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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
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SNP Discovery in the Leptin Promoter Gene and Association with Meat Quality and Carcass Traits in Korean Cattle
Chung, E.R. ; Shin, S.C. ; Shin, K.H. ; Chung, K.Y. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1689~1695
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80112
Leptin, the hormone product of the obese gene, is secreted predominately from white adipose tissue and regulates feed intake, energy metabolism and body composition. It has been considered a candidate gene for performance, carcass and meat quality traits in beef cattle. The objective of this study was to identify SNPs in the promoter region of the leptin gene and to evaluate the possible association of the SNP genotypes with carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle. We identified a total of 25 SNPs in the promoter region (1,208-3,049 bp upstream from the transcription start site) of the leptin gene, eleven (g.1508C>G, g.1540G>A, g.1545G>A, g.1551C>T, g.1746T>G, g.1798ins(G), g.1932del(T), g.1933del(T), g.1934del(T), g.1993C>T and g.2033C>T) of which have not been reported previously. Their sequences were deposited in GenBank database with accession number DQ202319. Genotyping of the SNPs located at positions g.2418C>G and g.2423G>A within the promoter region was performed by direct sequencing and PCR-SSCP method to investigate the effects of SNP genotypes on carcass and meat quality traits in Korean cattle. The SNP and SSCP genotypes from the two mutations of the leptin promoter were shown to be associated with the BF trait. The average BF value of animals with heterozygous SNP genotype was significantly greater than that of animals with the homozygous SNP genotypes for the g.2418C>G and g.2423G>A SNPs (p<0.05). Analysis of the combined genotype effect in both SNPs showed that animals with the AC SSCP genotype had higher BF value than animals with BB or AA SSCP genotypes (p<0.05). These results suggest that SNP of the leptin promoter region may be useful markers for selection of economic traits in Korean cattle.
mtDNA Diversity and Origin of Chinese Mongolian Horses
Li, Jinlian ; Shi, Youfei ; Fan, Caiyun ; Manglai, Dugarjaviin ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1696~1702
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80193
In order to learn the origin of the Chinese Mongolian horse, we analyzed polymorphisms within the mtDNA D-loop variable region in 305 horses of 6 types of 3 different breeds, including one imported breed, one cultivated breed and 4 types of one local breed. We detected 13 different haplotypes, and subsequent sequence analysis showed that all 6 horse types were genetically diverse. By constructing a cladogram of mtDNA D-loop sequences from the 6 horse types along with homologous sequences from several other horse types obtained from GenBank, we showed that Chinese Mongolian horses have a close genetic relationship with other horse types from Mongolia. We also speculate that several Chinese Mongolian horses descended from Przewalskii horse. Additionally, the 13 haplotypes were dispersed throughout the cladogram, suggesting that Chinese Mongolian horses likely originated from multiple female ancestors. A phylogenetic map of the 6 horse types showed that the genetic relationship between the local Wuzhumuqin and Wushen types were the closest. The Xinihe and Baerhu were also closely related to each other, and slightly more distantly related to the cultivated Sanhe breed. All five of the local Chinese horse types had a much more distant relationship with the imported Thoroughbred breed.
Identification of Candidate SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) for Growth and Carcass Traits Related to QTL on Chromosome 6 in Hanwoo (Korean Cattle)
Lee, Y.S. ; Lee, J.H. ; Lee, J.Y. ; Kim, J.J. ; Park, H.S. ; Yeo, J.S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1703~1709
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80223
As genetic markers, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) are very appropriate for the development of genetic tests for economic traits in livestock. Several microsatellite markers have been identified as useful markers for the genetic improvement of Hanwoo. Among those markers, ILSTS035 was recently mapped at a similar position with four SNPs (AH1_11, AH1_9, 31465_446, and 12273_165) in a linkage map of EST-based SNP in BAT6. Among the four SNPs, two SNPs (31465_446 and 12273_165) were analyzed using BLAST at the NCBI web site. The sequences including the 12273_165 SNP were identified at the intron region within the LOC534614 gene on the gene sequence map (Bos taurus NCBI Map view, build 3.1). The LOC534614 gene represents a protein similar to myosin heavy chain, fat skeletal muscle, embryonic isoform 1 in the dog, and myosin_1 (Myosin heavy chain D) in Macaca mulatta. In cattle, the myosin heavy chain was associated with muscle development. The phenotypic data for growth and carcass traits in the 415 animals were analyzed by the mixed ANCOVA (analysis of covariance) linear model using PROC GLM module in SAS v9.1. By the genotyping of Hanwoo individuals (n = 415) to evaluate the association of SNP with growth and carcass traits, it was shown that the 12273_165 SNP region within LOC534614 may be a candidate marker for growth. The results of the statistical analyses suggested that the genotype of the 12273_165 SNP significantly affected birth weight, weight of the cattle at 24 months of age, average daily gain and carcass cold weight (p<0.05). Consequently, the 12273_165 SNP polymorphisms at the LOC534614 gene may be associated with growth in Hanwoo, and functional validation of polymorphisms in LOC534614 should be performed in the future.
Genomic Heterogeneity of Chicken Populations in India
Rajkumar, Ullengala ; Gupta, B. Ramesh ; Reddy, A. Rajasekhara ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1710~1720
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80299
A comprehensive genome profiling study was undertaken based on automated genotyping and analysis of 20 microsatellite markers that involved 155 birds representing eight different populations. The distribution of microsatellite markers in each of these breeds helped us to decipher genetic heterogeneity, population genetic structure and evolutionary relationships of the present day chicken populations in India. All the microsatellite loci utilized for the analysis were polymorphic and reasonably informative. A total of 285 alleles were documented at 20 loci with a mean of 14.25 alleles/locus. A total of 103 alleles were found to be population/strain specific of which, only 30 per cent had a frequency of more than 10. The mean PIC values ranged from 0.39 for the locus ADL158 to 0.71 for loci MCW005 or ADL267 across the genomes and 0.55 in Dahlem Red to 0.71 in Desi (non-descript), among the populations. The overall mean expected and observed heterozygosity estimates for our populations were 0.68 and 0.64, respectively. The overall mean inbreeding coefficients (FIS) varied between -0.05 (Babcock) and 0.16 (Rhode Island Red). The pairwise FST estimates ranged from 0.06 between Aseel and Desi (non-descript) to 0.14 between Dahlem Red and Babcock. The Nei's genetic distance varied from 0.30 (WLH-IWD and WLH-IWF) to 0.80 (Dahlem Red and Babcock. Phylogenetic analysis grouped all the populations into two main clusters, representing i) the pure breeds, Dahlem Red and Rhode Island Red, and ii) the remaining six populations/strains. All the chicken populations studied were in the state of mild to moderate inbreeding except for commercial birds. A planned breeding is advised for purebreds to revive their genetic potential. High genetic diversity exists in Desi (non-descript), local birds, which can be exploited to genetically improve the birds suitable for backyard poultry.
Effects of Sucrose and Glycerol during the Freezing Step of Cryopreservation on the Viability of Goat Spermatozoa
Farshad, Abbas ; Akhondzadeh, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1721~1727
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80159
Four experiments were conducted to study the following: i) the influence of different concentrations of sucrose (0.15, 0.3 and 0.5 M with osmolality of 308, 500 and 760 mOsm/kg, respectively) in diluents and control diluent (370 mOsm/kg) on intensity of motility and progressive motility of goat sperm without rehydration and freezing step in four incubation periods (0, 0.5, 2 and 4 h after dilution); ii) the influence of gradual dilution (in 3 steps) on improvements in ascertained results of the first experiment; iii) cryoprotective effects of different concentrations of sucrose (0.15, 0.22, 0.29 and 0.37 M with osmolality of 450, 560, 740 and 920 mOsm/kg, respectively) plus 7% glycerol and 20% egg yolk in basic diluent (Tris-Citric acid-Fructose) and iv) the effect of two concentrations of sucrose (0.15 and 0.22 M) with and without glycerol (7%). In experiment 1, we obtained better results for control diluent, 0.15 and 0.3 M sucrose supplemented diluents with 0 and 0.5 h incubation periods. In experiment 2, apart from a slight improvement, similar tendencies to experiment 1 were observed. In experiment 3, we obtained the best result for diluent with 0.22 M sucrose with regard to intensity of motility, progressive motility, live sperm and normal acrosomes (
, repectively). In experiment 4, we obtained the best result for diluent with 0.22 M sucrose plus 7% glycerol in regard to intensity of motility, progressive motility and live sperm (
, respectively). The characteristic normal acrosomes in diluents without glycerol, i.e. diluents with 0.15 and 0.22 M sucrose showed better results (
respectively). With regard to the release of hyaluronidase enzyme there were no significant differences between diluents (p>0.05). The results of the diluents with 0.15 and 0.22 M sucrose without glycerol were slightly lower than those with glycerol (
, respectively). In conclusion, the use of concentrated sucrose solutions showed that goat sperm can tolerate osmolality up to 560 mOsm (0.22 M) in the freezing period. In addition, glycerol proved to be a necessary cryoprotective agent in the cryopreservation of goat sperm, particularly for intensity of motility, progressive motility and live sperm.
Effects of Monensin and Fish Oil on Conjugated Linoleic Acid Production by Rumen Microbes in Holstein Cows Fed Diets Supplemented with Soybean Oil and Sodium Bicarbonate
Jin, G.L. ; Choi, S.H. ; Lee, H.G. ; Kim, Y.J. ; Song, Man K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1728~1735
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80104
The present study was conducted with four ruminally canulated Holstein cows to observe the effects of monensin or fish oil on diet fermentation and production of conjugated linoleic acids (CLAs) in the rumen when fed diets supplemented with soybean oil and sodium bicarbonate. Cows of the control treatment were fed a basal diet (CON) consisting of 60% commercial concentrate and 40% chopped rye grass hay. Cows of other treatments were fed the same diet as CON, but the concentrate was supplemented with 7% of soybean oil and 0.5% of sodium bicarbonate (SO-B), SO-B supplemented with monensin (30 ppm, SO-BM) or concentrate supplemented with 6.3% of soybean oil, 0.5% of sodium-bicarbonate, 30 ppm of monensin and 0.7% of fish oil (SO-BMF). Dry matter (DM) intake of the cows was significantly (p<0.011) reduced by feeding the SO-BMF diet compared to the other diets which did not differ in DM intake. Whole tract digestibility of major dietary components was significantly (p<0.004-0.027) higher for SO-BMF than the other supplement-containing diets. Dietary supplements did not clearly affect rumen pH and ammonia concentrations compared to the CON diet. Significantly reduced (p<0.05) total VFA concentration was obtained by the addition of fish oil to the diet (SO-BMF) compared to other diets. No differences, however, were obtained in major VFA proportions as well as in total VFA between the supplemented diets. The SO-BM diet increased (p<0.01-0.05) the concentrations of trans-11
and linoleic acid in rumen fluid. Total CLA concentration was also increased by the feeding of SO-B and SO-BM diets during early fermentation times (up to 3 h) post-feeding. Cis-9, trans-11 CLA concentration in rumen fluid was highest (p<0.05) for SO-B up to 1 h while the highest (p<0.01) value for SO-BM occurred at 3 h post-feeding. An increased trans-10, cis-12 CLA concentration was obtained from the SO-B and SO-BM diets at 1 and 3 h post feeding compared to the other diets. Supplementation of oils with monensin and sodium bicarbonate increased (p<0.05) the proportions of
and CLA in the plasma of cows, but the effect of monensin and/or fish oil was limited to trans-10, cis-12 CLA.
Effects of Amount of Concentrate Supplement on Forage Intake, Diet Digestibility and Live Weight Gain in Yellow Cattle in Vietnam
Ba, Nguyen Xuan ; Van Huu, Nguyen ; Ngoan, Le Duc ; Leddin, Clare M. ; Doyle, Peter T. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1736~1744
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80082
Two experiments were conducted in central Vietnam to test the hypothesis that supplementation with a concentrate, comprising rice bran (45% fresh basis), maize (49%), fish meal (3%), urea (2%) and salt (1%), up to 2% of live weight (LW)/d (dry matter (DM) basis) would linearly increase digestible organic matter intake and LW gain of yellow cattle. In both experiments, there were five treatments, namely a basal diet of fresh grass fed at 1.25% of LW (experiment 1, elephant grass, Pennisetum purpureum; experiment 2, native grass) and rice straw (Oryza sativa) fed ad libitum or this diet supplemented with concentrate at about 0.3, 0.7, 1.3 or 2.0% LW. There were 4 male growing cattle per treatment in experiment 1 and 3 in experiment 2. Diets were fed for 44 (experiment 1) or 49 (experiment 2) days, with feed intake recorded daily, LW measured about weekly and digestibility measurements made over 7 days commencing on day 24 (experiment 1) or day 10 (experiment 2). The elephant grass and native grass had neutral detergent fibre (NDF) concentrations of 82 and 73% DM, and nitrogen concentrations of 1.3 and 1.8% DM, respectively. The rice straw used had a NDF concentration of 79-84% DM and nitrogen concentration of 0.8% DM. The concentrate had NDF and nitrogen concentrations of 33 and 2.8% DM. In both experiments, DM intake increased (p<0.001) linearly as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. Rice straw intake declined (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.24 to 0.48 kg DM/d; experiment 2: 0.95 to 0.50 kg DM/d) as concentrate intake increased. Grass intake was not significantly affected by concentrate intake in either experiment. The lowest amount of concentrate supplement increased forage intake, after which substitution rate increased as the amount of concentrate consumed increased. However, substitution rates at the highest amount of concentrate consumed were modest at 0.3 to 0.5 kg DM reduction in forage intake/kg DM supplement consumed. In both experiments, digestible organic matter intake increased linearly (p<0.001) (experiment 1: 1.16 to 2.38 kg/d; experiment 2: 1.30 to 2.49 kg/d) as the amount of supplement consumed increased, as did LW gain (experiment 1: 0.15 to 0.81 kg/d; experiment 2: 0.15 to 0.77 kg/d). This was associated with significant (p<0.01) linear increases in organic matter intake and apparent organic matter digestibility. Neutral detergent fibre digestibility declined as concentrate intake increased, but the effect was not significant (p = 0.051) in experiment 2. These results are discussed in relation to existing literature and potential to improve the profitability of cattle fattening in central Vietnam.
Feed Consumption, Body Weight Gain and Carcass Characteristics of Jeju Native Cattle and Its Crossbreds Fed for Short Fattening Period
Oh, W.Y. ; Lee, Wang-Shik ; Lee, S.S. ; Khan, M.A. ; Ko, M.S. ; Yang, S.H. ; Kim, H.S. ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1745~1752
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80203
This study was conducted to compare the growth performance and carcass evaluation of Jeju native cattle (JNC) and its crossbreds (CBK = 25 JNC: 50 Charolais: 25 Brahman and BCBK = 62.5 JNC: 25 Charolais: 12.5 Brahman) fed for a short fattening period. Eight male calves each of JNC (80.
), CBK (
), and BCBK (
) were weaned at 4 month of age and were fed similar diets for 18 months of their age. All animals were fed a growing ration until 12 months of age and thereafter switched to a fattening ration for a period of 6 months. Final body weight (BW) and BW gain were significantly higher in CBK and BCBK compared with JNC. The CBK and BCBK gained 27.42% and 25.99% more BW, respectively, compared with JNC. The CBK and BCBK animals consumed significantly less DM than JNC to gain a unit of BW. Body weight gain, DM intake and feed conversion efficiency were similar between CBK and BCBK. Weight of hot and cold carcass, ribs, boneless meat and Longissimus dorsi muscle area were significantly different among JNC and its crossbreds. The heaviest carcass was observed in CBK followed by BCBK and JNC. Carcass, chest and femur lengths were greater in CBK and BCBK compared with JNC. Chest width, chest depth and hip width were similar in JNC and its crossbreds. Femur width was significantly greater in CBK compared with BCBK and JNC. Femur depth and chest girth were significantly greater in CBK and BCBK compared with JNC. Weight and fat yield in different carcass cuts were greater in crossbreds compared to JNC. Percent moisture, crude ash, and crude protein of meat were similar in JNC and its crossbreds. Percent crude fat in beef was significantly greater in JNC compared with its crossbreds. Beef shear force value, percent water holding capacity, juiciness and tenderness were significantly greater for JNC compared to its crossbreds. In conclusion, CBK and BCBK have shown greater growth rates and produced heavier carcasses with good degree of fatness when compared with JNC.
Effects of β-Glucan from Paenibacillus polymyxa and L-theanine on Growth Performance and Immunomodulation in Weanling Piglets
Hwang, Y.H. ; Park, B.K. ; Lim, J.H. ; Kim, M.S. ; Song, I.B. ; Park, S.C. ; Jung, H.K. ; Hong, J.H. ; Yun, H.I. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1753~1759
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80151
Forty weanling piglets (
and 26 to 30 d of age) were used in a 28-d experiment to determine the effects of
-glucan from Paenibacillus polymyxa and L-theanine on growth performance. Piglets were randomly allotted to four groups (n = 10, 2 animals per pen) provided with the basal feed (control),
-glucan 400 mg/kg feed, L-theanine 80 mg/kg feed or
-glucan plus l-theanine (combination of the above-mentioned concentrations). Body weight and feed consumption were recorded during four weeks. Subsequently, the immunomodulatory effects of
-glucan and L-theanine were investigated for lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine production in vitro and in vivo on day 28. Although there were no significant differences in the growth performances among the treatment groups,
-glucan plus L-theanine had 5.6% greater ADG (p = 0.074) on day 21 to 28.
-Glucan alone or plus L-theanine increased interleukin (IL)-10 levels and decreased interferon (IFN)-
and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-
levels in cultured medium by LPS treatment (p<0.05). Plasma IL-10 levels were also increased in the piglets fed with
-glucan alone or plus L-theanine after LPS challenge (
, i.p.), whereas plasma IFN-
levels were decreased (p<0.05). The levels of IFN
in piglets fed with
-glucan plus L-theanine showed the greatest inhibition after LPS challenges. In conclusion, treatment of
-glucan alone or plus L-theanine might lessen inflammatory responses against Gram-negative bacterial infection via the inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokine production and enhancement of anti-inflammatory cytokine production. Further studies are needed to determine an optimal concentration of
-glucan and L-theanine for improved growth performance.
Effect of Dietary Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) on Abdominal Fat Deposition in Yellow-feather Broiler Chickens and Its Possible Mechanism
Zhou, J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1760~1765
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80165
A total of 60 one-day-old Yellow-feather broiler chickens were allotted into treatment and control groups. The treatment group was fed with the diet supplemented with 3% conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) for 48 d, while control group was fed with the diet supplemented with 3% rapeseed oil. Chickens were slaughtered in each group at the age of 49 d, and the blood and the abdominal adipose tissue were sampled. Serum cLeptin and serum cAdiponectin were measured by ELISA. The total RNA was extracted from adipose tissue to measure the abundance of the chicken growth hormone receptor (cGHR), insulin-like growth factor 1 (cIGF-1), insulin-like growth factor I receptor (cIGF-IR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (
), cAdiponectin and cAdipoIR mRNA by RT-PCR using
-actin as an internal standard. Results showed that the CLA decreased the abdominal fat index by 20.93% (p<0.05). The level of serum cLeptin but not serum cAdiponectin was significantly increased by CLA treatment (p<0.05). CLA down-regulated the relative abundance of cGH-R mRNA and
mRNA in abdominal adipose tissue by 24.74% (p<0.05) and 66.52% (p<0.01) respectively. However, no differences were found between CLA treatment group and control group (p>0.05) in the relative abundance of cIGF-1, cIGF-IR, cAdiponectin, and cAdipoIR mRNA in abdominal adipose tissue. The data suggested that CLA inhibited abdominal fat deposition in broiler chicken may be determined by decreasing the GHR available for GH, and by inhibiting the differentiation of preadipocytes via down-regulation of
, but independent of IGF and (or) GH-IGF pathway or adiponectin action.
Effect of Fermented Soybean, "Natto" on the Production and Qualities of Chicken Meat
Fujiwara, K. ; Miyaguchi, Y. ; Feng, X.H. ; Toyoda, A. ; Nakamura, Y. ; Yamazaki, M. ; Nakashima, K. ; Abe, H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1766~1772
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70655
Natto is a Japanese traditional soybean product fermented by Bacillus natto. The effect of natto supplement on the production and qualities of chicken meat was studied since the effective use of various waste foods is required in Japan. Dried natto prepared by heating at
was added to a basic diet at an amount of below 2%. The supplementation of dried natto did not influence the weights of the carcass, breast and thigh meat, fillet or abdominal fat. Growth of the thighbone such as the length, thickness of cortex bone, and Ca/P ratio in bone ash were not altered by the addition of natto. However, the pH of male meat decreased following the supplementation of dried natto from days 28 to 80. The water-soluble protein content in male thigh meat increased in the group fed 2% natto from days 28 to 80. Free peptides increased in male thigh meat by feeding 2% natto from days 0 to 80. The supplementation of natto increased free glutamic acid in thigh meat regardless of sex. Moreover, the supplementation of natto specifically decreased meat cholesterol in female chickens though the effect was not shown in male chickens.
Corticosterone Administration Alters Small Intestinal Morphology and Function of Broiler Chickens
Hu, Xiaofei ; Guo, Yuming ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1773~1778
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80167
Two experiments were carried out to study the effects of corticosterone (CORT) administration on intestinal morphology and function of broilers. In both experiments, birds were randomly divided into two equal groups. One group was the control group (CTRL), and the birds were fed with a basal diet. The other was the experimental group (CORT), and the birds were fed with the basal diet plus 30 mg of CORT/kg diet. At 21 days of age, performance, morphological characteristics of intestine, D-xylose level in plasma, activities of digestive enzymes in digesta, digestibility of nutrients and 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdUrd)-labeling index of intestinal epithelial cells were determined. CORT administration decreased feed intake, daily gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). CORT also decreased duodenal and jejunal villus height (p<0.05) as well as crypt depth (p<0.05). The D-xylose level in plasma of CORT-treated broilers was lower than that of the control (p<0.05). CORT treatment caused a decrease in apparent digestibility of protein (p<0.05), whereas fat and starch apparent digestibilities were unaffected (p>0.05). CORT administration increased activities of trypsin and amylase (p<0.05), and decreased BrdUrd-labeling index of duodenal and jejunal epithelial cells (p<0.05). In conclusion, CORT administration impaired the normal morphology and absorptive capacity of the small intestine of broiler chickens.
Seasonal Change of Plasma Free Amino Acids with Special Reference to 3-Methylhistidine in Racehorses
Sawada, Kumiko ; Li, Jun You ; Kuribayashi, Yasuko ; Itabashi, Hisao ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1779~1784
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80182
Seasonal changes in the concentration of free amino acids were determined monthly in plasma from the jugular blood of 50 thoroughbred racehorses that compete during the night between June and September and during the day between October and January. The concentration of most free amino acids remained relatively constant between June and January. However, those of glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine and lysine tended to decrease and that of arginine (Arg) significantly decreased between July and September. The concentration of methionine (Met) gradually increased between June and September and significantly decreased thereafter. The concentration of 3-methylhistidine (3-MH) significantly increased between July and September and decreased thereafter. There were significant correlation between 3-MH and Arg. In conclusion, this study provided evidence of significant seasonal change in plasma 3-MH, Arg and Met of racehorses, and this was considered to relate to an environmental effect. Moreover, our study is the first to show 3-MH in plasma of racehorses affected by environmental change.
Effects of Lower Dietary Lysine and Energy Content on Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality in Growing-finishing Pigs
Zhang, Jinxiao ; Yin, Jingdong ; Zhou, Xuan ; Li, Fengna ; Ni, Jianjun ; Dong, Bing ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1785~1793
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80191
Fifty-four PIC barrows were used to evaluate the effects of lower dietary lysine content and energy level on carcass characteristics and meat quality in slaughter pigs. Pigs were allotted to one of three treatments by body weight with six replicate pens in each treatment. The dietary treatments for body weights of 20-50 kg, 50-80 kg and 80-90 kg were as follows, respectively: control diet (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.67 g/MJ, 0.53 g/MJ and 0.42 g/MJ); a low lysine group (digestible energy 14.22 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ); and a low lysine-low energy group or low nutrient group (digestible energy 13.11 MJ/kg, lysine/DE 0.49, 0.38 and 0.30 g/MJ). The daily weight gain, daily feed intake and feed efficiency were calculated in the overall growth period (nearly 12 weeks). Meanwhile, carcass characteristics and meat quality were evaluated at 60 and 90 kg body weight respectively. During the overall growth trial, lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level both decreased weight gain (p<0.05) and feed efficiency (p<0.01). At 60 kg body weight, decreasing dietary lysine and nutrient level noticeably decreased dressing percentage (p<0.01) and back fat depth at last rib of PIC pigs (p<0.01), but enhanced marbling scores (p<0.10), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10) and water loss rate (p<0.01) of the longissimus dorsi muscle. At 90 kg body weight, lean percentage (p<0.01) was evidently reduced by both lowering lysine content and nutrient level in the diet. However, the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.05) and marbling scores of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05) were increased; Lowering dietary nutrient level could improve back fat depth of 10th rib (p<0.01) and last rib (p<0.01), intramuscular fat content (p<0.10), redness (p<0.01) and water loss rate of the loin eye muscle (p<0.05), but decrease loin area (p<0.05). Finally, when comparing the 60 kg and 90 kg slaughter weights, it was found that the shoulder back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.10), 6th-7th rib (p<0.01, p<0.01), 10th-rib (p<0.01, p<0.01) and last rib back fat depth (p<0.01, p<0.01) of the low lysine and low nutrient group were all obviously increased comparing with the control group. Taken together, the results showed that decreasing dietary lysine content and nutrient level increased intramuscular fat content and water loss rate of longissimus dorsi muscle; On the other hand, both lowering dietary lysine and nutrient level markedly compensated to increase back fat deposition in the later finishing period (body weight from 60 to 90 kg) in contrast to the control group.
A Preliminary Study on Effects of Different Dietary Selenium (Se) Levels on Growth Performance and Toxicity in Juvenile Black Seabream, Acathopagrus schlegeli (Bleeker)
Lee, Seunghyung ; Lee, Jun-Ho ; Bai, Sungchul C. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1794~1799
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80285
This preliminary feeding trial was conducted to study the effects of different dietary selenium (Se) levels on growth performance and toxicity in juvenile black seabream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli (Bleeker). Fish averaging
) were fed one of the five semi-purified diets containing 0.21, 0.30, 0.52, 1.29 and 12.3 mg sodium selenite (
)/kg diet (Se 0.21, Se 0.30, Se 0.52, Se 1.29 or Se 12.3) for 15 weeks. After the feeding trial, weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) of fish fed Se 0.21, Se 0.30, Se 0.52 and Se 1.29 diets were not significantly different, however fish fed Se 12.3 diet showed significantly lower WG, FE, SGR and PER than those of fish fed the other diets (p<0.05). Fish fed Se 0.21, Se 0.30, Se 0.52, Se 1.29 and Se 12.3 diets showed no significant differences in hematocrit (PCV), hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBC), however fish fed Se 12.3 diet showed lower values of PCV, Hb and RBC than those of fish fed the other diets. Histopathological lesions such as tubular necrosis and polycystic dilation of tubules in the kidney tissues were observed in fish fed Se 12.3 diet. Se was accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in the liver, kidney, muscle and gill tissues. Based on the results of this preliminary feeding trial, a dietary Se level of 0.21 mg
diet could be optimal for proper growth performances, and a dietary Se level of 12.3 mg
diet may ultimately be toxic to juvenile black seabream, Acanthopagrus schlegeli.
Cytokine mRNA Expression in the Small Intestine of Weanling Pigs Fed Diets Supplemented with Specialized Protein or Peptide Sources
Zhao, J. ; Harper, A.F. ; Webb, K.E. Jr. ; Kuehn, L.A. ; Gilbert, E. ; Xiao, X. ; Wong, E.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1800~1806
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80134
Cytokines play a central role in the mucosal immune response and are involved in regulation of nutrient absorption, metabolism and animal growth. This study investigated the effect of diet manipulation with specialized protein or peptide sources on expression of cytokine (IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, and TNF-
) mRNA abundance in different intestinal regions and at different ages post-weaning in piglets. A total of 48 (17 days of age,
) weanling pigs were fed either a corn-soy/whey protein basal diet, the basal diet supplemented with spray-dried plasma protein (SDPP), or the basal diet supplemented with
, a hydrolyzed marine plant protein. A fourth treatment group was fed the SDPP diet, but the feed intake level was limited (SDPP-LF). Pigs were killed at 3 and 10 d, and intestinal cytokine mRNA was measured by real-time PCR using the relative quantification method. The SDPP-LF group exhibited an increased TNF-
mRNA abundance compared with the ad libitum SDPP group (p<0.05). The TNF-
and IL-10 mRNA abundance increased from the proximal to distal part of the intestine, and the mRNA abundance was greater (p<0.01) in the distal intestine as compared with the proximal and middle intestine. The cytokines IL-1-
, IL-10 and TNF-
mRNA abundance also increased from d3 to d10 postweaning (p<0.01). In summary, restricted feeding increased the TNF-
mRNA abundance in the small intestine, however neither SDPP nor peptide supplementation affected cytokine mRNA expression. Abundance of mRNA for most cytokines examined in this study increased with age post-weaning, suggesting that during 10 d after weaning the mucosal immune system is still under development.
Effects of Tethering and Loose Housing on the Meat Quality of Hanwoo Bulls
Lee, Sung Ki ; Panjono, Panjono ; Kang, Sun Moon ; Jung, Youn Bok ; Kim, Tae Sil ; Lee, Ik Sun ; Song, Young Han ; Kang, Chang-Gie ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1807~1814
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80144
This study was carried out to investigate the effects of housing system on the carcass and meat qualities of Hanwoo (Korean cattle) bulls. Fourteen 6 months-old male calves were randomly divided into two groups. The first group was individually tethered using double neck-bar tethers. The second group was collectively loose-housed in the pen. They were raised for 15 months prior to slaughter. At 24 h post-slaughter chilling, the carcasses were weighed and evaluated by official grader for carcass traits. At 48 h post-slaughter chilling, the M. longissimus at the
thoracic vertebra from each carcass was collected and stored at
for 7 days for meat quality analysis. There were no significant differences in dressing percentage and carcass yield index between groups. Meat from loose bulls had lower marbling score (p<0.05) and fat content (p<0.01) but higher PUFA concentration (p<0.001) than that from tethered bulls. There were no significant differences physical and sensory properties, aroma pattern, TBARS value, metmyoglobin concentration and CIE color values during refrigerated storage between groups. Compared to tethering, loose-housing bulls produced lower fat content and healthier meat without different physical properties, acceptability, and lipid and color stabilities.
The Effects of Chicken Leg Bone Extract on Antioxidative Properties under Different Heating Condition
Cheng, Fu-Yuan ; Wan, Tien-Chun ; Huang, Chao-Wei ; Tominaga, Kana ; Lin, Liang-Chuan ; Sakata, Ryoichi ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 12, 2008, Pages 1815~1820
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.80162
The aim of this study was to extract chicken leg bone, which is a by-product of industrial poultry processing, using different heating temperatures (80, 90 and
) and durations (5, 10 and 15 min). The pH value, soluble protein content, peptide content and antioxidative properties, including superoxide anion scavenging ability, 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging ability, reducing capacity and inhibitory activity of linoleic acid peroxidation, were measured. The results showed no significant differences (p>0.05) in pH value among all treatments. Decreased soluble protein content and peptide content were observed in chicken leg bone extract obtained under higher heating temperatures (90 or
) and longer heating durations (10 or 15 min). In antioxidative properties, the extracts which were heated at 90 or
for 15 min exhibited significantly higher superoxide anion scavenging ability, DPPH free radical scavenging ability, reducing capacity and inhibitory activity of linoleic acid peroxidation (p<0.05).