that were treated using
-CD, which was not significantly different between powdered vs. crosslinked
-CD treatments. Total amount of short-chain free fatty acids was significantly lower in both
-CD-treated cheeses than in the control cheese throughout the storage. The cheeses made by
-CD-treated cream produced much lower amounts of individual free amino acids than the control in all periods. Most rheological characteristics, except cohesiveness, decreased dramatically in the control compared with the cholesterol-reduced cream cheeses. In sensory attributes, both wateryness and spreadability in
-CD-treated cheeses were significantly higher than in the control during 8 wk storage. Sensory scores for sourness increased significantly in the control from 4 to 8 wk storage, however, those in the cream cheese made by crosslinked-
-CD treated cream increased slowly during 8 wk storage, which was shown in the control during a 4 wk period. Therefore, the present study showed the possibility of cholesterol-reduced cream cheese manufacture.
Characterization of Nutritional Value for Twenty-one Pork Muscles
Kim, J.H. ; Seong, P.N. ; Cho, S.H. ; Park, B.Y. ; Hah, K.H. ; Yu, L. H. ; Lim, D.G. ; Hwang, I.H. ; Kim, D.H. ; Lee, J.M. ; Ahn, C.N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 138~143
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70208
A study was conducted to evaluate nutritional value for twenty-one pork muscles. Ten market-weight crossbred pigs (five gilts and five barrows) were used for evaluating proximate chemical composition, cholesterol, total iron, calorie and fatty acid contents. As preliminary analysis revealed no noticeable sex effect, pooled data from both sexes were used for the final analysis. M. rectus femoris had the highest moisture content, while m. latissimus dorsi was lowest in moisture content (p<0.05). Protein content was highest for m. longissimus dorsi and lowest for m. supraspinatus (p<0.05). The tensor fasciae and latissimus dorsi muscles contained the highest intramuscular fat (p<0.05), while rectus femoris, adductor and vastus lateralis were lowest in intramuscular fat content. When simple correlations between chemical values were computed for the pooled dataset from all muscles, intramuscular fat had significant (p<0.05) negative linear relationships with moisture (r = -0.85) and protein (r = -0.51) contents. Calorie levels were not significantly affected by fat content, while rectus femoris and latissimus dorsi muscles showed lowest and highest calorie contents, respectively (p<0.05). Polyunsaturated fatty acid content was highest (p<0.05) for both m. adductor and m. rectus femoris, while it was lowest for m. longissimus dorsi. Collectively, the current study identified a large amount of variation in nutritional characteristics between pork muscles, and the data can be used for the development of muscle-specific strategies to improve eating quality of meats and meat products.
Control of Rumen Microbial Fermentation for Mitigating Methane Emissions from the Rumen
Mitsumori, Makoto ; Sun, Weibin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 1, 2008, Pages 144~154
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.r01
The rumen microbial ecosystem produces methane as a result of anaerobic fermentation. Methanogenesis in the rumen is thought to represent a 2-12% loss of energy intake and is estimated to be about 15% of total atmospheric methane emissions. While methanogenesis in the rumen is conducted by methanogens, PCR-based techniques have recently detected many uncultured methanogens which have a broader phylogenetic range than cultured strains isolated from the rumen. Strategies for reduction of methane emissions from the rumen have been proposed. These include 1) control of components in feed, 2) application of feed additives and 3) biological control of rumen fermentation. In any case, although it could be possible that repression of hydrogen-producing reactions leads to abatement of methane production, repression of hydrogen-producing reactions means repression of the activity of rumen fermentation and leads to restrained digestibility of carbohydrates and suppression of microbial growth. Thus, in order to reduce the flow of hydrogen into methane production, hydrogen should be diverted into propionate production via lactate or fumarate.