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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Identification of Differentially Expressed Proteins at Four Growing Stages in Chicken Liver
Lee, K.Y. ; Jung, K.C. ; Jang, B.G. ; Choi, K.D. ; Jeon, J.T. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1383~1388
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70649
Because of high growth rate and large deposition of fat in the abdomen, the chicken has been used as a model organism for understanding lipid metabolism, fattening and growing. In this study, differentially expression of proteins in chicken liver, one of the important organs for lipid metabolism, has been investigated at four different growing stages. After separation of proteins using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE), more than 700 protein spots were detected. Among them, 13 growing stage specific proteins in chicken liver were selected and further investigated by matrix-assisted laser adsorptions ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). Of these, 12 proteins were matched to existing proteins based on a database search. The identified fat-related proteins in this study were fatty acid synthase (FASN) and malic enzyme (ME1). These proteins were more highly expressed at week 32 than at other weeks. In order to confirm the differential expression, one of the proteins, FASN, was confirmed by western blotting. The identified proteins will give valuable information on biochemical roles in chicken liver, especially for lipid metabolism.
Microsatellite Markers Linked to Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Fatness in Divergently Selected Chicken Lines for Abdominal Fat
Zhang, Hui ; Wang, Shouzhi ; Li, Hui ; Yu, Xijiang ; Li, Ning ; Zhang, Qin ; Liu, Xiaofeng ; Wang, Qigui ; Hu, Xiaoxiang ; Wang, Yuxiang ; Tang, Zhiquan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1389~1394
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70732
Abdominal fat characters are complex and economically important in the poultry industry. Their selection may benefit from the implementation of marker-assisted selection (MAS). The objective of this study was to identify the markers linked to QTL responsible for fatness traits. The Northeast Agricultural University broiler lines divergently selected for abdominal fat content (NEAUHLF) were used in the study. A total of 596 individuals from the divergent tails from the 6th to the 10th generations were genotyped at 23 microsatellite markers on chromosome 1. The differences of allele frequencies of all marker alleles between the divergent tails across the five generations were recorded. The allele frequencies of five markers, including LEI0209, LEI0146, MCW0036, ADL328 and MCW0115, had significant differences between the two tails in all five generations. The resulting p-values using Fisher's exact test on eleven markers, containing MCW248, MCW0010, MCW0106, LEI0252, LEI0068, MCW0018, MCW0061, LEI0088, MCW200, MCW283 and ROS0025, had a decreasing tendency from the 6th to the 10th generation. Statistical analysis showed that polymorphisms of the eight markers, including LEI0209, LEI0146, ROS0025, MCW0115, MCW0010, MCW0036, MCW283, ADL328, were significantly (p<0.0011) or suggestively (p<0.05) associated with abdominal fat content (AFW and AFP) across generations. It is concluded that the eight markers could be associated with the QTL affecting the deposition of abdominal fat in broiler chickens.
Genetic and Phenotypic Parameter Estimates of Body Weight at Different Ages and Yearling Fleece Weight in Markhoz Goats
Rashidi, A. ; Sheikahmadi, M. ; Rostamzadeh, J. ; Shrestha, J.N.B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1395~1403
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70752
The objective of the present study was to estimate genetic parameters for economic traits in Markhoz goats. Data collected from 1993 to 2006 by the Markhoz goat Performance Testing Station in Sanandaj, Iran, were analyzed. The traits recorded as body weight performance at birth (BW), weaning (WW), six month (6MW), nine month (9MW), yearling (YW) and yearling fleece weight (YFW) were investigated. Least square analyses were used for estimation of environmental effects. Genetic parameters were estimated with single and multi trait analysis using restricted maximum likelihood (REML) procedures, under animal models. By ignoring or including maternal additive genetic effects and maternal permanent environmental effects, five different models were fitted for each trait. The effects of sex, type of birth, age of dam and year of birth on the all body weights were significant (p<0.01), but had no effects on YFW except year of birth. Age of kids had significant influences on WW and 6MW (p<0.01). A log likelihood ratio test was carried out for choosing the most suitable model for each trait. Total heritability estimates for YFW and growth traits varied from 0.16 for YFW and WW to 0.41 for YW. For all traits, maternal heritability was lower than direct heritability, ranging from 0.06 for BW to 0.01 for 6MW and 9MW. The magnitude of
was more substantial for BW than the others, and relative importance was reduced from 0.12 for BW to 0.04 for 9MW. The direct additive genetic correlations estimates were positive and varied from 0.21 between BW-YW to 0.96 between WW-6MW. Direct additive genetic correlations between YFW and body weight traits were positive and ranged from 0.14 between BW-YFW to 0.67 between 6MW-YFW. For all traits, the corresponding estimates for phenotypic correlation were positive and lower than genetic correlations. The maternal additive genetic correlations between various traits were varied and ranged from -0.19 between 9MW-YFW to 0.96 between 6MW-9MW. The estimates of the maternal permanent environmental correlations between various traits were positive and ranged from 0.33 between WW-YFW to 0.93 between WW-6MW. Also, the environmental correlations between various traits ranged from 0.01 between BW-YFW and WW-YFW to 0.70 between 9MW-YW. Estimates of genetic parameters for various traits in this study confirm that selection should be applied on WW for genetic improvement in Markhoz goats.
Association between HSP70 Genotypes and Oocytes Development on In vitro Maturation/Fertilization in Pig
Wee, M.S. ; Park, C.K. ; Cho, S.R. ; Lee, S.S. ; Yeon, S.H. ; Kim, C.D. ; Cho, C.Y. ; Choi, S.H. ; Sang, B.D. ; Son, D.S. ; Li, Z.D. ; Jin, H.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1404~1410
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70623
This study was performed to clarify whether the variation of stress related heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) (GenBank X68213) gene was associated with the nuclear morphological change of in vitro maturation and in vitro capacitation in oocytes of pig ovaries obtained at the slaughterhouse. The nucleic acid substitution of C to G at the 483rd position was found out in HSP70 K1 (290-512) from X68213. The ovaries were categorized into CC, CG, and GG genotypes using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) (BsiHKA I). After the second in vitro maturation of immature fresh oocytes, the relation of nuclear morphological change in oocytes with the genotype of HSP70 K1 gene was such that the MII ratios of the genotype GG and CG (46.93% and 42.20%, respectively) were significantly higher than that of the CC genotype (10.71%) (p<0.05). With respect to in vitro maturation of frozen-thawed oocytes by an open pulled straw (OPS) method, the percentage of oocytes matured to MII stage of the CG genotype showed a higher trend than CC and GG genotypes. After the in vitro maturation of immature fresh oocytes and frozen-thawed oocytes by the OPS method, the relation of the pronuclei change in oocytes matured in vitro with HSP70 genotype was assessed, and the result showed that the enlarged sperm heads (ESH) of matured fresh oocytes and frozen-thawed oocytes were 80.0% and 60.0% in the CC genotype, respectively. The CC genotype group had a significantly higher rate of ESH than the CG and the GG genotype group (p<0.05). The ratios of polyspermic invasion were not different among HSP70 of the three genotypes. It was considered that the rate of in vitro maturation of fertilized oocytes was expected to differ according to genotype of the stress related gene.
The Estrous Cycle of the Markhoz Goat in Iran
Farshad, A. ; Akhondzadeh, M.J. ; Zamiri, M.J. ; Sadeghi, GH. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1411~1415
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70707
The purpose of the present study was to determine the onset of breeding season, the occurrence of silent and true heats and the duration of estrus in female Markhoz goats of the Kurdistan province in Iran. Ten, 3 years-old Markhoz does with an average weight of
and with one kidding record, were used. The goats were maintained in an open barn under constant nutritional levels and natural photoperiod. One aproned buck was used twice a day every 12 h to detect estrus from mid August to early January. For the determination of the onset of reproductive activity as well as occurrence of silent heat, blood samples were collected every 10 days, from the beginning of the experiment. After
standing heat, blood samples were obtained twice a week in order to assess luteal activity and the length of estrous cycles. In this study, estrous behavior was observed including sniffing, vocal exchange, following courtship, flehman, standing heat and mounting. The results of the progesterone assay indicated that in this goat silent heats occur mostly in the early breeding season. The first standing heat was observed in mid-October which was considered as the onset of the breeding season. Duration of the estrous cycle and estrus was recorded as being
, respectively. The correlation coefficient between length of daylight and occurrence of estrus was negative (r = -0.470) but not significant (p>0.05). The data showed that there was no significant effect of body weight on estrous cycles (first, second and third) and estrous periods (first, second, third and fourth). Progesterone levels were not significantly different in the first, second and third estrous cycles at days 0, 4, 10, 12, 14 and 19. The results of progesterone assay during the estrous cycle indicate that follicular and luteal phases last 4-5 and 14-15 days, respectively and the concentration of serum progesterone in these phases was
, respectively. The study concluded that Markhoz does could be considered as a breed with a short breeding season and an optimal estrous activity in autumn.
Effect of Location, Year and Variety on Winter Cereal Forage Yield and Quality in the Southern Plateau of the Spain
Otal, J. ; Quiles, A. ; Quiles, A. ; Perez-Sempere, J.I. ; Ramirez, A. ; Fuentes, F. ; Hevia, M.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1416~1424
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70644
The objective of this research was to study the production and quality of forage at three different times of the year (April, June and July) of six winter cereals in the southern plateau of the Iberian Peninsula. The cereals studied were Triticale (xTriticosecale wittm) cv. "Tritano", Oat (Avena sativa L.) cv. "Prevision" and cv. "Saia; Rye (Secale cereale L.) cv. "Giganton", Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cv. "Cameo" and cv. "Albacete". The study was carried out in three different locations and over three successive years of harvesting. The three variables considered were location, year and cereal. The % dry matter (DM), % crude protein (CP), % acid detergent fiber (ADF), % neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and % ash content were determined for the three sampling periods and the quality was calculated in milk forage units (MFU/kg DM), the production in kg DM/ha, MFU/ha and kg CP/ha. In all three sampling periods the quality of the cereals was significantly influenced only by the year and by species. However, for production of dry matter (kg DM/ha), milk forage units (MFU/ha) and gross protein (kg CP/ha) all three variables were of significant influence as were their interactions. In the April sampling, the species which showed a significantly higher production (
) was rye (1,693 kg DM/ha), which, along with its forage quality (16.56% CP, 0.886 MFU/kg DM) meant that the same occurred in MFU/ha and kg CP/ha. Significant differences between species were also found for the June sampling. The most productive cereal was again rye with 2,656 kg DM/ha, although its sharp fall in forage quality meant that barley cv Albacete (2,513 kg DM/ha) returned the highest production in forage units (1,934 vs. 1,951 MFU/ha) and barley cv. Cameo (2,413 kg DM/ha) in gross protein production (242 vs. 264 kg CP/ha). The significantly highest cereal production for July was barley cv. Albacete (4,923 kg DM/ha, 9.11% CP 0.722 MFU/kg DM). As a consequence of the results, we conclude that from the viewpoint of nutritional quality and production, rye is the most suitable for use in early spring in whatever year and location. However, barley cv. "Albacete" is the most appropriate for utilisation in later spring or early summer.
Effect of Feed Additives in Growing Lambs Fed Diets Containing Wet Brewers Grains
Aguilera-Soto, J.I. ; Ramirez, R.G. ; Arechiga, C.F. ; Mendez-Llorente, F. ; Lopez-Carlos, M.A. ; Silva-Ramos, J.M. ; Rincon-Delgado, R.M. ; Duran-Roldan, F.M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1425~1434
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70735
The study was conducted to evaluate and compare the effects of feed additives on ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestibility and performance of lambs fed diets containing 60% wet brewers grains (WBG). In Experiment 1, two simultaneous trials were conducted. Fifty intact (
) lambs were used in a feedlot trial and 10 (rumen cannulated;
) in a digestion trial. The pH, volatile fatty acids (VFA) and ammonia-N in lambs were also estimated. Lambs were randomly assigned to one of five diets: i) without additives (Con), ii) with 1% bicarbonate (Bic), iii) with 1% bentonite (Ben), iv) with 33 mg/kg monensin (Mon) and v) with 200 mg/kg fibrolityc enzymes (Enz). In Experiment 2, 120 RambouilletPelibuey intact male lambs (
) were used in a feedlot trial and randomly assigned to four diets: i) without additives (control), ii) with 1% Bic, iii) with 33 mg/kg Mon and iv) with 1% Bic and 33 mg/kg Mon. In Experiment 1, lambs fed diets containing Bic or Mon had significantly higher final weight, DMI, ADG than other lambs. However, apparent DM, OM, CP, NDF and ADF digestibilities and ruminal individual VFA content were similar (p>0.05) among treatments. Conversely, treatmentcollection period interaction was significant for ruminal pH and NH3. In Experiment 2, lambs fed diets containing a Bic and Mon combination had significantly higher final weight, DMI and ADG. It is concluded lambs fed Bic or Mon or Bic and Mon combination had better performance characteristics than lambs on Ben or Enz.
Effect of Cattle Genotype and Variable Feed Supply on Forage Intake and Digestibility
Habib, M. ; Pollott, G.E. ; Leaver, J.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1435~1440
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80007
An experiment was carried out to investigate whether a local breed of cattle is better adapted than European breed crosses to low quality feeds and to variations in their supply. Four Red Chittagong (RC) and four Holstein cross Sahiwal (Hx) cattle were used to compare the intake and digestibility of German grass (Echinocloa crusgalli) and rice straw with four regimes of feed supply. These were; a choice of German grass and rice straw each offered ad libitum on the same day (A); German grass and rice straw offered ad libitum on alternate days (B); rice straw offered ad libitum for 5 days followed by German grass ad libitum for 5 days (C); and German grass offered ad libitum for 5 days followed by rice straw ad libitum for 5 days (D). Each breed was offered the treatments in a
Latin Square design. The German grass intake and total dry matter intake per kg metabolic live weight were significantly higher for the Hx than for RC, but there were no significant effects of genotype on digestibility of nutrients or live weight. Treatment A had the highest proportion of German grass relative to rice straw in the total DM intake, and had the highest total DM intake and apparent digestibility of nutrients compared with treatments B, C and D. It was concluded that there was no significant evidence that the RG cattle were better adapted to a variable supply of low quality feed than Hx cattle, and that the variable feed supply reduced the ability of cattle to select a preferred diet and consequently nutrient intake was depressed.
Carcass Characteristics, Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Longissimus Muscle of Bulls and Steers Finished in a Pasture System Bulls and Steers Finished in Pasture Systems
Aricetti, Juliana Aparecida ; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi ; do Prado, Rodolpho Martin ; Perotto, Daniel ; Moletta, Jose Luiz ; Matsushita, Makoto ; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1441~1448
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80061
This experiment was carried out to study the carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the Longissimus muscle (LM) of bulls (10) and steers (17) finished in a pasture system. Animals (1/2 Zebu vs. 1/2 Aberdeen Angus) were fed in a pasture system (Hermatria altissima) and with a supplement of soybean meal, cracked corn, urea, limestone and mineral salts, twice a day. Both animal groups were slaughtered at 27 months of age, with an average 508.88 kg of live weight. Final weight, hot carcass weight and texture were similar (p>0.05) between bulls and steers. Carcass dressing, fat thickness, color and marbling were higher (p<0.02) in steers. Conversely, the Longissimus area was greater (p<0.05) in bulls. Moisture levels were higher (p<0.01) in bulls. Ash, crude protein, total lipids and total cholesterol levels were higher (p<0.10) in steers. C14:0, C16:0, C16:1 n-7 and C18:1 n-9 fatty acids percentages were higher (p<0.06) in steers. C16-1 n-10, i 17:0, C19:0, C18:2 n-6, C18:3 n-3, C20:2 n-3 C20:4 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:1 n-7, C22:4 n-6 and C22:5 n-3 fatty acids percentages were higher (p<0.05) in bulls. The percentage of the other fatty acids was similar (p>0.05) in bulls and steers. The levels of monounsaturated fatty acids were higher (p<0.02) in steers while polyunsaturated fatty acids, n-3, n-6, PUFA/SFA and n6:n3 ratios, were higher (p<0.05) in bulls. The CLA contents (mg/g lipids) were similar (p>0.10) in bulls and steers.
Carcass Characteristics, Chemical Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of the Longissimus Muscle of Bulls (Bos taurus indicus vs. Bos taurus taurus) Finished in Pasture Systems
do Prado, Ivanor Nunes ; Aricetti, Juliana Aparecida ; Rotta, Polyana Pizzi ; do Prado, Rodolpho Martin ; Perotto, Daniel ; Visentainer, Jesui Vergilio ; Matsushita, Makoto ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1449~1457
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80075
This experiment was carried out to evaluate the carcass characteristics, chemical composition and fatty acid profile of the Longissimus muscle (LM) of three cattle genetic groups (Purunã, PUR, 11; 1/2 Purunã vs. 1/2 British, PUB, 6 and 1/2 Charolais vs. 1/2 Caracu, CHC, 10) finished in pasture systems. The field work took place at the Lapa Research Farm of the Agronomic Institute of Paraná, in the city of Lapa, south Brazil. The animals were fed during the winter with corn silage, cottonseed meal, cracked corn, urea, limestone and mineral salts as sources of protein, as well as an energy supplement, in pasture systems of Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. The animal groups were slaughtered at 20 months of age, at 50122.6 kg live weight. CHC bulls had higher (p<0.05) final weight than PUR and PUB bulls. Hot carcass weight was similar (p>0.10) between PUR and PUB. Hot carcass dressing percentage was higher (p<0.05) for PUB bulls than for PUR and CHC bulls. On the other hand, hot carcass dressing percentage was similar (p>0.05) between PUR and CHC bulls. Fat thickness was similar (p>0.10) among all genetic groups. However, the Longissimus area of CHC bulls was greater (p<0.05) than in PUR and PUB genetic groups. The genetic groups did not affect (p>0.10) the marbling of Longissimus. There was no observed difference (p>0.10) in moisture, ash, crude protein and total cholesterol contents among the three genetic groups. On the other hand, the total lipid percentage was higher (p<0.05) for the PUB genetic group in comparison with PUR and CHC. CLA percentage was highest for PUR animals. However, total CLA amounts were not altered by the different genetic groups.
Effects of Soybean Oil or Whole Cotton Seed Addition on Accumulation of Conjugated Linoleic Acid in Beef of Fattening Brahman×Tai-Native Catle
Suksombat, Wisitiporn ; Chullanandana, Khukhuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1458~1465
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80047
Effects of soybean oil or whole cotton seed addition on conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and performance of fattening Brahman
Thai-Native cattle were studied. Eighteen fattening cattle averaging
body weight and approximately 1 year old were stratified by live weight into three groups and randomly assigned by group to one of three dietary treatments. The treatments were control (concentrated 14% crude protein), control and supplemented with 170 g/d soybean oil, control plus 170 g/d of oil from whole cotton seed. All animals were weighed before and after the experimental period and 4 cattle per treatment were randomly slaughtered then carcass measurements were obtained. There were no statistically significantly differences in the final body weight, average daily gain and dry matter intake among treatments. However, the crude protein intake was significantly decreased (p<0.01) when whole cotton seed was fed compared with control and soybean oil treatments. The carcass composition and carcass characteristics were not significantly different in Longissimus and Semimembranosus muscle by feeding soybean oil and whole cotton seed compared with the control treatment. Supplementation of soybean oil increased (p<0.01) cis-9, trans-11 CLA by 116% in Longissimus muscle and by 240% in Semimembranosus muscle. However, whole cotton seed did not increase cis-9, trans-11 CLA in both muscles. The present study successfully increased cis-9, trans-11 CLA content of muscle lipids by soybean oil but not by whole cotton seed.
Variations in Conjugated Linoleic Acid Concentrations in Cows Milk, Depending on Feeding Systems in Different Seasons
Zunong, Maimaijiang ; Hanada, Masaaki ; Aibibula, Yimamu ; Okamoto, Meiji ; Tanaka, Keiichi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1466~1472
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80148
Variations in conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in Holstein dairy cows milk, depending on feeding systems in different seasons was investigated. Milk samples were collected from Holstein dairy cows, which either grazed for whole days (WG), only daylight hours (TG), or were offered a total mixed ration (TMR) and experienced no grazing (NG), from April to December of 2005. In April, November and December, the cows in TG and WG treatments received grass silage and some concentrate, while from May to October, the cows grazed on temperate pasture. The cows in NG treatment received the TMR throughout the season. The major fatty acid obtained in the pastures was linolenic acid. There was no significant difference in the pasture's linolenic acid concentrations from May to September, but there was a significant decrease in October. However, the linolenic acid concentrations obtained in the pasture were always much higher than those obtained from the TMR. Linoleic acid was also the major fatty acid in the TMR, but these concentrations were higher in the TMR than in the pasture. There was no significant difference in milk cis9trans11CLA (c9t11CLA) concentrations between the three feeding systems while the cows were fed on conserved pasture in April, November and December. Although c9t11CLA concentrations were lower in the TMR, it was found that the cows which grazed in fresh pasture experienced significantly higher concentrations of c9t11CLA in their milk than those which received only TMR. It was also found that cows in the WG treatment experienced higher c9t11CLA concentrations than those in the TG treatment. In the WG and TG treatments, c9t11CLA concentrations were highest in June, after which, they gradually decreased (p<0.01) until October. For the NG treatment, there was no significant change in the concentrations of c9t11CLA (p>0.05) with season. Overall, trans11C18:1 and c9t11CLA were greatly influenced by season, with higher variation in the WG treatment than in the TG treatment and no variation in the NG treatment.
The Growth-promoting Effect of Tetrabasic Zinc Chloride is Associated with Elevated Concentration of Growth Hormone and Ghrelin
Zhang, Bingkun ; Guo, Yuming ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1473~1478
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80057
An experiment was conducted to investigate the mechanism for the effect of tetrabasic zinc chloride (TBZC) in enhancing growth performance of weanling piglets. Gut-brain peptides play an important role in the regulation of growth and appetite in animals. This study evaluated the effects of TBZC on blood concentrations of growth hormone (GH), ghrelin, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), cholecystokinin (CCK) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Seventy-two weanling piglets (Landrace
Large White) with an initial body weight (BW) of
were assigned to three dietary treatments: i) control diet without TBZC supplement, ii) the control diet supplemented with 2,000 mg Zn from TBZC/kg and iii) TBZC-supplemented diet pair-fed with respect to the control diet. Each treatment had six replications (pens) of four piglets. At the end of a 14-d experimental period, piglets were weighed and feed consumption was measured, and blood samples were collected for assays of GH, ghrelin, IGF-I, CCK and NPY concentrations. The inclusion of TBZC in the diet increased average daily gain (p<0.01), average daily feed intake (p<0.05), and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). Pair-fed piglets had higher ADG, and lower FCR than (p<0.05) Control piglets. Supplementation of the diet with TBZC increased (p<0.05) serum GH and plasma ghrelin levels in weanling piglets, but did not affect (p>0.05) serum IGF-I and plasma NPY and CCK concentrations. Pair-fed piglets had lower (p<0.05) serum GH levels than TBZC-supplemented piglets, but did not (p>0.05) differ from Control piglets. These data indicated that TBZC elevated the concentration of ghrelin and GH. This observation may partly explain the beneficial effects of TBZC on growth performance of weanling piglets.
Effect of Gamma Irradiation on Anti Nutritional Factors and Nutritional Value of Canola Meal for Broiler Chickens
Gharaghani, Hossein ; Zaghari, Mojtaba ; Shahhosseini, Gholamreza ; Moravej, Hossein ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1479~1485
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80066
Two completely randomized block design experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of gamma irradiation processing of canola meal on performance parameters of broiler chicks (Ross 308) and protein quality of canola meal. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) and net protein ratio (NPR) were measured as indices of canola meal protein quality. Samples of canola meal were tested for nutritional value after being irradiated at dose levels 10, 20 and 30 kGy. Glucosinolate content was reduced 40, 70 and 89 percent at irradiation dose levels of 10, 20 and 30 kGy respectively (p<0.01). Percent of erucic acid in total fatty acid content increased 44, 58 and 48% as a function of radiation dose (p<0.01). Dose levels did not affect feed conversion ratio (FCR) and body weight gain of chicks (p>0.05). Liver weight was decreased by irradiation dose (p<0.05). The same trend was observed for kidney weights, but this trend was not significant (p>0.05). Gamma irradiation processing of canola meal had no significant effect on
level in blood of chickens that consumed canola meal, but
level of chicken blood at the 30 kGy dose decreased significantly (p<0.05). PER and NPR were not affected by radiation dose level (p>0.05). Gamma irradiation seems to be a good procedure to improve the nutritional quality of canola meal.
Comparison of the Effect of Green Tea By-product and Green Tea Probiotics on the Growth Performance, Meat Quality, and Immune Response of Finishing Pigs
Ko, S.Y. ; Bae, I.H. ; Yee, S.T. ; Lee, S.S. ; Uuganbayar, D. ; Oh, J.I. ; Yang, C.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1486~1494
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70604
The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of green tea by-product and green tea probiotics on the growth performance, meat quality and immune response of finishing pigs. A total of 72 crossbred "Landrace
Yorkshire" finishing pigs with an average of 76 kg body weight were assigned to 4 dietary treatments in a completely randomized design. Each treatment had 3 replications with 6 pigs per replication. The four dietary treatments were control, antibiotics (control diet with 0.003% chlortetracycline added), and diets containing 0.5% green tea by-product or 0.5% green tea probiotic supplementation. Weight gain was increased in 0.5% green tea probiotics treatment compared to others, but there was no significant difference (p>0.05). The incorporation of 0.5% green tea probiotics to diets reduced the feed conversion ratio in finishing pigs (p>0.05). The incorporation of 0.5% green tea by-product into the pig diet reduced the crude protein and fat contents of the meat (p>0.05). Pigs fed diets containing 0.5% green tea probiotic supplementation had lowered meat TBA values compared to those fed 0.5% green tea by-product (p<0.05). The proliferation of spleen cells stimulated with Con A (concanavalin: 0.1, 0.3, and
) significantly increased with 0.5% green tea by-product treatment compared to antibiotic treatment (p<0.05), but was significantly decreased in 0.5% green tea probiotics treatment compared to the antibiotic treatment (p<0.05). When stimulated with
Con A, splenocyte production of IL-6 from pigs treated with 0.5% green tea by-product or green tea probiotics was significantly increased compared to the antibiotic treatment group (p<0.05). Splenocyte production of TNF-
after treatment with
Con A was significantly higher following 0.5% green tea probiotics treatment (p<0.05), while TNF-
LPS (lipopolysaccharide) was significantly higher in the 0.5% antibiotic treatment group (p<0.05).
Screening of Indigenous Strains of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Development of a Probiotic for Poultry
Karimi Torshizi, M.A. ; Rahimi, Sh. ; Mojgani, N. ; Esmaeilkhanian, S. ; Grimes, J.L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1495~1500
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80081
In an attempt to develop a probiotic formulation for poultry feed, a number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from chicken intestinal specimens and a series of in vitro experiments were performed to evaluate their efficacy as a potential probiotic candidate. A total of 650 LAB strains were isolated and screened for their antagonistic potential against each other. Among all the isolates only three isolates (TMU121, 094 and 457) demonstrated a wide spectrum of inhibition and were thus selected for detailed investigations. All three selected isolates were able to inhibit the growth of E. coli and Salmonella species, although to variable extent. The nature of the inhibitory substance produced by the isolates TMU121 and 094 appeared to be associated with bacteriocin, as their activity was completely lost after treatment with proteolytic enzymes, while pH neutralization and catalase enzyme had no effect on the residual activity. In contrast, isolate TMU457 was able to resist the effect of proteolytic enzymes while pH neutralization completely destroyed its activity. Attempts were made to study the acid, bile tolerance and cell surface hydrophobicity of these isolates. TMU121 showed high bile salt tolerance (0.3%) and high cell surface hydrophobicity compared to the other two strains studied, while TMU094 appeared the most pH resistant strain. Based on these results, the three selected LAB isolates were considered as potential ingredients for a chicken probiotic feed formulation and were identified to species level based on their carbohydrate fermentation pattern by using API 50CH test kits. The three strains were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum TMU121, Lactobacillus rhamnosus TMU094, and Pediococcus pentosaceous TMU457.
The Effect of Level and Period of Fe-methionine Chelate Supplementation on the Iron Content of Boiler Meat
Seo, S.H. ; Lee, H.K. ; Lee, W.S. ; Shin, K.S. ; Paik, I.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1501~1505
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80085
A broiler experiment was conducted to compare the effects of duration and level of iron-methionine chelate (Fe-Met) supplementation on the iron, copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) content of broiler meat. Two hundred and fifty hatched Ross broiler chickens were randomly assigned to 5 dietary treatments. Each treatment had 5 replicates of 10 birds (5 males and 5 females) each. Birds were housed in raised floor batteries and fed traditional broiler diets ad libitum for 5 weeks. Dietary treatments were as follows: Control and two levels of Fe-Met (100 or 200 ppm in Fe) supplemented for either the whole period (0-5 wk) or grower period (4-5 wk). Production performance was not significantly affected by treatments. Iron content in the muscles (breast, leg and wing) and organs (liver and spleen) were significantly (p<0.05) increased as the level and duration of Fe-Met supplementation increased. The highest concentration of iron was shown in Fe-Met 200 fed for the whole period. Liver contained the highest amount of iron followed by spleen, leg muscle, wing muscle and breast muscle. Supplementation of Fe-Met 200 for the grower period resulted in higher iron concentration in liver and spleen than supplementation of Fe-Met 100 for the whole period. However, the same treatment resulted in lower iron concentration in muscles (breast, leg and wing) than the treatment of Fe-Met 100 for the whole period. In order to achieve the highest iron enrichment in the muscles, Fe-Met should be supplemented at 200 ppm in Fe for the whole period (5 wks). Fe-Met supplementation increased copper concentration in all muscles and organs except wing muscle. Zinc concentration decreased in breast and wing muscle but tended to increase in leg muscle, liver and spleen by Fe-Met 200 supplementation. Color of muscle was not significantly affected by Fe-Met treatments. However, redness of leg and breast muscle, and yellowness of leg and breast muscle tended to increase by supplementation of Fe-Met for the whole period. It was concluded that iron content of broiler meat can be effectively enriched by supplementation of 200 ppm of Fe as Fe-Met for 5 wks.
Biological Effectiveness of Methionine Hydroxy-analogue Calcium Salt in Relation to DL-Methionine in Broiler Chickens
Elwert, C. ; de Fernandes, E. Abreu ; Lemme, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1506~1515
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80201
Two feeding trials were conducted to assess the relative bioavailability (RBV) of methionine hydroxy analogue calcium salt (MHA-Ca) in comparison to DL-methionine (DL-Met). Male Ross 308 (1-38 days) and Cobb 500 chickens (1-42 days) were used in studies 1 and 2, respectively. Experimental diets based on wheat and soybean meal or sorghum and soybean meal were fed during three phases. In both experiments graded levels of DL-Met and MHA-Ca were supplemented to Met+Cys deficient basal diets. Additionally, in experiment 1, increasing levels of a DL-Met preparation diluted with corn starch to 65% purity (DL-Met65) were supplemented. Birds were kept in floor pens and feed and water were available ad libitum. Body weights and feed consumption were recorded at the beginning and end of the experimental periods and weight gain and feed efficacy were computed subsequently. At the end of the experiments, a number of birds were slaughtered for carcass evaluation (dressing percentage, breast meat yield). Dose response data were analysed by both ANOVA and nonlinear common plateau asymptotic regression. In both experiments birds responded significantly to increasing levels of either methionine source. However, RBV of MHA-Ca compared to DL-Met was markedly (in many cases significantly) below 84%, the value which would have been expected from MHA-Ca's chemical characteristics. Excluding some extremely low RBV figures of trial 2, RBV of MHA-Ca averaged to about 63% in relation to DL-Met. In addition, supplementation of DL-Met65 allowed confirmation of nonlinear common plateau asymptotic regression to be suitable to determine RBV.
Effects of Dietary Energy Intake Levels on Growth Performance and Body Composition of Finishing Barrows and Gilts
Cho, Sung Back ; Kim, Dong Woon ; Baek, Kyung Hoon ; Lee, Byong Seak ; Chung, Il Byung ; Chung, Wan Tae ; Choi, Nag-Jin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1516~1521
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80315
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of different energy intake on physical and chemical composition in body fractions, growth performance and meat characteristics of finishing barrows and gilts. A total of twenty six crossbred (Landrace
Yorkshire) consisting of 16 barrows and 13 gilts were used in this study. The animals were allocated by sex to two treatments to form a
factorial arrangement. The respective factors were sex (barrow and gilt) and dietary energy intake (1.8 and 3.0 times energy for maintenance). Pigs were kept in individual pens and had ad libitum access to feed and water from the start of the experiment at
until they reached
live weight. The growth performance, physical composition and meat characteristics of finishing pigs were not greatly affected by the sex. However, higher fat tissue weight in the carcass was observed in barrows compared with gilts (p<0.05). Higher proportions of water and protein (p<0.05), and lower lipid proportion (p<0.01) in the empty body and carcass were observed in gilts compared with barrows, while protein proportion in lean tissue was not affected by the sex. In fat tissue, only protein proportion was higher in gilts compared with barrows (p<0.05). Although, growth performance, physical and chemical compositions in body fractions were greatly affected, final body or carcass weight was partly affected by the energy intake In addition, loin characteristics such as shear force and loin eye area were partly influenced by energy intake levels. Therefore, the present results showed that growth performance and meat characteristics were not influenced but chemical body composition was greatly influenced by the sex. Growth performance, physical and chemical compositions in body fractions were greatly affected, whereas meat characteristics were partly affected by the energy intake levels.
Development of a Dynamic System Simulating Pig Gastric Digestion
Chiang, C.-C. ; Croom, J. ; Chuang, S.-T. ; Chiou, P.W.S. ; Yu, B. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1522~1528
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70640
The objective of this study was to develop a model for simulating gastric digestion in the pig. The model was constructed to include the chemical and physical changes associated with gastric digestion such as enzyme release, digestion product removal and gastric emptying. Digesta was collected from the stomach cannula of pigs to establish system parameters and to document the ability of the model to simulate gastric digestion. The results showed that the average pH of gastric digesta increased significantly from 2.47 to 4.97 after feed consumption and then decreased 140 min postprandial. The model described the decrease in pH within the pigs' stomach as
, where t represents the postprandial time in minutes. The cumulative distribution function of liquid digesta was
. The average pepsin activity in the liquid digesta was 317Anson units/mL. There was significant gastric emptying 220 min after feed consumption. The cybernetic dynamic system of gastric digestion was set according to the above data in order to compare with in vivo changes. The time course of crude protein digestion predicted by the model was highly correlated with observed in vivo digestion (r = 0.97; p = 0.0001), Model prediction for protein digestion was higher than that observed for a traditional static in vitro method (r = 0.89; p = 0.0001).
Possible Muscle Fiber Characteristics in the Selection for Improvement in Porcine Lean Meat Production and Quality
Kim, J.M. ; Lee, Y.J. ; Choi, Y.M. ; Kim, B.C. ; Yoo, B.H. ; Hong, K.C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 10, 2008, Pages 1529~1534
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80050
The aim of this study was directed at exploring the possible use of muscle fiber characteristics as new selection traits for improving both porcine lean meat production and quality. A total of 174 (114 Yorkshire, 30 Landrace, and 30 Meishan) pigs were used for this study, and lean meat production ability was estimated by backfat thickness and loin eye area. The Longissimus dorsi muscle was taken in order to measure meat quality and muscle fiber characteristics. Due to the high correlations between total muscle fiber number and most of the performance traits, all pigs were classified into three groups (low, intermediate, or high) by total muscle fiber number using cluster analysis. The high group had the highest loin eye area (p<0.001). The meat quality traits were within normal ranges as reddish pink, firm, and nonexudative (RFN) pork, but the groups classified as intermediate and high had relatively large drip loss percentages (p<0.05), produced more than twice the amount of pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) pork as compared to the low group. The group with a high total muscle fiber number was further classified, based on type 2b fiber percentage, into low or high groups by cluster analysis. The results showed that the low type 2b fiber group had good loin eye area (p<0.05), small drip loss (p<0.05), and did not produce PSE pork. For these reasons, a high total muscle fiber number, with a low percentage of type 2b fibers, may be suitable in selecting for improvements in both lean meat production and meat quality.