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REFERENCE LINKING PLATFORM OF KOREA S&T JOURNALS
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Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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Journal DOI :
Asian Australasian Association of Animal Production Societies
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Volume & Issues
Volume 21, Issue 12 - Dec 2008
Volume 21, Issue 11 - Nov 2008
Volume 21, Issue 10 - Oct 2008
Volume 21, Issue 9 - Sep 2008
Volume 21, Issue 8 - Aug 2008
Volume 21, Issue 7 - Jul 2008
Volume 21, Issue 6 - Jun 2008
Volume 21, Issue 5 - May 2008
Volume 21, Issue 4 - Apr 2008
Volume 21, Issue 3 - Mar 2008
Volume 21, Issue 2 - Feb 2008
Volume 21, Issue 1 - Jan 2008
Selecting the target year
Association Analysis between Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 (IGFBP3) Polymorphisms and Carcass Traits in Cattle
Cheong, Hyun Sub ; Yoon, Du-Hak ; Kim, Lyoung Hyo ; Park, Byung Lae ; Lee, Hye Won ; Namgoong, Sohg ; Kim, Eun Mi ; Chung, Eui Ryong ; Cheong, Il-Cheong ; Shin, Hyoung Doo ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 309~313
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60476
The insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP3) has been investigated as a candidate gene for growth promoting effects in beef cattle and a modulator of IGF bioactivity. Previously, we have reported twenty two sequence variants discovered in Korean native cattle (Hanwoo). In this study, we examined the association between gene-specific polymorphisms of IGFBP3 and cold carcass weight (CW) and marbling score (MS) among Korean native cattle. Among twenty two polymorphisms, four common polymorphic sites (-854G>C, -100G>A, +421G>T and +3863C>A) were genotyped in our beef cattle (n = 437). Statistical analysis revealed that one common polymorphism in the promoter region (-854G>C) showed putative associations with MS (p = 0.03). IGFBP3 variation/haplotype information analyzed in this study will provide valuable information into strategies for the production of a commercial line of beef cattle.
Population Structure and Biodiversity of Chinese Indigenous Duck Breeds Revealed by 15 Microsatellite Markers
Liu, W. ; Hou, Z.C. ; Qu, L.J. ; Huang, Y.H. ; Yao, J.F. ; Li, N. ; Yang, N. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 314~319
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70100
Duck (Anas platyrhynchos) is one of the most important domestic avian species in the world. In the present research, fifteen polymorphic microsatellite markers were used to evaluate the diversity and population structure of 26 Chinese indigenous duck breeds across the country. The Chinese breeds showed high variation with the observed heterozygosity (Ho) ranging from 0.401 (Jinding) to 0.615 (Enshi), and the expected heterozygosity (He) ranging from 0.498 (Jinding) to 0.707 (Jingjiang). In all of the breeds, the values of Ho were significantly lower than those of He, suggesting high selection pressure on these local breeds. AMOVA and Bayesian clustering analysis showed that some breeds had mixed together. The FST value for all breeds was 0.155, indicating medium differentiation of the Chinese indigenous breeds. The FST value also indicated the short domestication history of most of Chinese indigenous ducks and the admixture of these breeds after domestication. Understanding the genetic relationship and structure of these breeds will provide valuable information for further conservation and utilization of the genetic resources in ducks.
Changes in Reproductive Traits of Large White Pigs after Estrogen Receptor Gene-based Selection in Slovakia: Preliminary Results
Chvojkova, Zuzana ; Hraska, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 320~324
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70252
We investigated the effect of ESR gene-based selection on an improvement of litter size in the herds in real (non-experimental) conditions. The pigs were selected for three years. In the tested population the pigs were mated according to a breeding scheme where the individuals with at least one ESR-B allele were preferred in the selection. In the control group (CP; n = 140) the pigs were mated just according to a breeding scheme without knowledge of the ESR genotype. We observed a significant increase in litter size (total number of born, number of born alive and number of weaned piglets per litter) in the final tested ESR-selected population (LP; n = 184) and an insignificant increase in CP as compared with the original population (OP; n = 155). After the selection we could observe a significant increase in the frequency of allele B in LP. Frequency of the genotypes AB and BB increased in both LP and CP; the distribution of the genotypes changed significantly only in LP. An association analysis of the ESR gene effects on reproductive traits in LP showed no significant differences between the genotypes. The results of our study suggest that ESR gene-based selection can be successful also in small herds, under real (non-experimental) conditions with a respect for general breeding principles and limitations and during a short period. An examination of a larger sample population as well as an analysis of selection consequences on other traits (meat and carcass quality) could bring a more conclusive evaluation of ESR-based selection. Nevertheless, the results are encouraging especially for small breeding farms taking a perspective of better litter size improvement.
Relationship between Differential Expression of Estrogen Receptor and Follicle Stimulating Hormone Receptor Genes in Ovary and Heterosis of Egg Number Traits in Chickens
Wang, Hui ; Sun, Dongxiao ; Yu, Ying ; Wang, Dong ; Zhang, Yi ; Zhang, Yuan ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 325~330
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70164
In order to understand the molecular mechanism of heterosis of reproduction traits in chickens, we used the quantitative real-time reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction (Quantitative real-time RT-PCR) technique to investigate the differential expression of estrogen receptor (ESR) and follicle stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR) genes in 32-week-old ovaries of inbred chickens and their hybrid offspring in
diallel crosses, which involved White Plymouth Rock (E), CAU Brown (D), Silkies (C) and White Leghorn (A). We found that there were significant differences in mRNA expression of ESR and FSHR genes not only between hybrids and their parental lines (p<0.01), but also among different crosses (p<0.01). Furthermore, positive correlations between differential expression of both ESR and FHSR in hybrids and heterosis percentages of 32-week-old and 42-week-old egg number traits were significant at p<0.05. Our results suggested that differential expression of ESR and FSHR genes in the ovaries of inbred chickens and their hybrids could play roles in the formation of heterosis of egg number traits to some extent.
Assessment of Population Structure and Genetic Diversity of 15 Chinese Indigenous Chicken Breeds Using Microsatellite Markers
Chen, Guohong ; Bao, Wenbin ; Shu, Jingting ; Ji, Congliang ; Wang, Minqiang ; Eding, Herwin ; Muchadeyi, Farai ; Weigend, Steffen ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 331~339
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70125
The genetic structure and diversity of 15 Chinese indigenous chicken breeds was investigated using 29 microsatellite markers. The total number of birds examined was 542, on average 36 birds per breed. A total of 277 alleles (mean number 9.55 alleles per locus, ranging from 2 to 25) was observed. All populations showed high levels of heterozygosity with the lowest estimate of 0.440 for the Gushi chickens, and the highest one of 0.644 observed for Wannan Three-yellow chickens. The global heterozygote deficit across all populations (FIT) amounted to 0.180 (p<0.001). About 16% of the total genetic variability originated from differences between breeds, with all loci contributing significantly to this differentiation. An unrooted consensus tree was constructed using the Neighbour-Joining method and pair-wise distances based on marker estimated kinships. Two main groups were found. The heavy-body type populations grouped together in one cluster while the light-body type populations formed the second cluster. The STRUCTURE software was used to assess genetic clustering of these chicken breeds. Similar to the phylogenetic analysis, the heavy-body type and light-body type populations separated first. Clustering analysis provided an accurate representation of the current genetic relations among the breeds. Remarkably similar breed rankings were obtained with all methods.
Maintenance of Sperm Characteristics and In vitro Developmental Rate of Embryos against Oxidative Stress through Antioxidants in Pig
Jang, H.Y. ; Kong, H.S. ; Oh, J.D. ; Park, B.K. ; Yang, B.K. ; Jeon, G.J. ; Lee, H.K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 340~345
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.05-309
Oxidative stress is one of the major causes of failure of in vitro storage of boar semen. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the important mediators of oxidative stress during in vitro storage of boar semen. Our study examined the effects of taurine on sperm characteristic and on in vitro developmental embryos during in vitro storage of boar semen for 7 days. Semen was randomly aliquoted into 3 centrifuge tubes and treated with different concentrations of taurine (25-100 mM). The characteristics of boar sperm were analyzed for motility by light microscopy, viability by using a Makler counting chamber and membrane integrity by a hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST). The percentages of motile spermatozoa in taurine groups after 5 days were significantly higher compared to the control. Sperm viability in the control was lower than in taurine groups after 7 days irrespective of different taurine concentration. In the hyoosmotic swelling test (HOST), significantly higher results were obtained in taurine groups after 3 days. Also, the developmental rates of IVM/IVF porcine embryos from semen treated with pyruvate and taurine were significantly increased when compared with the control (p<0.05). These results indicate that supplementation of taurine as an antioxidant in boar semen extender can improve the semen quality.
Characterization of Embryonic Feather Follicle Development in the Chinese Indigenous Jilin White Goose
Wu, W. ; Xu, R.F. ; Li, C.H. ; Wu, C.X. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 346~352
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70302
To investigate goose feather follicle development and difference among the dorsal, ventral, and thoracal tracts during embryonic stage, the present study was conducted on 180 embryos at different ages obtained from the Jilin White goose, a Chinese indigenous breed. The study indicated that the epidermis and dermis of goose embryo formed between embryonic day 10 (E10) and 12 (E12). The thickness of the epidermis remained unchanged until hatching; while the thickness of the dermis increased throughout embryonic development. The primary feather follicles formed around E13-E14 and there were no new primary feather follicles forming after E18. The secondary feather follicles formed coincidently at E18. The density of primary and secondary feather follicles on the ventral and thoracal tracts were significantly higher than those on the dorsal tract (p<0.05). For primary and secondary follicles, the diameter of the feather bulbs and the depth of the feather follicles on the dorsal tract were much greater than those on the thoracal and ventral tracts (p<0.01), respectively; while the difference between the ventral and thoracal tracts was not significant (p>0.05). It is concluded that the Jilin White goose is of a single-follicle group structure, differing from mammals which are of multiple-follicle group structure.
Retrieval of Porcine Ovarian Follicles by Different Methods
Choi, Moon Hwan ; Gong, Seung Pyo ; Lim, Jeong Mook ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 353~357
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60728
A series of studies has been conducted to establish a base infrastructure for an ovarian follicle culture system in the porcine and this study was designed to develop an effective retrieval protocol of preantral follicles. Five different methods using collagenase type I (A) or IV (B, C1, C2 and C3), which employed different treatment durations and/or conditions, were employed and sliced ovarian tissue of prepubertal gilts was provided for the retrieval. A significant increase in total number of follicles retrieved was detected when collagenase IV (methods B or C) was used. In total, more ovarian follicles were retrieved by method B undertaking agitation and method C2 without the agitation than method C1 and C3, while the number of preantral follicles collected was the largest in method B. Neither incubation in 5%
in air atmosphere instead of the agitation nor increased duration of enzymatic treatment up to 120 minutes improved the efficiency of follicle retrieval. There were no differences in the number of follicles retrieved from intact ovaries and from used ovaries for oocyte collection. These results demonstrate the collagenase IV treatment with agitation is effective for retrieving porcine preantral follicles from the ovaries.
Effects of Sperm Membrane Disruption and Electrical Activation of Oocytes on In vitro Development and Transgenesis of Porcine Embryos Produced by Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection
Shim, Sang Woo ; Kim, Young Ha ; Lee, Hoon Taek ; Shim, Hosup ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 358~363
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70326
The intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) procedure has recently been utilized to produce transgenic animals and may serve as an alternative to the conventional pronuclear microinjection in species such as pigs whose ooplasm is opaque and pronuclei are often invisible. In this study, the effects of sperm membrane disruption and electrical activation of oocytes on in vitro development and expression of transgene green fluorescent protein (GFP) in ICSI embryos were tested to refine this recently developed procedure. Prior to ICSI, sperm heads were treated with Triton X-100+NaCl or Triton X-100+NaCl+NaOH, to disrupt membrane to be permeable to exogenous DNA, and incubated with linearized pEGFP-N1 vector. To induce activation of oocytes, a single DC pulse of 1.3 kV/cm was applied to oocytes for
. After ICSI was performed with the aid of a micromanipulator, in vitro development of embryos and GFP expression were monitored. The chemical treatment to disrupt sperm membrane did not affect the developmental competence of embryos. 40 to 60% of oocytes were cleaved after injection of sperm heads with disrupted membrane, whereas 48.6% (34/70) were cleaved without chemical treatment. Regardless of electrical stimulation to induce activation, oocytes were cleaved after ICSI, reflecting that, despite sperm membrane disruption, the perinuclear soluble sperm factor known to mediate oocyte activation remained intact. After development to the 4-cell stage, 11.8 (2/17, Triton X-100+NaCl+NaOH) to 58.8% (10/17, Triton X-100+NaCl) of embryos expressed GFP. The expression of GFP beyond the stage of embryonic genome activation (4-cell stage in the pig) indicates that the exogenous DNA might have been integrated into the porcine genome. When sperm heads were co-incubated with exogenous DNA following the treatment of Triton X-100+NaCl, GFP expression was observed in high percentage (58.8%) of embryos, suggesting that transgenic pigs may efficiently be produced using ICSI.
Ruminal Protein Degradation Characteristics of Cell Mass from Lysine Production
Seo, S. ; Kim, H.J. ; Lee, S.Y. ; Ha, Jong K. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 364~370
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70552
Chemical analysis and in vitro studies were conducted to investigate the nutritive value for ruminants of cell mass from lysine production (CMLP) which is a by-product of the lysine manufacturing process. Proximate analysis, protein fractionation, and in vitro protein degradation using protease from Streptomyces griseus and strained ruminal fluid were carried out to estimate ruminal protein degradability of CMLP with two reference feedstuffs-soybean meal (SBM) and fish meal (FM). Amino acid composition and pepsin-HCl degradability were also determined to evaluate postruminal availability. CMLP contained 67.8% crude protein with a major portion being soluble form (45.4% CP) which was composed of mainly ammonium nitrogen (81.8% soluble CP). The amount of nucleic acids was low (1.15% DM). The total amount of amino acids contained in CMLP was 40.60% DM, which was lower than SBM (47.69% DM) or FM (54.08% DM). CMLP was composed of mainly fraction A and fraction B2, while the protein fraction in SBM was mostly B2 and FM contained high proportions of B2 and B3 fractions. The proportion of B3 fraction, slowly degradable protein, in CP was the highest in fish meal (23.34%), followed by CMLP (7.68%) and SBM (1.46%). CMLP was degraded up to 51.40% at 18 h of incubation with Streptomyces protease, which was low compared to FM (55.23%) and SBM (83.01%). This may be due to the insoluble portion of CMLP protein being hardly degradable by the protease. The in vitro fermentation by strained ruminal fluid showed that the amount of soluble fraction was larger in CMLP (40.6%) than in SBM (17.8%). However, because the degradation rate constant of the potentially degradable fraction of CMLP (2.0%/h) was lower than that of SBM (5.8%/h), the effective ruminal protein degradability of CMLP (46.95%) was slightly lower than SBM (53.77%). Unavailable fraction in the rumen was higher in CMLP (34.0%) compared to SBM (8.8%). In vitro CP degradability of CMLP by pepsin was 80.37%, which was lower than SBM (94.42%) and FM (89.04%). The evaluation of protein degradability using different approaches indicated that soluble protein in CMLP may supply a large amount of ammonia in the rumen while insoluble protein can be by-passed from microbial attacks due to its low degradability. The results from this study suggest that CMLP can be used as a protein supplement to ruminants for supplying both non-protein nitrogen to rumen microbes and rumen undegradable protein to the host animal.
Effect of Maternal Under-nutrition during Late Pregnancy on Lamb Birth Weight
Gao, F. ; Hou, X.Z. ; Liu, Y.C. ; Wu, S.Q. ; Ao, C.J. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 371~375
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70187
This study investigated the effects of maternal undernutrition during late pregnancy on lamb birth weight. 45 Mongolian ewes, synchronized for oestrus and then mated, were divided into four groups and offered 0.86 MJME/kgw-0.75d-1 (control group; CG : ad libitum access to feed),
(Restricted Group 3; R3),
(Restricted Group 2; R2) and
(Restricted Group 1; R1) respectively during late pregnancy (90-150 days). During restriction, maternal net body weight loss, insulin and NEFA concentrations and lamb birth weight were measured. The results indicated that loss of maternal body weight in R3, R2 and R1 was 4.42, 7.23, 11.13 kg respectively, which was significantly (p<0.01) higher than that in CG (0.93 kg). Insulin concentrations of the ewes in R1, R2 and R3 were lower and were significantly different (p<0.05) between restricted groups and CG at 124 d of pregnancy. NEFA concentrations in all groups tended to decrease from 90d of gestation to parturition and in R1 were significantly (p<0.05) lower than in CG at 124 d of gestation. Lamb birth weight in R1 was significantly lower than in R2, R3 and CG (p<0.05). In conclusion, with decreasing supply of maternal nutrition, the retardation of fetal growth became worse. When the plane of nutrition was below
, significant effects of maternal undernutrition on lamb birth weight were observed.
Effect of Feeding Calcium Salts of Palm Oil Fatty Acids on Performance of Lactating Crossbred Cows
Purushothaman, Sajith ; Kumar, Anil ; Tiwari, D.P. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 376~385
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60505
Twenty lactating crossbred cows yielding 10 to 15 litres of milk daily during mid lactation were selected and divided into four groups of five animals to assess the effect of feeding calcium soaps of palm oil fatty acids (bypass fat) on milk yield, milk composition and nutrient utilization in lactating crossbred cows. The animals in groups 1 (control), 2, 3 and 4 were fed concentrate mixture containing 0 (no bypass fat), 2, 4 and 6% bypass fat, respectively. The average daily dry matter consumption in the various groups ranged from 13.1 to 13.6 kg and showed no significant difference among treatment groups. There was no significant difference among different groups in digestibility of DM, OM, CP and CF, however, ether extract digestibility in cows of groups 2 and 4 was significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control group. The average milk yields of the cows in group 3 (4% bypass fat) showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher value than cows of groups 1 and 2. Similarly, a significant (p<0.05) increase in fat yield, 4% FCM yield and SNF yield was observed for the cows in group 3 (4% bypass fat). The milk composition in terms of total solids, fat, lactose, protein, solids-not-fat and ash percentage showed a varying response and bypass fat feeding did not have any effect on milk composition of cows in different groups. The gross and net energetic efficiency of milk production ranged from 23.6 to 27.5% and 37.1 to 44.4%, respectively, and showed no significant difference among different treatment groups. The gross and net efficiency of nitrogen utilization for milk production ranged from 24.0 to 28.7% and 37.2 to 43.5%, respectively, and no significant difference was noted among different treatment groups. The supplementation with calcium salts of palm oil fatty acid reduced the proportion of caproic, caprylic and capric acids and significantly (p<0.01) increased the concentration of palmitic, oleic, stearic, linoleic and linolenic acids in milk fat with increase in level of bypass fat supplementation. It was concluded that incorporation of calcium salts of palm oil fatty acids at a 4% level in the concentrate mixture of lactating crossbred cows improved the milk production and milk quality in terms of polyunsaturated fatty acids without affecting the digestibility of nutrients.
Effect of Dietary Fish oil and Soybean Oil on Milk Production and Composition of Holstein Cows in Early Lactation
Fatahnia, Farshid ; Nikkhah, Ali ; Zamiri, Mohammad Javad ; Kahrizi, Danial ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 386~391
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60494
Milk was collected from 20 primiparous Holstein cows that were distributed into four groups and arranged in a completely randomized design with a 35-day period to determine the effect of feeding fish oil, soybean oil, or their combination on milk production and composition. Experimental diets consisted of: 1) control diet; 2) a diet with 3% (DM basis) added fat from menhaden fish oil; 3) a diet with 3% added fat from soybean oil; and 4) a diet with 1.5% added fat from fish oil and 1.5% fat from soybean oil. The dry matter intake (18.5, 18.9, 18.3, and 18.6 kg/d, for control, fish oil, soybean oil and combination diets, respectively) and milk production (30.31, 32.15, 31.19, and 31.59 kg/d, respectively) were higher for cows that consumed the 3% fish oil-containing diet. Milk from cows fed control, fish oil, soybean oil and fish oil with soybean oil diets contained 3.45, 2.72, 2.96, and 2.87% fat, respectively. Concentration of total omega-3 fatty acids (0.87, 1.28, 0.96, and 1.18 g/100 g of fatty acids, respectively) in milk fat were higher for cows that consumed either fish oil-containing diet, especially the 3% fish oil diet. The n-6:n-3 ratio (4.57, 2.62, 6.17, and 4.08, respectively) in milk fat was lower for the fish oil diet. These results showed that fish oil modified fatty acid profile of milk fat and increased the proportion of beneficial fatty acids for human health.
Effects of Level and Degradability of Dietary Protein on Ruminal Fermentation and Concentrations of Soluble Non-ammonia Nitrogen in Ruminal and Omasal Digesta of Hanwoo Steers
Oh, Young-Kyoon ; Kim, Jeong-Hoon ; Kim, Kyoung-Hoon ; Choi, Chang-Won ; Kang, Su-Won ; Nam, In-Sik ; Kim, Do-Hyung ; Song, Man-Kang ; Kim, Chang-Won ; Park, Keun-Kyu ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 392~403
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70342
Four ruminally fistulated Hanwoo steers were used to determine the effects of level and degradability of dietary protein on ruminal fermentation, blood metabolites and concentration of soluble non-ammonia nitrogen (SNAN) in ruminal (RD) and omasal digesta (OD). Experiments were conducted in a
Latin square design with a
factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors were protein supplements with two ruminal crude protein (CP) degradabilities, corn gluten meal (CGM) that was low in degradability (rumen-degraded protein (RDP), 23.4% CP) or soybean meal (SBM) that was high in degradability (RDP, 62.1% CP), and two feeding levels of CP (12.2 or 15.9% dry matter). Ruminal fermentation rates and plasma metabolite concentrations were determined from the RD collected at 2-h intervals and from the blood taken by jugular puncture, respectively. The SNAN fractions (free amino acid, peptide and soluble protein) in RD and OD collected at 2-h intervals were assessed by ninhydrin assay. Mean ruminal ammonia concentrations were 40.5, 74.8, 103.4 and 127.0 mg/L for low CGM, high CGM, low SBM and high SBM, respectively, with statistically significant differences (p<0.01 for CP level and p<0.001 for CP degradability). Blood urea nitrogen concentrations were increased by high CP level (p<0.001) but unaffected by CP degradability. There was a significant (p<0.05) interaction between level and degradability of CP on blood albumin concentrations. Albumin was decreased to a greater extent by increasing degradability of low CP diets (0.26 g/dl) compared with high CP diets (0.02 g/dl). Concentrations of each SNAN fraction in RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) for high CP diets were higher than those for low CP diets, except for peptides but concentrations of the sum of peptide and free amino acid in RD and OD were significantly higher (p<0.05) for high CP diets than for low CP diets. Soybean meal diets increased free amino acid and peptide concentrations in both RD (p<0.01) and OD (p<0.05) compared to CGM diets. High level and greater degradability of CP increased (p<0.001) mean concentrations of total SNAN in RD and OD. These results suggest that RDP contents, increased by higher level and degradability of dietary protein, may increase release of free amino acids, peptides and soluble proteins in the rumen and omasum from ruminal degradation and solubilization of dietary proteins. Because SNAN in OD indicates the terminal product of ruminal metabolism, increasing CP level and degradability appears to increase the amount of intestine-available nitrogen in the liquid phase.
Supplementation of Holstein Cows with Low Doses of Bovine Somatotropin (bST) Prepartum and Postpartum Affects Physiological Adaptations and Milk Production
Liboni, M. ; Gulay, M.S. ; Hayen, M.J. ; Belloso, T.I. ; Head, H.H. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 404~413
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70449
Major objectives were to evaluate effects of three schemes of bST-supplementation of Holstein cows (142.8 mg/14 d, POSILAC) during the prepartum and/or postpartum periods through 63 d (
) of lactation. Measures evaluated the potential of treatments to improve body weight (BW) and body condition score (BCS), provoke changes in plasma concentrations of somatotropin (ST) and IGF-I, and improve milk yield, milk composition (percentages of protein and fat, and somatic cell counts), and several calving variables. Multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to a
factorial arrangement of treatments (TRT) to give four groups (I = no bST, n = 26; II = bST postpartum, n = 25; III = bST prepartum, n = 27; IV = bST prepartum and postpartum, n = 25). During the prepartum period, cows in groups I and II were not supplemented but those in groups III and IV were supplemented every 2-wk beginning 21 d before expected calving date through calving. During the first 63 DIM only cows in groups II and IV were supplemented with bST. From 64 DIM through the end of lactation cows in all groups were supplemented with the full lactation dose of bST (500 mg/14 d). The BW and BCS were recorded weekly throughout the prepartum and postpartum periods and every 2-wk beyond 70 DIM. Blood samples were collected 3-times a week for analyses of ST and IGF-I. Milk yields were recorded daily though 150 DIM. Prepartum supplementation of bST did not affect BW or BCS, but mean concentrations of ST were increased 12.2% and were 15.5% greater at calving. Overall, mean concentration of IGF-I was not affected by treatment but concentrations were greater at 1 and 2 wk before calving in bST-supplemented cows. During the first 63 DIM the BW and BCS were not affected by treatment. Significant effects of bST-supplementation were detected on concentrations of ST, IGF-I and on milk yield compared to non-supplemented cows in group I. Postpartum concentrations of ST were greater in bST-supplemented cows (TRT II and IV; +41.9 and 54.6%). However, concentrations of IGF-I were greater only in cows in group IV (+25.9%) during the postpartum period. Overall, the three bST-supplemented groups had greater actual milk yield than the control group (I) during the first 63 and 150 DIM. The actual milk yields during 63 and 150 DIM were 6.5 and 4.6 kg/d greater for cows in group IV than cows in group I and the 305-d ME milk yield also was 15.6% greater. No adverse effects of TRT were observed on calf birth weight, colostrum immunoglobulins, ease of calving or other measures evaluated.
Nutritive and Economic Values of Corn Distiller's Dried Grains with Solubles in Broiler Diets
Choi, H.S. ; Lee, H.L. ; Shin, M.H. ; Jo, Cheorun ; Lee, S. K ; Lee, B.D. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 414~419
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70067
A feeding trial was conducted to investigate the effects of the addition of corn distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) to broiler diets on growth performance and meat characteristics. A total of 3,200 d-old, unsexed Cobb-500 broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 16 pens (replicates), with 200 chicks per pen. There were four diet treatments (0, 5, 10, and 15% DDGS), and four replicates per treatment. From 8 to 21 d of age, the birds were fed broiler starter diets containing similar energy (TMEn 3,100 kcal/kg) and protein (21.6%) contents. From 22 to 35 d of age, they were fed grower diets containing similar nutrients (3,150 kcal/kg, 19.5% crude protein). No significant difference was found in growth performances among the four treatments. As the DDGS level increased, the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in meat increased (p<0.05). The color scores of breast and thigh muscles were not significantly influenced by DDGS, however, the yellowness of shank increased significantly by the addition of DDGS. The hardness of breast and thigh meats was not affected by the addition of DDGS. It was shown that the use of DDGS in broiler diets up to 15% could decrease the feed cost by replacing part of corn and soybean meal, without any negative effect on growth performance and meat qualities.
Effect of Storage Time on the Rancidity and Metabolizable Energy of Rice Polishing in Poultry
Pasha, T.N. ; Khattak, F.M. ; Khan, D.R. ; Jabbar, M.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 420~425
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70341
The storage of rice polishing (RP) with and without addition of antioxidant for sixteen weeks and its effect on rancidity and metabolizable energy values during the summer season was determined. Fifteen Single Comb White Leghorn cockerels of approximately uniform age and weight were procured and kept in metabolic cages under standard feeding and management practices. Five force feeding trials were conducted. In the first trial, fresh RP with 0 weeks of storage (diet 1 and 2) was used followed by four feeding trials with 4 (diet 3, 4), 8 (diet 5, 6), 12 (diet 7, 8), and 16 (diet 9, 10) weeks of storage of RP. The same birds were used in all trails. The birds were fasted for a period of 21 h, followed by force feeding of 20 g of RP with and without antioxidant for all storage periods. The control/fasting group was also maintained to measure endogenous fecal losses. Excreta were collected after 48 h for the determination of AME and TME values of RP. Along with the biological trials, laboratory assay of the RP stored with and without antioxidant was conducted to measure the extent of rancidity in terms of Thiobarbituric acid value (TBA). The TBA values were affected (p<0.05) by storage period and the values increased when the storage period increased from 4 to 16 weeks. However, the TBA values were significantly reduced (p<0.05) when RP was stored after addition of antioxidant when compared with the values obtained from RP stored without antioxidant (diet 3 vs. 4, 5 vs. 6, 7 vs. 8, and 9 vs. 10). The AME MJ/kg and TME MJ/kg values of RP were neither affected by increase in storage period nor addition of antioxidant. The findings of this study revealed that there was no effect of rancidity and storage time on the nutritive value, AME or TME of RP in poultry. However, TBA values were increased with the increase in storage period.
Effects of Dietary Ascorbic Acid on Performance, Carcass Composition and Bone Characteristics of Turkeys during High Summer Temperature
Konca, Y. ; Kirkpinar, F. ; Yaylak, E. ; Mert, S. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 426~433
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70399
Heat stress is major welfare problem in the poultry industry. Huge economic losses occur every year because of mortality and decreased production due to high environmental temperatures. This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of level of inclusion of ascorbic acid supplementation to the diet on performance, carcass composition and bone characteristics of male turkeys during high summer temperature. A total of 120 day-old turkey chicks were wing banded at hatch and randomly distributed into 3 treatment groups. Three diets were formulated to provide a similar nutrient profile with the exception of using three graded levels of ascorbic acid, namely 0, 150 and 300 mg/kg of the diet. The experimental diets were used from 0 to 18 weeks of age. Body weights, feed intake and feed conversion ratio, slaughter weight, carcass yield, portions, composition and thigh and breast pigmentation of the turkeys were not affected by ascorbic acid (p>0.05). Also, shank and tibia bone characteristics were not affected by ascorbic acid (p>0.05).
The Optimum Methionine to Methionine Plus Cystine Ratio for Growing Pigs Determined Using Plasma Urea Nitrogen and Nitrogen Balance
Qiao, Shiyan ; Piao, Xiangshu ; Feng, Zhanyu ; Ding, Yuhua ; Yue, Longyao ; Thacker, P.A. ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 434~442
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.60480
The objective of this study was to determine the optimum ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine for growing pigs. A nitrogen balance trial was conducted using a total of 21 barrows (Large WhiteLandrace) over two replicates. The initial body weight was
SD) in the first replicate and
SD) in the second. For each replicate, the 21 pigs were randomly assigned to one of seven dietary treatments with three observations per treatment. The diets included a methionine and cystine-deficient basal diet with all other essential nutrients meeting nutrient requirements and six diets formulated with graded levels of DL-methionine (0.00, 0.03, 0.06, 0.10, 0.13, 0.16%) and
(0.19, 0.15, 0.11, 0.07, 0.04, 0.00%). This resulted in ratios of methionine to methionine plus cystine of 41.3, 29.6, 35.3, 41.2, 46.0, 51.6 and 57.5%. Each experimental period lasted 12 days consisting of a seven-day adaptation period followed by a five-day total collection of urine and feces. During the collection period, pigs were fed 900 g/day for the first replicate and 1,200 g/day for the second replicate. The feed was provided in three equal portions at 0800, 1500, and 2200 h daily. Pigs had ad libitum access to water after feeding. There was a linear (p<0.01) and quadratic (p<0.01) effect on daily gain and feed conversion as the ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine increased. Pigs receiving the diets providing a methionine to methionine plus cystine ratio of 51.6% had the best daily gain and feed conversion. Plasma urea nitrogen was also lowest for this treatment. Nitrogen retention increased (p<0.01) as the relative proportion of methionine increased up to 51.6% and then a downward trend occurred at 57.5%. The quadratic regression model, as well as one- and two- slope regression line models, were used to determine the optimum ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine. Eliminating the 35.3% methionine to methionine plus cystine treatment resulted in
values in excess of 0.92. The optimal ratio of methionine to methionine plus cystine was estimated to be 54.15% for nitrogen retention and 56.72% for plasma urea nitrogen.
Self-administration of an Analgesic Does Not Alleviate Pain in Beak Trimmed Chickens
Freire, Rafael ; Glatz, Philip C. ; Hinch, Geoff ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 443~448
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70039
Beak trimming in laying hens is a routine practice in which about 1/3-1/2 of the upper and lower beak is removed with the aim of reducing cannibalism. This experiment aimed to identify if this procedure causes pain by examining self-administration of an analgesic (carprofen) and pecking behaviour in 80 laying pullets beak-trimmed by two different methods at one day of age using hot-blade cauterisation or infra-red cauterisation. We also tested a control treatment, pullets with intact beaks, and a positive control treatment of pullets beak trimmed at 10 weeks of age which were expected to experience some pain due to recent severing of the underlying nerves in the beak. At 11 weeks of age birds trimmed at 10 weeks of age pecked more (p<0.001) gently (
) at a disc attached to a force-displacement transducer than birds trimmed at 1 day of age with an infra-red machine (
) or a hot blade (
) and intact birds (
). Maximum force of pecks recorded was also lower (p<0.001) in birds trimmed at 10 weeks of age than birds trimmed at 1 day of age with an infra-red method or a hot blade and intact birds. However, the pecking force in birds trimmed at 10 weeks of age was not increased by providing them with analgesic-treated feed, though birds that ate more carprofen had a higher maximum force of peck (p = 0.03). Pecking force in birds beak-trimmed at 1 day of age was the same as the pecking force of intact birds, and was unaffected by feeding pullets carprofen. A method of self-administration of an analgesic had previously revealed that chickens in neuromuscular pain arising from lameness consumed more of a feed containing carprofen than healthy chickens. However, we found no evidence that beak-trimmed pullets consumed more carprofen-treated feed than pullets with an intact beak. It should be noted that the three beak trimming methods resulted in an average 34% reduction in beak length, considered a light trim, and is perhaps not representative of commercial birds where greater portions of the beak are removed. We conclude that although carprofen has been reported to have an analgesic effect on neuromuscular pain in chickens, it appears to have no analgesic effect on potential neuropathic pain arising from the nerves severed by a light beak trim.
Quality Characteristics of Chicken Breast Surimi as Affected by Water Washing Time and pH Adjustment
Jin, Sang-Keun ; Kim, Il-Suk ; Choi, Yeung-Joon ; Park, Gu-Boo ; Yang, Han-Sul ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 449~455
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.70424
This study was carried out to compare the quality properties of chicken breast surimi manufactured by four different procedures/methods. Surimi was made from chicken breast by washing two (T1) or four times (T2) with water as well as by pH adjustments at 3.0 (T3) or 11.0 (T4). The contents of moisture and crude fat were significantly higher in the surimi manufactured from pH-adjusted material than after washing. Again, collagen and yield were significantly higher in chicken breast surimi manufactured from washed than pH-adjusted samples, whereas crude protein was higher in the pH-adjusted than washed surimi samples. There was no significant difference in myofibrillar protein content among the surimi manufactured after different washing times and differences following pH adjustments were found. T4 showed highest myofibrillar protein content rating among the surimi samples. All physical characteristics were higher in pH-adjusted chicken breast surimi than in T1 and T2 washed surimi samples. The pH-adjusted surimi had higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness than washed surimi samples (p<0.05). The chicken breast surimi made by pH adjustments had higher lightness (L*) than when made by washing times, whereas pH 3.0-adjusted surimi samples had lower whiteness (W) then the other surimi samples. Myoglobin content was significantly higher in the surimi manufactured from pH-adjusted chicken breast samples.
Factors Influencing Satellite Cell Activity during Skeletal Muscle Development in Avian and Mammalian Species
Nierobisz, Lidia S ; Mozdziak, Paul E ;
Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences, volume 21, issue 3, 2008, Pages 456~464
DOI : 10.5713/ajas.2008.r.02
Avian and mammalian skeletal muscles exhibit a remarkable ability to adjust to physiological stressors induced by growth, exercise, injury and disease. The process of muscle recovery following injury and myonuclear accretion during growth is attributed to a small population of satellite cells located beneath the basal lamina of the myofiber. Several metabolic factors contribute to the activation of satellite cells in response to stress mediated by illness, injury or aging. This review will describe the regenerative properties of satellite cells, the processes of satellite cell activation and highlight the potential role of satellite cells in skeletal muscle growth, tissue engineering and meat production.