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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Journal Basic Information
Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Genetic Relationships among Australian and Mongolian Fleece-bearing Goats
Bolormaa, S. ; Ruvinsky, A. ; Walkden-Brown, S. ; van der Werf, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1535~1543
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70635
Microsatellites (MS) are useful for quantifying genetic variation within and between populations and for describing the evolutionary relationships of closely related populations. The main objectives of this work were to estimate genetic parameters, measure genetic distances and reconstruct phylogenetic relationships between Australian Angora/Angora_Aus/ and Cashmere/Cashmere_Aus/ populations and three Mongolian Cashmere goat (Bayandelger/BD/, Zavkhan Buural/ZB/, and Gobi Gurvan Saikhan/GGS/) populations based on variation at fourteen MS loci. The level and pattern of observed and expected heterozygosity and polymorphic information content of the fourteen loci studied across the populations were quite similar and high. Except for SRCRSP07, all studied microsatellites were in Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (p<0.001). Moderate genetic variation (7.5%) was found between the five goat populations with 92.5% of total genetic variation attributable to diversity existing between the individuals within each population. The greatest Nei's genetic distances were found between the Angora and four Cashmere populations (0.201-0.276) and the lowest distances were between the Mongolian Cashmere goat populations (0.026-0.031). Compared with other Cashmere goat populations, the GGS (crossbred with Russian Don Goats) population had the smallest pairwise genetic distance from the Australian Angora population (0.192). According to a three-factorial correspondence analysis (CA), the three different Mongolian Cashmere populations could hardly be distinguished from each other.
Mapping, Tissue Distribution and Polymorphism of Porcine Retinol Binding Protein Genes (RBP5 and RBP7)
Gong, W.H. ; Tang, Z.L. ; Han, J.L. ; Yang, S.L. ; Wang, H. ; Li, Y. ; Li, K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1544~1550
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70101
The retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives) play a critical role in vision, growth, reproduction, cell differentiation and embryonic development. Using the IMpRH panel, porcine cellular retinol binding protein genes 5 and 7 (RBP5 and RBP7) were assigned to porcine chromosomes 5 and 6, respectively. The complete coding sequences (CDS) of the RBP5 and RBP7 genes were amplified using the reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method, and the deduced amino acid sequences of both genes were compared to human corresponding proteins. The mRNA distributions of the two genes in adult Wuzhishan pig tissues (lung, skeletal muscle, spleen, heart, stomach, large intestine, lymph node, small intestine, liver, brain, kidney and fat) were examined. A total of nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in two genes. Three of these SNPs were analyzed using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction-fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method in Laiwu, Wuzhishan, Guizhou, Bama, Tongcheng, Yorkshire and Landrace pig breeds. Association analysis of genotypes of these SNP loci with economic traits was done in our experimental populations. Significant associations of different genotypes of
loci with traits including maximum carcass length (LM), minimum carcass length (LN), marbling score (MS), back fat thickness at shoulder (SBF), meat color score (MCS) and hematocrit (HCT) were detected. These SNPs may be useful as genetic markers in genetic improvement for porcine production.
Cloning, Expression, and Regulation of Bovine Cellular Retinoic Acid-binding Protein-II (CRABP-II) during Adipogenesis
Jeong, Young Hee ; Lee, Sang Mi ; Kim, Hye-Min ; Park, Hyo Young ; Yoon, Duhak ; Moon, Seung Ju ; Hosoda, Akemi ; Kim, Dong-Ho ; Saeki, Shigeru ; Kang, Man-Jong ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1551~1558
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70532
The mammalian cellular retinoic acid-binding proteins, CRABP-I and CRABP-II, bind retinoic acid which acts as an inducer of differentiation in several biological systems. To investigate a possible role for CRABP-II in bovine adipogenesis, we have cloned bovine CRABP-II cDNA and the coding region for CRABP-I. The predicted amino acid sequences of CRABP-II were highly conserved among several animal species (human, mouse, and rat at 97%, 93%, and 93%, respectively). The expression pattern of bovine CRABP-II was examined in greater details by applying RT-PCR to various bovine tissues. CRABP-II mRNA was expressed in most adipose-containing tissues. Moreover, the expression of CRABP-I and -II mRNA dramatically increased during the differentiation of adipocytes from bovine intramuscular fibroblast-like cells. The effects of retinoic acid on adipocyte differentiation of bovine intramuscular fibroblast-like cells were concentration-dependent. Retinoic acid activated the formation of lipid droplets at a level of 1 nM, whereas inhibition was observed at a level of
. CRABP-I gene was up-regulated and CRABP-II gene down-regulated by retinoic acid during adipocyte differentiation. These results suggest that CRABPs may play an important role in the regulation of intracellular retinoic acid concentrations during adipogenesis.
Maximizing the Selection Response by Optimal Quantitative Trait Loci Selection and Control of Inbreeding in a Population with Different Lifetimes between Sires and Dams
Tang, G.Q. ; Li, X.W. ; Zhu, L. ; Shuai, S.R. ; Bai, L. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1559~1571
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80020
A rule was developed to constrain the annual rate of inbreeding to a predefined value in a population with different lifetimes between sires and dams, and to maximize the selection response over generations. This rule considers that the animals in a population should be divided into sex-age classes based on the theory of gene flow, and restricts the increase of average inbreeding coefficient for new offspring by limiting the increase of the mean additive genetic relationship for parents selected. The optimization problem of this rule was formulated as a quadratic programming problem. Inputs for the rule were the BLUP estimated breeding values, the additive genetic relationship matrix of all animals, and the long-term contributions of sex-age classes. Outputs were optimal number and contributions of selected animals. In addition, this rule was combined with the optimization of emphasis given to QTL, and further increased the genetic gain over the planning horizon. Stochastic simulations of closed nucleus schemes for pigs were used to investigate the potential advantages obtained from this rule by combining the standard QTL selection, optimal QTL selection and conventional BLUP selection. Results showed that the predefined rates of inbreeding were actually achieved by this rule in three selection strategies. The rule obtained up to 9.23% extra genetic gain over truncation selection at the same rates of inbreeding. The combination of the extended rule and the optimization of emphasis given to QTL allowed substantial increases in selection response at a fixed annual rate of inbreeding, and solved substantially the conflict between short-term and long-term selection response in QTL-assisted selection schemes.
Investigation of Deletion Variation and Methylation Patterns in the 5' LTR of Porcine Endogenous Retroviruses
Jung, K.C. ; Simond, D.M. ; Moran, C. ; Hawthorne, W.J. ; Jeon, J.T. ; Jin, D.I. ; Lee, J.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1572~1575
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80065
The xenotransplantation of pig organs and cells can be related with a risk of transmission of infectious diseases to human. Previous findings indicate that the regulatory region of PERV for retroviral transcription, replication and integration into the cellular DNA is located on the 5' Long Terminal Repeat (LTR). The objective of this study is the investigation of methylation and deletion status of the PERV 5' LTR region which can be used for regulating PERV expression. We compared the sequences of genomic DNA and bisulfite-treated genomic DNA from PK-15 cells expressing PERV to observe the methylation status of the 5' LTR. Our results showed that the CpG sites of U3 were methylated and methylation was inconsistent in the R and U5 regions. Also, variable numbers of 18 bp repeats and 21 bp repeats were detected on 5' LTR by sequencing analysis. The consistent U3 methylation might be indicative of host suppression of expression of the retroviruses.
Canonical Correlation Analysis for Estimation of Relationships between Sexual Maturity and Egg Production Traits upon Availability of Nutrients in Pullets
Cankaya, Soner ; Ocak, Nuh ; Sungu, Murat ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1576~1584
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80106
In this study, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) was applied to estimate the relationship between three different sexual maturity traits (X set: days to first egg (DFE), weight of the first egg (WFE), body weight at first egg (BWFE)) and level of nutrient intake (Y set: energy (EI) and protein intake (PI)) or the egg production traits at two different periods (Z set: number of egg (NE1 and NET) and weight of egg (WE1 and WET) from 22 to 25 (Wfirst) and 22 to 33 wk of age (Wall), respectively), which were measured from 64 egg-type pullets (Isa Brown) manipulated for time of access to energy and protein sources to onset of egg production. Partial CCA (PCCA) was used to eliminate the contribution of differences in the levels of nutrient intake to canonical variables for X and Z sets at the first production period. Estimated canonical correlation coefficients between X set and Y set (0.429, p = 0.042), X set and Z set (0.390, p = 0.007 for Wfirst) and within Z set (between Wfirst and Wall; 0.780, p<0.001), and partial canonical correlation coefficient between X set and Z set (0.415, p = 0.009) were significant. Canonical weights and loadings from CCA indicated that the BWFE had the largest contribution compared to the DFE and WFE to variation of egg number produced at two different periods. The results from PCCA indicated that the contribution of PI and EI to the degree of the correlation between canonical variables for X and Z sets were unfavourable. In conclusion, the effect of body weight at sexual maturity upon the availability of nutrients can have a higher contribution to variation of egg production in pullets if the contribution of differences in nutrient intakes to onset of egg production were eliminated.
Effects of Perinatal Nutrition on Metabolic and Hormonal Profiles of Goat Kids (Capra hircus) during Their First Day of Life
Celi, Pietro ; Di Trana, Adriana ; Claps, Salvatore ; Di Gregorio, Paola ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1585~1591
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80109
The aim of the present work was to monitor metabolic and hormonal profiles in newborn kids, born from dams fed diets with low or high levels of energy requirements. Starting from the last month of pregnancy, 14 goats were randomly allocated to two groups: Group LD (low diet) and Group HD (high diet) that received a diet that covered 80% and 140% of their energy requirement, respectively. At delivery, the kids were weighed and a blood sample was taken before they suckled colostrum (Time 0) and 1, 2, 3, 12 and 24 h after they started suckling. Plasma insulin, IGF-I, glucose, fT3 and fT4 concentrations were not influenced by the dietary treatments, but a significant effect of time was observed as they progressively increased during the first 12 h of life. Plasma cholesterol, triglyceride, albumin, globulin and total protein plasma concentrations were significantly higher in Group HD than those of Group LD. In Group HD, cortisol concentrations were significantly lower than those of Group LD. Positive correlations were observed between LW and IGF-I (r = 0.71; p<0.05), plasma insulin and glucose (r = 0.79; p<0.05) and total protein and globulin concentrations (r = 0.97; p<0.001). Our results show that perinatal nutrition affects newborn goat kids' metabolic and hormonal profile.
Effect of Cattle Slurry on Growth, Biomass Yield and Chemical Composition of Maize Fodder
Rahman, S.M.E. ; Islam, M.A. ; Rahman, M.M. ; Oh, Deog-Hwan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1592~1598
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80190
An experiment was carried out to study the effect of cattle slurry on maize fodder (Zea mays) production. Maize fodder was produced at 4 cattle slurry levels
(12 ton/ha) and
(14 ton/ha) in a randomized block design. Agronomic characteristics, plant heights, circumference of stems, number of leaves, leaf area and dry matter yield of maize fodder were measured. Maize plant height and stem circumference were significantly (p<0.01) influenced by the increasing rate of cattle slurry at 15, 30, 45 and 56 days after sowing. Number of leaves of fodder plants was not significant but leaf area was significant (p<0.05) among the treatment groups. The highest biomass yield (p<0.01) of maize fodder was observed in
(44.0 ton/ha). For crude protein content, a significant difference (p<0.01) was observed in the treatment groups and the highest value was observed in
(11.99%). Organic matter content of maize fodder showed a significant difference but ash, ADF and NDF contents showed no significant differences among treatment groups. From this study it may be concluded that the application of 12 tons of cattle slurry/ha was optimal for production of biomass and nutrient content of maize fodder.
Effect of Salinity Stress on Dry Matter Yield and Oxalate Content in Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach)
Rahman, M.M. ; Ishii, Y. ; Niimi, M. ; Kawamura, O. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1599~1603
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80217
Sodium is involved in elevation of oxalate content in some plant species and this element is abundant in saline soils. Oxalate causes precipitation of insoluble calcium oxalate in the rumen and kidneys. The intention of this study was to evaluate the effect of soil salinity stress on dry matter yield and oxalate content in pot-grown napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach). Plants were cut three times at 56, 118 and 179 d after transplanting to the pots. Five salinity treatments were used containing various concentrations of NaCl solution as follows: 0, 100, 300, 600 and 900 mM. At 28, 42, 84, 98, 146 and 160 d after transplanting, plants were irrigated with one liter of the particular treatment for each application. Dry matter yield of napiergrass was not affected (p>0.05) by salinity treatments. Plants treated with 100 mM NaCl exhibited a higher soluble oxalate content compared to other treatments, but the differences were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Although salinity treatments had significant (p<0.05) effects on insoluble and total oxalate contents in plant tissue between the 100 and 900 mM NaCl treatments, the differences were too small to be considered biologically important. The present study indicates that where the soil is high in NaCl, napiergrass will tend to grow well and be low in oxalate.
Effects of Mixtures of Tween80 and Cellulolytic Enzymes on Nutrient Digestion and Cellulolytic Bacterial Adhesion
Hwang, Il Hwan ; Lee, Chan Hee ; Kim, Seon Woo ; Sung, Ha Guyn ; Lee, Se Young ; Lee, Sung Sill ; Hong, Hee Ok ; Kwak, Yong-Chul ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1604~1609
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80333
A series of in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the mixture of Tween 80 and cellulolytic enzymes (xylanase and cellulase) on total tract nutrient digestibility and rumen cellulolytic bacterial adhesion rates in Holstein steers. Ground timothy hay sprayed with various levels of Tween 80 and cellulolytic enzymes was used as substrates in an in vitro experiment to find out the best combinations for DM degradation. The application level of 2.5% (v/w) Tween 80 and the combination of 5 U xylanase and 2.5 U cellulase per gram of ground timothy hay (DM basis) resulted in the highest in vitro dry matter degradation rate (p<0.05). Feeding the same timothy hay to Holstein steers also improved in vivo nutrient (DM, CP, CF, NDF and ADF) digesibilities compared to non-treated hay (p<0.05). Moreover, Tween 80 and enzyme combination treatment increased total ruminal VFA and concentrations of propionic acid and isovaleric acid with decreased acetate to propionate ratio (p<0.001). However, adhesion rates of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Ruminococcus flavefaciens determined by Real Time PCR were not influenced by the treatment while that of Ruminococcus albus was decreased (p<0.05). The present results indicate that a mixture of Tween 80 and cellulolytic enzymes can improve rumen environment and feed digestibility with variable influence on cellulolytic bacterial adhesion on feed.
Effect of Fermented Soybean "Natto" Supplement on Egg Production and Qualities
Fujiwara, K. ; Miyaguchi, Y. ; Toyoda, A. ; Nakamura, Y. ; Yamazaki, M. ; Nakashima, K. ; Abe, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1610~1615
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70654
Natto is a Japanese traditional soybean product fermented by Bacillus natto. The effects of dried fermented soybean (natto) supplement on egg production and egg qualities of layer chickens was studied with regard to the effective use of various waste foods in Japan. Dried natto, prepared by heating at
, was added to a basic diet at a level of up to 3%. Forty 166-wk-old layer chickens (Rhode Island Red) were randomly divided into 4 groups and five layer chickens were used in each group with two replicates. Layer chickens in group 1 were fed a basic diet as the control. The remaining 3 groups were fed the basic diet supplemented with dried natto at levels of 1, 2, and 3% (w/w), respectively. The result did not show improvements in egg production or feed conversion ratio of layer chickens even when 3% dried natto was added to the control diet. The egg qualities including egg weight, eggshell strength and thickness, yolk color, yolk weight, albumen height, and Haugh unit were also not improved. However, the feeding of dried natto changed the cholesterol content in the egg yolk. The supplementation of dried natto showed the tendency to decrease the yolk cholesterol after 12-wk of feeding compared to the control diet though it did not change plasma cholesterol levels in the blood. On the other hand, yolk cholesterol decreased significantly after 12-wk of feeding 3% dried natto (p<0.05).
Effects of Hot Environment and Dietary Protein Level on Growth Performance and Meat Quality of Broiler Chickens
Gu, X.H. ; Li, S.S. ; Lin, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1616~1623
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70395
This study was conducted to determine the effect of hot environment and dietary crude protein level (CP) on performance, carcass characteristics, meat visual quality, muscle chemical composition and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration of tissues in broilers. Two hundred and sixteen 21-d old Arbor Acre broilers were used in a
factorial arrangement and randomly reared in 4 environmental chambers and fed on 3 diets with different CP levels for 3 weeks. The results showed: (1) when air temperature (AT) rose to
, average daily feed intake, average daily gain, carcass weight, right breast meat weight, left thigh and drumstick meat weight decreased (p<0.05) and feed conversion rate decreased (p<0.05), but the ratio of carcass to live weight and of left thigh and drumstick meat weight to carcass weight increased (p<0.05). (2) There were significant differences in pH and shear force in breast meat, and shear force, L* and a* in thigh meat (p<0.01 or 0.05) among hot environments. Dietary CP level tended to affect breast meat pH and pH and L* of thigh meat (p<0.06 or 0.09). Compared to the normal temperature (
), low temperature (
) and hot humid (AT
, relative humidity (RH) 80%) treatments significantly (p<0.05) decreased the tenderness of thigh meat. L* and a* value in thigh meat under high temperature treatments, regardless of RH, were higher (p<0.05) than those under normal temperature. (3) Protein content in breast and thigh meat of broilers fed under high temperature (
) was lower (p<0.05) than that under
, but fat content had an adverse change. High temperature (
) increased the moisture of breast meat significantly (p<0.05). Protein content in breast meat increased significantly (p<0.05), in which fat content had an adverse change (p<0.05), when the dietary protein rose. (4) MDA concentration in liver and breast meat under hot humid (AT
, RH 80%) treatment increased markedly (p<0.05). (5) High humidity could sharpen the bad effect of high temperature on performance, carcass yield and choice cuts, crude protein and moisture content in breast meat. It was concluded that a hot environment could affect the performance and meat quality of broiler chicks more significantly than CP level and that high humidity would aggravate the bad influence of high temperature on the broiler.
The Availability of Energy and Protein, with Respect to Uric Acid, of Yellow-seeded Rapeseed Meal in Broiler Diets
Saki, A.A. ; Mahmoudi, H. ; Tabatabaei, M.M. ; Ahmadi, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1624~1628
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70492
Experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutritional value of yellow-seeded rapeseed meal (YRSM). In the first experiment nutrient retention was recorded by 48 Arbor Acres-broiler chickens (28-d old) to determine AMEn (nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy), coefficient of apparent protein digestibility based on ileal digesta nitrogen, excreta nitrogen and uric acid nitrogen. The second experiment was carried out with 304 Arbor Acres-broiler chickens to compare effects of SBM (soybean meal) and YRSM on performance, carcass and digestive tract status. In the control treatment, SBM was replaced by graded levels of YRSM at 15, 22.5 and 30% of diet. Digestibility of YRSM protein was significantly lower (p<0.001) than SBM protein. The protein digestibility based on ileal measurement was significantly higher (p<0.001) than protein digestibility from excreta samples. There was no significant difference (p>0.001) between ileal and excreta digestibility of protein based on uric acid. AMEn as a fraction of gross energy was 0.54 in SBM and 0.45 in YRSM. With the exception of 30% YRSM, other YRSM treatments resulted in major effects on length and weight of the gastrointestinal tract. The results of this study have shown no adverse effect on performance as well as protein digestibility and energy value in response to replacement of SBM by YRSM with the exception of 22.5 and 30% YRSM.
Effect of Lowering Dietary Protein with Constant Energy to Protein Ratio on Growth, Body Composition and Nutrient Utilization of Broiler Chicks
Kamran, Z. ; Sarwar, M. ; Nisa, M. ; Nadeem, M.A. ; Ahmad, S. ; Mushtaq, T. ; Ahmad, T. ; Shahzad, M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1629~1634
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70586
A trial was conducted to determine the effect of low crude protein (CP) diets with constant metabolizable energy to crude protein (ME:CP) ratio on growth, body composition and nutrient utilization of broiler chicks from 1 to 26 days of age. Four dietary treatments having four levels of CP and ME as 23, 22, 21 and 20% and 3,036, 2,904, 2,772 and 2,640 kcal/kg, respectively, were formulated and a ME:CP ratio of 132 was maintained in all the diets. Digestible lysine was maintained at 1.10 of the diet. A total of 1,760 day-old Hubbard broiler chicks were randomly divided into 16 experimental units and each diet was offered to four experimental units at random. Feed intake was increased (p<0.05) while weight gain and feed conversion ratio were adversely affected (p<0.05) when the diets with low CP and ME were fed to broilers. Total protein intake and total ME intake were linearly decreased (p<0.05) and protein efficiency ratio and energy efficiency ratio were lower (p<0.05) than in the chicks fed dietary regimen with 22% CP and 2,904 kcal/kg ME. The whole body analysis of the birds revealed that chicks fed the lowest dietary regimens retained less (p<0.05) nitrogen and more ether extract than chicks fed the control diet, however, body dry matter, total body ash and fat free body protein were not affected. Similarly, protein and energy utilization were also unaffected by the dietary treatments. In summary, chicks fed low CP diets with constant ME:CP ratio grew slower, used feed less efficiently and retained less protein and more body fat than chicks fed the control diet.
Characteristics of Solid-state Fermented Feed and its Effects on Performance and Nutrient Digestibility in Growing-finishing Pigs
Hu, Jiankun ; Lu, Wenqing ; Wang, Chunlin ; Zhu, Ronghua ; Qiao, Jiayun ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1635~1641
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80032
This study investigated the effects of solid-state fermentation of a compound pig feed on its microbial and nutritional characteristics as well as on pig performance and nutrient digestibility. A mixed culture containing Lactobacillus fermentum, Saccharomyces cerevisae and Bacillus subtilis was used for solid-state fermentation and solid-state fermented feed samples were collected on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 15, 20 and 30 for microbial counts and chemical analysis. Lactic acid bacteria increased rapidly during the first three days of fermentation and then slowly declined until day 10 and, thereafter, the counts were maintained at about 6.7 log cfu/g for the duration of the fermentation period. Enterobacteria also increased during the first two days, and then fell below the detectable level of the analysis (3.0 log cfu/g). The pH of the fermentation substrate declined from 6.1 at the start of fermentation to 5.7 by day 30. The water-soluble protein content increased from 8.2 to 9.2% while the concentration of acetic acid increased from 16.6 to 51.3 mmol/kg over the 30-day fermentation. At the end of the 30-day fermentation, the solid-state fermented feed was used in a pig feeding trial to determine its effects on performance and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs. Twenty crossbred barrows (
) were allotted into two dietary treatments, which comprised a regular dry diet containing antibiotics and a solid-state fermented feed based diet, free of antibiotics. There was no difference due to diet on pig performance or nutrient digestibility. In conclusion, solid-state fermentation resulted in high counts of lactic acid bacteria and low counts of enterobacteria in the substrate. Moreover, feeding a diet containing solid-state fermented feed, free of antibiotics, can result in similar performance and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs to a regular diet with antibiotics.
The Effect of a Natural Zeolite (Clinoptilolite) on the Performance of Broiler Chickens and the Quality of Their Litter
Karamanlis, X. ; Fortomaris, P. ; Arsenos, G. ; Dosis, I. ; Papaioannou, D. ; Batzios, C. ; Kamarianos, A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1642~1650
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70652
The objective of this study was to assess the effect of clinoptilolite (a natural zeolite) on growth and performance of broilers as well as on the quality of their litter. A total of 5,200 one-day old broiler chickens (Cobb 500) were used in two consecutive rounds lasting 42 days each. The broilers were given free and continuous access to a nutritionally non-limiting diet (in meal form) that was either a basal diet (B) or a 'zeolite diet' (Z; the basal diet supplemented with clinoptilolite at a level of 2%). A
factorial design consisted of two feeding treatments (B and Z) and two bedding types, sawdust (S) and sawdust with zeolite (Sz, which was the result of adding
), was used. In each round the broilers were randomly assigned to one of four (n = 650), treatment groups: two fed on the basal diet (B) and had bedding of either sawdust (group BS) or sawdust and zeolite (group BSz) and two fed on the Z diet and had as bedding either sawdust (ZS) or sawdust and zeolite (ZSz). Average growth rates were significantly (p<0.05) different between broilers of different groups; broilers that were fed on the 'zeolite diet' (Z) and were placed either in a compartment with sawdust bedding or sawdust bedding and zeolite (ZS and ZSz) as well those that were fed on the basal diet in a compartment with sawdust bedding and zeolite (BSz) grew at a faster rate (p<0.05) compared with those of the control group (BS). The incorporation of NZ in broilers diets and in their bedding material decreased the organic content in litter samples throughout the experimental period. The lowest organic content was recorded in group ZSz where NZ was added in both feed and litter. Mean ammonia concentration (ppm) was significantly higher in group ZS in comparison to groups BSz and ZSz (27.00 vs. 20.55 and 21.71 respectively). The results of this study showed that the incorporation of the clinoptilolite both in feed and into the litter had a positive effect on broiler growth and also on the quality of their litter.
Effect of Chito-oligosaccharide Supplementation on Immunity in Broiler Chickens
Deng, Xingzhao ; Li, Xiaojing ; Liu, Pai ; Yuan, Shulin ; Zang, Jianjun ; Li, Songyu ; Piao, Xiangshu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1651~1658
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80056
This study was conducted to determine the effects of dietary supplementation of either 100 mg/kg chito-oligosaccharide (COS) or chlortetracycline (CTC) with corn-soybean-fish meal on immunity in broiler chickens. A total of 147 one-day old male broiler chicks were randomly allocated to 3 treatments with 7 replicate pens per treatment and 7 birds per pen. The experimental diets consisted of a control diet based on corn, soybean and fish meal without COS and any antibiotic supplement and similar diets supplemented with either CTC (80 mg/kg from d 1 to 21 and 50 mg/kg from d 22 to 42) or COS (100 mg/kg from d 1 to 42). During the entire experimental period, all birds had ad libitum access to diets and water. The main immune organ indices, T-lymphocyte proliferation, serum cytokine concentrations, serum NO level and serum iNOS activity were measured on d 21 and d 42. On d 21, broilers fed 100 mg/kg COS had improved (p<0.01) indices of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius compared with the control and CTC birds. Birds receiving 100 mg/kg COS had higher (p<0.05) serum concentrations of
, IL-6, IgM, NO and iNOS than birds on the control treatment. Serum
level of birds fed 100 mg/kg COS tended to be higher (p = 0.049) than in birds fed CTC. On d 42, the birds fed 100 mg/kg COS had higher (p<0.05) concentrations of TNF-
and IgM in serum than birds in both the CTC and control treatments. Birds fed 100 mg/kg COS had a higher concentration of IFN-
than the control group. In conclusion, dietary supplementation of COS appeared to improve the immunity of broilers by promoting the weight of the main immune organs, increasing IgM secretion, stimulating microphages to release
, IL-6 and IFN-
, and activating iNOS to induce NO.
Effects of Xylanase on Growth and Gut Development of Broiler Chickens Given a Wheat-based Diet
Yang, Y. ; Iji, P.A. ; Kocher, A. ; Mikkelsen, L.L. ; Choct, M. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1659~1664
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80074
To study the working mechanisms for non-starch polysaccharidases to improve the growth performance of broiler chickens, a 21-day feeding trial was conducted. Two dietary treatments were included: 1) wheat diet (the control); 2) wheat+xylanase diet (xylanase, Allzyme PT, Alltech, Kentucky, USA). There were 8 replicates with 8 birds each for each treatment and the experimental diets were given to birds from hatch. Feed intake and body weight were measured on days 7 and 21. At the same ages, samples were taken for the determination of selected groups of luminal and mucosa-associated bacteria, mucosal morphology, brush-border membrane (BBM) bound enzyme activity and ileal nutrient digestibility. The xylanase supplement increased (p<0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and improved feed conversion ratio (FCR) at the end of the experiment but protein and starch digestibilities were not affected (p>0.05) by xylanase. Up to day 7, xylanase increased the counts of C. perfringens in the ileum and total anaerobic bacteria (TAB) in the caeca (p<0.05, p=0.07, respectively). By day 21, the counts of ileal lactobacilli (p<0.05) and TAB (p=0.07) were lower in birds given the xylanase-supplemented diet than in those on the control diet. No significant differences were observed in the counts of mucosa-associated lactobacilli and coliforms between xylanase treatment and the control at both ages. Villus height at the jejunum was not affected (p>0.05) by the supplement but crypt depth at the same site was reduced at day 7. Also, xylanase tended to increase the concentration of BBM protein (p = 0.09) and the specific activity of sucrase (p = 0.07) at day 21.
In vitro Development of Interspecies Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer Embryos Derived from Murine Embryonic Fibroblasts and Bovine Oocytes
Yun, J.I. ; Koo, B.S. ; Yun, S.W. ; Lee, Chang-Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1665~1672
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70625
Interspecies somatic cell nuclear transfer (iSCNT) is a useful method to preserve endangered species and to study the reprogramming event of a nuclear donor cell by the oocyte. Although several studies of iSCNT using murine cells and bovine oocytes have been reported, the development of murine-bovine iSCNT embryos beyond the 8-cell stage has not been successful. In this paper, we examined the developmental potential of embryos reconstructed with a murine embryonic fibroblast as the nuclear donor and a bovine oocyte as the cytoplasm recipient. The reconstructed embryos were cultured in CZB (murine medium) or CR1aa (bovine medium). In addition, for the development of a murine-bovine iSCNT blastocyst, the antioxidant
) was supplemented to CR1aa medium. Furthermore, to verify the mouse genome activation in murine-bovine iSCNT embryos, RT-PCR analysis of murine Xist was performed. The development of the murine-bovine iSCNT embryos cultured in CR1aa was significantly higher than that in CZB (p<0.05). With respect to the effect of BME on the development of the murine-bovine iSCNT blastocyst, addition of BME produced a significant increase in blastocyst development (p<0.05). Karyotype analysis confirmed that the reconstructed embryos were derived from murine cells (40XX). The Xist gene was gradually increased from the 8-cell stage to the blastocyst stage. This is the first report of blastocyst development of iSCNT embryos derived from murine somatic cells and bovine oocytes. These results demonstrate that bovine cytoplasm can support the development of later stages of a preimplantation embryo from murine-bovine iSCNT.
Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Gene in Yak
Li, Sheng-Wei ; Jiang, Ming-Feng ; Liu, Yong-Tao ; Yang, Tu-Feng ; Wang, Yong ; Zhong, Jin-Cheng ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1673~1679
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80221
In order to study the biological function of gapdh gene in yak, and prove whether the gapdh gene was a useful intra-reference gene that can be given an important role in molecular biology research of yak, the cDNA sequence encoding glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase from yak was cloned by the RT-PCR method using gene specific PCR primers. The sequence results indicated that the cloned cDNA fragment (1,008 bp) contained a 1,002 bp open reading frame, encoding 333 amino acids (AAs) with a molecular mass of 35.753 kDa. The deduced amino acids sequence showed a high level of sequence identity to Bos Taurus (99.70%), Xenopus laevis (94.29%), Homo sapiens (97.01%), Mus musculus (97.90%) and Sus scrofa (98.20%). The expression of yak's gapdh gene in heart, spleen, kidney and brain tissues was also detected; the results showed that the gapdh gene was expressed in all these tissues. Further analysis of yak GAPDH amino acid sequence implied that it contained a complete glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase active site (ASCTTNCL) which ranged from 148 to 155 amino acid residues. It also contained two conserved domains, a NAD binding domain in its N-terminal and a complete catalytic domain of sugar transport in its C-terminal. The phylogenetic analysis showed that yak and Bos taurus were the closest species. The prediction of secondary structures indicated that GAPDH of yak had a similar secondary structure to other isolated GAPDH. The results of this study suggested that the gapdh gene of yak was similar to other species and could be used as the intra-reference to analyze the expression of other genes in yak.
A Research Review of Village Chicken Production Constraints and Opportunities in Zimbabwe
Mapiye, C. ; Mwale, M. ; Mupangwa, J.F. ; Chimonyo, M. ; Foti, R. ; Mutenje, M.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 11, 2008, Pages 1680~1688
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.r.07
Development of village chicken production can be a sustainable way of helping to meet the welfare needs of rural populations and raise their living standards. There is a dearth of information on research conducted to characterize, understand and develop the village chicken production systems in Zimbabwe. This review focuses on constraints, opportunities and research needs for the improvement of village chicken productivity in Zimbabwe. Village chicken production in Zimbabwe is extensive and dominated by indigenous chickens that exhibit remarkable adaptation to local environments. The multitude functions of village chickens, which include the provision of high quality protein meat and eggs, cash through sales and socio-cultural roles, are discussed in detail. Human gender aspects in village chicken production are highlighted. The factors that hamper village chicken productivity are reviewed together with opportunities and research needs. The major constraints include shortage of feed, poor health and housing management. Any improvements in these constraints may lead to sustainable increase in village chicken productivity.